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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Sten
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Fredriksson, Maria
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    University Services for regional Development: Ideas on Stakeholder Based Quality Management in a Region2011In: Proceedings : 14th QMOD Conference on Quality and Service Sciences: From LearnAbility and InnovAbility to SustainAbility / [ed] Carmen Jaca,Ricardo Mateo,Elizabeth Viles, Javier Santos, Pamplona: Servicios de Publicaciones Universidad de Navarra , 2011, p. 36-54Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Regional Development is a permanent activity of change including long range visions and goals. This work includes both continuous and breakthrough change. Quality management practises are used for organisational improvement and could be seen as one way of supporting effective change management. Provided we can view a region as an organisation we could also view it as a process. Dealing with the region as a system of processes might make it possible to use quality management practices to support more effective regional development. Based on an analysis of the presentation of the current state and the visionary state it should be possible to analyse proposed change strategies from a process perspective.

    Purpose

    The general purpose of the study is to see how universities could contribute to regional development. Specific research questions in this study are:

    For a region how can the present state, the visionary state and the chosen change strategies, be described with Quality Management values and methodologies with focus on the process view

    How do the regional university mission, vision and goals align with defined regional objectives?

    Methodology

    A literature survey for how Quality Management has been used for regional development is carried out to create a structure for the data collection. The region of Gotland is chosen as an example for a region. The reason for this is that Gotland is a small region consisting of an island providing clear boundaries. There is only one university, which makes it easier to study the links between university and region. Available regional visions are studied as well as main presentation of regional performance with focus on the region of Gotland. The main organizational stakeholders are identified and studied. Data is gathered from web sites and from interviews. The categorisation of information is based on a process perspective using process based system models adapted to the initial literature survey. The current change process is also portrayed. In order to see how the local university performance and plans align with the regional plans the Gotland University web-site is studied for relevant documents.

    Main results

    Regional performance can seemingly be described using process based system models. The stakeholder approach can in a meaningful way be used to describe main regional requirements.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Sten
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Hansson, Jonas
    Högskolan Väst.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Integrated Management Systems: testing a model for integration2011In: 14th Toulon-Verona Conference: Organizational Excellence in Service, 1-3 September, 2011, Alicante, Spain / [ed] Jacques Martin and Claudio Baccarani, University of Alicante and University of Oviedo, Spain , 2011, p. 22-35Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Management systems are widely used for creating order, minimising risks and for assuring performance. Management systems are in many occasions integrated since this has been found to be beneficial. In this paper a model for a fully integrated management system (IMS) based on the three axes of level, extent and scope of integration is tested for relevance. The studied system permits the integration of all relevant process dimensions. The research is only in a pilot stage, but the initial results are promising and indicate that there are advantages in using the process view as a base for identifying critical aspects to be managed. A review of the current situation for system integration is studied and the model is subjected to some tests using Sweden as a case. The background study shows that system integration still is limited, especially when comparing with a fully integrated IMS. The feedback from the organisations interviewed is positive and supports continued work with development of the model.

  • 3.
    Abrahamsson, Sten
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Adding requirements on customers to current quality models toimprove quality: development of a customer ‐ vendor interaction2010In: 13th QMOD conference on Quality and Service Sciences ICQSS 2010 / [ed] Jens J. Dahlgaard, Linköping University, Sweden, Visby: Gotland University , 2010, p. 1-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most descriptions of business development and models for Corporate Governance, contacts between supplier and customer are for the most part focused on the supplier’s responsibility to identify and document customer requirements in order to enable the organization to meet customer requirements (stated and unstated). In the actual contact between customer and supplier it has been observed in several cases that there are aspects of the interaction not described in traditional theoretical quality models. What seems to be missing is a more explicit requirement for customers and for customers' actions. The logic is that a qualified customer performing based on supplier instructions will result in a better performing product. The apparent lack of theoretical models describing this aspect indicates that this is an interesting area for research and development.

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight a seemingly "forgotten" area within quality management, which is the lack of requirements put on customers in quality models.  The first objective is to review existing quality models to explore the extent of requirement on customers included. The second objective is to propose additions to current models that include requirements placed on customers.

    A limited review of the award criteria and the most common models for quality and improvement techniques shows that there is no explicit and documented way to set requirements for customers. Our interpretation is that EFQM is the model closest to our description of “demands on customer” due to their clauses connected to “partnership”.

    The ISO/DIS 26000 is moving the requirements further against the customer for the social responsibility than the quality standards are doing.

    Further research could focus on how requirements on customer will affect the performance of the entire supply chain both from a quality and social point of view.

  • 4.
    Abrahamsson, Sten
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Implementing Lean: Discussing Standardization Versus Customization with Focus on National Cultural Dimensions2012In: Management and Production Engineering Review, ISSN 2082-1344, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 4-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lean or Toyota Production System (TPS) has more or less successfully been implemented in the Western world’s businesses and organizations for the past 20 years. Several authors have discussed what it is that creates a successful implementation, and several studies have been presented where strategies for implementations have been studied. Culture’s impact and possible mitigation for Western companies have been studied and described by for example Womak & Jones. Proponents of the concept of Lean argue that culture is not a constraint for implementation of Lean. Lean Management is called a philosophy but it is often used as a change strategy in the sense that it is implemented with the view of improving performance. A change strategy could be seen as a product that might have to be customized with the view of improving the effectiveness of the implementation. On the other hand abandoning a standardized approach comes with the risk of severely altering the change strategy, possibly to its detriment. Implementing Lean will have an effect on the company culture. Does it make any sense customizing the implementation to culture if the issue is changing the culture? The purpose of this paper is to highlight and discuss the balance between a customized implementation and a standardized implementation. Which are the main arguments for standardization and customization and how could these be reconciled? A literature study of Lean implementation has been carried out and compared with Lean principles and theories from change management with focus on change drivers and change barriers. Main drivers of Hofstede’s national cultural dimensions are compared with Lean principles to identify possible drivers and barriers in different cultures. The theory synthesis on drivers and barriers is subjected to a first test in a case study on Lean implementation according to a standardized approach. The implementation is made in a small Swedish factory belonging to a worldwide industrial company. Results from the literature review and the case study indicate that both customization and standardization are needed.

  • 5.
    Abrahamsson, Sten
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Hansson, Jonas
    University West.
    Integrated Management Systems: advantages, problems and possibilities2010In: 13th Toulon-Verona Conference: Organizational Excellence in Service / [ed] Jacques Martin, Toulon University, 2010, p. 1-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Effective management in the globalized world requires an effective, efficient and flexible management system. Effective could be interpreted as addressing all relevant stakeholder concerns in a context of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). Efficient would mean that it does the job with low resource use. Flexibility requires that changed conditions and new requirements easily can be included. Many organizations are already working with Integrated Management Systems (IMS). Interesting questions are to what extent current integration covers the above mentioned needs and if not what changes are needed. This conceptual paper looks at the advantages and problems of integration. Possibilities for development of fully integrated management systems are studied from the perspective of managing stakeholder needs, with the forthcoming ISO 26000 – “Guidance on social responsibility”, as inspiration. Results show that there are advantages in integration, but that the scope and level of integration often is limited. A conceptual model for integrating all stakeholder needs in value networks is presented.

  • 6.
    Dahlin, Gunnar
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Business Administration and Leadership for Sustainable Development: a case study of a cross functional candidate program2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses critically a three year candidate program for educating change leaders for Sustainable Development. The program was started in 2007 in co-operation between the departments of Quality Management and Business Administration in Gotland University. The analysis of the program is based on a review of learning outcomes, courses created, pedagogy applied, interviews of students, interviews of teachers and reflection on challenges in cross departmental co-operation.

    The program was created in consultation with companies and organizations being potential employers of the students after their education. The overall idea of the program embodies thoughts from Liberal Education and System Thinking [1], [2]. The pedagogy used could be summarized in the continuous cycle of theory-practice-understanding. Sustainable Development has been dealt with in theory and practice using the Triple Bottom Line in combination with companywide process management.

    Focus has been on describing components of change and change management. The theoretical foundations are found in structured methodologies for improvement such as Total Quality Management, Six Sigma, Lean Management, Project Management and in leadership theory with focus on group dynamics. Successful change seems to require, apart from a good solution, the willingness to implement the solution and the ability to manage change.

    Working across departments is not easy in spite of the closeness typical for the small Gotland University with some 200 employees. Academia and universities could be seen as strong advocates of the old functional order where cross functional process thinking is not easy. Changing a curriculum fixed for many years and changing educational culture are formidable challenges. Not everything went according to plans which have provided some valuable learning experiences. The overall results are positive and many of the ideas of integrating theory and practice by using organizations including the campus as a study object have been successful.

  • 7.
    Fredriksson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Making sense of quality philosophies2018In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 29, no 11-12, p. 1452-1465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to improve sense-making of different quality philosophies using a quality system model. We have chosen Total Quality Management, Six Sigma, Lean Management and ISO 9000 as typical quality philosophies. The chosen model is based on describing a system as consisting of purpose, principles, methodologies and tools. This model is extended to include a roll-out process and a management process for each philosophy. The main results indicate that the proposed model presents a way of describing, comparing and interpreting quality philosophies. The major implication of the study is that it provides a way to describe and define quality philosophies. The study makes a contribution to Quality Management in proposing a model for describing a quality philosophy.

  • 8.
    Fredriksson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    Slutrapport för projektet ”Flipped Classroom med stöd av Scalable Learning2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning av projektet, inklusive den pedagogiska förnyelsen

    Flipped Classroom, med hjälp av lärplattformen Scalable Learning som stöd för studentaktiverande undervisningsform, är ett bra sätt för studenten att aktivt ta del i sin egen lärandeprocess. Det som är viktigt är att undervisningen läggs upp på ett annat sätt än den traditionella, vilket kräver en övergångsperiod för lärare och studenter. Som lärare behöver vi tänka lite extra på hur vi ska lägga upp övningar, lektioner och seminarier så att studenten verkligen kan ta aktiv del i sin lärandeprocess. Det är lätt att göra övningar som studenten klarar på någon minut men där läraren lagt ner förhållandevis mycket tid i förberedande arbete.

    Tidigare testades lärplattformen Scalable Learning försiktigt i ett par av ämnet Kvalitetstekniks kurser med positiv utvärdering från studenterna. Nu har vi gjort ett stort antal inspelningar och det resultat och moduler som läggs upp av material, quizzer, inspelningar etc. planerar vi att använda i andra kurser på programmen.

     

    Slutsatser

    Flipped Classroom är ett nytt sätt att tänka och arbeta på för både studenter och lärare. Vi vill gärna fortsätta med den typen av studentaktivt lärande. Av erfarenhet vet vi att det tar lång tid att förändra inställning och tänkande, vilket behövs för den här typen av förändring. Vi arbetar på att förbättra de inspelade lektionerna samtidigt som vi vill tänka nytt när det gäller sammankomsterna mellan student och lärare.

  • 9.
    Garvare, Rickard
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Hallencreutz, Jacob
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Business excellence models: purpose, intended recipients and deployment - reviewing the fundamentals2006In: Quality management and organization excellence: empty boxes, or significant contributions to management thought and practice?, Sydney: SAI Global , 2006, p. 292-316Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Garvare, Rickard
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Hallencreutz, Jacob
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Business excellence models: scope and customisation - making best use of resources2007In: Quality management and organization excellence: oxymorons, empty boxes, or significant contributions to management thought and practice?, Sydney: SAI Global , 2007, p. 39-57Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Garvare, Rickard
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Organisational sustainability management through minimised business excellence models2005In: Total Quality Management - Advanced and Intelligent Approaches: 3rd International Working Conference, Association Serbia and Montenegro for Quality and Standards , 2005, p. 33-40Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Garvare, Rickard
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Sustainable development: extending the scope of business excellence models2001In: Measuring Business Excellence, ISSN 1368-3047, E-ISSN 1758-8057, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 11-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an example of how to integrate the values of sustainable development in a business excellence model. It discusses definitions and measures of sustainable development, integrating values of total quality management with global human and environmental stakeholder interests. Requirements, core values, main criteria and different concepts of measures for sustainable development are examined, discussed and defined. Existing methods and strategies for quality and business excellence are compared with definitions of sustainable development. Indicators for sustainable development in an organisational and business context are discussed and a rough framework is presented.

  • 13. Hallencreutz, Jacob
    et al.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Creaqte knowledge - not figures: the importance of measurement system management2006In: Performance measurement and management 2006: public and private : papers from the Fifth International Conference on Performance Measurement and Management - PMA 2006, London, New Connaught Rooms, UK, 25th-28th July 2006, Cranfield: School of Management, Centre for Business Performance , 2006, p. 963-970Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering. Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Visby, Sweden.
    A proposed preliminary maturity grid for assessing sustainability reporting based on quality management principles2019In: The TQM Journal, ISSN 1754-2731, E-ISSN 1754-274X, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 451-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Sustainability reports (SRs) could be viewed as organisational measurements of sustainability performance. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how well SRs are measuring and communicating sustainability and how reporting could be assessed and improved by presenting a maturity grid based on quality management principles.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Quality management students have assessed publicly available SRs. A total of 55 student assessments have been analysed by the author and used to indicate how understandable reports are. Quality management principles and input from the student assessments have been used to propose a maturity grid for sustainability reporting quality.

    Findings

    The indication is that SRs are not easy to interpret. The word sustainability aspect used should be replaced with impact on vital stakeholder needs. Guidelines for analysing reports could be improved by using process focus to clearly describe scope of reporting as the entire value chain.

    Research limitations/implications

    Results are limited to assessing how sustainability is measured. How sustainable the organisations are is not assessed. The research is ongoing, and the proposed matrix is preliminary needing validation and further modification.

    Practical implications

    The proposed maturity grid for sustainability reporting forms a good basis for further development of SRs and the critical review of them.

    Social implications

    Results indicate a need to report sustainability in the entire value chain and to focus more on vital stakeholder needs such as poverty and climate change.

    Originality/value

    The paper discusses a field of synergies between quality and sustainability management, which is important but still sparingly researched.

  • 15.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences.
    A proposed preliminary maturity grid for assessing sustainability reporting based on quality management principles2019In: Total quality management (Print), ISSN 0954-4127, E-ISSN 1360-0613, ISSN 0954-4127, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 451-466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Sustainability reports (SRs) could be viewed as organisational measurements of sustainability

    performance. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how well SRs are measuring and communicating

    sustainability and how reporting could be assessed and improved by presenting a maturity grid based on

    quality management principles.

    Design/methodology/approach – Quality management students have assessed publicly available SRs.

    A total of 55 student assessments have been analysed by the author and used to indicate how understandable

    reports are. Quality management principles and input from the student assessments have been used to

    propose a maturity grid for sustainability reporting quality.

    Findings – The indication is that SRs are not easy to interpret. The word sustainability aspect used should

    be replaced with impact on vital stakeholder needs. Guidelines for analysing reports could be improved by

    using process focus to clearly describe scope of reporting as the entire value chain.

    Research limitations/implications – Results are limited to assessing how sustainability is measured.

    How sustainable the organisations are is not assessed. The research is ongoing, and the proposed matrix is

    preliminary needing validation and further modification.

    Practical implications – The proposed maturity grid for sustainability reporting forms a good basis for

    further development of SRs and the critical review of them.

    Social implications – Results indicate a need to report sustainability in the entire value chain and to focus

    more on vital stakeholder needs such as poverty and climate change.

    Originality/value – The paper discusses a field of synergies between quality and sustainability

    management, which is important but still sparingly researched.

  • 16.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Creating a sense of urgency for sustainable development: Testing two system models2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 227, p. 1173-1184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of good coverage of sustainability and sustainable development both in scientific journals and other publications, humanity is on a steady unsustainable track consuming more than is produced. Understanding of change needs, does not seem to convert into sufficient change action. Sustainability issues are often complex, interdependent and hard to comprehend, indicating that sustainable development, in addition to change willingness, requires a holistic perspective. Seeing and understanding systems - systems thinking - is important. This implies that sense-making of systems and of sustainable development is important as a prerequisite for change. Possibilities of realising synergies between quality management and sustainable development are often discussed but do often not seem to be fully realised. This paper tests two system models from Quality Management in the context of sustainability in cement manufacturing and building material production. The indicative results suggest that the proposed system models are able to describe and identify improvement opportunities that could be used to create interest for change.

  • 17.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management. Lulea Univ Technol, Dept Business Adm Technol & Social Sci, Lulea, Sweden.
    Creating a sense of urgency for sustainable development: Testing two system models2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 227, p. 1173-1184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of good coverage of sustainability and sustainable development both in scientific journals and other publications, humanity is on a steady unsustainable track consuming more than is produced. Understanding of change needs, does not seem to convert into sufficient change action. Sustainability issues are often complex, interdependent and hard to comprehend, indicating that sustainable development, in addition to change willingness, requires a holistic perspective. Seeing and understanding systems - systems thinking - is important. This implies that sense-making of systems and of sustainable development is important as a prerequisite for change. Possibilities of realising synergies between quality management and sustainable development are often discussed but do often not seem to be fully realised. This paper tests two system models from Quality Management in the context of sustainability in cement manufacturing and building material production. The indicative results suggest that the proposed system models are able to describe and identify improvement opportunities that could be used to create interest for change.

  • 18.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Customised improvement with focus on emerging organisations2002In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Research Conference on Quality, Innovation and Knowledge Management: Kuala Lumpur, February 17-20, 2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management. Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Defining Quality and Sustainability – Looking for Synergies2013In: 16th QMOD−ICQSS Proceedings Quality Management and Organizational Development Conference 4th—6th September 2013 Portorož, Slovenia / [ed] Su Mi Dahlgaard-Park Jens J. Dahlgaard Boštjan Gomišček, 2013, p. 833-843Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Both quality and sustainability are frequently used and positively loaded words. On the overall level most people agree that we should both have quality and sustainability in the processes we are working with. Logically there should be synergies in improving quality and sustainability but there could also be conflicts. When assessing how well our processes are performing, it becomes more complicated to find a consensus since there are many and partly conflicting views and definitions on what quality and sustainability mean. What we cannot measure, we cannot improve and what we cannot define we cannot measure. 

    Purpose

    This paper reviews definitions for quality, sustainability and sustainable development with the purpose of highlighting synergies. Definitions and measurement principles combing quality and sustainability are proposed.

    Methodology/Approach

    Quality and sustainability are discussed and some working definitions are proposed. Garvin’s (1984) five approaches to define quality are applied on the working definitions for quality and sustainability. The approaches are reviewed and exemplified with some products to test the feasibility of the approach. The development of quality and sustainability is studied based on a chosen change process. The resulting categorisation of quality, sustainability, quality development, sustainability development and sustainability development are reviewed for identifying synergies. 

    Findings

    Findings indicate that there are more of synergies than differences and that it is possible to define an operational definition combining quality and sustainability that can be used for assessing and improving performance.

    Implications

    The results provide help for an operationalization of combined quality and sustainability performance.

    Originality/Value of paper

    The paper proposes a practical interpretation of how to work with quality and sustainability development.

  • 20.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Economic sustainability and the cost of poor quality2005In: Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, ISSN 1535-3958, E-ISSN 1535-3966, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 197-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development (SD) on the organizational level is often measured using the triple bottom line, which divides performance reporting into the economic, environmental and social dimensions. Since total quality management (TQM) over the years has proven to contribute to good economic performance, it is interesting to review synergies of the two concepts TQM and SD. Indicators commonly used in the triple bottom line are compared with quality related measurements and a synthesis is proposed. Focus is on the economic dimension and indicators in the form of cost of poor quality (CPQ). The CPQ as a sustainability indicator is discussed and exemplified. The results indicate that existing economic sustainability performance measurements based on distribution of surplus should be complemented with indicators for internal losses. A sound profit is in most cases necessary, but it is not the sole condition for economic sustainability.

  • 21.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Excellence for sustainability – maintaining the license to operate2019In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Companies increasingly work in a global context and need to be relevant in it. In addition to focus on customers, companies need to identify and attend to the needs of various stakeholders. The quality principle of customer focus has been used for identifying stakeholders, their needs and how to manage them. The Planetary Boundaries, the UN Sustainable Development Goals and The Natural Step have been used to identify performance targets for stakeholder needs. Results indicate that People and Planet could be defined as the main stakeholders and that these stakeholders could be further detailed in order to more easily link them with company business. Critical Planet stakeholders could be such as the Atmosphere and Biosphere. Based on the Pareto principle, People needs focus should be on alleviating poverty with a highest priority given to those living in extreme poverty. Absolute and relative indicators for sustainability performance with focus on core stakeholders have been proposed. The indication is that a paradigm shift from Profit to Planet and People focus is needed. The proposed strategy is to combine customer wants focus with a focus on defined critical stakeholder needs.

  • 22.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Making sense of opportunities in building material production2015In: The TQM Journal, ISSN 1754-2731, E-ISSN 1754-274X, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 781-797Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – Breakthrough improvement requires management decisions, which indicates that making sense of existing opportunities is important. This is a particular challenge when the improvement is a possibility and not a problem. The purpose of this paper is to propose the practice of doing an Opportunity Study as the way to create a sense of management urgency for realising dormant possibilities.

    Design/methodology/approach – A process-based Opportunity Study is presented consisting of a Diagnosing-Analysing-Solving (DAS) approach. Benchmarks are defined and compared with the actual performance resulting in a quantifiable improvement potential (D). Main causes are analysed (A), which leads to proposed solutions (S). The Opportunity Study practice is applied to a cement milling process, a cement plant and a supply network for cement-based building products.

    Findings – Results indicate that applying DAS methodology highlights realisable opportunities in all of the studied cases. This seems to be a necessary, but not sufficient criterion to create a sense of urgency for facts based change.

    Research limitations/implications – The results indicate that there is need for further research for looking at the process of sense making and to what extent facts alone can drive change initiatives.

    Practical implications – Results indicate that by a simple review, focusing on what a system can do instead of which the problems are, valuable opportunities for improvement could be detected.

    Originality/value – The paper highlights the value of focusing on opportunities.

  • 23.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management. Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Process based system models for detecting opportunities and threats: the case of World Cement Production2016In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 246-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Visualising change needs could be complex. One way of sense - making is to use process based system models. G lobal warming require s major changes in many fields and especially for cement manufacturing, which represents a growing portion of manmade carbon emissions . The industry has proposed measures for change , but it is diff icult to assess how good these are and more sense - making is needed to clarify the situation. Purpose The purpose is to visualise opportunities and threats for global cement manufacturing in the context of global warming, using a process based system mode l . Methodology Available data for cement manufacturing and for carbon emissions are combined both historically and as predictions based on chosen Key Performance Indicators. These indicators are related to a chosen process based system model. Findings The results indicate that the global cement industry doe s not have a viable plan for how to reduce carbon emissions sufficiently to comply with the objectives of maintaining global warming below 2°C . The application of the process based system model indica tes that it has the ability to visualise important opportunities and threats at the level of global processes. Practical implications The challenges of the world cement industry with reducing ca rbon emissions are highlighted. This information could be use ful as a driver for change. Originality/value Th e paper provides insights into process based improvement work related to cement industry carbon emissions.

  • 24.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Process based system models for detecting opportunities and threats: the case of World Cement Production2016In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 246-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Visualising change needs could be complex. One way of sense-making is to use process-based system models. Global warming requires major changes in many fields and especially for cement manufacturing, which represents a growing portion of man-made carbon emissions. The industry has proposed measures for change, but it is difficult to assess how good these are and more sense-making is needed to clarify the situation. The purpose of this paper is to visualise opportunities and threats for global cement manufacturing in the context of global warming, using a process-based system model.

    Design/methodology/approach

    Available data for cement manufacturing and for carbon emissions are combined both historically and as predictions based on chosen key performance indicators. These indicators are related to a chosen process-based system model.

    Findings

    The results indicate that the global cement industry does not have a viable plan to reduce carbon emissions sufficiently to comply with the objectives of maintaining global warming below 2°C. The application of the process-based system model indicates that it has the ability to visualise important opportunities and threats at the level of global processes.

    Practical implications

    The challenges of the world cement industry with reducing carbon emissions are highlighted. This information could be useful as a driver for change.

    Originality/value

    The paper provides insights into process-based improvement work related to cement industry carbon emissions.

  • 25.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Process improvement in a third world organisation: a study from Sub Saharan Africa2001Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    First World improvement theory has been tested in a Third World organisation. A First World improvement process has been defined as a tool for testing. The objective of this thesis is to answer the research question: How does a Third World environment influence the introduction and application of a First World improvement process? The proposed five-stage improvement process was applied in case studies, which examined the Companywide Process, Cement Packing and Quality Control. The conclusion is that a First World improvement process, with only minor changes, can operate successfully in a Third World environment, provided management is truly committed to the concept of improvement.

  • 26.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management. Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Synergies of quality and sustainability - shared value in the building supply network2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The field of CSR has developed from charity into an integration of shared value into the business model. In developing countries there are enormous needs for better housing. This therefore could be an area where companies might be able to create shared value. It is however unclear how shared value would look like in the building supply network and to what extent this already exists.

    Purpose: The purpose is to detect future areas of research by identifying opportunities for shared value in the building material supply chain. Shared value is viewed as a possible example of synergy for quality and sustainability research and development.

    Methodology: A literature review is carried out searching for “shared value” and “Porter”. The findings are combined with stakeholder theory, the process view and customer focus. Additionally the sustainability reports of the 15 largest cement and building material companies in the world were studied with the purpose of identifying examples of the shared value concept. Working with shared value is visualised with an example using the process of building material supply in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

    Findings: Findings indicate that the concept of shared value is widely spread, but that its application in the cement and building material supply industry still is limited. The concept seems to have a good potential in identifying and creating value for both business and other stakeholders. Shared value can be seen as enlarged business focus from shareholders to stakeholders.

    Practical implications: The results provide both ideas for further research and indicate how companies within the building material network could work with shared value.

    Originality/value: The paper more clearly links shared value to stakeholder focus.

  • 27.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Total quality management for sustainable development: focus on processes2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to study how synergies of Total Quality Management (TQM) and Sustainable Development (SD) can be realized. Emphasis has been on increasing the focus on processes. A process based change model for SD has been developed. The model should be applicable for all types of organizations, but with a particular focus on organizations in the Third World. During the last decade SD has become an important topic on a global, national and organizational level, with examples being the Kyoto conference on climate change in 1997 and the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg 2002. On an organizational level the Triple Bottom Line, consisting of reporting in the economic, environmental and social dimensions, is often used to measure SD in organizations. The TBL is based on the common understanding that good economic performance is required to enable environmental and social concern. Since TQM has been proven to contribute to the economic performance it should therefore also contribute to SD. Synergies between TQM and SD have been discussed in the literature but further important synergies remain untapped. Process focus and process management are believed to be important for realizing these synergies. Even if process management has been shown to contribute to organizational performance, it seems that most organizations do not focus on processes. This seems specifically to apply to process management for SD. There is a need to facilitate the start-up of process based improvement work for SD. Descriptive and easy-to-use process models should be able to enhance the introduction of process management. The ability to identify, map and measure the organizational processes constitutes an important part of identifying opportunities for improvement. Clearly presented opportunities could lead to an increased interest for improvement. Process models could be used for both describing actual performance and the process to improve it. This thesis studies how a process based change model for SD could look and how it could be used. Different aspects of the model have been studied in action oriented research both in First and Third World organizations. Results show that the value "focus on processes" forms a useful basis for realizing synergies between TQM and SD. The proposed change model can be used to identify change elements and to assess the current level of SD- performance. The model is suitable for change on organizational and process levels. The change model can be seen as a system model with a number of independent sub-systems. Important sub-systems are, for example, a generic process chart, a generic indicator framework for TBL and a generic change process for SD. The change model needs to be further developed but should already in its current form support more effective and efficient improvement for SD.

  • 28. Isaksson, Raine
    Total quality management for sustainable development: process based system models2006In: Business Process Management Journal, ISSN 1463-7154, E-ISSN 1758-4116, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 632-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - To highlight possible synergies between total quality management (TQM) and sustainable development (SD). Design/methodology/approach - These synergies are viewed based on a management system framework consisting of values, methodologies and tools. Based on common values the methodology of process management is identified as a good base for describing organisational synergies of TQM and SD. Also, process management for improved sustainability is reviewed. Here, organisational sustainability is viewed as performance based on the triple bottom line (TBL) of economy, environment and social responsibility. Findings - Findings were that process models can be used to structure the large number of indicators used to describe the TBL. This should improve the system understanding. To integrate TQM and SD, quality indicators should be added to the economic dimension. The system-based process models can be used to describe synergies between TQM and SD. The proposed framework forms a basis for further research of the possible synergies of TQM and SD. Research limitations/implications - The research on synergies is limited on organisational sustainability. Practical implications - Important practical implications are to introduce the process view into sustainability reporting and to include quality indicators in the economic dimension. Originality/value - The paper highlights good possibilities for synergy in combining theory from TQM and SD which should have both a research and a practical interest.

  • 29.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    University Support to Regional Development: Process Based Stakeholder Management in Gotland2011In: Toulon-Verona Conference - 14th International Conference on Quality and Service Sciences – ICQSS - «Excellence in Services» / [ed] Jacques Martin and Claudio Baccarani, 2011, p. 1-11Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Universities could be seen to have many customers such as students, future employers, the state, parents etc. Universities normally have two main missions, which are education and research. In Sweden there is an additional requirement of societal co-operation both in education and research. Universities are traditionally not very customer focused, but rather organizations that define what is being done based on an internal focus. One question is to what extent stakeholders and their change needs have been identified and also how these needs are being addressed and used as input. This could be studied applying a process view where the main processes are defined by the university mission. This could be studied from a regional context looking at regional needs and relating them to university support. Gotland is the smallest region in Sweden and it hosts the smallest university. This forms a good base for a study on how the university supports and could support regional development. Regional performance is viewed from a process perspective. Results show that customer focus has not been a core value. Consequently it is not well defined what constitutes quality, neither by the studied university nor by the Swedish authorities. This means that customer and stakeholder needs have not been looked into systematically. It also seems that regional Sustainable Development is not getting the attentions it should. Applying customer focus on the regional level indicates several new interesting opportunities for both universities and the region. A condition for these opportunities to be realised is that there is a thorough discussion of what quality and Sustainable Development mean for universities.

  • 30.
    Isaksson, Raine
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Visualising improvement and innovation potential: the case of sustainable building in Dar es Salaam2012In: How may organizations use learning, creativity and innovation in realizing their dreams of excellence and recover from the economic crisis?: proceedings / [ed] Su Mi Dahlgaard-Park, Jens J. Dahlgaard & Adam Hamrol, Poznan: Comprint , 2012, p. 741-754Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Babatunde, Oluwayomi
    University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Opportunities for improved sustainability in house building: The case of Dar es Salaam2019In: African Journal of Science, Technology, Innovation and Development, ISSN 2042-1338, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 457-463Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combination of a growing population and economic development in Africa will form strong drivers for building growth. Buildings drive energy consumption and carbon emissions. On the material side, cement is the driver for cost and carbon emissions. A cement productivity index is proposed. Results from a case study in Dar es Salaam show that cement is poorly used in the main application of sandcrete blocks. The relative cement productivity is < 30% compared to ordinary concrete. The main problem is the design of the blocks. Mostly, only some 5% of cement by weight is used. However, the sand matrix often needs up to 10% of water for good compaction. This means that the w/c ratio is always high in the mixes, which leads to low cement productivity. One first step could be going from solid to hollow blocks, which would enable increasing the cement content and improving cement productivity up to 50% of the defined benchmark. However, there is resistance to hollow blocks in the market. Alternative solutions, such as soil-stabilized earth, should also be looked into. For realizing the full cement strength potential, other affordable concrete solutions need to be developed for the market.

  • 32.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Buregyeya, Apollo
    Makerere University, Uganda.
    Describing building sustainability innovation potential: Block making in Tanzania and Uganda2019In: Proceedings of 22nd Excellence in Services International Conference, Thessaloniki (Greece) | 29-30 August 2019 / [ed] Jacques Martin, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. This paper describes opportunities for sustainable building in East Africa. Previous research indicates that cement is often poorly used in the commonly used concrete blocks.  Better use of cement and thereby lower costs and a lower carbon footprint might be achieved by substituting solid blocks with hollow ones while sustaining functional requirements. This work could further be advanced by a business model that promotes affordability and a lowered carbon footprint of blocks produced at building site. 

    Methodology. Block manufacturing processes in Tanzania and Uganda are described.  Sustainability performance as price and carbon footprint per wall m2 are assessed and compared for solid and hollow concrete/sandcrete blocks. 

    Findings. The results from Uganda indicate that there is a clear economic and environmental advantage in using hollow blocks compared to solid blocks. There seems to be innovation potential to be realised both in choice of product and improvement of manufacturing processes. The preliminary findings indicate that costs per m2 of wall could for 6 inch blocks of the same functional quality be reduced with some 20% and the carbon footprint with 40% when using hollow blocks instead of solid ones. In Tanzania only a carbon footprint saving potential of about 30% has been inferred. 

    Practical implications. The results indicate that in order to assess overall global improvement potential, sustainability needs to be understood on the operational level. 

    Originality/value. The results contribute to the development of more sustainable building blocks in the context of East Africa.

  • 33.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Cöster, Mathias
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Improving Supply Networks: Identifying drivers for sustainable change using process models2010In: Proceedings of the 13TH TOULON-VERONA CONFERENCE: Organizational Excellence in Service / [ed] Faculdade de Economia da Universidade de Coimbra, 2010, p. 1-11Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Both within the private and public sector Change Management is a frequently discussed topic. How to lead change for increased sustainability is of interest for all organisations, but also for supply chains and supply networks. For any structured change process there are a few prerequisites, such as understanding the actual position and being able to assess it and to compare it with a goal. With an identified improvement potential it should become possible to devise a strategy for change. One way of describing supply networks is to use process based system models including performance indicators. The research question is if system models can be used to clarify improvement opportunities and in that way become drivers for change.

    In this conceptual paper we apply the value per harm measurement concept for three different systems and compare the results with what is commonly known and understood.

  • 34.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Cöster, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Business Studies.
    Testing a Maturity Grid for Assessing Sustainability Reports2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability reporting could be seen as output of sustainability performance management. This paper tests a maturity grid assessing the reporting structure quality of 39 sustainability reports - Are the right sustainability impacts reported and is the performance reported in the right way for easy interpretation? Students and one of the authors carry out the assessment. Results indicate a low level of maturity and that it is difficult to make sense of sustainability reports. Results from carbon emission reporting indicate that only some 10% of the reports provide usable results. A new version of the maturity grid has been proposed.

  • 35.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Measuring sustainable development using process models2003In: Managerial Auditing Journal, ISSN 0268-6902, E-ISSN 1758-7735, Vol. 18, no 8, p. 649-656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This conceptual paper presents a process model combining TQM values and indicators of sustainable development (SD). The intention is to find synergies in applying a process view on different systems for SD measurements. A global process is introduced and global sustainability is related to critical elements of production, resources and population growth. Indicators of organisational performance are classified into drivers, input, enablers, output and outcome. SD is described with the three dimensions of economy, environment and ethics, representing a modified version of the triple bottom line. Existing measurement systems for SD are categorised according to the proposed organisational process model and positioned within the 3E dimensions. The use of indicators for SD in different organisations, including small and medium-sized enterprises, is discussed.

  • 36.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management. Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    The crippled bottom line – measuring and managing sustainability2015In: International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, ISSN 1741-0401, E-ISSN 1758-6658, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 334-355Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Johnson, Mikael
    Karlstads Universitet.
    The crippled bottom line: measuring and managing sustainability2015In: International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, ISSN 1741-0401, E-ISSN 1758-6658, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 334-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeSustainability can be assessed in the dimensions Profit, Planet and People. A problem with the approach is that these dimensions cannot be added. Another problem is that performance seldom is related to global system boundaries. The purpose of this paper is to study the "what" of sustainability by linking this to global boundaries and proposing "how" we could manage change towards sustainability.Design/methodology/approachSustainability definitions are reviewed to identify main stakeholders. People value defined as utility is compared to Planet harm as carbon emissions and People harm as prices of products. This approach is examined in business studying the global processes of housing, transporting, providing food and cement manufacturing.FindingsThe relative indicators with focus on People utility compare to Planet and People harm seem to be relevant for measuring the level of sustainability. The Crippled Bottom Line of People value/Planet harm and People value/Planet harm is proposed as the “what” to measure and the change process of “understanding-defining-measuring-communicating-leading change” is proposed as the “how” to change.Research limitations/implicationsThe research is based on identifying the main stakeholders based on sustainability definitions and from that point mostly on deductive reasoning.Practical implicationsThe practical implications are that organizations could define sustainability indicators with objectives that are linked to global limits. Originality/valueThe paper contributes to the discussion of how to link global limits to organizational measurements and targets

  • 38.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Johnson, Mikael
    Karlstads Universitet.
    The crippled bottom line: measuring sustainability2014In: Performance Management: Designing the High-Performing Organization, Aarhus: University of Aarhus , 2014, p. 562-472Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering & Management.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Johnson, Mikael
    Karlstads universitet.
    Kuttainen, Christer
    Norrbottens läns landsting.
    Paregis, Jörg
    Karlstads universitet.
    Sustaining Sweden’s competitive position: lean lifelong learning2015In: Measuring Business Excellence, ISSN 1368-3047, E-ISSN 1758-8057, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 92-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore what options the adult learner has for continued learning and what role universities are playing in providing net-based education. Current options for lifelong learning and improvement opportunities in the educational process are described based on an assessment inspired by principles of lean management.

    Design/methodology/approach – Sweden is chosen as an example. The current level of net-based university education and the demand for it is assessed using official Swedish data. Lean management principles are used as a starting point to define parameters for interest for the adult learner. These parameters are then converted into a five-level scale for assessing current performance with focus on university courses. The authors also study how Swedish County Councils manage their employee education and carry out a check of courses offered by massive open online course providers.

    Findings – Lean management principles in combination with customer focus seem to present relevant parameters for assessing distance education. Preliminary results indicate that lean lifelong learning has a considerable improvement potential. The main reasons for this potential seem to be more of a bureaucratic and political nature, whereas technology and resources appear to be less of an issue.

    Practical implications – The results have implications for both universities and organisations. The pressure on universities to become more customer-focussed, while at the same time, cost-effectiveness is likely to increase.

    Originality/value – Using the customer perspective for educational services and applying lean principles to education.

  • 40.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Johnson, Mikael
    Karlstads Universitet.
    Kuttainen, Christer
    Pareis, Jörg
    Karlstads Universitet.
    Life Long Lean Learning: Case Sweden2014In: Performance Management: Designing the High Performing Organization : conferance proceedings, Aarhus: University of Aarhus , 2014, p. 242-253Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Johnson, Mikael
    Karlstads Universitet.
    Kuttainen, Christer
    Pareis, Jörg
    Karlstads Universitet.
    Sustaining Sweden's Competitive Position: Lean Lifelong Learning2015In: Measuring Business Excellence, ISSN 1368-3047, E-ISSN 1758-8057, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 92-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The questions in this paper are what options the adult learner has for continued learning and what role universities are playing in providing net-based education. Current options for lifelong learning and improvement opportunities in the educational process are described based on an assessment inspired by principles of Lean Management.Sweden is chosen as an example. The current level of net-based university education and the demand for it is assessed using official Swedish data. Lean Management principles are used as a starting point to define parameters for interest for the adult learner. These parameters are then converted into a five level scale for assessing current performance with focus on university courses. We also study how Swedish County Councils manage their employee education and carry out a check of courses offered by MOOC providers.Lean Management principles in combination with customer focus seem to present relevant parameters for assessing distance education. Preliminary results indicate that Lean Lifelong Learning has a considerable improvement potential. The main reasons for this potential seem to be more of a bureaucratic and political nature, whereas technology and resources appears to be less of an issue.The results have implications for both universities and organisations. The pressure on universities to become more customer focused while at the same time increase cost-effectiveness is likely to increase. Using the customer perspective for educational services and applying Lean principles to education.

  • 42.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Hallencreutz, Jacob
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    The measurement system resource as support for sustainable change2008In: International Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Change Management, ISSN 1447-9524, E-ISSN 1447-9575, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 265-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The working hypothesis in this paper is that many organisations do not view measurement systems as resources and therefore miss out on opportunities. Here, organisational sustainability is interpreted with the dimensions of the Triple Bottom Line that monitors economic, environmental and social performance. The ideal measurement system should track performance and improvement potential in all dimensions. Most measurement systems today are functionally based and highly focused on the economic results. Even if approaches such as the Balanced Scorecard are used this still does not automatically mean that there is focus on the processes were value is created for customers and other stakeholders. With a low level of measurement system effectiveness the quality of facts used for decisions deteriorates and logically also the performance. This means that the maturity of the measurement system could be an indicator of organisational performance. A model for measurement system maturity is proposed and tested with case studies in chosen organisations and processes. The assessed maturity is then compared with the existing improvement potential as perceived by the organisation and as assessed by the researchers. The level of non detected potential is related to the maturity of the measurement system. Results indicate that there should be more focus on and ownership of a companywide measurement resource.

  • 43.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Hallencreutz, Jacob
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Process management and system thinking for sustainable development2008In: The Theories and Practices of Organization Excellence: New Perspectives, Sydney: SAI Global , 2008, p. 205-232Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Hallencreutz, Jacob
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Process management and system thinking for sustainable development2007In: New Perspectives on the Theories and Practices of Organizational Excellence: Proceedings of 6th MAAOE International Conference. The Multinational Alliance For The Advancement Of Organizational Excellence, University of Versailles Sain-Quentin-En-Yvelines , 2007, p. 390-411Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Hallencreutz, Jacob
    LTU - Quality and Environmental Management.
    Taylor, Neil
    Barriers to and drivers for change: analysing causes for improvement potential in the building supply system in Dar es Salaam2010In: Proceedings of the 13th QMOD Conference, 30 August - 01 September 2010, Cottbus, Germany: LearnAbility, InnovAbility and SustainAbility / [ed] Su Mi Dahlgaard-Park & Jens J. Dahlgaard, 2010, p. 1-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Business excellence needs constant reinvention with current challenges being such as how to integrate Learnability, Innovability and Sustainability. This paper looks at learning based on Innovation Action Research with focus on process innovation with the purpose of highlighting sustainability challenges in business core processes. A system based process model in combination with sustainability indicators is used to describe a value network and the existing potential for improved sustainability. A qualitative method for specifying generic causes for the existing improvement potential is used to discuss barriers and drivers for change. Results indicate that quality methodologies can be used as a powerful support for sustainable development.

  • 46.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Hallencreutz, Jacob
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Turner, Dawn-Marie
    Turner Change Management, Canada.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Change Management from a Stakeholder Perspective2011In: Proceedings : QMOD Conference on Quality and Service Sciences 2011: From LearnAbility and InnovAbility to SustainAbility / [ed] Carmen Jaca, Ricardo Mateo, Elizabeth Viles, Javier Santos, Pamplona: Servicios de Publicaciones Universidad de Navarra , 2011, p. 886-901Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the ever increasing rate of change the pressure continues to rise on all types of organisations for quicker and more effective change. Companies of today face multiple requirements which have caused a shift from shareholder focus to a more balanced stakeholder focus. In the 80s and 90s the Japan originated quality movement with its focus on customers was by many seen as the solution for effective change. Change program focus has since shifted from Total Quality Management (TQM) and Business Excellence models to 6Sigma improvement and Lean Management in parallel with behaviourally oriented change approaches with their focus on leadership. There does not seem to be any clear typology that relates different improvement approaches within the larger context of Change Management. The main purpose of this paper is to review how change management is defined and presented and to propose a stakeholder based taxonomy for organisational change management and to also portray if and how quality management could be seen as part of this. This is done with the view of increasing the understanding of what constitutes effective change. The results here form only a first iteration of a more extensive work to come. The purpose is to identify critical elements for change. Change Management has been described as a process. Elements identified have then been placed into a process based system. The first results indicate that Quality Management could be seen as part of Change Management and that the chosen approach using the process view is promising, but also that the process of change is complex and that considerable further research is required.

  • 47.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Hallencreutz, Jacob
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences.
    Turner, Dawn-Marie
    Turner Change Management, Winnipeg.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Change management from a stakeholder perspective2011In: Proceedings QMOD Conference on Quality and Service Sciences 2011: 14th QMOD Conference 29st – 31st August, 2011, San Sebastian, Spain : From LearnAbility & InnovAbility to SustainAbility / [ed] Carmen Jaca, Navarra: Servicios de Publicaciones Universidad de Navarra , 2011, p. 886-901Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48. Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Hansson, Jonas
    University West.
    Garvare, Rickard
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    National process of quality management education: the Swedish Example2006In: Conference proceedings: 9th International QMOD Quality Management and Organisational Development Conference, Liverpool John Moores University , 2006, p. 343-352Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of a process view as complement to the traditional functional division is a way to highlight organisational improvement potential. This paper examines the process of providing university level education in quality management, using Sweden as an example. The purpose is to assess the performance of university education as part of the supply chain of providing quality management to a society. This has been done by studying the actual offering compared to a notional benchmark of best performance. Preliminary results indicate that there is a significant improvement potential in both providing more education of the right type and in the right way. A lot of similar basic courses are given but with varying names, possibly reflecting difficulties in defining the area of quality management and its constituents. An important reason for the detected improvement potential seems to be the lack of ownership of the studied supply chain of providing university level quality education to the Swedish society.

  • 49.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Business Administration and Industrial Engineering.
    Hansson, Jonas
    Garvare, Rickard
    National process of quality management education: the Swedish example2007In: Asian Journal on Quality, ISSN 1598-2688, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 88-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of a process view as complement to the traditional functional division is a way to highlight organisational improvement potential. This paper examines the process of providing university level education in quality management, using Sweden as an example. The purpose is to assess the performance of university education as part of the supply chain of providing quality management to a society. This has been done by studying the actual offering compared to a notional benchmark of best performance. Preliminary results indicate that there is a significant improvement potential in both providing more education of the right type and in the right way. A lot of similar basic courses are given but with varying names, possibly reflecting difficulties in defining the area of quality management and its constituents. An important reason for the detected improvement potential seems to be the lack of ownership of the studied supply chain of providing university level quality education to the Swedish society.

  • 50.
    Isaksson, Raine
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of the Humanities and Social Science.
    Johansson, Peter
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Fischer, Klaus
    University of Kaiserslauten.
    Detecting Supply Chain Innovation Potential for Sustainable Development2010In: Journal of Business Ethics, ISSN 0167-4544, Vol. 3, no 97, p. 425-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a world of limited resources it could be argued that companies that aspire to be good corporate citizens need to focus on making best use of resources. User value and environmental harm is created in supply chains and it could therefore be argued that company business ethics should be extended from the company to the entire value chain from the first supplier to the last customer. Starting with a delineation of the linkages between business ethics, corporate sustainability and the stakeholder concept, this paper argues that supply chains generally have a great innovation potential for sustainable development. This potential could be highlighted with system thinking and the use of change management knowledge, promoting not only innovations within technology but also within organizational improvement. We propose process models and performance indicators as means of highlighting improvement potential and thus breaking down normative business ethics’ requirements to an operationalizable corporate level: Good business ethics should focus on maximizing stakeholder value in relation to harm done. Our results indicate that focusing on supply chains reveals previously unknown innovation potential that seems to be related to limited system understanding. The assumption is that increased visibility of opportunities will act as a driver for change. Results also highlight the importance of focusing on sustainability effects of the core business and clearly relating value created to harm done.

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