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  • 1.
    Ahmad, Mohd Riduan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Mohd Esa, Mona Riza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Baharudin, Zikri Abadi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity. Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka.
    Hettiarachchi, Pasan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Latitude Dependence of Narrow Bipolar Pulse Emissions2015In: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, ISSN 1364-6826, E-ISSN 1879-1824, Vol. 128, p. 40-45Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Ahmad, Noor Azlinda
    et al.
    Baharudin, Zikri A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Fernando, M.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Radiation field spectra of long-duration cloud flashes2015In: Atmospheric Science Letters, ISSN 1530-261X, E-ISSN 1530-261X, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 91-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The preliminary results of radiation electric fields produced by long-duration cloud flashes have been Fourier analyzed to determine the frequency spectrum in the range of 10kHz-10MHz. The flashes were recorded within a distance of less than 20km. The spectrum was normalized to 50km distance and it shows a f(-1) dependence within the entire frequency range.

  • 3.
    Ahmad, Noor Azlinda
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Fernando, Mahendra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Baharudin, Zikri A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Ahmad, H.
    Malek, Z. Abdul
    Characteristics of narrow bipolar pulses observed in Malaysia2010In: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, ISSN 1364-6826, E-ISSN 1879-1824, Vol. 72, no 5-6, p. 534-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Narrow bipolar pulses (NBPs) are considered as isolated intracloud events with higher peak amplitude and strong high frequency emission compared to the first return strokes and other intracloud discharges. From 182 NBPs recorded in Malaysia in the tropic, 75 were narrow negative bipolar pulses (NNBPs) while 107 were narrow positive bipolar pulses (NPBPs). The mean duration of NNBPs was 24.6 +/- 17.1 mu s, while 30.2 +/- 12.3 mu s was observed for NPBPs. The mean full-width at half-maximum (FVVHM) was 2.2 +/- 0.7 and 2.4 +/- 1.4 mu s for NNBPs and NPBPs, respectively. The mean peak amplitude of NPBPs normalized to 100 km was 22.7 V/m, a factor of 1.3 higher than that of NNBPs which is 17.6 V/m. In contrast to the previous studies, it was observed that the electric field change was characterized by a bipolar pulse with a significant amount of fine structures separated by a few tens of nanoseconds intervals, embedded on it. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Baharudin, Zikri A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Ahmad, Noor Azlinda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Fernando, M.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Makela, J. S.
    Comparative study on preliminary breakdown pulse trains observed in Johor, Malaysia and Florida, USA2012In: Atmospheric research, ISSN 0169-8095, E-ISSN 1873-2895, Vol. 117, p. 111-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the preliminary breakdown (PB) pulse train preceding the negative first return stroke (RS) is recorded using a broad band antenna system. These analyses were carried out in Johor Bahru, Malaysia and Florida, United States. This is a novel initiative at examining and identifying the characteristics of the PB pulse trains in the negative cloud-to-ground flashes observed in Malaysia. The arithmetic mean of the total pulse train duration is 12.3 ms and the weighted arithmetic mean of the pulse durations and interpulse intervals are 11 mu s and 152 mu s, respectively. The arithmetic mean ratio between the maximum peak amplitude of the PB pulse and the peak RS electric field was 27.8%, and the corresponding value in Florida was 29.4%. The arithmetic mean of the time duration between the most active part of the pulse train, and the RS was 57.6 ms in Malaysia and 22 ms in Florida. A qualitative comparison of our results with those obtained earlier in Sri Lanka. Sweden and Finland supports the hypothesis that the PBP/RS ratio is higher in the northern regions compared to the tropical regions. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Baharudin, Zikri A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Ahmad, Noor Azlinda
    Makela, J. S.
    Fernando, Mahendra
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Negative cloud-to-ground lightning flashes in Malaysia2014In: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, ISSN 1364-6826, E-ISSN 1879-1824, Vol. 108, p. 61-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The characteristics of the negative cloud-to-ground lightning flashes in Malaysia are studied by analyzing the electric fields generated by the whole flash in nanosecond resolution. A total of 405 strokes obtained from 100 successive negative cloud-to-ground lightning flashes were analyzed, which were recorded from seven convective thunderstorms during the southwest monsoon period, i.e. from April to June 2009. It was found that the total number of interstroke intervals has an arithmetic mean value of 86 ms, a geometric mean value of 67 ms and does not depend on the return stroke order. Of the 100 negative ground flashes, 38 flashes (38%) have at least one subsequent return-stroke (SRS) whose electric field peak was greater than that of the first return-stroke (RS). Furthermore, 58 (19%) out of 305 SRS have electric field peak larger than those of the first RS. The arithmetic and geometric mean ratio between the peak electric field of the SRS and the peak electric field of the first RS are 0.7 and 0.6, respectively. The percentage of single-stroke flashes was 16% while the mean number of strokes per flash and maximum number of stroke per flash were 4 and 14, respectively.

  • 6.
    Baharudin, Zikri A.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Fernando, M.
    Dept of Physics, University of Colombo, Sri Lanka.
    Ahmad, Noor Azlinda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Mäkelä, J. S.
    Nokia OY, Salo, Finland.
    Rahman, Mahbubur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Electric field changes generated by the preliminary breakdown for the negative cloud-to-ground lightning flashes in Malaysia and Sweden2012In: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, ISSN 1364-6826, E-ISSN 1879-1824, Vol. 84-85, p. 15-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the study of the electric field changes generated by the preliminary breakdown for negative cloud-to-ground lightning flashes in Malaysia and Sweden concerning the association of slow field changes associated in preliminary breakdown process. We examined the total of 1685 negative cloud-to-ground lightning flashes from the total of 39 thunderstorms by recording the slow electric field, fast electric field and narrowband radiation field at 3 and 30 MHz signals simultaneously. Our results show that there is a pre-starting time, i.e. the duration between the first preliminary breakdown pulse and slow field changes starting point, which is found to be after the first preliminary breakdown pulse. The pre-starting time has the arithmetic and geometric mean range from 1.4-6.47 and 1-3.36 ms, respectively. The mean values of pre-starting time in Malaysia are greater than the values observed in Sweden by more than a factor of 3. From the two data sets it shows that the slow field changes never start before the preliminary breakdown. Furthermore, the use of single-station electric fields measurement with high resolutions of 12 bits transient recorder with several nanosecond accuracy allow one to distinguish the slow field changes generated by preliminary breakdown, which preceded the negative first return stroke, between tens to hundreds of milliseconds of pre-return stroke duration.

  • 7.
    Baharudin, Zikri Abadi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Characterizations of ground flashes from tropic to northern region2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis portrays new information concerning the cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning flashes or ground flashes produced by thunderclouds. It emphasizes the importance of characterizing lightning studies as the relationship between lightning mechanisms, and of incorporating the influence of geographical location, latitude and storm type. Sweden, Malaysia and USA were chosen as the main locations for field experiments in 2009 to 2011 to gather a significant number of negative and positive CG flashes. This work provided data on a total of 1792 CG lightning flashes (1685 negative and 107 positive ones) from a total of 53 thunderstorms by monitoring both the slow and the fast electric field and the narrowband radiation field at 3 and 30 MHz signals simultaneously. This thesis is comprised of: (i) the relationship of the Low Positive Charge Region (LPCR) and Preliminary Breakdown Pulse (PBP) trains to the occurrence of negative CG, (ii) slow field changes generated by preliminary breakdown processes in positive and negative ground flashes, and (iii) the occurrence of positive and negative ground flashes. It was revealed that the PBP train appeared have a higher strength in the in Sweden. The strength of the PBP train was caused by the LPCR; in contrast,  weak PBP trains were characteristic in tropical countries constituting insignificant LPCR and needing little energy to break the “blocking” agent to allow the flash to propagate downward to the ground. The second contribution concerns the characteristics of the PBP train mentioned; this includes novel information for Malaysia. Further, it is stated that there are some different characteristics in the PBP trains in Johor, Malaysia and Florida, USA. The studies of slow field changes generated by preliminary breakdown processes clarifies unclear features concerning the starting position of slow field changes generated by preliminary breakdown processes in positive and negative ground flashes. It was found that the slow field changes did not occur before the initial process of the commencement of preliminary breakdown. Single-station electric field measurements incorporating narrowband radiation field measurement and high resolution transient recording (12 bits) with an accuracy of several nanoseconds, allows one to distinguish between the intracloud activities and the preceding processes of ground flashes. The results for the interstroke intervals, amplitude distribution of subsequent return-stroke (SRS) and the number of strokes per flash in the tropics, subtropics and northern regions were similar. Finally, a significant number of positive return-stroke (RS) electric fields provided statistically significant information on the characteristics of these strokes.

  • 8.
    Baharudin, Zikri Abadi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Rahman, Mahbubur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Hettiarachchi, Pasan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Ahmad, Noor Azlinda
    Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
    Electric field changes generated by preliminary breakdown pulse for positive lightning ground flashes in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is the new study of the electric field changes generated by the preliminary breakdown for positive cloud-to-ground flashes which concerning on the association of slow field changes in preliminary breakdown process. In this study, a 107 positive cloud-to-ground lightning flashes recorded from the total of 14 thunderstorms generated by the whole flash were examined. The electric fields were measured with nanosecond resolution by using the slow electric field, fast electric field and narrowband radiation field at 3 and 30 MHz signals simultaneously. Our result shows that there is a pre-starting time, i.e. the duration between the first preliminary breakdown pulse and slow field changes starting point, which is found to be after the first preliminary breakdown pulse. The pre-starting time has the arithmetic mean – 3.0 ms and geometric mean – 1.8 ms, ranging from 0.3 to 21.7 ms. This study is consistent with the latest finding for the slow field changes in negative ground flashes where the slow field changes never start before the preliminary breakdown process.

  • 9.
    Baharudin, Zikri Abadi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Rahman, Mahbubur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Hettiarachchi, Pasan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Ahmad, Noor Azlinda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    On the characteristics of positive lightning ground flashes in Sweden2016In: Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics, ISSN 1364-6826, E-ISSN 1879-1824, Vol. 138, p. 106-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the stroke characteristics of positive cloud-to-ground flashes in Sweden were obtained from the electric field records measured from 14 thunderstorms. The electric fields were measured with nanosecond resolution. Together with the fast and the slow electric field records, the narrowband radiation field at 3 and 30 MHz signals were also measured simultaneously. Out of a total of 107 flashes, 30 flashes had two strokes, 7 had three strokes and 3 flashes had four strokes. The arithmetic and geometric means of the interstroke intervals were found to be 116 and 70 ms, respectively. The arithmetic and geometric mean ratio between the peak electric field of the Subsequent Return Stroke (SRS) and the first Return Stroke (RS) were 0.48 and 0.36, respectively. Of the 40 positive multiple-stroke ground flashes, 5% have at least one SRS with field peak higher than the first RS. The percentage of SRS with field peaks greater than the first RS was 6%. In our best of our knowledge, this is the first time a large sample of positive return strokes in Sweden was analysed. It was found to be statistically more significant than the previous studies.

  • 10.
    Baharudin, Zikri Abadi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Mäkelä, Jakke
    Fernando, Mahendra
    Cooray, Vernon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Electricity.
    Mäkelä, J.S.
    Comparative Study on Preliminary Breakdown Pulse Trains Observed in Malaysia and Florida2010Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 10 of 10
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