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  • 1.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Schmitow, Clara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Laeng, Bruno
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Individual Differences in Face Processing: Infants' Scanning Patterns and Pupil Dilations are Influenced by the Distribution of Parental Leave2012In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 79-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fourteen-month-old infants were presented with static images of happy, neutral, and fearful emotional facial expressions in an eye-tracking paradigm. The emotions were expressed by the infants own parents as well as a male and female stranger (parents of another participating infant). Rather than measuring the duration of gaze in particular areas of interest, we measured number of fixations, distribution of fixations, and pupil diameter to evaluate global scanning patterns and reactions to emotional content. The three measures were differentially sensitive to differences in parental leave, emotional expression, and face familiarity. Infants scanned and processed differently happy, neutral, and fearful faces. In addition, infants cared for by both father and mother (divided parental leave) distributed their gaze more across faces than did infants primarily cared for by one parent (in this study, the mother). Pupil diameter complemented these findings, revealing that infants had larger pupil diameter during observation of neutral emotions expressed by the parent who is not currently the primary caregiver. This study demonstrates how conclusions differ as a function of the particular eye-tracking measure used and shows that the three measures used here converge on the conclusion that 14-month-old infants processing of emotional expressions is influenced by infants exposure to fathers and mothers.

  • 2.
    Hagekull, Berit
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infant-mother social referencing interactions: Description and antecedents in maternal sensitivity and infant irritability1993In: Early Development and Parenting, Vol. 2, p. 183-191Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Hegazy, Usama M
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry.
    Mannervik, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry.
    Stenberg, Gun
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry.
    Functional role of the lock and key motif at the subunit interface of glutathione transferase P1-12004In: Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol. 279, p. 9586-9596Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Hellmer, Kahl
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fawcett, Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Preschoolers' conformity (and its motivation) is linked to own and parents' personalities2018In: British Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0261-510X, E-ISSN 2044-835X, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 573-588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies on conformity have primarily focused on factors that moderate conformity rates overall and paid little attention to explaining the individual differences. In the current study we investigate five factor model personality traits of both parents and children and experimentally-elicited conformity in 3.5-year-olds (N=59) using an Asch-like paradigm with which we measure both overt conformity (public responses) and covert opinions (private beliefs after conformist responses): A correct covert opinion after an incorrect conformist response results from a socially normative motivation whereas an incorrect covert opinion results from an informational motivation. Our data show (1) low parental extroversion is associated with participants’ overall rate of conformity; (2) and low participant extroversion and high openness are associated with an informational instead of a normative motivation to conform. This suggests that sensitivity to the social context or social engagement level, as manifested through extroversion, could be an important factor in conformist behaviour.

  • 5. Schmitow, C
    et al.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Billard, A
    von Hoffsten, C
    Measuring direction of looking with a head-mounted camera2013In: International Journal of Behavioral Development, ISSN 0165-0254, E-ISSN 1464-0651, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 471-477Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Schmitow, Clara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Social Referencing in 10-month-old infants2013In: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 533-545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Experiment 1, forty 10-month-old infants participated together with an experimenter and their parent in a social referencing encounter. The experimenter or the parent presented an ambiguous toy. Neither of the adults provided information about the toy in order to examine infant spontaneous looking behaviour. The infants looked more at the experimenter than at the parent. In Experiment 2 it was examined whether 10-month-old infants (44 infants) would use positive information provided by the experimenter to a higher degree than positive information provided by the parent. The infants regulated their behaviour toward the toy in accordance with the information. They played more with the toy when the experimenter provided information than when the parent did. The results are discussed in terms of seeking information from knowledgeable others in ambiguous situations.

  • 7. Schmitow, Clara
    et al.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    What aspects of others' behaviors do infants attend to in live situations?2015In: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 40, p. 173-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A head-mounted camera was used for studying infant focus of attention. In two situations, 10- and 14-month-old infants observed two adults interacting. In one situation, the adults had a conversation and in the other situation, they were playing with blocks. The results indicate a preference for observing manual actions and a different pattern in looking at conversations than has been shown in eye-tracking studies. The head-mounted camera is a promising method for examining the infant's focus of attention.

  • 8.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Do 12-month-old infants trust a competent adult?2013In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 873-904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Why infants prefer to look at and use information provided by some informants over others was examined in four experiments. In each experiment, 52 12-month-old infants participated. In Experiment 1, a familiar expert and a familiar nonexpert and in Experiment 2, a novel expert and a novel nonexpert presented an ambiguous object and provided positive information. In both experiments, the infants preferred to look at the expert and regulated their behavior more in accordance with positive information provided by the expert, regardless of she was novel or more familiar. In Experiment 3, a familiar expert and a familiar nonexpert and in Experiment 4, a novel expert and a novel nonexpert presented an ambiguous object and provided negative information. In both experiments, the infants looked more at the expert and regulated their behavior more in accordance with negative information provided by the expert, regardless of she was novel or more familiar. The results support an expertise perspective of infant behavior in social-referencing situations.

  • 9.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Does contingency in adults’ responding influence 12-month-old infants’ social referencing?2017In: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 46, p. 67-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract In two experiments we examined the influence of contingent versus non-contingent responding on infant social referencing behavior. EXPERIMENT 1: Forty 12-month-old infants were exposed to an ambiguous toy in a social referencing situation. In one condition an unfamiliar adult who in a previous play situation had responded contingently to the infant’s looks gave the infant positive information about the toy. In the other condition an unfamiliar adult who previously had not responded contingently delivered the positive information. EXPERIMENT 2: Forty-eight 12-month-old infants participated in Experiment 2. In this experiment it was examined whether the familiarity of the adult influences infants’ reactions to contingency in responding. In one condition a parent who previously had responded contingently to the infant’s looks provided positive information about the ambiguous toy, and in the other condition a parent who previously had not responded contingently provided the positive information. The infants looked more at the contingent experimenter in Experimenter 1, and also played more with the toy after receiving positive information from the contingent experimenter. No differences in looking at the parent and in playing with the toy were found in Experiment 2. The results indicate that contingency in responding, as well as the familiarity of the adult, influence infants’ social referencing behavior.

  • 10.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Does contingency in adults' responding influence 12-month-old infants' social referencing?2017In: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 49, p. 9-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In two experiments we examined the influence of contingent versus non-contingent responding on infant social referencing behavior. EXPERIMENT 1: Forty 12-month-old infants were exposed to an ambiguous toy in a social referencing situation. In one condition an unfamiliar adult who in a previous play situation had responded contingently to the infant's looks gave the infant positive information about the toy. In the other condition an unfamiliar adult who previously had not responded contingently delivered the positive information. EXPERIMENT 2: Forty-eight 12 month-old infants participated in Experiment 2. In this experiment it was examined whether the familiarity of the adult influences infants' reactions to contingency in responding. In one condition a parent who previously had responded contingently to the infant's looks provided positive information about the ambiguous toy, and in the other condition a parent who previously had not responded contingently provided the positive information. The infants looked more at the contingent experimenter in Experimenter 1, and also played more with the toy after receiving positive information from the contingent experimenter. No differences in looking at the parent and in playing with the toy were found in Experiment 2. The results indicate that contingency in responding, as well as the familiarity of the adult, influence infants' social referencing behavior.

  • 11.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of Adults' Contingent Responding on Infants' Behavior in Ambiguous Situations2017In: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 49, p. 50-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the effect of adults’ contingency in responding to infants’ behavior in an ambiguous situation in two experiments. In Experiment 1, forty-four 12-month-old infants were exposed to an ambiguous toy. An unfamiliar adult responded either contingently or non-contingently to the infant’s bids and then presented the toy and provided positive information. During toy presentation, infants in the non-contingent condition looked less at the experimenter than infants in the contingent condition. In a concluding free-play situation infants in the non-contingent condition played less and tended to touch the toy less. In Experiment 2 (forty-four 12-month-old infants), the parent either responded promptly or with a delay each time the infant made contact initiatives and then presented an ambiguous toy and delivered the positive information. The infants in the non-contingent condition tended to look less at the parent during toy presentation and also tended to play less with the toy during the concluding free-play situation. The findings show that adults’ contingency in responding influences infants’ behavior in ambiguous situations.

  • 12.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of maternal inattentiveness on infant social referencing2003In: Infant and Child Development, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 399-419Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Measuring gaze direction with a head-mounted camera2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Selectivity in Infant Social Referencing2009In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 457-473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In laboratory studies of social referencing, infants as young as 12 months have been reported to prefer looking at the experimenter over the caregiver for clarifying information. From an expertise perspective, such behavior could be interpreted as if the infant seeks information from others and can discriminate between persons who have or do not have relevant information to provide in the laboratory. If this is the case, higher order cognitive capacities might be involved in infant selectivity in looking in social referencing situations. However, it has also been proposed that associative learning processes might account for infant preferences in such studies. To examine whether an expertise perspective or if more basic learning processes best explain infant selectivity in looking, 40 12-month-old infants were assigned to 1 of 2 comparable conditions. The experimenter versus the caregiver presented an ambiguous toy and delivered positive information about the toy. The infants preferred to look at the experimenter and they regulated their behavior more in accordance with information coming from the experimenter. Thus, an associative learning account cannot explain infant preferences in looking. The results are discussed in terms of an expertise perspective.

  • 15.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Why do Infants Look at and Use Positive Information from Some Informants Rather Than Others in Ambiguous Situations?2012In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 642-671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three laboratory experiments on social referencing examined whether infants tendencies to look at and use positive information from the experimenter could be interpreted from a perspective of novelty or expertise. In Study 1, novelty was manipulated. Forty-eight 12-month-old infants participated. In a between-subject design, a more novel or a less novel experimenter presented an ambiguous object and provided positive information. The infants looked more at and regulated their behavior more in accordance with information coming from the less novel experimenter. In Study 2, expertise was manipulated. Forty-eight 12-month-old infants were exposed to one experimenter who showed expertise about the laboratory situation and one experimenter who did not show such competence. The infants looked more at and regulated their behavior more in accordance with information coming from the expert. In Study 3, 40 12-month-old infants participated. The infants were exposed to a toy-expert who was either novel or familiar. The infants, in both groups, looked as much at the toy-experts and used the information regardless of whether the novel or familiar toy-expert had provided information. The findings suggest that novelty does not increase looking in ambiguous situations. Instead, the results support the expertise perspective of infant looking preferences.

  • 16.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hagekull, Berit
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infant looking behavior in ambiguous situations: Social referencing or attachment behavior?2007In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 111-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is infant looking behavior in ambiguous situations best described in terms of information seeking (social referencing) or as attachment behavior? Twelve-month-old infants were assigned to I of 2 conditions (Study 1); each infant's mother provided positive information about an ambiguous toy and an experimenter provided positive information. In Study 2, 12-month-old infants were assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: mother provided positive information about the toy, mother was inattentive, or mother provided negative information; the experimenter was inattentive. The infants preferred to look at the experimenter in almost all conditions and they regulated their behavior in accordance with information obtained from the experimenter. None of the studies lends support for an explanation in terms of behaviors deriving from the attachment system, and they raise questions concerning social referencing interpretations of infants' looking behavior. Other alternatives for explaining infant looking behavior in social referencing situations (e.g., associative learning) are discussed.

  • 17.
    Stenberg, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hagekull, Berit
    Social referencing and mood modification in 1-year-olds1997In: INFANT BEHAVIOR & DEVELOPMENT, ISSN 0163-6383, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 209-217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a discussion in the literature about the processes involved in infant behavior regulation. In this study, social referencing and mood modification were contrasted by looking for specificity in infant behavior regulation following different

1 - 17 of 17
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