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  • 1.
    Balkenius, Christian
    et al.
    Lund Univ Cognit Sci, Lund, Sweden.
    Fawcett, Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala University, Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study (SCAS).
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Birger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Lund Univ Cognit Sci, Lund, Sweden.
    Pupillary Correlates of Emotion and Cognition: A Computational Model2019In: 2019 9th International IEEE/EMBS Conference On Neural Engineering (NER), IEEE, 2019, p. 903-907Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In addition to controlling the influx of light to the retina, the pupil also reacts as a result of cognitive and emotional processing. This makes it possible to use pupil dilation as an index for cognitive effort and emotional arousal. We show how an extended version of a computational model of pupil dilation can account for pupillary contagion effects where the pupil of an observer dilates upon seeing another person with dilated pupils. We also show how the model can reproduce the effects of cognitive effort in a math exercise. Furthermore, we investigate how the model can account for different explanations for the abnormal pupil response seen in individuals with or at risk for autism spectrum disorder. The reported computer simulations illustrate the usefulness of system-level models of the brain in addressing complex cognitive and emotional phenomena.

  • 2. Bartl-Pokorny, K. D.
    et al.
    Pokorny, F.
    Boelte, S.
    Langmann, A.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wolin, T.
    Einspieler, C.
    Sigafoos, J.
    Marschik, P. B.
    Eye Tracking in Basic Research and Clinical Practice2013In: Klinische Neurophysiologie, ISSN 1434-0275, E-ISSN 1439-4081, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 193-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eye tracking is a non-invasive technique based on infrared video technology that is used to analyse eye movements. Such analyses might provide insights into perceptual and cognitive capacities. It is a method widely used in various disciplines, such as ophthalmology, neurology, psychiatry and neuropsychology for basic science, but also clinical practice. For example, recent studies on children who were later diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders revealed early abnormal eye movement patterns in socio-communicative settings; children with dyslexia appeared also to have peculiar eye movement patterns, expressed in longer fixation durations and smaller saccades while reading. Current research using eye tracking systems in combination with neurophysiological and brain imaging techniques will add to a better understanding of cognitive, linguistic and socio-communicative development and in the near future possibly also lead to a broader clinical application of this method.

  • 3. Bolte, S.
    et al.
    Bartl-Pokorny, K.D.
    Jonsson, U.
    Berggren, S.
    Zhang, D.
    Kostrzewa, E.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Einspieler, C.
    Pokorny, F. B.
    Jones, E. J. H.
    Roeyers, H.
    Charman, T.
    Marschik, P. B.
    How can clinicians detect and treat autism early? Methodological trends of technology use in research2016In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 105, no 2, p. 137-144Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We reviewed original research papers that used quantifiable technology to detect early autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and identified 376 studies from 34 countries from 1965 to 2013. Publications have increased significantly since 2000, with most coming from the USA. Electroencephalogram, magnetic resonance imaging and eye tracking were the most frequently used technologies. Conclusion: The use of quantifiable technology to detect early ASD has increased in recent decades, but has had limited impact on early detection and treatment. Further scientific developments are anticipated, and we hope that they will increasingly be used in clinical practice for early ASD screening, diagnosis and intervention.

  • 4. Bolte, Sven
    et al.
    Marschik, Peter B.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Charman, Tony
    Roeyers, Herbert
    Elsabbagh, Mayada
    Infants at risk for autism: a European perspective on current status, challenges and opportunities2013In: European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, ISSN 1018-8827, E-ISSN 1435-165X, Vol. 22, no 6, p. 341-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently, autism cannot be reliably diagnosed before the age of 2 years, which is why longitudinal studies of high-risk populations provide the potential to generate unique knowledge about the development of autism during infancy and toddlerhood prior to symptom onset. Early autism research is an evolving field in child psychiatric science. Key objectives are fine mapping of neurodevelopmental trajectories and identifying biomarkers to improve risk assessment, diagnosis and treatment. ESSEA (Enhancing the Scientific Study of Early Autism) is a COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action striving to create a European collaboration to enhance the progress of the discovery and treatment of the earliest signs of autism, and to establish European practice guidelines on early identification and intervention by bringing together European expertise from cognitive neuroscience and clinical sciences. The objective of this article is to clarify the state of current European research on at-risk autism research, and to support the understanding of different contexts in which the research is being conducted. We present ESSEA survey data on ongoing European high-risk ASD studies, as well as perceived challenges and opportunities in this field of research. We conclude that although high-risk autism research in Europe faces several challenges, the existence of several key factors (e.g., new and/or large-scale autism grants, availability of new technologies, and involvement of experienced research groups) lead us to expect substantial scientific and clinical developments in Europe in this field during the next few years.

  • 5.
    Bolte, Sven
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Psychiat Res, KIND, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tomalski, Przemyslaw
    Univ Warsaw, Fac Psychol, Neurocognit Dev Lab, Warsaw, Poland.
    Marschik, Peter B.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden;Med Univ Graz, Inst Physiol, Ctr Physiol Med, Graz, Austria.
    Berggren, Steve
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Psychiat Res, KIND, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Norberg, Joakim
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pokorska, Olga
    Univ Warsaw, Fac Psychol, Neurocognit Dev Lab, Warsaw, Poland.
    Jones, Emily J. H.
    Univ London, Birkbeck Coll, Ctr Brain & Cognit Dev, London, England.
    Charman, Tony
    Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat Psychol & Neurosci, London, England.
    Roeyers, Herbert
    Univ Ghent, Dept Expt Clin & Hlth Psychol, Ghent, Belgium.
    Kostrzewa, Elzbieta
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Challenges and Inequalities of Opportunities in European Psychiatry Research The Example of Psychodiagnostic Tool Availability in Research on Early Autism Identification2018In: European Journal of Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1015-5759, E-ISSN 2151-2426, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 270-277Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Europe is diverse in terms of economy, cultures, socio-demography, and languages. A crucial aspect of psychiatric research is the availability of standardized screening, diagnostic, and characterization instruments. We fine-mapped the accessibility of 14 clinical scales and cognitive tests for the assessment of early childhood Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD; e.g., ADOS, ADI-R, SCQ, SRS, CHAT, MESL) within 21 European countries. These tools are essential for internationally competitive early ASD detection research. We identified a considerable variation not only in the availability, but also psychometric standardization, and formal distribution of the instruments between the countries, privileging English speaking, high-income, and highly populated European countries. Absence of country-specific standardization was a problem across many countries, independent of income and size. Findings demonstrate, on a concrete level, the challenges in creating equal early ASD identification research opportunities in Europe, and the need for increased funding for instrument development and validation. We discuss the reasons, implications, and consequences of this inequity and ways of reducing it.

  • 6. Del Bianco, Teresa
    et al.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Karolinska Institutet.
    Thorup, Emilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The Developmental Origins of Gaze-Following in Human Infants2019In: Infancy, ISSN 1525-0008, E-ISSN 1532-7078, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 433-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the first year of life, infants develop the capacity to follow the gaze of others. This behavior allows sharing attention and facilitates language acquisition and cognitive development. This article reviews studies that investigated gaze-following before 12 months of age in typically developing infants and discusses current theoretical perspectives on early GF. Recent research has revealed that early GF is highly dependent on situational constraints and individual characteristics, but theories that describe the underlying mechanisms have partly failed to consider this complexity. We propose a novel framework termed the perceptual narrowing account of GF that may have the potential to integrate existing theoretical accounts.

  • 7. Dorn, Katharina
    et al.
    Weinert, Sabine
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Watch and listen – A cross-cultural study of audio-visual-matching behavior in 4.5-month-old infants in German and Swedish talking faces2018In: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 52, p. 121-129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigating infants’ ability to match visual and auditory speech segments presented sequentially allows us to understand more about the type of information they encode in each domain, as well as their ability to relate the information. One previous study found that 4.5- month-old infants’ preference for visual French or German speech depended on whether they had previously heard the respective language, suggesting a remarkable ability to encode and relate audio-visual speech cues and to use these to guide their looking behavior. However, French and German differ in their prosody, meaning that perhaps, the infants did not base their matching on phonological or phonetic cues, but on prosody patterns. The present study aimed to address this issue by tracking the eye gaze of 4.5-month-old German and Swedish infants cross-culturally in an intersensory matching procedure, comparing German and Swedish, two same-rhythm-class languages differing in phonetic and phonological attributes but not in prosody. Looking times indicated that even when distinctive prosodic cues were eliminated, 4.5- month-olds were able to extract subtle language properties and sequentially match visual and heard fluent speech. This outcome was the same for different individual speakers for the two modalities, ruling out the possibility that the infants matched speech patterns specific to one individual. This study confirms a remarkably early emerging ability of infants to match auditory and visual information. The fact that the types of information were matched despite sequential presentation demonstrates that the information is retained in short term memory, and thus goes beyond purely perceptual – here-and-now processing.

  • 8.
    Ekberg, Therese L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bölte, Sven
    Karolinska institutet.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    EASE Team, The
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska institutet.
    Reduced Prospective Motor Control in 10-month-olds at Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder2016In: Clinical Psychological Science, ISSN 2167-7026, E-ISSN 2167-7034, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 129-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motor impairments are not a part of the diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but are overrepresented in the ASD population. Deficits in prospective motor control have been demonstrated in adults and older children with ASD but have never before been examined in infants at familial risk for the disorder. We assessed the ability to prospectively control reach-to-grasp actions in 10-month-old siblings of children with ASD (high-risk group, n = 29, 13 female) as well as in a low-risk control group (n = 16, 8 female). The task was to catch a ball rolling on a curvilinear path off an inclined surface. The low-risk group performed predictive reaches when catching the ball, whereas the high-risk group started their movements reactively. The high-risk group started their reaches significantly later than the low-risk group (p = .03). These results indicate impaired prospective motor control in infants susceptible for ASD.

  • 9.
    Elsner, Claudia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    D'Ausilio, A.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fadiga, L.
    The motor cortex is causally related to predictive eye movements during action observation2013In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 488-492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the hypothesis that predictive gaze during observation of other people's actions depends on the activation of corresponding action plans in the observer. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation and eye-tracking technology we found that stimulation of the motor hand area, but not of the leg area, slowed gaze predictive behavior (compared to no TMS). This result shows that predictive eye movements to others' action goals depend on a somatotopical recruitment of the observer's motor system. The study provides direct support for the view that a direct matching process implemented in the mirror-neuron system plays a functional role for real-time goal prediction.

  • 10.
    Elsner, Claudia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Humans anticipate the goal of other people’s point-light actions2012In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 3, article id 120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This eye tracking study investigated the degree to which biological motion information from manual point-light displays provides sufficient information to elicit anticipatory eye movements. We compared gaze performance of adults observing a biological motion point-light display of a hand reaching fora goal object or a non-biological version of the same event. Participants anticipated the goal of the point-light action in the biological motion condition but not in a non-biological control condition. The present study demonstrates that kinematic information from biological motion can be used to anticipate the goal of other people's point-light actions and that the presence of biological motion is sufficient for anticipation to occur.

  • 11.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Action prediction in children with autism spectrum disorder2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Developmental pathways to autism in infants at risk2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    ESSEA COST Action Looking Forward2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gaze performance during face-to-face communication: A live eye tracking study of typical children and children with autism2015In: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, ISSN 1750-9467, E-ISSN 1878-0237, Vol. 17, p. 78-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is characterized by socio-communicative impairments, and limited attention to other people's faces is thought to be an important underlying mechanism. Here, non-invasive eye-tracking technology was used to quantify the amount of time spent looking at another person's face during face-to-face communication in children with ASD (n = 13, age 6 years) and age and IQ-matched neurotypical children (n = 27, 6 years). We found that in one context of high ecological relevance - listening to an adult telling a children's story - children with ASD showed a markedly reduced tendency to look at the adult's face. In interactions between typical children and the adult, the amount of gaze to the other's face aligned between the two individuals. No such relation was found when the ASD group interacted with the adult. Despite these differences in the storytelling context, we also observed that social looking atypicalities did not generalize to another and more structured context, implying that social looking cannot not be considered fundamentally disrupted in children with ASD.

  • 15.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hypersensitive Pupillary Light Reflex in Infants at Risk for Autism2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mirror Neurons in Parent Infant Interaction2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Predicting other people's action goals with low-level motor information2012In: Journal of Neurophysiology, ISSN 0022-3077, E-ISSN 1522-1598, Vol. 107, no 11, p. 2923-2925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In support for the direct-matching hypothesis, Ambrosini et al. (2011) recently reported that goal-directed saccades during action observation were modulated by manipulations of basic motor information. This finding indicates that motor programs, activated by low-level visual descriptions of others' actions, are involved in predicting other people's action goals. Here, I put this result into a broader context, review alternative interpretations, and suggest strategies for future studies.

  • 18.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Processing of biological motion and audiovisual synchrony in children with typical development and in children with Autism2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The relation between reading skills and eye movement patterns in typically developing German-speaking (Austrian) adolescents: evidence from word reading, text reading and pseudoword readingIn: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tidiga tecken på autism2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Young children with autism spectrum disorder use predictive eye movements in action observation2010In: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 375-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Does a dysfunction in the mirror neuron system (MNS) underlie the social symptoms defining autism spectrum disorder (ASD)? Research suggests that the MNS matches observed actions to motor plans for similar actions, and that these motor plans include directions for predictive eye movements when observing goal-directed actions. Thus, one important question is whether children with ASD use predictive eye movements in action observation. Young children with ASD as well as typically developing children and adults were shown videos in which an actor performed object-directed actions (human agent condition). Children with ASD were also shown control videos showing objects moving by themselves (self-propelled condition). Gaze was measured using a corneal reflection technique. Children with ASD and typically developing individuals used strikingly similar goal-directed eye movements when observing others' actions in the human agent condition. Gaze was reactive in the self-propelled condition, suggesting that prediction is linked to seeing a hand-object interaction. This study does not support the view that ASD is characterized by a global dysfunction in the MNS.

  • 22.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bölte, Sven
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eye tracking in early autism research2013In: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders, ISSN 1866-1955, Vol. 5, p. 28-Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eye tracking has the potential to characterize autism at a unique intermediate level, with links 'down' to underlying neurocognitive networks, as well as 'up' to everyday function and dysfunction. Because it is non-invasive and does not require advanced motor responses or language, eye tracking is particularly important for the study of young children and infants. In this article, we review eye tracking studies of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and children at risk for ASD. Reduced looking time at people and faces, as well as problems with disengagement of attention, appear to be among the earliest signs of ASD, emerging during the first year of life. In toddlers with ASD, altered looking patterns across facial parts such as the eyes and mouth have been found, together with limited orienting to biological motion. We provide a detailed discussion of these and other key findings and highlight methodological opportunities and challenges for eye tracking research of young children with ASD. We conclude that eye tracking can reveal important features of the complex picture of autism.

  • 23.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Carlström, Christoffer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Johansson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eye Contact Modulates Cognitive Processing Differently in Children With Autism2015In: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 86, no 1, p. 37-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In humans, effortful cognitive processing frequently takes place during social interaction, with eye contact being an important component. This study shows that the effect of eye contact on memory for nonsocial information is different in children with typical development than in children with autism, a disorder of social communication. Direct gaze facilitated memory performance in children with typical development (n = 25, 6 years old), but no such facilitation was seen in the clinical group (n = 10, 6 years old). Eye tracking conducted during the cognitive test revealed strikingly similar patterns of eye movements, indicating that the results cannot be explained by differences in overt attention. Collectively, these findings have theoretical significance and practical implications for testing practices in children.

  • 24.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fawcett, Christine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Novel Methods in Developmental Research2012Other (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fernell, E.
    Lundholm Hedvall, Å.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gillberg, C.
    Gaze performance in children with autism spectrum disorder when observing communicative actions2012In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 42, no 10, p. 2236-2245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this eye tracking study was to map the correlates of gaze performance in a brief test of spontaneous gaze and point-gesture following in young children with autistic disorder (AD), Pervasive developmental disorder—not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS), or typical development (TD). Gaze measures included the children’s spontaneous tendency to look at the correct (attended) toy, and the latency of their correct responses. In addition to group differences (AD vs. TD), we found that in AD, accuracy of performance was specifically related to adaptive communication skills. The study also indicated that the latency of correct gaze shifts is related to verbal intelligence. These results have direct implications for our understanding of (responsive) joint attention impairments in AD.

  • 26.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Handicap and Habilitation, Stockholm.
    Gillberg, Christopher
    Institute of Child Health, London.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Face scanning distinguishes social from communication impairments in autism2010In: Developmental Science, ISSN 1363-755X, E-ISSN 1467-7687, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 864-875Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How closely related are the social and communicative impairments in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)? Recent findings in typically developing children suggest that both types of impairment are highly heritable but have only moderate behavioural and genetic overlap. So far, their respective roles in social perception are poorly understood. Here we show that when looking at other people’s faces, children with ASD who are better at socio-emotional behaviours than non-verbal communication look more at the eyes, while those with the opposite profile look more at the mouth (Study 1). For the mouth area, a similar pattern was observed for inverted faces, suggesting that information from this area is perceived on a featural basis. In Study 2, we found that when shown a person performing manual actions, ‘eye-lookers’ from Study 1 tended to look most at the face of the actor, while ‘mouthlookers’ from Study 1 tended to look at the action itself (hand ⁄ objects). This result was found in both ASD and typical development. In Study 3, the main finding in Study 1 was replicated in a new sample. Taken together, we interpret these results as supporting the view that the neural systems underlying socio-emotional versus non-verbal communication skills are separable, a finding that has important theoretical and clinical implications. The results also suggest that a similar differentiation of looking behaviour may operate in normal development.

  • 27.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infants predict other people's action goals.2006In: Nat Neurosci, ISSN 1097-6256, Vol. 9, no 7, p. 878-9Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 28.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Inst KIND, Ctr Neurodev Disorders, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Cty Council, Child & Adolescent Psychiat Stockholm, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyström, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gliga, Teodora
    Centre for Brain and Cognitive Development, Birkbeck, University of London, London, UK.
    Bölte, Sven
    Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders at Karolinska Institutet (KIND), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Stockholm, Center for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Brocki, Karin C (Contributor)
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kleberg, Johan L. (Contributor)
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson Jobs, Elisabeth (Contributor)
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thorup, Emilia (Contributor)
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reduced Orienting to Audiovisual Synchrony in Infancy Predicts Autism Diagnosis at 3 Years of Age2018In: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, ISSN 0021-9630, E-ISSN 1469-7610, Vol. 59, no 8, p. 872-880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Effective multisensory processing develops in infancy and is thought to be important for the perception of unified and multimodal objects and events. Previous research suggests impaired multisensory processing in autism, but its role in the early development of the disorder is yet uncertain. Here, using a prospective longitudinal design, we tested whether reduced visual attention to audiovisual synchrony is an infant marker of later-emerging autism diagnosis.

    Methods: We studied 10-month-old siblings of children with autism using an eye tracking task previously used in studies of preschoolers. The task assessed the effect of manipulations of audiovisual synchrony on viewing patterns while the infants were observing point light displays of biological motion. We analyzed the gaze data recorded in infancy according to diagnostic status at 3 years of age (DSM-5).

    Results: Ten-month-old infants who later received an autism diagnosis did not orient to audiovisual synchrony expressed within biological motion. In contrast, both infants at low-risk and high-risk siblings without autism at follow-up had a strong preference for this type of information. No group differences were observed in terms of orienting to upright biological motion.

    Conclusions: This study suggests that reduced orienting to audiovisual synchrony within biological motion is an early sign of autism. The findings support the view that poor multisensory processing could be an important antecedent marker of this neurodevelopmental condition.

  • 29.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rehnberg, Erik
    Bolte, Sven
    Lack of Visual Orienting to Biological Motion and Audiovisual Synchrony in 3-Year-Olds with Autism2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 7, p. e68816-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that children with autism orient towards audiovisual synchrony (AVS) rather than biological motion and that the opposite pattern is to be expected in typical development. Here, we challenge this notion by showing that 3-year-old neurotypical children orient to AVS and to biological motion in point-light displays but that 3-year-old children with autism orient to neither of these types of information. Thus, our data suggest that two fundamental mechanisms are disrupted in young children with autism: one that supports orienting towards others' movements and one that supports orienting towards multimodally specified events. These impairments may have consequences for socio-cognitive development and brain organization.

  • 30.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thorup, Emilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bölte, S
    Limited Influence by Others’ Gaze Direction on Initial Object Processing in Three-year-olds with Autism2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thorup, Emilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bölte, Sven
    Brief Report: Lack of Processing Bias for the Objects Other People Attend to in 3-Year-Olds with Autism2015In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 1897-1904Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether gaze following-a key component of joint attention-is impaired in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is currently debated. Functional gaze following involves saccading towards the attended rather than unattended targets (accuracy) as well as a subsequent processing bias for attended objects. Using non-invasive eye tracking technology, we show that gaze following accuracy is intact in intellectually low-functioning 3-year-olds with ASD. However, analyses of the duration of first fixations at the objects in the scene revealed markedly weaker initial processing bias for attended objects in children with ASD compared to children with typical development and non-autistic children with developmental delays. Limited processing bias for the objects other people attend to may negatively affect learning opportunities in ASD.

  • 32.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    How special is social looking in ASD: a review2011In: Progress in Brain Research, ISSN 0079-6123, E-ISSN 1875-7855, Vol. 189, p. 209-22Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review is primarily concerned with the view that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) look less at the eyes and more at the mouth compared to typically developing (TD) individuals. Such performance in ASD could reflect that the eyes are not meaningful or that they are perceived as threatening, two ideas that may seem intuitively appealing. However, our review shows that despite the fact that the excess mouth/diminished eye gaze hypothesis fits with clinical common sense and initial data from adults, it does not-as a generalization across ages and contexts-fit with the emerging pattern of eye-tracking data. In adolescents and adults, there is only partial support for the excess mouth/diminished eye gaze hypothesis, and regarding children, most studies do not support this hypothesis. In particular, independent studies have found longer looking durations on the mouth in TD children than in children with ASD, and no difference for the eye area. We describe recent evidence that mouth fixations are functional responses related to (early) stages of normative language development. We conclude that although individuals with ASD often give less preferential attention to social objects and events (faces, people, and social actions) than TD individuals, the excess mouth/diminished eye gaze hypothesis of ASD is not generally supported. Therefore, this hypothesis needs to be reevaluated, as do related theories of social perception in ASD.

  • 33.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gillberg, Christopher
    Fernell, Elisabeth
    Visualization and Analysis of Eye Movement Data from Children with Typical and Atypical Development2013In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 43, no 10, p. 2249-2258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Looking at other children's interactions provides rich learning opportunities for a small child. How children with autism look at other children is largely unknown. Using eye tracking, we studied gaze performance in children with autism and neurotypical comparison children while they were watching videos of semi-naturalistic social interactions between young children. Using a novel, bottom-up approach we identified event-related measures that distinguished between groups with high accuracy. The observed effects remained in a subset of the total sample matched on IQ, and were replicated across several different stimuli. The described method facilitates the detection of meaningful patterns in complex eye tracking data. Also, the approach significantly improves visualization, which will help investigators understand, illustrate, and generate new hypotheses.

  • 34.
    Fawcett, Christine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala Univ, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Arslan, Melda
    Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Inst, Solna, Sweden; Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Roeyers, Herbert
    Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Author Correction: Human eyes with dilated pupils induce pupillary contagion in infants2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 4157Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Fawcett, Christine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Arslan, Melda
    Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Inst, Solna, Sweden; Stockholm Cty, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Roeyers, Herbert
    Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Human eyes with dilated pupils induce pupillary contagion in infants2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 9601Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being sensitive and responsive to others’ internal states is critical for social life. One reliable cue to what others might be feeling is pupil dilation because it is linked to increases in arousal. When adults view an individual with dilated pupils, their pupils dilate in response, suggesting not only sensitivity to pupil size, but a corresponding response as well. However, little is known about the origins or mechanism underlying this phenomenon of pupillary contagion. Here we show that 4- to 6-month-old infants show pupillary contagion when viewing photographs of eyes with varying pupil sizes: their pupils dilate in response to others’ large, but not small or medium pupils. The results suggest that pupillary contagion is likely driven by a transfer of arousal and that it is present very early in life in human infants, supporting the view that it could be an adaptation fundamental for social and emotional development.

  • 36.
    Galazka, Martyna A
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Roché, Laëtitia
    Nyström, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Human Infants Detect Other People's Interactions Based on Complex Patterns of Kinematic Information.2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 11, p. e112432-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do infants perceive other people's interactions by means of a mechanism that integrates biological motion information across the observed individuals? In support of this view, the present study demonstrates that infants (N = 28, Age  = 14 months) discriminate between point light displays representing disrupted and non-disrupted interactions between people, even though the two interaction types are identical at the level of individual point light agents. Moreover, a second experiment (sample 2: N = 28, Age  = 14 months) indicated that visual preference in this context is influenced by an audiovisual integration processes that takes into account the presence of an interaction between people. All these results were found exclusively for upright displays - when stimuli were shown upside-down (disrupting biological motion processing), performance was random. Collectively, these findings point to an important role for biological motion in social perception in human infants.

  • 37.
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eye Movements During Action Observation2015In: Perspectives on Psychological Science, ISSN 1745-6916, E-ISSN 1745-6924, Vol. 10, no 5, p. 591-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An important element in social interactions is predicting the goals of others, including the goals of others' manual actions. Over a decade ago, Flanagan and Johansson demonstrated that, when observing other people reaching for objects, the observer's gaze arrives at the goal before the action is completed. Moreover, those authors proposed that this behavior was mediated by an embodied process, which takes advantage of the observer's motor knowledge. Here, we scrutinize work that has followed that seminal article. We include studies on adults that have used combined eye tracking and transcranial magnetic stimulation technologies to test causal hypotheses about underlying brain circuits. We also include developmental studies on human infants. We conclude that, although several aspects of the embodied process of predictive eye movements remain to be clarified, current evidence strongly suggests that the motor system plays a causal role in guiding predictive gaze shifts that focus on another person's future goal. The early emergence of the predictive gaze in infant development underlines its importance for social cognition and interaction.

  • 38. Gredebäck, Gustaf
    et al.
    Stasiewicz, Dorota
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rosander, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Action Type and Goal Type Modulate Goal-Directed Gaze Shifts in 14-Month-Old Infants2009In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 1190-1194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ten- and 14-month-old infants' gaze was recorded as the infants observed videos of different hand actions directed toward multiple goals. Infants observed an actor who (a) reached for objects and displaced them, (b) reached for objects and placed them inside containers, or (c) moved his fisted hand. Fourteen-month-olds, but not 10-month-olds, anticipated the goal of reaching actions but tracked all the other actions reactively. Fourteen-month-olds also produced more anticipatory gaze shifts during containment compared with displacement and differentiated between reaching actions dependent on whether the overall goal was to displace objects or place objects inside containers. These results demonstrate that action type and goal type modulate the latency of goal-directed gaze shifts in infants.

  • 39. Kennedy, Daniel P.
    et al.
    D’Onofrio, Brian M.
    Quinn, Patrick D.
    Bölte, Sven
    Lichtenstein, Paul
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders at Karolinska Institutet (KIND), Department of Women’s and Children’s Health,Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden and Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Center for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Genetic Influence on Eye Movements to Complex Scenes at Short Timescales2017In: Current Biology, ISSN 0960-9822, E-ISSN 1879-0445, Vol. 27, no 22, p. 3554-3560Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Where one looks within their environment constrains one?s visual experiences, directly affects cognitive, emotional, and social processing [1?4], influences learning opportunities [5], and ultimately shapes one?s developmental path. While there is a high degree of similarity across individuals with regard to which features of a scene are fixated [6?8], large individual differences are also present, especially in disorders of development [9?13], and clarifying the origins of these differences is essential to understand the processes by which individuals develop within the complex environments in which they exist and interact. Toward this end, a recent paper [14] found that ?social visual engagement??namely, gaze to eyes and mouths of faces?is strongly influenced by genetic factors. However, whether genetic factors influence gaze to complex visual scenes more broadly, impacting how both social and non-social scene content are fixated, as well as general visual exploration strategies, has yet to be determined. Using a behavioral genetic approach and eye tracking data from a large sample of 11-year-old human twins (233 same-sex twin pairs; 51% monozygotic, 49% dizygotic), we demonstrate that genetic factors do indeed contribute strongly to eye movement patterns, influencing both one?s general tendency for visual exploration of scene content, as well as the precise moment-to-moment spatiotemporal pattern of fixations during viewing of complex social and non-social scenes alike. This study adds to a now growing set of results that together illustrate how genetics may broadly influence the process by which individuals actively shape and create their own visual experiences.

  • 40.
    Kleberg, Johan L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    del Bianco, Teresa
    Univ Trento, Trento, Italy; Birkbeck University.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala University, Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study (SCAS). Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden; .
    How Infants Arousal Influences their Visual Search2019In: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 90, no 4, p. 1413-1423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of arousal on visual attention was examined in 6.5-month-old infants (N = 42) in the context of a visual search task. Phasic increases in arousal were induced with brief sounds and measured with pupil dilation. Evidence was found for an inverted U-shaped relation between pupil dilation amplitude and visual orienting, with highest likelihood of a target fixation at intermediate levels of arousal. Effects were similar for facial stimuli and simple objects. Together, these results contribute to our understanding of the relation between arousal and attention in infancy. The study also demonstrates that infants have a bias to orient to human eyes, even when presented in isolation.

  • 41.
    Kleberg, Johan L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    del Bianco, Teresa
    University of Trento.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Infants’ Orienting to Faces, Eyes, and Single Colors is Influenced by Phasic ArousalManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Kleberg, Johan L.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thorup, Emilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Ctr Neurodev Disorders, KIND, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Visual orienting in children with autism: Hyper-responsiveness to human eyes presented after a brief alerting audio-signal, but hyporesponsiveness to eyes presented without sound2017In: Autism Research, ISSN 1939-3792, E-ISSN 1939-3806, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 246-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been associated with reduced orienting to social stimuli such as eyes, but the results are inconsistent. It is not known whether atypicalities in phasic alerting could play a role in putative altered social orienting in ASD. Here, we show that in unisensory (visual) trials, children with ASD are slower to orient to eyes (among distractors) than controls matched for age, sex, and nonverbal IQ. However, in another condition where a brief spatially nonpredictive sound was presented just before the visual targets, this group effect was reversed. Our results indicate that orienting to social versus nonsocial stimuli is differently modulated by phasic alerting mechanisms in young children with ASD.

  • 43.
    Kleberg, Johan Lundin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Högström, Jens
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.; Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nord, Martina
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.; Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bölte, Sven
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Ctr Neurodev Disorders KIND, Stockholm, Sweden.; Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Psychiat Res, Child & Adolescent Psychiat, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Serlachius, Eva
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.; Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Ctr Neurodev Disorders KIND, Stockholm, Sweden.; Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Psychiat Res, Child & Adolescent Psychiat, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Autistic traits and symptoms of social anxiety are differentially related to attention to others' eyes in Social Anxiety Disorder2017In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 47, no 12, p. 3814-3821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD) have partly overlapping symptoms. Gaze avoidance has been linked to both SAD and ASD, but little is known about differences in social attention between the two conditions. We studied eye movements in a group of treatment-seeking adolescents with SAD (N = 25), assessing SAD and ASD dimensionally. The results indicated a double dissociation between two measures of social attention and the two symptom dimensions. Controlling for social anxiety, elevated autistic traits were associated with delayed orienting to eyes presented among distractors. In contrast, elevated social anxiety levels were associated with faster orienting away from the eyes, when controlling for autistic traits. This distinction deepens our understanding of ASD and SAD.

  • 44.
    Kleberg, Johan Lundin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Thorup, Emilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders at Karolin-ska Institutet (KIND), Karolinska institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Reduced visual disengagement but intact phasic alerting in young children with autism2017In: Autism Research, ISSN 1939-3792, E-ISSN 1939-3806, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 539-545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with autism may have difficulties with visual disengagement-that is, inhibiting current fixations and orienting to new stimuli in the periphery. These difficulties may limit these children's ability to flexibly monitor the environment, regulate their internal states, and interact with others. In typical development, visual disengagement is influenced by a phasic alerting network that increases the processing speed of the visual system after salient events. The role of the phasic alerting effect in the putative atypical disengagement performance in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is not known. Here, we compared visual disengagement in six-year-old children with autism (N = 18) and typically developing children (N = 17) matched for age and nonverbal IQ. We manipulated phasic alerting during a visual disengagement task by adding spatially nonpredictive sounds shortly before the onset of the visual peripheral targets. Children with ASD showed evidence of delayed disengagement compared to the control group. Sounds facilitated visual disengagement similarly in both groups, suggesting typical modulation by phasic alerting in ASD in the context of this task. These results support the view that atypical visual disengagement in ASD is related to other factors than atypicalities in the alerting network. Autism Res 2016.

  • 45.
    Krieber, Magdalena
    et al.
    Med Univ Graz, Ctr Physiol Med, Inst Physiol, Res Unit IDN Interdisciplinary Dev Neurosci, Graz, Austria..
    Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D.
    Med Univ Graz, Ctr Physiol Med, Inst Physiol, Res Unit IDN Interdisciplinary Dev Neurosci, Graz, Austria..
    Pokorny, Florian B.
    Med Univ Graz, Ctr Physiol Med, Inst Physiol, Res Unit IDN Interdisciplinary Dev Neurosci, Graz, Austria.;Tech Univ Munich, Machine Intelligence & Signal Proc Grp, D-80290 Munich, Germany.;BioTechMed Graz, BEE PRI, Graz, Austria..
    Einspieler, Christa
    Med Univ Graz, Ctr Physiol Med, Inst Physiol, Res Unit IDN Interdisciplinary Dev Neurosci, Graz, Austria..
    Langmann, Andrea
    Med Univ Graz, Dept Strabism Pediat Ophthalmol & Rehabil Visuall, Graz, Austria..
    Koerner, Christof
    Graz Univ, Dept Psychol, Cognit Psychol & Neurosci, Graz, Austria..
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Ctr Neurodev Disorders KIND, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Marschik, Peter B.
    Med Univ Graz, Ctr Physiol Med, Inst Physiol, Res Unit IDN Interdisciplinary Dev Neurosci, Graz, Austria.;BioTechMed Graz, BEE PRI, Graz, Austria.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Ctr Neurodev Disorders KIND, Stockholm, Sweden..
    The Relation between Reading Skills and Eye Movement Patterns in Adolescent Readers: Evidence from a Regular Orthography2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 1, article id e0145934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past decades, the relation between reading skills and eye movement behavior has been well documented in English-speaking cohorts. As English and German differ substantially with regard to orthographic complexity (i.e. grapheme-phoneme correspondence), we aimed to delineate specific characteristics of how reading speed and reading comprehension interact with eye movements in typically developing German-speaking (Austrian) adolescents. Eye movements of 22 participants (14 females; mean age = 13; 6 years; months) were tracked while they were performing three tasks, namely silently reading words, texts, and pseudowords. Their reading skills were determined by means of a standardized German reading speed and reading comprehension assessment (Lesegeschwindigkeits- und -verstandnistest fur Klassen 6-12). We found that (a) reading skills were associated with various eye movement parameters in each of the three reading tasks; (b) better reading skills were associated with an increased efficiency of eye movements, but were primarily linked to spatial reading parameters, such as the number of fixations per word, the total number of saccades and saccadic amplitudes; (c) reading speed was a more reliable predictor for eye movement parameters than reading comprehension; (d) eye movements were highly correlated across reading tasks, which indicates consistent reading performances. Contrary to findings in English-speaking cohorts, the reading skills neither consistently correlated with temporal eye movement parameters nor with the number or percentage of regressions made while performing any of the three reading tasks. These results indicate that, although reading skills are associated with eye movement patterns irrespective of language, the temporal and spatial characteristics of this association may vary with orthographic consistency.

  • 46. Kylliäinen, A
    et al.
    Jones, EH
    Gomot, M
    Warreyn, P
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Practical Guidelines for Studying Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder in Psychophysiological Experiments2014In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 1, no 4, p. 373-386Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Lundin Kleberg, Johan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nyström, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bölte, Sven
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Karolinska InstitutetStockholm; Center for Psychiatry Research, Stockholm County Council.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala University, Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study (SCAS). Department of Women's and Children's Health, Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Sex Differences in Social Attention in Infants at Risk for Autism2019In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 1342-1351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied visual attention to emotional faces in 10-month-old infant siblings of children with ASD (ASD-sibs; N = 70) and a siblings of typically developing children (N = 29) using static stimuli. Contrary to our predictions, we found no evidence for atypical gaze behavior in ASD-sibs when boys and girls were analyzed together. However, a sex difference was found in ASD-sibs' visual attention to the mouth. Male ASD-sibs looked more at the mouth across emotions compared to male controls and female ASD-sibs. In contrast, female ASD-sibs looked less at the mouth compared to female controls. These findings suggest that some aspects of early emerging atypical social attention in ASD-sibs may be sex specific.

  • 48.
    López Pérez, David
    et al.
    Univ Warsaw, Fac Psychol, Neurocognit Dev Lab, PL-00183 Warsaw, Poland.
    Kennedy, Daniel P.
    Indiana Univ, Dept Psychol & Brain Sci, Bloomington, IN USA.
    Tomalski, Przemysław
    Univ Warsaw, Fac Psychol, Neurocognit Dev Lab, PL-00183 Warsaw, Poland.
    Bölte, Sven
    Karolinska Inst, Ctr Neurodev Disorders Karolinska Inst KIND, Neuropsychiat Div, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Psychiat Res, Child & Adolescent Psychiat, S-11330 Stockholm, Sweden.
    D’Onofrio, Brian
    Indiana Univ, Dept Psychol & Brain Sci, Bloomington, IN USA.
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala University, Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study (SCAS).
    Visual Search Performance Does Not Relate to Autistic Traits in the General Population2019In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 2624-2631Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is commonly conceived as the extreme end of a continuum. Research suggests that autistic individuals outperform typically developing controls in visual search. Thus, enhanced visual search may represent an adaptive trait associated with ASD. Here, using a large general population sample (N = 608, aged 9–14 years), we tested if higher levels of autistic traits are associated with enhanced visual search. Visual search was evaluated using both manual responses and eye movements, and autistic traits were measured using the Social Responsiveness Scale. Contrary to our hypothesis, no significant relation between autistic traits and visual search were observed. The theoretical implications of these results are discussed.

  • 49.
    Nilsson Jobs, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Division of Neuropsychiatry, Department of Women's & Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Center of Psychiatry Research, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bölte, Sven
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Uppsala University, Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study (SCAS). Center of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND), Division of Neuropsychiatry, Department of Women's & Children's Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Center of Psychiatry Research, Stockholm County Council, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Preschool Staff Spot Social Communication Difficulties, But Not Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors in Young Autistic Children2019In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 1928-1936Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To fulfill the criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), symptoms must be present across domains and contexts. We assessed preschool staff’s ratings of social communication and interaction (SCI) and restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) in 3-year-old siblings of children with ASD, either diagnosed (n = 12) or not diagnosed (n = 36) with ASD, and typically developing siblings with no family history of ASD (n = 16). Ratings of SCI were more accurate than RRBs in differentiating the ASD group from the two other groups, and only the SCI ratings correlated with SCI symptoms rated by clinical experts. We conclude that while preschool staff ratings of SCI behaviors are adequate, ratings of RRBs should be treated with more caution.

  • 50.
    Nilsson Jobs, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Div Neuropsychiat, Ctr Neurodev Disorders KIND, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bölte, Sven
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Inst, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Div Neuropsychiat, Ctr Neurodev Disorders KIND, Stockholm, Sweden; Stockholm Cty Council, Ctr Psychiat Res, Stockholm, Sweden; SCAS, Thunbergsvagen 2, SE-75238 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Spotting Signs of Autism in 3-Year-Olds: Comparing Information from Parents and Preschool Staff2019In: Journal of autism and developmental disorders, ISSN 0162-3257, E-ISSN 1573-3432, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 1232-1241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Preschool informants may provide valuable information about symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in young children. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of ratings by preschool staff with those by parents of 3-year-old children using the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment Preschool Forms. The sample consisted of 32 children at familial risk for ASD without diagnosis, 10 children at risk for ASD with diagnosis, and 14 low-risk typically developing controls. Preschool staff ratings were more accurate than parent ratings at differentiating children with and without ASD, and more closely associated with clinician-rated symptoms. These results point to the value of information from preschool informants in early detection and diagnostic assessments.

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