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  • 1. Adamczyk, A.
    et al.
    Malinowski, M.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    High-resolution near-surface velocity model building using full-waveform inversion-a case study from southwest Sweden2014Inngår i: Geophysical Journal International, ISSN 0956-540X, E-ISSN 1365-246X, Vol. 197, nr 3, s. 1693-1704Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Full-waveform inversion (FWI) is an iterative optimization technique that provides high-resolution models of subsurface properties. Frequency-domain, acoustic FWI was applied to seismic data acquired over a known quick-clay landslide scar in southwest Sweden. We inverted data from three 2-D seismic profiles, 261-572 m long, two of them shot with small charges of dynamite and one with a sledgehammer. To our best knowledge this is the first published application of FWI to sledgehammer data. Both sources provided data suitable for waveform inversion, the sledgehammer data containing even wider frequency spectrum. Inversion was performed for frequency groups between 27.5 and 43.1 Hz for the explosive data and 27.5-51.0 Hz for the sledgehammer. The lowest inverted frequency was limited by the resonance frequency of the standard 28-Hz geophones used in the survey. High-velocity granitic bedrock in the area is undulated and very shallow (15-100 m below the surface), and exhibits a large P-wave velocity contrast to the overlying normally consolidated sediments. In order to mitigate the non-linearity of the inverse problem we designed a multiscale layer-stripping inversion strategy. Obtained P-wave velocity models allowed to delineate the top of the bedrock and revealed distinct layers within the overlying sediments of clays and coarse-grained materials. Models were verified in an extensive set of validating procedures and used for pre-stack depth migration, which confirmed their robustness.

  • 2. Adamczyk, Anna
    et al.
    Malinowski, Michal
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Application of first-arrival tomography to characterize a quick clay landslide site in Southwest Sweden2013Inngår i: Acta Geophysica, ISSN 1895-6572, Vol. 61, nr 5, s. 1057-1073Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    First-arrival traveltime tomography was applied to high-resolution seismic data acquired over a known quick-clay landslide scar near the Gota River in southwest Sweden in order to reveal the geometry and physical properties of clay-related normally consolidated sediments. Investigated area proved to be a challenging environment for tomographic imaging because of large P-wave velocity variations, ranging from 500 to 6000 m/s, and relatively steeply-dipping bedrock. Despite these challenges, P-wave velocity models were obtained down to ca. 150 m for two key 2D seismic profiles (each about 500-m long) intersecting over the landslide scar. The models portrait the sandwich-like structure of marine clays and coarse-grained consolidated sediments, but the estimated resolution (20 m) is too small to distinguish thin layers within this structure. Modelled velocity structures match well the results of reflection seismic processing and resistivity tomography available along the same profiles.

  • 3.
    Adamczyk, Anna
    et al.
    Institute of Geophysics - Polish Academy of Sciences.
    Malinowski, Michal
    Institute of Geophysics - Polish Academy of Sciences.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Delineating shallow quick-clay structures using acoustic full-waveform inversion – case studyfrom southwest Sweden2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) was applied to imageshallow structures of marine-clay sediments and to provideinsight on the mechanism of a quick-clay landslide. Thedata was acquired in a high-resolution seismic surveyconducted over a known landslide scar near the Göta riverin southwest Sweden. Inversion proved to be challengingbecause of contrasted P-wave velocity structure – thevelocities ranged from 500 m/s in weathered top layer to6000 m/s in the shallow granitic bedrock (up to 30 m belowthe surface). FWI applied to 3 profiles provided highresolution2D P-wave velocity models revealing theintercalating layers of clays and coarse-grain material andthe shape of the bedrock. The multiscale approach was usedto mitigate the strong nonlinearity of the inverse problem.The models were used in pre-stack depth migration andproved significant improvement in reflector flattening andfocusing over the starting first-arrival traveltimetomography models.

  • 4.
    Ahmadi, Omid
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Hedin, Peter
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    3D Seismic Interpretation and Forward Modeling: an approach to providing reliable results from 2D seismic data2013Inngår i: Proceedings of the 12th Biennial Meeting: Mineral Deposit Research for a High-Tech World / [ed] Johnson, E., 2013, Vol. 1-4, s. 50-53Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate 3D interpretations is challenging when only 2D seismic reflection data are available. This can be compensated for by using additional data. Here we present two case studies where 2D seismic reflection data have been used in combination with geological/geophysical data to create and verify 3D interpretations of specific structures targeted for scientific deep drilling and mining. In the first case, a surface geological map and high resolution 2D seismic reflection data were used to create a 3D lithological model of the subsurface structures in an area around a scientific deep drilling site. This model was also compared to results from constrained 3D inverse modeling of gravity data. In the second case, seismic forward ray-trace modeling was used to delineate a massive sulfide ore body by using high resolution 2D seismic reflection data. By comparison of the generated synthetic data with the real data, it was found that the top of the ore body was detected.

  • 5.
    Ahmadi, Omid
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Munck, Mie
    Boliden Mines.
    High-resolution 2D seismic imaging and forward modeling of a polymetallic sulfide deposit at Garpenberg, central Sweden2013Inngår i: Geophysics, ISSN 0016-8033, E-ISSN 1942-2156, Vol. 78, nr 6, s. B339-B350Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We acquired a high-resolution 2D seismic profile to test the capability of the seismic method in imaging a sulfide ore body at Garpenberg, central Sweden. Delineation of the geologic structures, which surround and host the ore body, is another goal of the survey. Due to the 3D geology of the structures, a cross-dip correction performed to image out-of-the-plane reflections, resulting in a clear high amplitude anomaly at a time and location to that to be expected from near the top of the ore body. Furthermore, DMO processing and migration are applied to the data, providing images of four main reflection groups. The reflections have been interpreted as corresponding to geologic rock units in the area that partly interfere with the potential ore body signal. To further investigate the seismic response of the ore body, forward modeling by ray-tracing is applied using the ore body geometry as mapped by drilling. We use two ray-tracing approaches: standard 3D ray-tracing and an exploding reflector approach. Seven representative samples from the mine area are used to determine P-wave velocities. The measurements show a considerable contrast between the ore body and host rock. By comparing the modeled and observed data, we find that the high amplitude signal in the real seismic section most likely emanates from near the top of one concentrated ore which lies inside the larger mapped ore body that has been modeled as a resource. The base of the ore body is only observed on the synthetic data whereas a signal penetration analysis suggests that the seismic signal penetrated efficiently along the entire survey line. Presence of disseminated ore and lower fold toward the northern end of the profile could be combined reasons that make imaging the base of the ore body difficult.

  • 6.
    Ahmadi, Pouya
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Elastic Anisotropy of Deformation Zones: From Lab Measurements to Real Seismic Data, an Example from Eastern Sweden2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimation of elastic anisotropy, which is usually caused by rock fabrics and mineral orientation, has animportant role in exploration seismics and better understanding of crustal seismic reflections. If notproperly taken care of during processing steps, it may lead to wrong interpretation or distorted seismicimage. In this paper, a state-of-the-art under development Laser Doppler Interferometer (LDI) device isused to measure anisotropy of rock samples from a major deformation zone in the Bergslagen region ineastern Sweden. Results are then used to correct for the anisotropy effects using a non-hyperbolic moveoutequation. The resulting stacked section shows partial improvement of the deformation zone compared withthe isotropic processing section. This suggests that rock anisotropy may also contribute to generation ofreflections from the deformation zones in the study area but requires further investigations.

  • 7.
    Ahmadi, Pouya
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Laser Doppler Interferometry (LDI) to obtain full stiffness tensor: A case study on a deformation zone in Sweden2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimation of elastic anisotropy, which is usually caused by rock fabrics and mineral orientations, has an important role in exploration seismology and a better understanding of crustal seismic reflections. If not properly taken care of during data processing steps, it leads to wrong interpretation and/or distorted seismic image. In this work, a state-of-the-art under the development Laser Doppler Interferometer (LDI) device is used to measure phase velocities on the surface of rock samples from a major poly-phase crustal scale deformation zone (Österbybruk Deformation Zone) in the Bergslagen region of eastern Sweden. Then, a general inversion code is deployed to invert the measured phase velocities to obtain full elastic stiffness tensors of two samples from the deformation zone. At the end, results are used to correct for the anisotropy effects using three dimensionless Tsvankin's parameters and a non-hyperbolic moveout equation. The resulting stacked section shows partial reflection improvement of the deformation zone compared with the traditional isotropic processing approach. This illustrates that rock anisotropy contributes to the generation of the reflections from the deformation zones in the study area although they do not show significant density contrast with their surrounding rocks.

  • 8. Alcalde, J.
    et al.
    Martí, D.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Sopher, Daniel
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Saura, E.
    Marzán, I.
    Ayarza, P.
    Calahorrano, A.
    Pérez-Estaún, A.
    Carbonell, R.
    3-D reflection seismic imaging of the Hontomin structure in the Basque-Cantabrian Basin (Spain)2013Inngår i: Solid Earth, ISSN 1869-9510, E-ISSN 1869-9529, Vol. 4, nr 2, s. 481-496Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Basque-Cantabrian Basin of the northern Iberia Peninsula constitutes a unique example of a major deformation system, featuring a dome structure developed by extensional tectonics followed by compressional reactivation. The occurrence of natural resources in the area and the possibility of establishing a geological storage site for carbon dioxide motivated the acquisition of a 3-D seismic reflection survey in 2010, centered on the Jurassic Hontomin dome. The objectives of this survey were to obtain a geological model of the overall structure and to establish a baseline model for a possible geological CO2 storage site. The 36 km(2) survey included approximately 5000 mixed (Vibroseis and explosives) source points recorded with a 25 m inline source and receiver spacing. The target reservoir is a saline aquifer, at approximately 1450 m depth, encased and sealed by carbonate formations. Acquisition and processing parameters were influenced by the rough topography and relatively complex geology. A strong near-surface velocity inversion is evident in the data, affecting the quality of the data. The resulting 3-D image provides constraints on the key features of the geologic model. The Hontom n structure is interpreted to consist of an approximately 10(7) m(2) large elongated dome with two major (W-E and NW-SE) striking faults bounding it. Preliminary capacity estimates indicate that about 1.2 Gt of CO2 can be stored in the target reservoir.

  • 9.
    Almqvist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Björk, Andreas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper. CSIRO, Mineral Resources, Bradfield Road, West Lindfield, NSW 2070, Australia.
    Mattsson, Hannes B.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Mineralogi, petrologi och tektonik.
    Hedlund, Daniel
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Gunnarsson, Klas
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Högdahl, Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Mineralogi, petrologi och tektonik.
    Bäckström, Emma
    Nordic Iron Ore, Ludvika, Sweden.
    Marsden, Paul
    Nordic Iron Ore, Ludvika, Sweden.
    Magnetic characterisation of magnetite and hematite from the Blötberget apatite-iron-oxide deposits (Bergslagen), south-central Sweden2019Inngår i: Canadian journal of earth sciences (Print), ISSN 0008-4077, E-ISSN 1480-3313, Vol. 56, nr 9, s. 948-957Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rock magnetic measurements were carried out on drill core material and hand specimens from the Blötberget apatite-iron oxide deposit in the Bergslagen ore province, south-central Sweden, to characterise their magnetic properties. Measurements included several kinds of magnetic susceptibility and hysteresis parameters. Petrographic and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to independently identify and quantify the amount and type of magnetite and hematite. Two hematite-rich samples were studied with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to quantify the trace element chemistry in hematite and investigate the potential influence of trace elements on magnetic properties. Three aspects of this study are noteworthy. 1) Hematite-rich samples display strong anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, which is likely to affect the appearance and modelling of magnetic anomalies. 2) The magnitude-drop in susceptibility across Curie and Néel temperature transitions show significant correlation with the respective weight percent (wt%) of magnetite and hematite. Temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements can therefore be used to infer the amounts of both magnetite and hematite. 3) observations of a strongly depressed Morin transition at ca -60 to -70 C (200 to 210 K) are made during low-temperature susceptibility measurements. This anomalous Morin transition is most likely related to trace amounts of V and Ti that substitute for Fe in the hematite. When taken together, these magnetic observations improve the understanding of the magnetic anomaly signature of the Blötberget apatite-iron oxide deposits and may potentially be utilised in a broader context when assessing similar (Paleoproterozoic) apatite-iron oxide systems.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Almqvist, Bjarne S. G.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Burchardt, Steffi
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Mineralogi, petrologi och tektonik.
    Troll, Valentin R.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Mineralogi, petrologi och tektonik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Snowball, Ian
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling.
    Kubler, Lutz
    Geol Survey Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Magma transport in sheet intrusions of the Alnö carbonatite complex, central Sweden2016Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, artikkel-id 27635Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Magma transport through the Earth's crust occurs dominantly via sheet intrusions, such as dykes and cone-sheets, and is fundamental to crustal evolution, volcanic eruptions and geochemical element cycling. However, reliable methods to reconstruct flow direction in solidified sheet intrusions have proved elusive. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) in magmatic sheets is often interpreted as primary magma flow, but magnetic fabrics can be modified by post-emplacement processes, making interpretation of AMS data ambiguous. Here we present AMS data from cone-sheets in the Alno carbonatite complex, central Sweden. We discuss six scenarios of syn- and post-emplacement processes that can modify AMS fabrics and offer a conceptual framework for systematic interpretation of magma movements in sheet intrusions. The AMS fabrics in the Alno cone-sheets are dominantly oblate with magnetic foliations parallel to sheet orientations. These fabrics may result from primary lateral flow or from sheet closure at the terminal stage of magma transport. As the cone-sheets are discontinuous along their strike direction, sheet closure is the most probable process to explain the observed AMS fabrics. We argue that these fabrics may be common to cone-sheets and an integrated geology, petrology and AMS approach can be used to distinguish them from primary flow fabrics.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Internal architecture of the Alnö alkaline and carbonatite complex (central Sweden) revealed using 3D models of gravity and magnetic data2018Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 740-741, s. 53-71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Alnö Complex in central Sweden is one of the largest alkaline and carbonatite ring-shaped intrusions in the world. Presented here is the 3D models of ground gravity and aeromagnetic data that confirm some of the previous ideas about the 3D geometry of the complex but also suggest that the complex may continue laterally further to north than previously expected. The data show the complex as (i) a strong positive Bouguer anomaly, around 20 mGal, and (ii) a strong positive magnetic anomaly, exceeding 2000 nT. Magnetic structures are clearly discernible within the complex and surrounding area. Both gravity and magnetic inversion models suggest that dense (> 2850 kg/m(3)) and magnetic ( > 0.05 SI) rocks extend down to about 3.5-4 km depth. Previous studies have suggested a solidified magma reservoir at this approximate depth. The inversion models further suggest that two apparently separate regions within the complex are likely connected at depth, starting from 800 to 1000 m, implying a common source for the rocks observed in these two regions. Modelling of the aeromagnetic data indicates that a > 3 km wide ring-shaped magnetic high situated in the sea north of Alnö Island may be a part of the complex. This could link a smaller satellite intrusion in Soraker on mainland to the larger intrusion on Alnö Island. While the rim of the ring must consist of highly magnetic rocks to support the anomaly, the centre has relatively low magnetisation and is probably made up of low-magnetic wall-rocks or metasomatised wall-rocks down to about 2 km depth. Below this depth the 3D susceptibility model suggests higher magnetic susceptibility values. Worldwide alkaline and carbonatite complexes are the main resources for rare earth elements (REEs), and owing to the size of the Alnö Complex, it can be highly prospective for REEs at depth.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Troll, Valentin R.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Berggrundsgeologi.
    Dehghannejad, Mahdieh
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Ask, Maria
    Carbonatite ring-complexes explained by caldera-style volcanism2013Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 3, s. 1677-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbonatites are rare, carbonate-rich magmatic rocks that make up a minute portion of the crust only, yet they are of great relevance for our understanding of crustal and mantle processes. Although they occur in all continents and from Archaean to present, the deeper plumbing system of carbonatite ring-complexes is usually poorly constrained. Here, we show that carbonatite ring-complexes can be explained by caldera-style volcanism. Our geophysical investigation of the Alno carbonatite ring-complex in central Sweden identifies a solidified saucer-shaped magma chamber at similar to 3 km depth that links to surface exposures through a ring fault system. Caldera subsidence during final stages of activity caused carbonatite eruptions north of the main complex, providing the crucial element to connect plutonic and eruptive features of carbonatite magmatism. The way carbonatite magmas are stored, transported and erupt at the surface is thus comparable to known emplacement styles from silicic calderas.

  • 13.
    Balestrini, Florencia
    et al.
    Delft Univ Technol, Dept Geosci & Engn, Delft, Netherlands.
    Draganov, Deyan
    Delft Univ Technol, Dept Geosci & Engn, Delft, Netherlands.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Marsden, Paul
    NIO Nordic Iron Ore AB, Ludvika, Sweden.
    Ghose, Ranajit
    Delft Univ Technol, Dept Geosci & Engn, Delft, Netherlands.
    Improved target illumination at Ludvika mines of Sweden through seismic-interferometric surface-wave suppression2020Inngår i: Geophysical Prospecting, ISSN 0016-8025, E-ISSN 1365-2478, Vol. 68, nr 1, s. 200-213Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In mineral exploration, new methods to improve the delineation of ore deposits at depth are in demand. For this purpose, increasing the signal-to-noise ratio through suitable data processing is an important requirement. Seismic reflection methods have proven to be useful to image mineral deposits. However, in most hard rock environments, surface waves constitute the most undesirable source-generated or ambient noise in the data that, especially given their typical broadband nature, often mask the events of interest like body-wave reflections and diffractions. In this study, we show the efficacy of a two-step procedure to suppress surface waves in an active-source reflection seismic dataset acquired in the Ludvika mining area of Sweden. First, we use seismic interferometry to estimate the surface-wave energy between receivers, given that they are the most energetic arrivals in the dataset. Second, we adaptively subtract the retrieved surface waves from the original shot gathers, checking the quality of the unveiled reflections. We see that several reflections, judged to be from the mineralization zone, are enhanced and better visualized after this two-step procedure. Our comparison with results from frequency-wavenumber filtering verifies the effectiveness of our scheme, since the presence of linear artefacts is reduced. The results are encouraging, as they open up new possibilities for denoising hard rock seismic data and, in particular, for imaging of deep mineral deposits using seismic reflections. This approach is purely data driven and does not require significant judgment on the dip and frequency content of present surface waves, which often vary from place to place.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 14.
    Bastani, Mehrdad
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Ismail, Nazli
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Pedersen, Laust
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Hedjazi, Farhang
    KAHANROBA Co.
    Delineating hydrothermal stockwork copper deposits using controlled-source and radio-magnetotelluric methods:  A case study from northeast Iran2009Inngår i: Geophysics, ISSN 0016-8033, E-ISSN 1942-2156, Vol. 74, nr 5, s. B167--B181Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Radio- and controlled-source-tensor magnetotelluric (RMT and CSTMT)   methods are used to target hydrothermal veins of copper mineralization.   The data were acquired along six eastwest- and three   north-south-trending profiles, covering an area of about 500 x 400   m(2). The tensor RMT data were collected in the 10-250-kHz frequency   band. A double horizontal magnetic dipole transmitter in the 4-12.5-kHz   frequency range allowed us to constrain the deeper parts of the   resistivity models better. To obtain optimum field parameters, ground   magnetic profiling was conducted prior to the RMT and CSTMT surveys.   Although the study area (in Iran) is remote, a number of radio   transmitters with acceptable signal-to-noise ratio were utilized. The   2D inversion of RMT data led to unstable resistivity models with large   data misfits. Thus, the RMT data were used to complement and analyze   the near-surface resistivity anomalies observed in the 2D CSTMT models.   Analyses of strike and dimensionality from the CSTMT data suggests that   the low-resistivity structures are mainly three dimensional; therefore,   2D inversion of determinant data is chosen. Independent 2D inversion   models of the determinant CSTMT data along crossing profiles are in   good agreement. Known copper mineralization is imaged well in the CSTMT   models. The thinning of the conductive overburden correlates very well   with magnetic highs, indicating the bedrock is resistive and magnetic.   In this sense, the magnetic and electromagnetic fields complement each   other. Analysis of the 2D resistivity models indicates the volcanic   rock deepens at the center of the study area. This zone is associated   with a magnetic low and therefore is recommended for detailed   exploration work.

  • 15.
    Bastani, Mehrdad
    et al.
    Geological Survey of Sweden.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Savvaidis, Alexandros
    ITSAK, Greece.
    Combined use of controlled-source and radio-magnetotelluric methods for near surface studies2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Combination of the controlled source and radio magnetotelluric, the so-called CSRMT, method has been used in modelling near surface electrical resistivity structures with the main aim of studying mineralization and engineering issues. In the controlled source mode, we used a remotely controlled double horizontal magnetic dipole that transmits signal in the frequency range 1-12.5 kHz. The signal sources for the RMT method are the distant radio transmitters in the frequency range 14-250 kHz. Three near surface case studies are presented in this work. In the first case, conductive hydrothermal stockwork copper deposits in an area in Iran were modelled in 2D and the results were compared to the existing borehole information. In the second case located in Greece using the CSRMT method we could model the location and geometry of a subvertical fault that was covered by conductive quaternary sediments. In the third case from Sweden, 3D resistivity models from the inversion of CSRMT data were used to determine presence and boundaries of quick-clay formation and a coarse-grained layer that is in turn responsible for a peculiar retrogressive landslide type in the study area. The three case studies have proven that a combination of controlled source and radio magnetotelluric methods has a considerable potential in addressing near surface problems. Comparison between the existing borehole data and the resistivity models from the inversion of the CSRMT data in each study area revealed reasonable correlation in delineating target structures especially depth to the good conductors. However, special attention needs to be given when using the CSMT data, especially at lower frequencies where they may be affected by the near-field phenomenon.

  • 16.
    Bastani, Mehrdad
    et al.
    SGU.
    Persson, Lena
    SGU.
    Mehta, Suman
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Boat-towed radio-magnetotellurics: A new technique and case study from the city of Stockholm2015Inngår i: Geophysics, ISSN 0016-8033, E-ISSN 1942-2156, Vol. 80, nr 6, s. B193-B202Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed a new data acquisition system and technique to measure the radio magnetotelluric (RMT) signals from distant radio transmitters with the objective of mapping and modeling electric resistivity structures below a river or lake. The acquisition system is towed by a boat; therefore, we call the technique boat-towed RMT. The data acquisition is fast with a production rate of approximately 1  km/hr using a nominal sampling spacing of 10–15 m. Given the ample number of radio transmitters available in most parts of the world, the method can be used for near-surface studies of various targets. We have developed boat-towed RMT measurements on Lake Mälaren near the city of Stockholm in Sweden to determine the feasibility of the method. Approximately 15 km of RMT data were collected during three days above a planned 60-m-deep bypass tunnel with the goal of providing information on the bedrock depth and possible weak zones within the bedrock. The measured resistivity and phase data were of high quality with errors on the order of a few percent. The resistivity models from 2D inversion of the data showed a good correlation with available geologic data in resolving bedrock depth and also resistivity layering within the lake. Resistivity maps derived from the dense 2D models suggested a northeast–southwest-striking low-resistivity zone at less than a 30-m depth. The zone likely represents fractured crystalline bedrock. The boat-towed RMT technique is well suited for water bodies with moderate electric resistivity such as in brackish and freshwater environments.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • 17.
    Bastani, Mehrdad
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik. Sveriges geologiska undersökning.
    Sadeghi, Martiya
    Sveriges geologiska undersökning.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Luth, Stefan
    Sveriges geologiska undersökning.
    Marsden, Paul
    Nordi Iron Ore (NIO).
    3D magnetic susceptibility model of a deep iron-oxide apatite-bearing orebody incorporating borehole data in Blötberget, Sweden2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have processed and modelled in 3D available airborne magnetic data flown over the Blötberget iron-oxide deposit in central Sweden. 3D magnetic susceptibility models were then compared to the existing borehole information, downhole logging data and ground geological observations. Use of such information in the 3D inversion of the magnetic field data in the form of a reference model has considerably improved the 3D model in resolving the deeper parts of the iron-oxide orebody as well as the geometry of nearby geological structures. Unconstrained inversion results, however, do not resolve the true dip and depth extension of the iron-oxide orebody.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 18.
    Bellefleur, Gilles
    et al.
    Geol Survey Canada, 601 Booth St, Ottawa, ON K1A 0E8, Canada.
    Cheraghi, Saeid
    Geol Survey Canada, 601 Booth St, Ottawa, ON K1A 0E8, Canada;Laurentian Univ, Met Earth, Sudbury, ON, Canada.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Reprocessing legacy three-dimensional seismic data from the Halfmile Lake and Brunswick No. 6 volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits, New Brunswick, Canada2019Inngår i: Canadian journal of earth sciences (Print), ISSN 0008-4077, E-ISSN 1480-3313, Vol. 56, nr 5, s. 569-583Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We reprocessed legacy three-dimensional (3D) seismic data from the Halfmile Lake and Brunswick areas, both of which were acquired for mineral exploration in the Bathurst Mining Camp, New Brunswick. Each 3D seismic survey was acquired over known volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits and covered areas with strong mineral potential. Most improvements resulted from a reduction of coherent and random noise on prestack gathers and from an improved velocity model, combined with re-imaging with dip moveout corrections and poststack migration or prestack time migration. At Halfmile Lake, the new imaging results show the Deep zone and a possible extension of the sulphide mineralization at greater depth. True amplitude processing has shown that this anomaly has strong amplitudes and is offset from the Deep zone by a shallowly dipping fault (<15 degrees). With the clearer geological context provided by our results, this anomaly, which appears as a stand-alone anomaly on an original image obtained by Noranda Exploration Ltd., becomes a defendable exploration target. Nonorthogonal acquisition geometry and receiver patches of the Brunswick No. 6 3D seismic survey generated artefacts after dip moveout processing that reduced the overall quality of the seismic volumes. By using a filtering approach based on the application of a weighted Laplacian-Gaussian filter in the Kx-Ky domain, we reduced the noise and improved the continuity of reflections. We also imaged the short and flat reflections observed previously only in the shallow part of prestack time migrated data. These short reflections appear as diffractions on the filtered stacked section with dip moveout corrections, indicating that they originate from small geological bodies or discontinuities in the subsurface.

  • 19. Bellefleur, Gilles
    et al.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Mueller, Christof
    Elastic finite-difference modeling of volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposits: A case study from Half Mile Lake, New Brunswick, Canada2012Inngår i: Geophysics, ISSN 0016-8033, E-ISSN 1942-2156, Vol. 77, nr 5, s. WC25-WC36Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present elastic finite-difference modeling results over a geologically realistic 2D representation of the Half Mile Lake volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposit, New Brunswick, Canada. The model is constrained by geologic information from surface mapping and boreholes, whereas petrophysical properties are provided by wireline logging data acquired in two boreholes intersecting different parts of the deposit. We analyzed the P-P, P-S, S-P, and S-S responses of the lower and deep mineralized zones and assessed some compositional effects by substituting massive sulfides with gabbro properties in the model. Finite-difference modeling results predict complex scattering signature associated with the lower and deep sulfide zones. Both zones scattered back P-P, P-S, S-P, and S-S waves generally having strongest amplitudes in the stratigraphy down-dip direction. The P-S, S-P, and S-S scattered waves, if properly recorded on multicomponent data, represent useful signal that could help the targeting of deep sulfide mineralization. Finite-difference simulations further reveal phase-reversals on P-P wavefields scattered at the lower and deep zones. The phase reversals are not observed for gabbro inclusions, suggesting that this signature could be used to discriminate gabbro units from sulfide mineralization. The finite-difference simulation successfully reproduces many events of the VSP data, in particular P-S and S-S events on the radial component and P-P and S-P events on the vertical component. Comparison with 3D data is rather poor and only shows weak correlation with P-P events from the lower and deep zones. Despite the poor correlation, a prestack time migrated S-P section displays an amplitude anomaly at the location of the deep zone, suggesting that S-P waves were recorded on the 3D data, although this survey was acquired with explosive sources and vertical geophones.

  • 20.
    Bellefleur, Gilles
    et al.
    Geological Survey of Canada.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Müller, Christof
    GNS Science.
    A finite-difference modeling analysis of mode-converted scattering from massive sulfide deposits, Bathurst mining camp, Canada2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present elastic finite-difference modeling results over a geologically realistic 2D representation of the Halfmile Lake volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposit, New Brunswick, Canada. The model is constrained by geological information from surface mapping and boreholes whereas petrophysical properties are provided by wireline logging data acquired in two boreholes intersecting different parts of the deposit. We analyzed the P-P, P-S, S-P, and S-S responses of the Lower and Deep mineralized zones and assessed some compositional effects by substituting massive sulfides with gabbro properties in the model. Finite-difference modeling results predict complex scattering including P-P, P-S, S-P, and S-S waves generally having strongest amplitudes in the stratigraphy down-dip direction. The P-S, S-P, and S-S scattered waves if properly recorded on multi-component data, represent useful signal that could help the targeting of deep sulfide mineralization. Finite-difference simulations further reveal phase-reversals on P-P wavefields scattered at the massive sulfide zones. The phase reversals are not observed for gabbro inclusions, suggesting that this signature could be used to discriminate gabbro units from sulfide mineralization. The FD simulation successfully reproduces many events of the VSP data, in particular P-S and S-S events on the radial component and P-P and S-P events on the vertical component.

  • 21.
    Bellefleur, Gilles
    et al.
    Geological Survey of Canada.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Müller, Christof
    GNS Science.
    A finite-difference modeling analysis of mode-converted scattering from massive sulfidedeposits, Bathurst mining camp, Canada2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present elastic finite-difference modeling results over ageologically realistic 2D representation of the HalfmileLake volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposit, NewBrunswick, Canada. The model is constrained bygeological information from surface mapping andboreholes whereas petrophysical properties are provided bywireline logging data acquired in two boreholesintersecting different parts of the deposit. We analyzed theP-P, P-S, S-P, and S-S responses of the Lower and Deepmineralized zones and assessed some compositional effectsby substituting massive sulfides with gabbro properties inthe model. Finite-difference modeling results predictcomplex scattering including P-P, P-S, S-P, and S-S wavesgenerally having strongest amplitudes in the stratigraphydown-dip direction. The P-S, S-P, and S-S scattered waves,if properly recorded on multi-component data, representuseful signal that could help the targeting of deep sulfidemineralization. Finite-difference simulations further revealphase-reversals on P-P wavefields scattered at the massivesulfide zones. The phase reversals are not observed forgabbro inclusions, suggesting that this signature could beused to discriminate gabbro units from sulfidemineralization. The FD simulation successfully reproducesmany events of the VSP data, in particular P-S and S-Sevents on the radial component and P-P and S-P events onthe vertical component.

  • 22.
    Braunig, Lena
    et al.
    TU Bergakad Freiberg, Freiberg, Germany.
    Buske, Stefan
    TU Bergakad Freiberg, Freiberg, Germany.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Backstrom, Emma
    Nordic Iron Ore AB, Ludvika, Sweden.
    Schon, Monica
    Nordic Iron Ore AB, Ludvika, Sweden.
    Marsden, Paul
    Nordic Iron Ore AB, Ludvika, Sweden.
    Seismic depth imaging of iron-oxide deposits and their host rocks in the Ludvika mining area of central Sweden2020Inngår i: Geophysical Prospecting, ISSN 0016-8025, E-ISSN 1365-2478, Vol. 68, nr 1, s. 24-43Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of cost-effective and environmentally acceptable geophysical methods for the exploration of mineral resources is a challenging task. Seismic methods have the potential to delineate the mineral deposits at greater depths with sufficiently high resolution. In hardrock environments, which typically host the majority of metallic mineral deposits, seismic depth-imaging workflows are challenged by steeply dipping structures, strong heterogeneity and the related wavefield scattering in the overburden as well as the often limited signal-to-noise ratio of the acquired data. In this study, we have developed a workflow for imaging a major iron-oxide deposit at its accurate position in depth domain while simultaneously characterizing the near-surface glacial overburden including surrounding structures like crossing faults at high resolution. Our workflow has successfully been showcased on a 2D surface seismic legacy data set from the Ludvika mining area in central Sweden acquired in 2016. We applied focusing prestack depth-imaging techniques to obtain a clear and well-resolved image of the mineralization down to over 1000 m depth. In order to account for the shallow low-velocity layer within the depth-imaging algorithm, we carefully derived a migration velocity model through an integrative approach. This comprised the incorporation of the tomographic near-surface model, the extension of the velocities down to the main reflectors based on borehole information and conventional semblance analysis. In the final step, the evaluation and update of the velocities by investigation of common image gathers for the main target reflectors were used. Although for our data set the reflections from the mineralization show a strong coherency and continuity in the seismic section, reflective structures in a hardrock environment are typically less continuous. In order to image the internal structure of the mineralization and decipher the surrounding structures, we applied the concept of reflection image spectroscopy to the data, which allows the imaging of wavelength-specific characteristics within the reflective body. As a result, conjugate crossing faults around the mineralization can directly be imaged in a low-frequency band while the internal structure was obtained within the high-frequency bands.

  • 23.
    Brodic, Bojan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Bastani, Mehrdad
    Geological Survey of Sweden.
    Mehta, Suman
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Lundberg, Emil
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Wang, Shunguo
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Multi-component digital-based seismic landstreamer and boat-towed radio-magnetotelluric acquisition systems for improved subsurface characterization in the urban environment2017Inngår i: First Break, ISSN 0263-5046, E-ISSN 1365-2397, Vol. 35, nr 8, s. 41-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    It is estimated that urban life will be the norm for around 60% of the world’s population by 2040, leading to a more centralized distribution of people and making the city as the main place of residence (Whiteley, 2009). This population centralization inherently implies rapidly expanding cities and imposes the need for more infrastructure within, around and between the present city boundaries. However, infrastructure projects nowadays have to follow strict civil engineering standards that require detailed knowledge of subsurface conditions during different stages of the construction processes. Since direct methods conventionally used for site characterization (e.g., drilling and/or core testing) are still relatively expensive the focus in the last two decades has been on non-invasive, geophysical methods. However, geophysical site characterization in urban areas is not an easy task owing to numerous challenges and various types of noise sources. Challenges such as electric/electromagnetic (EM) noise, pipelines and other subsurface objects (sometimes even unknown or undocumented), the inability to properly couple sensors because of pavement, traffic noises and limited space are common in urban environment. Since geophysical surveys need to be done with the least amount of disturbances to the environment, residents and traffic, new geophysical techniques for fast, non-invasive and high-resolution site characterization are needed. To overcome some of these challenges, a nationwide joint industry-academia project was launched in 2012 TUST GeoInfra, www.trust-geoinfra.se). As a component in the project, Uppsala University developed two new data acquisition systems. These are a fully digital MEMS-based (Micro-machined Electro-Mechanical Sensor) three component (3C) seismic landstreamer and a boat-towed radio-magnetotelluric (RMT) acquisition system. Both systems were specifically designed to address urban environments with the RMT system particularly aiming at efficient and cost-effective geophysical surveying on shallow-water bodies, which constitute 7% of Scandinavia. In this article, we will describe the two systems and present two case studies illustrating their potential. A number of published accounts are now available from the two systems showing what type of problems they can address (e.g., Bastani et al., 2015; Brodic et al., 2015; Malehmir et al., 2015a, 2015b, 2016a, 2016b, 2017; Dehghannejad et al., 2017; Maries et al., 2017; Mehta et al., 2017; Brodic et al., 2017).

  • 24.
    Brodic, Bojan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    All wave-modes converted and reflected from fracture systems: A tunnel-surface seismic experiment2015Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 25.
    Brodic, Bojan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Bedrock and Fracture Zone Delineation UsingDifferent Near-surface Seismic Sources2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    To delineate the bedrock surface and a fracture zone intersected by a well at c. 50 m depth, a seismic survey wasconducted using four different near-surface seismic sources. These were a 5-kg sledgehammer, a metal I-beamhit laterally, an accelerated weight drop and a prototype source tested for the first time called Udarnik. TheUdarnik source has two hammers whose impacts are initiated by an electromagnetic force of the stable coilexciting its inner moving part. Two hammers separated by a distance of approximately 50 cm successively hittwo contact plates mounted on the bottom of the source. The sweep length is adjustable and maximum 18 hitscan be made per second. In this study, we compare the performance of every source used and present reflectionseismic sections and tomography results from the high-fold (star-type acquisition was used) combinedlandstreamer and wireless recorder survey. Preliminary results indicate that bedrock was well delineated both ontomography results and stacked sections for all sources and some weak reflectivity is observed where thefracture zone is expected with most of the sources used showing the potential of the seismic methods forfracture zone imaging and near-surface characterization

  • 26.
    Brodic, Bojan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Delineating fracture zones using surface-tunnel-surfaceseismic data, P-S, and S-P mode conversions2017Inngår i: Journal of Geophysical Research - Solid Earth, ISSN 2169-9313, E-ISSN 2169-9356, Vol. 122, nr 7, s. 5493-5516Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A surface-tunnel-surface seismic experiment was conducted at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratoryto study the seismic response of major fracture systems intersecting the tunnel. A newly developedthree-component microelectromechanical sensor-based seismic landstreamer was deployed inside the noisytunnel along with conventional seismic receivers. In addition to these, wireless recorders were placed on thesurface. This combination enabled simultaneous recording of the seismic wavefield both inside the tunneland on the surface. The landstreamer was positioned between two geophone-based line segments, alongthe interval where known fracture systems intersect the tunnel. First arrival tomography produced a velocitymodel of the rock mass between the tunnel and the surface with anomalous low-velocity zones correlatingwell with locations of known fracture systems. Prominent wave mode converted direct and reflected signals,P-S and S-P waves, were observed in numerous source gathers recorded inside the tunnel. Forward traveltime and 2-D finite difference elastic modeling, based on the known geometry of the fracture systems, showthat the converted waves are generated at these systems. Additionally, the landstreamer data were used toestimate Vp/Vs, Poisson’s ratio, and seismic attenuation factors (Qp and Qs) over fracture sets that havedifferent hydraulic conductivities. The low-conductivity fracture sets have greater reductions in P wavevelocities and Poisson’s ratio and are more attenuating than the highly hydraulically conductive fracture set.Our investigations contribute to fracture zone characterization on a scale corresponding to seismicexploration wavelengths.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 27.
    Brodic, Bojan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Dynesius, Lars
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Bastani, Mehrdad
    Palm, Hans
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Multicomponent broadband digital-based seismic landstreamer for near-surface applications2015Inngår i: Journal of Applied Geophysics, ISSN 0926-9851, E-ISSN 1879-1859, Vol. 123, s. 227-241Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last few decades there has been an increased demand for infrastructure, along with a greater awareness of environmental issues in the construction industry. These factors have contributed to an increased interest in using seismic methods for near surface characterization, particularly in urban environments. Seismic sensors not affected by anthropogenic electromagnetic noise are therefore important, as well as an acquisition system that is easy to deploy, move and non-invasive. To address some of these challenges, a multicomponent broadband MEMS (micro-electro mechanical system) based landstreamer system was developed. The landstreamer system is fully digital, therefore it is less sensitive to electrical or electromagnetic noise. Crosstalk, leakage and tilting tests show that the system is superior to its predecessors. The broadband nature of the sensors (theoretically 0–800 Hz), 3C (three-component) recording and the close spacing of the sensors enable high-resolution imaging. The current streamer configuration consists of 20 sensors 4 m apart and 80 sensors 2 m apart. The streamer can easily be combined with wireless recorders for simultaneous data acquisition. In this study, we present results from testing of the streamer with various sources, such as a shear wave vibrator and different types of impact sources. MEMS-sensors and their high sensitivity allowed recording clear reflections that were not observed with coil-based sensors. A complementary test was also carried out at a planned access ramp for an urban tunnel where potential poor quality rocks had been identified by drilling. First-break traveltime tomography showed that these poor quality rocks correlate with low velocity zones. The presented landstreamer system has great potential for characterizing the subsurface in noisy environments.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 28.
    Brodic, Bojan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Maries, Georgiana
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    SH- and Surface-wave Imaging Potential of a 3C-digital-based Seismic Landstreamer Illustrated at an Esker Site in SW Finland2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the last decade, multicomponent seismic imaging has proven to be beneficial in various areas ofapplications, from hydrocarbon to mineral exploration, as well as for environmental and infrastructure planninginvestigations. To demonstrate the potential and need for multicomponent seismic imaging for infrastructureplanning project, we show an example of a seismic profile acquired using a recently developed digital-based 3Cseismic landstreamer and a cost-effective drop-hammer seismic source for planning of wells for pumping water(aquifer recharge) at an esker site that supplies drinking water for the entire city of Turku, Finland. The studyillustrates the importance of 3C data recording and shows the potential of the landstreamer in imaging theshallow subsurface using both P- and SH-waves generated from the vertical impact source. Synthetic modeling,particle motion studies and surface-wave analysis of the data are used to scrutinize the data and investigate thenature of the signal and underlying physical properties of the subsurface.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 29.
    Brodic, Bojan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Pugin, Andre
    Geological Survey of Canada, Ontario, Canada.
    Maries, Georgiana
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Three-component seismic land streamer study of an esker architecture through S- and surface-wave imaging2018Inngår i: Geophysics, ISSN 0016-8033, E-ISSN 1942-2156, Vol. 83, nr 6, s. B339-B353Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We deployed a newly developed 3C microelectromechanical system-based seismic land streamer over porous glacial sediments to delineate water table and bedrock in Southwestern Finland. The seismic source used was a 500 kg vertical impact drop hammer. We analyzed the SH-wave component and interpreted it together with previously analyzed P-wave component data. In addition to this, we examined the land streamer’s potential for multichannel analysis of surface waves and delineated the site’s stratigraphy with surface-wave-derived S-wave velocities and VP∕VS ratios along the entire profile. These S-wave velocities and VP∕VS ratios complement the interpretation conducted previously on P-wave stacked section. Peculiarly, although the seismic source used is of a vertical-type nature, the data inspection indicated clear bedrock reflection on the horizontal components, particularly the transverse component. This observation led us to scrutinize the horizontal component data through side-by-side inspection of the shot records of all the three components and particle motion analysis to confirm the S-wave nature of the reflection. Using the apparent moveout velocity of the reflection, as well as the known depth to bedrock based on drilling, we used finite-difference synthetic modeling to further verify its nature. Compared with the P-wave seismic section, bedrock is relatively well delineated on the transverse component S-wave section. Some structures connected to the kettle holes and other stratigraphic units imaged on the P-wave results were also notable on the S-wave section, and particularly on the surface-wave derived S-wave velocity model and VP∕VS ratios. Our results indicate that P-, SV-, and SH-wave energy is generated simultaneously at the source location itself. This study demonstrates the potential of 3C seismic for characterization and delineation of the near-surface seismics.

  • 30.
    Buntin, Sebastian
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Koyi, Hemin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Mineralogi, petrologi och tektonik.
    Högdahl, Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Mineralogi, petrologi och tektonik.
    Malinowski, Michal
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Geophys, Warsaw, Poland.
    Larsson, Sven Ake
    Gothenburg Univ, Earth Sci Ctr, Dept Geol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thybo, Hans
    Istanbul Tech Univ, Eurasia Inst Earth Sci, Istanbul, Turkey.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Korja, Annakaisa
    Univ Helsinki, Inst Seismol, Helsinki, Finland.
    Gorszczyk, Andrzej
    Polish Acad Sci, Inst Geophys, Warsaw, Poland.
    Emplacement and 3D geometry of crustal-scale saucer-shaped intrusions in the Fennoscandian Shield2019Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 10498Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Saucer-shaped intrusions of tens of meters to tens of kilometres across have been observed both from surface geological mapping and geophysical observations. However, there is only one location where they have been reported to extend c. 100 km laterally, and emplaced both in a sedimentary basin and the crystalline basement down to 12 km depth. The legacy BABEL offshore seismic data, acquired over the central Fennoscandian Shield in 1989, have been recovered and reprocessed with the main goal of focusing on this series of globally unique crustal-scale saucer-shaped intrusions present onshore and offshore below the Bothnian Sea. The intrusions (c. 1.25 Ga), emplaced in an extensional setting, are observed within both sedimentary rocks (<1.5 Ga) and in the crystalline basement (>1.5 Ga). They have oval shapes with diameters ranging 30-100 km. The reprocessed seismic data provide evidence of up-doming of the lower crust (representing the melt reservoir) below the intrusions that, in turn, are observed at different depths in addition to a steep seismically transparent zone interpreted to be a discordant feeder dyke system. Relative age constraints and correlation with onshore saucer-shaped intrusions of different size suggest that they are internally connected and fed by each other from deeper to shallower levels. We argue for a nested emplacement mechanism and against a controlling role by the overlying sedimentary basin as the saucer-shaped intrusions are emplaced in both the sedimentary rocks as well as in the underlying crystalline basement. The interplay between magma pressure and overburden pressure, as well as the, at the time, ambient stress regime, are responsible for their extensive extent and rather constant thicknesses (c. 100-300 m). Saucer-shaped intrusions may therefore be present elsewhere in the crystalline basement to the same extent as observed in this study some of which are a significant source of raw materials.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 31.
    Buntin, Sebastian
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malinowski, Michal
    Polish Academy of Sciences.
    Högdahl, Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Mineralogi, petrologi och tektonik.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Thybo, Hans
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Buske, Stefan
    TUBAF, Germany.
    Seismic reprocessing of the BABEL lines for improved interpretation of the whole crust – preliminary results2016Inngår i: Lithosphere 2016: Ninth Symposium On Structure, Composition And Evolution Of The Lithosphere In Fennoscandia / [ed] Ilmo Kukkonen, Suvi Heinonen, Kati Oinonen, Katriina Arhe, Olav Eklund, Fredrik Karell, Elena Kozlovskaya, Arto Luttinen, Raimo Lahtinen, Juha Lunkka, Vesa Nykänen, Markku Poutanen , Eija Tanskanen and Timo Tiira, Helsinki, Finland: University of Helsinki, Institute of Seismology , 2016, s. 9-12Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This ongoing study focuses on the reprocessing of the historical BABEL (Baltic and Bothnian Echoes from the Lithosphere, 1989) seismic lines in the Bay of Bothnia in preparation for the acquisition of a 400 km long onshore reflection and refraction profile in central part of Sweden. The main aim of the project is to increase the understanding of the tectonic evolution of the mineral-rich Bergslagen region both offshore and onshore. The seismic data have been recovered and currently being reprocessed using up-to-date processing methods and preliminary results show promising outcome from this work.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 32.
    Buske, Stefan
    et al.
    Techn Univ Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany..
    Bellefleur, Gilles
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Introduction to special issue on "hard rock seismic imaging"2015Inngår i: Geophysical Prospecting, ISSN 0016-8025, E-ISSN 1365-2478, Vol. 63, nr 4, s. 751-753Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 33.
    Cheraghi, Saeid
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Bellefleur, Gilles
    3D imaging challenges in steeply dipping mining structures: New lights on acquisition geometry and processing from the Brunswick no. 6 seismic data, Canada2012Inngår i: Geophysics, ISSN 0016-8033, E-ISSN 1942-2156, Vol. 77, nr 5, s. WC109-WC122Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have analyzed and processed a 38-km(2) nonorthogonal 3D surface reflection seismic data in the Brunswick no. 6 area to better understand the effect of acquisition geometry on the resultant image and to provide 3D information about the main geologic structures hosting the mineralization. The 3D data were processed using a conventional prestack dip moveout (DMO) and poststack migration algorithm with special focus on refraction static corrections, velocity analysis, and DMO corrections that are important for the data recorded in crystalline environment. However, the nonorthogonal nature of the 3D data combined with its narrow-azimuth, irregular offset distributions, and 2D nature of midpoint distribution in common depth point bins resulted in a lower quality seismic image than those observed on a series of 2D seismic profiles collected in the area prior to the 3D data acquisition. 2D wavenumber spectrum of the data suggests acquisition footprint associated with the data. Most of the noise associated with the acquisition footprint manifested itself as short-length, high-amplitude shallow reflections but largely were attenuated using a dip filter running in the wavenumber domain. Various bin size and geometries were tested, and the best result was obtained using rectangular bins aligned in the orientation of the shot lines. The processing results indicated that the highly prospective and mineralized Brunswick horizon is part of a continuous reflective package that could guide future deep mineral exploration in this mining camp.

  • 34.
    Cheraghi, Saeid
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Bellefleur, Gilles
    Geological Survey of Canada.
    Crustal-scale reflection seismic investigations in the Bathurst Mining Camp, New Brunswick, Canada2011Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 506, nr 1-4, s. 55-72Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 35.
    Cheraghi, Saeid
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Bellefleur, Gilles
    Geological Survey of Canada.
    Reflection seismic investigations in the Brunswick no. 6 Mining area, Bathurst Mining Camp, Canada2010Inngår i: Society of Petroleum Engineers - 72nd European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers Conference and Exhibition 2010 - Incorporating SPE EUROPEC 2010, Barcelona, 2010, Vol. 5, s. 3834-3838Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Bathurst Mining Camp of northern New Brunswick, Canada is a major base-metal producing region that includes the super-giant Brunswick No. 12 and smaller size Brunswick No. 6 mines. Seismic reflection data along with borehole geochemical and petrophysical measurements from the Brunswick No. 6 mine are studied in this work. Acoustic impedance values for the Brunswick horizon and host rock structures indicate that the mineralized horizon is not strongly reflective in comparison with the mafic-ultramafic rocks. Although the data is acquired in crystalline environment, it shows an excellent data quality with a series of steeply dipping reflections imaged down to 3 s. The results demonstrate that reflection seismic imaging is particularly effective for imaging structures of the Brunswick No. 6 mine, many of which intersect the surface and thus allow for correlation with surface geology. Even more encouraging, the Brunswick horizon and associated iron mineralization are identifiable within a distinctive reflective package that can be used as a guide for deep base-metal exploration in the region.© 2010, Society of Petroleum Engineers.

  • 36.
    Cheraghi, Saeid
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Bellefleur, Gilles
    Geological Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario-Canada.
    Bongajum, Emmanuel
    University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
    Bastani, Mehrdad
    Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Scaling behavior and the effects of heterogeneity on shallow seismic imaging of mineral deposits: a case study from Brunswick No. 6 mining area, Canada2013Inngår i: Journal of Applied Geophysics, ISSN 0926-9851, E-ISSN 1879-1859, Vol. 90, s. 1-18Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied the scaling behavior of compressional-wave velocity and density logs from an exploration borehole that extends down to about 700 m depth in the Brunswick No. 6 mining area, Bathurst Mining Camp, Canada. Using statistical methods, vertical and horizontal scale lengths of heterogeneity were estimated. Vertical scale length estimates from the velocity, density and calculated acoustic impedance are 14 m, 33 m, and about 20 m, respectively. Although the estimated scale length for the acoustic impedance implies a weak scattering environment, elastic finite difference modeling of seismic wave propagation in 2D heterogeneous media demonstrates that even this weak scattering medium can mask seismic signals from small, but yet economically feasible, massive sulphide deposits. Further analysis of the synthetic seismic data suggests that in the presence of heterogeneity, lenticular-shaped targets may only exhibit incomplete diffraction signals whereby the down-dip tails of these diffractions are mainly visible on the stacked sections. Therefore, identification of orebody generated diffractions is much easier on the unmigrated stacked sections than on migrated stacked sections. The numerical seismic modeling in 2D heterogeneous media indicates that in the presence of large horizontal, but small vertical scale lengths (structural anisotropy), identification of massive sulphide deposits is possible, but their delineation at depth requires detailed velocity modeling and processing algorithms which can handle the anisotropy.

  • 37.
    Dehghannejad, M.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Weihed, P.
    Luleå University of Technology.
    High-resolution reflection seismic imaging in the Kristineberg mining area, Northern Sweden2010Inngår i: Society of Petroleum Engineers - 72nd European Association of Geoscientists and Engineers Conference and Exhibition 2010 - Incorporating SPE EUROPEC 2010, Barcelona: Curran Associates, Inc., 2010, Vol. 7, s. 5368-5371Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Kristineberg mining area is located in the western part of the Skellefte Ore District, one of the most important mining districts in Europe. As a part of a 4D geologic modeling project, two new reflection seismic profiles were acquired. Although the structural geology is complex, the processed seismic data reveal a series of steeply dipping to sub-horizontal reflections, some of which reach the surface and allow correlation with surface geology. Reflection modeling was carried out to obtain the 3D orientation of the main reflections and to provide insight into the possible contribution of out-of-the-plane reflections. The new reflection seismic profiles have improved our understanding of shallow geological structures in the area and in conjunction with recently acquired potential field data, magnetotelluric data and geological observations will help to refine previous 3D geologic modeling interpretations that were aimed at larger scale structures.

  • 38.
    Dehghannejad, Mahdieh
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Bauer, Tobias E.
    Division of Geosciences, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Weihed, Pär
    Division of Geosciences, Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Crustal geometry of the central Skellefte district, northern Sweden – constraints from reflection seismic investigations2012Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 524, s. 87-99Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Palaeoproterozoic Skellefte mining district in Sweden is one of the most important mining districts in Europe. As a part of a 4D geologic modeling project, three new sub-parallel reflection seismic profiles, with a total length of about 95 km, were acquired in the central part of the district. Processed seismic data reveal a series of gentle- to steeply- dipping reflections and a series of diffraction packages. The majority of reflections that extend to the surface can be correlated with geological features either observed in the field or interpreted from the aeromagnetic map. A set of south-dipping reflections represent inferred syn-extensional listric extensional faults that were inverted during subsequent crustal-shortening. Cross-cutting northdipping reflections are correlated to late-compressional break-back faults. Flat-lying reflections in the central parts of the study area could represent lithological contacts within the Skellefte Group, or the contact between Skellefte Group rocks and their unknown basement. Flat-lying reflections occurring further north are inferred to originate from the top of the Jörn intrusive complex or an intrusive contact within it. So far unknown south- and north-dipping faults have been identified in the vicinity of the Maurliden deposit. Based on the seismic results, a preliminary 3D-model has been created in order to visualize the fault pattern and to provide a base for future 3D/4D modeling in the Skellefte district.

  • 39.
    Dehghannejad, Mahdieh
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    García Juanatey, María de los Ángeles
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Skytta, Pietari
    Bauer, Tobias E
    Weihed, Par
    Reflection seismic imaging in the Skellefte ore district, northern Sweden2013Inngår i: Mineral depostits for a high-tech world: Proceedings of the 12th SGA Biennial Meeting 2013, Uppsala: Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning , 2013, s. 126-129Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 40.
    Dehghannejad, Mahdieh
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Skyttä, Pietari
    Division of Ore Geology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Weihed, Pär
    Division of Ore Geology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Reflection seismic imaging of the upper crust in the Kristineberg mining area, northern Sweden2010Inngår i: Journal of Applied Geophysics, ISSN 0926-9851, E-ISSN 1879-1859, Vol. 71, nr 4, s. 125-136Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Kristineberg mining area is located in the western part of the Palaeoproterozoic Skellefte Ore District, one of the most important mining districts in Europe. As a part of a 3D geologic modeling project, two new reflection seismic profiles were acquired with a total length of about 20 km. One profile (HR), parallel to previous seismic profiles, was acquired using a 10 m receiver and source interval and crosses the steeply dipping structures of the Kristineberg mine. The other profile (Profile 2) runs perpendicular to all existing profiles in the area. Although the structural geology is complex, the processed seismic data reveal a series of steeply dipping to sub-horizontal reflections, some of which reach the surface and allow correlation with surface geology. Our general interpretation of the seismic images is that the Kristineberg mine and associated mineral horizon are located in the northern part of a series of steeply south dipping structures. Overall, main structures plunge to the west at about 30 degrees-40 degrees. Cross-dip analysis and reflection modeling were carried out to obtain the 3D orientation of the main reflections and to provide insight into the possible contribution of out-of-the-plane reflections. This helped, for example, to obtain the 3D geometry of a deep reflection that was previously interpreted as structural basement to volcanic rocks. The new reflection seismic profiles have improved our understanding of shallow geological structures in the area and in conjunction with recently acquired potential field data, magnetotelluric data and geological observations will help to refine previous 3D geologic modeling interpretations that were aimed at larger scale structures.

  • 41.
    Dehghannejad, Mahdieh
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Skytta, Pietari
    Division of Ore Geology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    3D constraints and finite-difference modeling of massive sulfide deposits: The Kristineberg seismic lines revisited, northern Sweden2012Inngår i: Geophysics, ISSN 0016-8033, E-ISSN 1942-2156, Vol. 77, nr 5, s. WC69-WC79Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Kristineberg mining area in the western part of the Skellefte ore district is the largest base metal producer in northern Sweden and currently the subject of extensive geophysical and geologic studies aimed at constructing 3D geologic models. Seismic reflection data form the backbone of the geologic modeling in the study area. A geologic cross section close to the Kristineberg mine was used to generate synthetic seismic data using acoustic and elastic finite-difference algorithms to provide further insight about the nature of reflections and processing challenges when attempting to image the steeply dipping structures within the study area. Synthetic data suggest processing artifacts manifested themselves in the final 2D images as steeply dipping events that could be confused with reflections. Fewer artifacts are observed when the data are processed using prestack time migration. Prestack time migration also was performed on high-resolution seismic data recently collected near the Kristineberg mine and helped to image a high-amplitude, gently dipping reflection occurring stratigraphically above the extension of the deepest Kristineberg deposit. Swath 3D processing was applied to two crossing seismic lines, west of the Kristineberg mine, to provide information on the 3D geometry of an apparently flat-lying reflection observed in both of the profiles. The processing indicated that the reflection dips about 30 degrees to the southwest and is generated at the contact between metasedimentary and metavolcanic rocks, the upper part of the latter unit being the most typical stratigraphic level for the massive sulfide deposits in the Skellefte district.

  • 42.
    Dehghannejad, Mahdieh
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik. Uppsala Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik. Uppsala Univ, Dept Earth Sci, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Svensson, Mats
    Tyrens AB, Malmö, Sweden..
    Linden, Mattias
    Tyrens AB, Malmö, Sweden..
    Möller, Henrik
    Geokonsult AB, Malmö, Sweden..
    High-resolution reflection seismic imaging for the planning of a double-train-track tunnel in the city of Varberg, southwest Sweden2017Inngår i: Near Surface Geophysics, ISSN 1569-4445, E-ISSN 1873-0604, Vol. 15, nr 3, s. 226-240Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A newly developed broadband digital-based seismic landstreamer system was employed for the planning of a double-train-track tunnel in the city of Varberg, southwest Sweden. Twenty-five seismic profiles, totalling more than 7.5 km of data, were acquired using a 2-to 4-m receiver and source spacing. At places where it was not possible to move the streamer such as road crossings, wireless recorders connected to 28-Hz geophones were used. In addition to the earlier refraction data analysis and first-break traveltime tomographic modelling, reflection processing of the data was considered in this study, given the realisation of reflections in raw shot gathers and their good quality. Bedrock is strongly reflective in most cases but is not evident in the sections when it gets near the surface. Bedrock undulation is noticeable in most reflection sections, and at one occasion, strong diffraction is observed in the bedrock or near to it. The diffraction is originated, not known during the survey, from a 400-m3 cylindrical (of about 3-m-height and 13-m-diameter) concrete-made fire-protection water tank situated in the bedrock and used in emergency situations. Reflection seismic data greatly complement the tomographic models and support deep bedrock where the excavation of the tunnel is planned in downtown Varberg. This interpretation implies different reinforcements and tunnel construction methods (e.g., roofed concrete) at this section of the tunnel. In addition, weakness zones associated with fracture systems are inferred from the reflection characteristics and in conjunction with the velocity models requiring verification by additional boreholes.

  • 43.
    Donoso, George A.
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Pacheco, Nelson
    Somincor Lundin Min Neves Corvo Mine, P-7780409 Castro Verde, Portugal.
    Araujo, Vitor
    Somincor Lundin Min Neves Corvo Mine, P-7780409 Castro Verde, Portugal.
    Penney, Matthew
    Lundin Min Corp, 150 King St West,Suite 2200, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Carvalho, Joao
    LNEG, Estr Portela,Apartado 7585 Alfragide, P-2610999 Amadora, Portugal.
    Spicer, Bill
    Lundin Min Corp, 150 King St West,Suite 2200, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Beach, Steve
    Somincor Lundin Min Neves Corvo Mine, P-7780409 Castro Verde, Portugal.
    Potential of legacy 2D seismic data for deep targeting and structural imaging at the Neves-Corvo massive sulphide-bearing deposit, Portugal2020Inngår i: Geophysical Prospecting, ISSN 0016-8025, E-ISSN 1365-2478, Vol. 68, nr 1, s. 44-61Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Seismic methods are becoming an established choice for deep mineral exploration after being extensively tested and employed for the past two decades. To investigate whether the early European mineral-exploration datasets had potential for seismic imaging that was overlooked, we recovered a low-fold legacy seismic dataset from the Neves-Corvo mine site in the Iberian Pyrite Belt in southern Portugal. This dataset comprises six 4-6 km long profiles acquired in 1996 for deep targeting. Using today's industry-scale processing algorithms, the world-class, ca. 150 Mt, Lombador massive sulphide and other smaller deposits were better imaged. Additionally, we also reveal a number of shallow but steeply dipping reflections that were absent in the original processing results. This study highlights that legacy seismic data are valuable and should be revisited regularly to take advantage of new processing algorithms and the experiences gained from processing such data in hard-rock environments elsewhere. Remembering that an initial processing job in hard rock should always aim to first obtain an overall image of the subsurface and make reflections visible, and then subsequent goals of the workflow could be set to, for example understanding relative amplitude ratios. The imaging of the known mineralization implies that this survey could likely have been among one of the pioneer studies in the world that demonstrated the capability of directly imaging massive sulphide deposits using the seismic method.

  • 44. Ehsan, Siddique Akhtar
    et al.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Dehghannejad, Mandieh
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Re-processing and interpretation of 2D seismic data from the Kristineberg mining area, northern Sweden2012Inngår i: Journal of Applied Geophysics, ISSN 0926-9851, E-ISSN 1879-1859, Vol. 80, s. 43-55Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Kristineberg mining area in the western part of the Skellefte ore district, northern Sweden, contains the largest massive sulphide deposit in the district. In 2003, two parallel seismic lines, Profiles 1 and 5, each about 25 km long and about 8 km apart were acquired in the Kristineberg area. The initial processing results were successful in imaging the large-scale structures of the area down to 12 km of the crust, but resulted in relatively poor seismic image near the mine. In this paper, we re-processed the seismic data along Profile 1 that crosses the mine. The main objective was to improve the seismic section near the mine for further correlation with new seismic data recently acquired in the area. The crooked-line acquisition geometry, very low fold coverage of less than 17, complex geology and sparse outcrops in the area made the data re-processing and interpretation challenging. Despite these challenges, significant improvement is observed in the seismic data, in terms of event continuity and resolution. Refraction static corrections allowed high frequencies to be retained, which improved the seismic section. The refraction static solution was manually checked and adjusted at every iteration to avoid unstable solutions. 3D visualization of the re-processed data with other seismic profiles recently acquired in the area allowed the seismic reflections to be correlated. The majority of the reflections are interpreted to originate from either fault zones or lithological contacts. A very shallow reflection correlates well with the location of the Kristineberg mineralized horizon.

  • 45.
    Eklöf, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Mineralogi, petrologi och tektonik.
    Högdahl, Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Mineralogi, petrologi och tektonik.
    Jonsson, Erik
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Mineralogi, petrologi och tektonik. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Michael, Setter
    Nordic Iron Ore.
    Towards a structural framework for apatite-iron oxide deposits in the Grängesberg-Blötberget area, Bergslagen, Sweden2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 46.
    Garcia Juanatey, Maria de los Angeles
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Hübert, Juliane
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Tryggavson, Ari
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Integrated MagnetoTelluric and seismic reflection study: Skellefte Ore District, northern Sweden2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Skellefte District is a very rich mining area in northern Sweden. The main deposits consist of volcanic-hosted massive sulphides VHMS rich in zinc, copper, lead, gold and silver. Since the area has been mined and explored for over a century, today's challenge is to locate deeper deposits. The VINNOVA 4D modeling project aims to address this challenge by understanding the regional setting of the district and its evolution over time. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 47.
    Hedin, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Gee, David G.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Dyrelius, Dan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    3D interpretation by integrating seismic and potential field data in the vicinity of the proposed COSC-1 drill site, central Swedish Caledonides2014Inngår i: Geological Society Special Report, ISSN 0309-670X, Vol. 390, s. 301-319Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The scientific drilling project COSC (Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides), designed to study key questions concerning orogenic processes, aims to drill two fully cored boreholes to depths of c. 2.5 km each at carefully selected locations in west-central Sweden. The first of these, COSC-1, is scheduled for start late spring 2014 and will target the Seve Nappe Complex, characterized by inverted metamorphism and with parts that have evidently been subjected to hot ductile extrusion. In this study available seismic sections have been combined with surface geology to produce a 3D interpretation of the tectonic structures in the vicinity of the COSC-1 borehole. Constrained 3D inverse gravity modelling over the same area supports the interpretation, and the high-density Seve Nappe Complex stands out clearly in the model. Interpretation and models show that the maximum depth extent of the Seve Nappe Complex is less than 2.5 km, consistent with reflection seismic data. The gravity modelling also requires underlying units to comprise low-density material, consistent with the Lower Allochthon, but the modelling is unable to discern the décollement separating the allochthons from the crystalline Precambrian basement.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 48.
    Hedin, Peter
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Gee, David
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Dan, Dyrelius
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    COSC Geophysical and Geological Site Investigations2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Drilling of the first borehole, about 2.5 km deep, for the continental scientific deep drilling project COSC(Collisional Orogeny in the Scandinavian Caledonides) is scheduled to begin in the summer of 2013. Herewe present the project, a 3D interpretation of seismic data, combined with surface geology and potentialfield data, used for locating the most suitable drill site and planning of the drilling. An evaluation of theseismic interpretations by constrained 3D inverse modeling of potential field data shows a good fit toobserved data, further supporting the choice of the drill site.

  • 49.
    Hübert, Juliane
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    García Juanatey, María de los Ángeles
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Tryggavson, Ari
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Pedersen, Laust B
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    The upper crustal 3-D resistivity structure of the Kristineberg area, Skellefte district, northern Sweden revealed by magnetotelluric data2013Inngår i: Geophysical Journal International, ISSN 0956-540X, E-ISSN 1365-246X, Vol. 192, nr 2, s. 500-513Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A 3-D model of the crustal electrical resistivity was constructed from the inversion of magnetotelluric data in the Kristineberg area, Skellefte district, the location of one of Sweden's most successful mining activities. Forward modelling of vertical magnetic transfer data supports our model which was derived from the magnetotelluric impedance only. The dominant features in the 3-D model are the strong conductors at various depth levels and resistive bodies of variable thickness occurring in the shallower subsurface. The deepest conductor, previously associated with the Skellefte crustal conductivity anomaly, is imaged in the southern part of the area as a north-dipping feature starting at similar to 4 km depth. Several shallow conductors are attributed to graphite in the black shales defining the contact between the metasedimentary rocks and the underlying metavolcanic rocks. Furthermore, an elongated intermediate depth conductor is possibly associated with alteration zones in the metavolcanic rocks that host the ore occurrences. The most prominent crustal resistors occur in the southern and northern part of the area, where their lateral extent on the surface coincides with the late-orogenic Revsund type intrusions. To the east, a resistive feature can be correlated to the early-orogenic Viterliden intrusion. The 3-D model is compared with two previous 2-D inversion models along two perpendicular profiles. The main electrical features are confirmed with the new model and previous uncertainties regarding 3-D effects, caused by off-profile conductors, can be better assessed in 3-D, although the resolution is lower due to a coarser model discretization. The comparison with seismic sections along two north-south profiles reveals structural correspondence between electrical features, zones of different reflectivity and geological units.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    post-print
  • 50.
    Hübert, Juliane
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Smirnov, Maxim
    Oulu University, Finland.
    Tryggvason, Ari
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    Pedersen, Laust B.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Geofysik.
    MT measurements in the western part of the Paleoproterozoic Skellefte Ore District, Northern Sweden: a contribution to an integrated geophysical study2009Inngår i: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 475, nr 3-4, s. 493-502Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A 2D conductivity model of the Kristineberg area in the Skellefte Ore District, Northern Sweden, has been derived from new magnetotelluric measurements. This complements an intensive geophysical and geological study of the area, including reflection seismics, gravity and aeromagnetic data modeling as well as geological field observations. In a pilot study, 20 broadband MT stations were installed in May 2007 along a 20 km long north–south profile. Dimensionality analysis shows that a 2D interpretation of the data is justified, although the presumed geoelectric strike direction of N75°E is not consistent over the whole profile. The new conductivity model of the upper crust agrees well with the results from the seismic studies. Interpreting both independent data sets confirms the major features from the previous model, such as the thickness of the Revsund granites in the south, the existence of a structural basement with metasedimentary origin, and gives new insight into the nature of the volcanic rocks and their possible mineral content.

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