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  • 1.
    Anderson, Atholl
    et al.
    Australian Natl Univ, Dept Archaeol & Nat Hist, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia..
    Stothert, Karen
    Univ Texas San Antonio, Dept Anthropol, San Antonio, TX 78249 USA..
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Wallin, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Flett, Iona
    Australian Natl Univ, Dept Archaeol & Nat Hist, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia..
    Haberle, Simon
    Heijnis, Henk
    Australian Nucl Sci & Technol Org, Inst Environm Res, Kirrawee DC, NSW 2232, Australia..
    Rhodes, Edward
    Univ Sheffield, Dept Geog, Sheffield S10 2TN, S Yorkshire, England..
    Reconsidering Precolumbian Human Colonization In The Galapagos Islands, Republic Of Ecuador2016In: Latin American antiquity, ISSN 1045-6635, E-ISSN 2325-5080, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 169-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fifty years ago, Heyerdahl and Skjolsvold (1956, 1990) collected material from five archaeological sites in the Galapagos Islands. They retained earthenwares of possible precolumbian origin and discarded ceramic, metal, and glass artifacts postdating the arrival of the Spanish in A.D. 1535. Consequently, they argued that each site was formed as the results of a series of discard events from unrelated short-term occupations extending from the precolumbian to the historical era, and that the earthenwares represented occasional visits by fishermen from precolumbian Peru and Ecuador. In 2005, we re -excavated the sites and collected all the excavated materials. Our results show that each class of material, irrespective of age or origin, was distributed spatially and stratigraphically in the same pattern, contradicting the former assumption of multiple, unrelated occupations. We reject the palimpsest model in favor of the null hypothesis of single-phase site occupation. Analysis of putatively precolumbian pottery using optically-stimulated luminescence dating indicates that it is mostly of historical age. Radiocarbon dating confirms that the archaeological sites are younger than the sixteenth century. Research on sedimentary cores shows probable anthropogenic impacts as restricted to the last 500 years. We conclude that there was no human occupation in the Galapagos Islands until the historical era.

  • 2. Clark, Geoffrey R.
    et al.
    Reepmeyer, Christian
    Melekiola, Nivaleti
    Woodhead, Jon
    Dickinson, William R.
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Stone tools from the ancient Tongan state reveal prehistoric interaction centers in the Central Pacific2014In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 111, no 29, p. 10491-10496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tonga was unique in the prehistoric Pacific for developing a maritime state that integrated the archipelago under a centralized authority and for undertaking long-distance economic and political exchanges in the second millennium A. D. To establish the extent of Tonga's maritime polity, we geochemically analyzed stone tools excavated from the central places of the ruling paramounts, particularly lithic artifacts associated with stone-faced chiefly tombs. The lithic networks of the Tongan state focused on Samoa and Fiji, with one adze sourced to the Society Islands 2,500 km from Tongatapu. To test the hypothesis that nonlocal lithics were especially valued by Tongan elites and were an important source of political capital, we analyzed prestate lithics from Tongatapu and stone artifacts from Samoa. In the Tongan state, 66% of worked stone tools were long-distance imports, indicating that interarchipelago connections intensified with the development of the Tongan polity after A. D. 1200. In contrast, stone tools found in Samoa were from local sources, including tools associated with a monumental structure contemporary with the Tongan state. Network analysis of lithics entering the Tongan state and of the distribution of Samoan adzes in the Pacific identified a centralized polity and the products of specialized lithic workshops, respectively. These results indicate that a significant consequence of social complexity was the establishment of new types of specialized sites in distant geographic areas. Specialized sites were loci of long-distance interaction and formed important centers for the transmission of information, people, and materials in prehistoric Oceania.

  • 3.
    Martinsson Wallin, Helene
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Baltic Prehistoric Interactions and Transformations: the Neolithic to the Bronze Age2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Settled since several thousand years the Baltic Sea area has arich and to some degree well documented prehistoric material culture. The remains show various patterns of interaction both within the Baltic area and beyond. This publication focuses mainly on the prehistoric Island Societies in the Baltic Sea during the Late Neolithic and Early Bronze Age, c. 2300-1100 BC. The articles are based on papers given at the Baltic Rim Seminar “Baltic Prehistoric Interactions and Transformations during the late Neolithica and early Bronze Age Societies” October 3-5 2008.

  • 4.
    Martinsson Wallin, Helene
    Gotland University, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Bronze Age Landscapes on Gotland: Moving from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age Perspective2010In: Baltic Prehistoric Interactions and Transformations: the Neolithic to the Bronze Age / [ed] Helene Martinsson-Wallin, Visby: Gotland University , 2010, p. 63-77Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this initial study is two-folded. One aim is to discuss the large Early BronzeAge cairns on Gotland from a perspective of the transition from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age.Another is to make contextual studies of the sites with large cairns and try to understand them as“places” beyond the grave concept. Survey data of Gotland cairns with a diameter of 20 meters ormore shows that at least 25% of the c. 200 cairns are reportedly connected to so called “southstones” and surrounded by other structures, especially at southern and western locations. Thesurvey data is of varied quality and it is necessary to visit the sites to obtain more in-depth informationregarding the on-site contexts. As a case study, features in close proximity to the largeUggarderojr Cairn on south east Gotland have been excavated. The excavations showed ritualactivities tied to the Early Bronze Age cairn site. Subsequent re-use of this site for ritual activitiesand burial(s) is also indicated.

  • 5.
    Martinsson Wallin, Helene
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Land and sea animal remains from Middle Neolithic Pitted Ware sites on Gotland Island in the Baltic Sea, Sweden2008In: Islands of Inquiry: Colonisation, seafaring and the archaeology of maritime landscapes / [ed] Geoffrey Clark, Foss Leach and Sue O'Conner, Canberra: ANU e-press , 2008, p. 171-183Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Martinsson Wallin, Helene
    Gotland University, Institutionen för kultur, energi och miljö.
    Preface2010In: Baltic Prehistoric Interactions and Transformations: the Neolithic to the Bronze Age, Visby: Gotland University , 2010, p. 3-4Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Martinsson Wallin, Helene
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Wehlin, Joakim
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Archaeological Investigations of a Stone Platform at the MalaefonoPlantation, Upolu, Samoa2010In: The Gotland Papers: Selected Papers from the VII International Conference on Easter Island and the Pacific : Migration, Identity, and Cultural Heritage / [ed] Paul Wallin, Helene Martinsson Wallin, 2010, p. 327-337Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During field work in 2005 our attention was drawn to an interesting prehistoric remain at the Malaefono organicplantation close to Salei’moa village on ’Upolu. Several stone platforms/stone heaps and remains have been reported removed due to farming activities during the last century, which indicated that the plantation area previously housed habitations. During 2006 we carried out archaeological investigations on a remaining stone platform in the area. This“star/cog” shaped platform, with eight protrusions was mapped and test excavated. The investigations showed its internal structure and its relation to other features and the surrounding landscape. The excavation also gave indications of settlement activities prior to the construction of the platform at this site. This paper presents the results of the investigationand discusses the star mound concept in general.

  • 8.
    Martinsson Wallin, Helene
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Wehlin, Joakim
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Rapport från arkeologisk undersökning i Uggarderojrområdet 2009: Gotland, Rone sn, Uggårda 3:1, RAÄ 10:1,3,4,52010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    På Uggarderojrområdet finns ett antal stora rösen som sannolikt härstammar från äldre bronsåldern. Bland dessa finns Gotlands största rösen (ca. 50x50x7 m), kallat Uggarderöset. En arkeologisk undersökning gjordes 2009 av en stensättning, en skärvstenshög och provgropar intill Uggarderösets kantkedja. Det forskningsmässiga syftet med undersökningen är att få större klarhet i fornlämningsområdet som en sammansatt plats där man inte bara ser rösena som enskilda begravningshögar utan en plats för mer omfattande rituella aktiviteter. Resultaten pekade på att sporadiska rituella aktiviteter har förkommit på platsen från äldre bronsålder (ca. 1400-1100 f.Kr) till yngre järnålder (ca. 500 e.Kr.).

  • 9.
    Martinsson Wallin, Helene
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Wehlin, Joakim
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Forsberg, Madeleine
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Svensson, Linnéa
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Rapport från arkeologisk undersökning i Rojrskogen 2010: Gotland, Garda och Lau sn. Goks 1:8, RAÄ Garda 1:2-3 och Lau 41:12011Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Belonging to a small, remote and special place: Rapa Nui, the long time perspective2011In: Kon-Tiki Museum. Occasional Papers, ISSN 0802-6491, Vol. 12, p. 41-48Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Rapport från arkeologisk undersökning av rösemiljön runt Hägrör, Sanda 13:1.Gotland, 2011.2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Field report for excavations at Hägror, Sanda parish. The subject for the excavation was thegrave-field Sanda 13:1. The Excavation were part of Helene Martinsson-Wallins researchproject “Med rituella förtecken” and carried out from 30th of august to 17th of October 2011, asa part of Advanced field course for archaeology students at the former Gotland University(present Uppsala University), field campaign were led by Helene Martinsson-Wallin, assistedby Johan Norderäng. Totally 3 trenches covering an area of 214 m² were cleared but only 30m² were excavated to steril layer.Trench 1 focused on a stone formation, the remains might be interpreted as a stone cist. Findsof smashed flint and a few fragments of pottery and cremated bone were made. A 14C testfrom the bottom of the trench gave a dating to the begining of the roman iron age (1970-1902BP). There were also traces of possible recent grave-robbery.Trench 2 covered an area surroundig a few erected stones. Here a form of stone paving werediscovered as well as a small cist of limestones and a formation of larger stones laid out flaton the ground. Few finds of flint, pottery and cremated bones were made. A 14C sample fromunderneath the flat stones gave an dating to the Bronze Age (338-3270 BP) and a sample fromthe smaller stone cist gave a dating to the Vendel Age (1485-1425 BP).Trench 3 concerned a large stone-bloc with cup marks. Two testpits were opened to the northan west of the stone. A few fragments from flint and quartz were made as well as a few perforeted stones.

  • 12.
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Rapport från arkeologisk yxboplats Medebys II, Vallstena 156:1, Gotland2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Undersökningen har gjorts inom ramen för Martinsson-Wallins forskningsprojekt ”Människor och landskap i förändring” (Martinsson-Wallin et al 2011). Detta är ett tvärvetenskapligt paraplyprojekt vid Högskolan på Gotland (arkeologi, samhällsgeografi och ekologi) där vi också har samarbetar med klimat och miljöforskare vid Stockholms Universitet och inom historisk ekologi vid Uppsala Universitet. Inom projektet studerar vi långtidsprocesser gällande landskapsutveckling i förhållande till våtmarksområden på Gotland med speciellt fokus på Linamyrområdet.Den arkeologiska undersökningen av Vallstena 156:1 (Medebys II) syftade till att fastställa datering och utbredning av fornlämningsområdet kallat Medebys II. En viktig del var också att studera och datera strandlinjeförskjutningen på platsen för att erhålla en detaljerad kunskap om lanskapets förändring över tid.Medebys II (Raä nr Vallstena 156:1 belägen på ägan Rå 1:22) har definierats som en sk. yxboplats från senmesolitisk-tidigneolitisk tid (Nihlén 1927: 53-55, Lithberg 1914). Det finns spår av flera andra stenålderslokaler i närheten (Fig. 1-2). Vid denna tid var området beläget alldeles i kanten av en lagun/havsvik som senare genom strandlinjeförskjutningen avsnörts och blev en insjö med utlopp via Gothemsån i Vitviken vid Åminne. Utdikning av myren påbörjades under slutet av 1940-talet men ännu på 1950-talet utgjorde Lina Gotlands största myrområde innan den under en del protester gällande natur och kulturskyddsintressen dikades ut i stor skala. Genom tidigare arkeologiska undersökningar av bronsåldersrösemiljöer i projektet ”Med rituella förtecken” (Martinsson-Wallin och Wehlin 2010, 2011, Martinsson-Wallin 2010, 2014a,b) har det kunnat konstateras att den strandlinjeförskjutningsmodell som SGU har utarbetat för Sverige inte är helt korrekt gällande Gotland. Mer detaljerade studier behövs för att kunna göra landskapsrekonstruktioner och förstå det forntida landskapets förändringsprocesser och människors utnyttjande och förändringar av miljön samt deras emotionella relation till sin omgivning.

  • 13.
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    The complexity of an archaeological site in Samoa: the past in the present2011In: Pacific island heritage: archaeology, identity and community / [ed] Jolie Liston, Geoffrey Clark and Dwight Alexander, Canberra: Australian National University E Press, 2011, p. 101-114Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    The Samoa Project: archaeological results, local participation and intercultural exchange2011In: Kon-Tiki Museum. Occasional Papers, ISSN 0802-6491, Vol. 12, p. 33-40Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Karlström, AnnaGotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    World Heritage and Identity : Three Worlds Meet: a workshop arranged during the VII International Conference on Easter Island and the Pacific : Migration, Identity, and Cultural Heritage2012Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The workshop “World Heritage and Identity: Three Worlds Meet” was arranged as a part of the VII International Conference on Easter Island and the Pacific; Migration, Identity and Cultural Heritage. This conference was hosted by Gotland University the 20-25th of August 2007. The idea was to arrange meetings between around twenty scholars and professionals who represented World Heritage sites from three Island communities. These sites are the National Park on Rapa Nui (Easter Island), Visby Medieval Town on Gotland and Stone Town in Zanzibar. They all share a special aura of an exotic and glorious past, and in the present these communities rely heavily on cultural tourism where the past tangible heritage is promoted. These sites have disparate historical trajectories, cultural settings and backgrounds, but in one way or another they share colonial, postcolonial and neocolonial experiences. The agenda at this workshop was to discuss local and global issues in relation to World Heritages and identity from collective and individual perspectives, and to share experiences.

  • 16.
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Paul, Wallin
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Clark, Geoffrey
    Australian National University.
    The excavations of Pulemelei site 2002-20042007In: Archaeology in Oceania, ISSN 0003-8121, Vol. 42, p. 41-59Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Sciusco, Lorena
    Issues in the Management of Archaeological Heritage in Sāmoa2015In: The Journal of Samoan Studies, ISSN 1813-2324, Vol. 5, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sāmoa was the first nation in the Pacific to gain independence yet it does not have in place legislation to protect its archaeological and historic heritage. This paper examines issues of custom, history, law and land tenure in Sāmoa that may have impeded the formulation of policies. It reviews the way in which these issues have been accommodated in the policy, legislation and implementation of archaeological heritage protection in several of Sāmoa’s Pacific neighbours. It suggests that there may be some useful lessons in these examples for planning future heritage policy and legislation for Sāmoa.

  • 18.
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Thomas, TimothyUniversity of Otago.
    Monuments and People in the Pacific2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Pacific region consists of a multitude of island communities in avast Ocean. The people and material culture on the various islandsand island groups are not homogenous despite the close relationshipsdemonstrated by archaeological, linguistic and ethno-historical research.Monuments have generally been interpreted to be tied toideology and power and often have an extended biography with useand re-use phases. They could be considered both as part of, andactive in, shaping and re-shaping the natural and ideological landscapeof groups of people. Monuments, especially the ones that havebeen interpreted as ceremonial sites, have often been used in thediscussion of prehistoric migration and interaction of people in thePacific region but they also play an important role in current CulturalHeritage Management (CHM) and issues related to World Heritagenominations and community involvements. This volume presentscase studies from across the Pacific focussing on the relationship ofmonuments and people to chronology, ideology, re-use, biographyand CHM in a local, regional and global perspective.

  • 19.
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Wallin, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Spatial Perspectives on Ceremonial Complexes: Testing Traditional Land Divisions on Rapa Nui2014In: Monuments and people in the Pacific / [ed] Helene Martinsson-Wallin and Timothy Thomas, Uppsala: Uppsala University, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History , 2014, 1, p. 317-342Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Wallin, Paul
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    The story of the only (?) megalith grave on Gotland Island2010In: Documenta Praehistorica, ISSN 1408-967X, Vol. 37, p. 77-84Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we discuss the easternmost material expression of the Funnel Beaker Culture – a megalith grave on the west coast of Gotland Island in the Baltic Sea. The people who built and used the megalith brought the Neolithic lifestyle to Gotland. The biography of this monument includes two excavations, of which we participated in the latest in 1984. Our osteological analysis confirms that some thirty individuals of both sexes and various ages were buried there. The structure of the monument is that of a rectangular dolmen. This paper discusses the discovery of this specific site, and explores the existence of this type of monument in a Gotland context. Furthermore, is this really the only megalith on Gotland, or are more of these structures yet to be recognised? Finally, one may ask if the Neolithic way of life really was successful on Gotland.

  • 21.
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Wallin, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Anderson, Atholl
    Australian National University.
    Solsvik, Reidar
    The Kon-Tiki Museum.
    Chronogeographic Variation in Initial East Polynesian Construction of Monumental Ceremonial Sites2013In: Journal of island and coastal archaeology, ISSN 1556-4894, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 405-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the orthodox model of change in East Polynesian material culture,the riseofmonumentalceremonial sites is predicted as occurring earlierin the central archipelagos than at the margins. We have used existingand new radiocarbon dates from marae and ahu respectively to testthis proposition in relation to the Society Islands and Easter Island(Rapa Nui). The data contradict the anticipated trend by showing thatthe initial phase of complex ceremonial sites began earlier, ca. cal AD1300–1400 on Rapa Nui than in the Societies, ca. cal AD 1400–1600.Different explanations are canvassed. The sample size used here is stillquite small; future investigations and larger sample sizes may changeor confirm the results.

  • 22.
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Wallin, Paul
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Apel, Jan
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Prehistoric lifestyles on Gotland: Diachronic and Synchronic perspectives2011In: Archaeologia Lituana, ISSN 1392-6748, Vol. 12, p. 142-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Österholm (1989) suggested that it was the same population group who inhabit Gotland territory from the Mesolithic until the Bronze Age. She is of the opinion that the dramatic environmental changes were the decisive factor of the various lifestyle approaches and settlement patterns seen over time, a period of 7000 years. New research and diachronic and synchronic perspectives show that these patterns are not so simple and straight forward. Interactivity between changes in natural, social and cultural milieu are all driving forces at play in the lifestyle approaches, settlement patterns, social formations and external influences indicated on Gotland in prehistoric times.

  • 23.
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Wehlin, Joakim
    Dalarnas museum.
    Stones in the South: Decoding Bronze Age Ritual Practices on Gotland2017In: Current Swedish Archaeology, ISSN 1102-7355, Vol. 25, p. 227-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we discuss the ritual practices and ritualization in the Bronze Age society on Gotland based on archaeological investigations of cairn milieus and stone ship contexts. We explore whether erected stones and demarcations on the south to south-west side of the Bronze Age cairns are the norm and whether this phenomenon occurred during the Bronze Age. We also discuss whether our archaeological research can support long-term use of cairn milieus for ritual purposes.

  • 24. Palmgren, Erik
    et al.
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History.
    Analysis of late mid-Neolithic pottery illuminates the presenceof a Corded Ware Culture on the Baltic Island of Gotland2015In: Documenta Praehistoria, ISSN 1854-2492, Vol. 42, p. 297-310Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we discuss variations seen in the ornamentation and modes of manufacturingpottery from the end of the mid-Neolithic 4600–4300 BP on the Island of Gotland in theBaltic Sea. The Pitted Ware cultural groups have been discussed as a western influence from the Swedishmainland, but the aDNA on skeletal remains point to eastern influences. We analyse and discusspottery from the well-investigated Ajvide Pitted Ware site and what these variations mean interm of intra- and inter-island relationships, ethnicity and change, and we suggest the developmentof what could be described as a hybrid culture.

  • 25.
    Wallin, Paul
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Martinsson Wallin, Helene
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Monumental Structures and the Spirit of Chiefly Actions2011In: Time & Mind, ISSN 1751-696X, E-ISSN 1751-6978, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 43-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to discuss changes observed in monumental architecture. As a point of departure we use our previous results and discussions on ceremonial temple structures (marae/ahu concept) in Polynesia. The visible variations of such structures recorded by archaeological research have generally been explained as temporal expressions. However, our research of marae/ahu structures suggests that this may not be the only or even chief explanation as to why these structures differ in appearance. Instead we suggest that changes and variability in the architecture can also be explained as resulting from the dynamics in social relations. We place importance on competition among “chiefs” on an individual level as well as collective decisions within the society concerning the variability of the importance placed on different gods. Our discussions of “place” are founded in reflections on traditional memory, which indicate that these structures through their constant changes are living places which played an active part in the society in which they existed.

  • 26.
    Wallin, Paul
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Martinsson Wallin, HeleneGotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    The Gotland Papers: Selected Papers from the VII International Conference on Easter Island and the Pacific : Migration, Identity, and Cultural Heritage2010Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Wallin, Paul
    et al.
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Martinsson Wallin, Helene
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Possnert, Göran
    Ångström Laboratory, Uppsla University.
    Re-dating Ahu Nau Nau and the Settlement at 'Anakena, Rapa Nui2010In: The Gotland Papers: Selected Papers from the VII International Conference on Easter Island and the Pacific : Migration, Identity, and Cultural Heritage / [ed] Paul Wallin and Helene Martinsson Wallin, Visby: Gotland University , 2010, p. 37-46Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The building phase and early use of Ahu Nau Nau have been re-dated by nine charcoal and rat bone samples. The new dates in comparison with earlier data suggest that the ahu was constructed around 650-550 BP. It is also suggested that a settlement dated to c. 950-900 BP preceded the ahu-building phase. A new question in light of recent research might be raised: Is the earliest settlement on Rapa Nui found at ´Anakena or should we look elsewhere?

  • 28.
    Wallin, Paul
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Archaeology.
    Gothemshammar - a Late Bronze Age coastal rampart on Gotland2018In: Fornvännen, ISSN 0015-7813, E-ISSN 1404-9430, Vol. 113, no 2, p. 65-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the results of a project aiming to use survey and excavation of the Gothemshammar rampart in a digital reconstruction to understand the site in its original landscape setting. Excavations uncovered internal construction details and dateable materials from domestic animals and charcoal. Fifteen AMS dates indicate that the rampart was built and used in the Late Bronze Age, c. 950-700 cal AD.

    Its northern end is situated at a steep scarp towards the current sea shore, and the southern end is in an open slightly sloping terrain, currently about a kilometre from the sea. LiDAR data and an up-to-date shoreline displacement model indicate that the seashore was about so m higher when the rampart was built and used than it is today. The landscape reconstruction shows that the rampart originally cut off a headland on an islet that was strategically located at the mouth of an inland water system.

    To further understand the site's Bronze Age context we made a spatial analysis of features tied to the same time frame, including other monumental structures (stone ships, burial cairns, other ramparts/enclosures) and metalwork hoards. It became evident that all kinds of monuments were mainly located close to the sea shore on capes and islets. We could also see that the monuments, especially the stone ships, were mostly on the north shore of the ancient waterway and that its entry/exit where Gothemshammar is situated served as an important control point for travel into Gotland as well as overseas.

  • 29.
    Wallin, Paul
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Religious Structures in the Hanga Ho'onu Region2008In: Prehistoric Rapa Nui: landscape and settlement archaeology at Hanga Ho'onu / [ed] Christopher M. Stevenson and Sonia Haoa Cardinali, Los Osos, CA, USA: Easter Island Foundation , 2008, p. 127-166Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Wallin, Paul
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Settlement Patterns: Social and Ritual Space in Prehistoric Samoa2007In: Archaeology in Oceania, ISSN 0003-8121, Vol. 42, p. 83-89Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Wallin, Paul
    et al.
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Martinsson-Wallin, Helene
    Gotland University, Department of Archeology and Osteology.
    Clark, Geoffrey
    Australian National University.
    A Radiocarbon Sequence for Samoan Prehistory and the Pulemelei Mound2007In: Archaeology in Oceania, ISSN 0003-8121, Vol. 42, p. 71-82Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 31 of 31
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