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  • 1.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Förares användning av kommunikationsutrustning under färd: Del 1: Enkätstudie. Del 2: Användning enligt objektiv mätning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Av resultaten från denna enkät är något av det mest tydliga att saker som funnits i en bil en längre tid, exempelvis att ställa in radio, använda navigationsutrustning och prata i telefon, görs i betydligt högre utsträckning än nyare saker som att skicka meddelanden, surfa på internet eller spela spel. Överlag tycks det vara låg acceptans för de nyare företeelserna och en stor andel av urvalet tycker att det är felaktigt eller olämpligt att hålla på med dessa aktiviteter. Att prata i telefon med handsfree tycks uppfattas av många som säkrare och mer lämpligt än att inte använda det. Detta avspeglas även i inställning till införandet av förbud, där en relativt stor andel accepterar att det ska vara lagligt att använda handsfreefunktioner men att annan användning av kommunikationsutrustning borde förbjudas.

    I den andra delen genomfördes en mätning av mobilanvändning under färd genom installerande tav en mobilapp. Den genomförda undersökningen är den första av sitt slag åtminstone i Sverige, så att den, trots vissa brister och begränsningar, kan leverera information som hittills har varit okänt. I detta del diskuteras resultaten, även i förhållande till enkätsvaren, följt av en reflektion över metoden och möjliga förbättringar, som är önskvärda inför en fortsättningsstudie.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Eriksson, Gabriella
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Abadir Guirgis, Georg
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Bagdadi, Omar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sommarström, Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Läsbarhet av vägskyltar i form av LED-skylt: färgkombination och fontstorlekens betydelse för läsbarheten2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The readability of road signs was studied and in particular the LED format. The purpose of this study was to study the effect of color combination, font size and light conditions on readability. 101 students participated in the study, where 32 were men and 69 were women. Their age ranged from 18–66 years. The choice of subjects were driven by the study's purpose, i.e. for this study it was not of interest to study the differences between gender, age or eyesight. A statistical analysis was carried out to study how readability distances varied as a result of the combination of colors, font size and light conditions. Furthermore, illuminance was measured when the data collection occasions was conducted. Distances were examined both in daylight and in darkness. The results of the study show that the color combination of the LED-sign affects its readability. Signs with white text on blue, brown or green background could be read correctly at a greater distance than the signs with black text on white or orange background. The font size is also important for the readability and every increase in font size produces a significant difference in the distance that the sign can be read. The sign with the largest font size (300 mm) was read correctly from the longest distance. The signs were read even at greater distances in daylight than in darkness. The readability of the sign with the smallest font size 200 mm does not change significantly during the daylight compared to darkness conditions. These conclusive results demonstrate that all the variables studied are important for readability. It should be added that participants stood still during the trial when they scanned/read the signs and had free sight to the LED-sign.

  • 3.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Stakeholders’ opinions on a future in-vehicle alcohol detection system for prevention of drunk driving2015In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 336-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: There is a common understanding that driving under the influence of alcohol is associated with higher risk of being involved in crashes with injuries and possible fatalities as the outcome. Various countermeasures have therefore from time to time been taken by the authorities to prevent drunk driving. One of them has been the alcohol interlock. Up to now, interlocks have mainly been used by previously convicted drunk drivers and in the commercial road transport sector, but not in private cars.

    Objective and Method: New technology has today reached a level where broader implementation might be possible. To our knowledge, however, little is known about different stakeholders' opinions of a broader implementation of such systems. In order to increase that knowledge, we conducted a focus group study to collect in-depth thoughts from different stakeholders on this topic. Eight focus groups representing a broad societal span were recruited and conducted for the purpose.

    Results and Conclusions: The results show that most stakeholders thought that an integrated system for alcohol detection in vehicles might be beneficial in lowering the number of drunk driving crashes. They said that the system would probably mainly prevent driving by people who unintentionally and unknowingly drive under the influence of alcohol. The groups did, however, not regard the system as a final solution to the drunk driving problem, and believed that certain groups, such as criminals and alcoholics, would most likely find a way around the system.

    Concerns were raised about the risk of increased sleepy driving and driving just under the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit. The results also indicate that stakeholders preferred a system that provides information on the BAC up to the legal limit, but not for levels above the limit; for those, the system should simply prevent the car from starting. Acceptance of the system depended on the reliability of the system, on its ability to perform fast sampling, and on the analytical process, as well as the system's more or less inconspicuous placement and user-friendliness. The stakeholders thought that drivers would probably not voluntarily demand the system. So if broad implementation was desired, it would have to be made compulsory by legislation. As an incentive to increase demand, lower taxes and insurance premiums were suggested.

  • 4.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms Universitet.
    An on-road study of sleepiness in split shifts among city bus drivers2018In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 114, p. 71-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bus drivers often work irregular hours or split shifts and their work involves high levels of stress. These factors can lead to severe sleepiness and dangerous driving. This study examined how split shift working affects sleepiness and performance during afternoon driving. An experiment was conducted on a real road with a specially equipped regular bus driven by professional bus drivers.

    The study had a within-subject design and involved 18 professional bus drivers (9 males and 9 females) who drove on two afternoons; one on a day in which they had driven early in the morning (split shift situation) and one on a day when they had been off duty until the test (afternoon shift situation). The hypothesis tested was that split shifts contribute to sleepiness during afternoon, which can increase the safety risks. The overall results supported this hypothesis. In total, five of the 18 drivers reached levels of severe sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale ≥8) with an average increase in KSS of 1.94 when driving in the afternoon after working a morning shift compared with being off duty in the morning. This increase corresponded to differences observed between shift workers starting and ending a night shift. The Psychomotor Vigilance Task showed significantly increased response time with split shift working (afternoon: 0.337. s; split shift 0.347. s), as did the EEG-based Karolinska Drowsiness Score mean/max. Blink duration also increased, although the difference was not significant. One driver fell asleep during the drive. In addition, 12 of the 18 bus drivers reported that in their daily work they have to fight to stay awake while driving at least 2-4 times per month. While there were strong individual differences, the study clearly showed that shift-working bus drivers struggle to stay awake and thus countermeasures are needed in order to guarantee safe driving with split shift schedules.

  • 5.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Nykterhetsstödjande system: diskussioner i fokusgrupper2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a common understanding that driving under the influence of alcohol is associated with higher risk of being involved in crashes with injuries and possible fatalities as outcome. The aim with this study was to understand drivers’ vision of a future vehicle integrated system for alcohol detection. Eight focus groups with in total 47 participants representing different stakeholders were recruited and conducted for the purpose. The groups represented young drivers (18–19 years old), males (30–60 years old), females (30–60 years old), elderly (70–90 years old), former alcohol addicts, one group represented authorities and finally one represented retailors and rental car companies. The analysis was based solely on the transcriptions and the analysis was performed using inductive content analysis. The results show a clear view that such future vehicle integrated system will benefit a large group of drivers. They said that the system would probably mainly prevent driving by people who unintentionally and unknowingly drive under the influence of alcohol. The groups did, however, not regard the system as a final solution for the drunk driving problem, and believed that certain groups, such as criminals and alcoholics, would most likely find a way around the system. From the drivers point of view the system most truly should be invisible for the drivers. Feedback to the driver was seen as justified at levels below the legal limit, but not for levels above the limit: for those, the system should simply prevent the car from starting. Feedback should be given through sound or as a visual feedback. Reliability and trust to the system was rated as very important, and it was underlined that it was important that it was the drivers BAC that was detected not the passengers.

  • 6.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Filtness, Ashleigh
    Queensland University of Technology (QUT).
    Factors associated with self-reported driver sleepiness and incidents in city bus drivers2016In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, E-ISSN 1880-8026, Vol. 54, no 4, p. 337-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver fatigue has received increased attention during recent years and is now considered to be a major contributor to approximately 15-30% of all crashes. However, little is known about fatigue in city bus drivers. It is hypothesized that city bus drivers suffer from sleepiness, which is due to a combination of working conditions, lack of health and reduced sleep quantity and quality.

    The overall aim with the current study is to investigate if severe driver sleepiness, as indicated by subjective reports of having to fight sleep while driving, is a problem for city based bus drivers in Sweden and if so, to identify the determinants related to working conditions, health and sleep which contribute towards this. The results indicate that driver sleepiness is a problem for city bus drivers, with 19% having to fight to stay awake while driving the bus 2-3 times each week or more and nearly half experiencing this at least 2-4 times per month. In conclusion, severe sleepiness, as indicated by having to fight sleep during driving, was common among the city bus drivers. Severe sleepiness correlated with fatigue related safety risks, such as near crashes.

  • 7.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Nybom, Per
    ITRA AB.
    Bälte i buss: observationsstudie av användande och resenärers perspektiv2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to evaluate the seat belt usage in buses, to evaluate to what extent information about the need to use the seat belt are provided and to understand travelers' incentives of seatbelt usage. Based on the results the aim was to propose measures to increase the use of a belt when traveling by bus.

    Methods used are observational studies, discussion within focus groups and a web questionnaire. The results from the observation study showed that passenger seat belt usage was 92% in charter service, 50% in commercial liner traffic and 27% in regional liner traffic. The drivers' use was correspondingly 100% in charter service, 79% in commercial liner traffic and 85% in regional liner traffic. The results from the web questionnaire show a lower level of usage. The conclusion is that measures are needed to increase the user rate, especially in line traffic.

    In the observation study, drivers were asked if they remind the passengers to use the seat belt, in the same way the passengers were asked if they have received information when going but charter service or commercial liner traffic. In charter service, 86% experienced they had received information, in commercial liner traffic it was 61% and in regional liner traffic it was 19%. The conclusion is that there are major shortcomings in the information on the belt, which should be addressed, especially in line traffic.

    The decision to use a belt or not is individual. Factors like how old you are, what experience you're having on a safe bus, what kind of road you travel, when you travel and how you're looking at safety generally plays a part.

  • 8.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms universitet, Karolinska Institutet.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholms universitet.
    Radun, Igor
    University of Helsinki.
    Söderström, Beatrice
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Crash safety.
    Bussförares arbetstider kopplat till trötthet2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bus drivers often have irregular working hours and their work involve high levels of stress. These factors can lead to severe fatigue and the purpose of this study is to highlight how the working hours affect sleep, stress, fatigue and driving performance. The project includes four studies: questionnaire, sleep diaries and actigraphy, analyze of rosters and an experiment on real road with bus drivers. The hypotheses were that early morning shift, split shifts, long working hours and short hours of rest between shifts contribute to sleepiness, stress, fatigue and impaired driving performance, which together can result in increased safety. The overall results support these hypotheses. Generally, sleepiness and fatigue while driving are perceived as problems because drivers connect those factors with impaired driving performance, which increases the risk of incidents and accidents. In total 45 percent of all drivers had trouble at least twice a month to stay awake while driving and 19 percent had over the past decade been involved in an incident due fatigue. The experiment with split shift driving support these findings. The report concludes with a list of suggestions.

  • 9.
    Aretun, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Berg, Jessica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Malin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE.
    Eric, Sjögren
    Cykelpoolen i Sverige AB.
    Silvander, Therese
    Energikontor Norra Småland.
    GoMate – Diversifierad elfordonspool för den förtätade staden: slutrapport2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the GoMate project, EV sharing services has been tested in two residential areas located in the central city of Jönköping; services consisting of e-bikes, e-cargo bikes and e-cars. The aim of the project has been to investigate whether and to what extent EV sharing services can contribute to reduced car use in favor of the use of more sustainable mobility solutions. The results show that a diversified EV club has the potential to reduce car use. It is mainly the e-bike that replaces car trips for everyday travel, which in the long term can reduce car holdings in favor of the use of e-car services for occasional travel.

    However, if the potential is to be realized, price and business models are required for these services that stimulate reduced car use, considered as a process that can be expected to occur gradually over time. Such a process also needs to be supported by policy instruments and measures that limit car use in central city areas.

    If the potential is to be realized, the services also need to be scaled up considerably with respect to the number of vehicles per apartment. Although there was a relatively large EV club with a total of 17 (of which 15 were bicycles) vehicles for 160 households, which were tested in the project, it only had the capacity to supply a very small proportion of the residents' total travel, and with very little effects regarding reduction in energy use and carbon emissions.

  • 10.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Malin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Comfort First! Vehicle-Sharing Systems in Urban Residential Areas: The Importance for Everyday Mobility and Reduction of Car Use among Pilot Users2019In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 9, article id 2521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore to what extent a vehicle-sharing system (VSS) that includes electric bicycles and cars, connected to a block of apartments in a middle-sized city in Sweden, can cater for individuals' everyday mobility needs and reduce the need to own a car. The study connects to two different research areas: the usage of VSS and mobility transitions through pilot projects. Our results show a reluctance to voluntarily sacrifice comfort regarding everyday energy use. Owning and using a private car is to a high degree interpreted as convenient. The results from this study suggest that a VSS has the potential to satisfy mobility needs for people living in urban areas. However, in order for it to be successful, both in terms of satisfying mobility needs as well as being regarded as an attractive alternative to private car ownership, we argue that reconfiguration of modal choice and accessibility on different sociotechnical levels is a necessity. Interventions such as satisfactory public transport and better infrastructure for cycling and walking are suggested, as well as stricter parking regulations, banning cars in certain areas and making car use and ownership more expensive. In other words, the deployment of both soft and hard measures in combination is necessary.

  • 11.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Kollektivtrafikens betydelse för mobilitet och vardagsaktiviteter hos hushåll på landsbygd: intervjustudie2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    On behalf of the government, VTI has the commission to implement a study on effective and innovative solutions that can enhance people’s willingness and ability to use public transport in rural areas in Sweden. This interview study is part of the commission and aims to highlight local examples of how access to transport meet the needs for mobility and participation in everyday activities among residents in rural areas. The following questions should be answered:

    1) What positive and negative aspects of living in rural areas are described?

    2) How are different modes of transport used?

    3) To what extent can public transport meet their mobility needs?

    The empirical material consists of interviews with people from 14 households living in rural areas that are close to urban neighborhoods. The rural areas are in the municipality of Kinda in Östergötland, Falun in Dalarna and Östersund in Jämtland. The results present positive and negative aspects of living in rural areas, the use of different transport modes, perceived restrictions and benefits of using public transport, the importance of the car and the informants' suggestions for solutions that could increase the use of public transport. Measures and improvements that can increase the ability to travel by public transport and reduce car trips are: public transport that connects rural areas with public transport hubs to increase access to high-demand routes; coordination between publicly funded school transport and public transport; access to shops and services at hubs; coordination between counties to offer efficient public transport to main urban centers, considering geographical proximity rather than administrative borders; and, integration of a wide variety of different mobility tools such as car-pooling, ride-sharing, public and demand-responsive public transport as well as bike rental services.

  • 12.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    The importance of public transport for mobility and everyday activities among rural residents2019In: Social Sciences, ISSN 2076-0760, E-ISSN 2076-0760, Vol. 8, no 2, article id 58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A lack of transport opportunities has been shown to be a barrier for accessibility and social inclusion in contemporary society. In rural and sparsely populated areas, access to public transport is often poor compared to urban areas, leading to fewer possibilities to participate in normal relationships and activities among rural dwellers. Based on qualitative interviews with rural dwellers in Sweden, the aim of this study was to explore how access to transport can meet the needs of mobility and activity paation in everyday life and how different modes of transport are being used. The study has been permeated by the time-geographical perspective, which considers people's use of time and space and the restrictions they face in order to carry out activities, including travel. The results show that travel by private car plays a central role in realizing everyday activities for rural dwellers, as well as a perception of the car as being the norm in contemporary society. Frequent car use is the consequence of a combination of time-space restrictions, habit, and a lack of services, activities, and public transport in rural areas. Poor public transport services limit children's and adolescents' independent mobility in particular. Further, the physical environment influences the ability to use public transport, for example if roads and bus stops are seen as unsafe. Based on the results of the study, several measures and improvements are proposed that could increase mobility and accessibility in rural areas and reduce car dependency.

  • 13.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Henriksson, Malin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Bilisters användande av parkeringsanläggningar i centrala Göteborg: Orsaker, behov och konsekvenser för olika grupper2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Current trends in municipal parking policy show that the number of centrally located parking spaces is reducing. About 5 000 parking spaces will disappear in Gothenburg in the next few years. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reasons why people use parking facilities in central Gothenburg. The study is based on interviews with a total of 71 motorists at three parking facilities in central Gothenburg. Ideal types have been used as an analytic tool to highlight the essence of the interviews and put them into a context. Nine ideal types were identified in the interview material that describe why people use the car and parking facilities in central Gothenburg, such as lack of alternatives to the car, stressful everyday life, seasonal use, the car as a right, to bridge long distances, pragmatism, and for tourism. The results show that incentives to drive a car and the ability to choose transport modes are influenced by everyday structures as well as attitudes and experiences associated with different transport modes and transport systems. The conclusions are that the more complex everyday life people have, the more the working life and private life will be affected by parking measures. Public transport is perceived to be inadequate and time consuming, but many also consider public transport as a good alternative to the car.

  • 14.
    Ceci, Ruggero
    et al.
    Trafikverket.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Elektroluminiscent ljus: förstudie avseende tillämpningar för ökad synbarhet hos vägutrustningen2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report deals with the subject of electroluminescent light (EL-light) with regard to its potential application within the road traffic area. A specific focus lies within the visibility of the roadside equipment and the possibility to reinforce the visibility for vulnerable road users. EL-technology has been known since the beginning of the last century but was introduced as a commercial product sometimes in the 1980s. Within the present project a workshop has been carried out at VTI, with representatives from both road authorities and research, with the purpose to analyze EL-light and its application in different areas of road traffic. The results from this workshop constitute the main results of this study. In addition to this some minor tests have been carried out in order to demonstrate how the EL-light equipment functions in different environments. The main results from the workshop points out a number of possible applications for EL-technology in the road traffic area. These different applications were categorized into the following five main areas: 1. Attention, warning (e.g., lighting of pedestrian and bicycle lanes). 2. Marking, warning (e.g. rail platforms, harbor areas, bridges etc). 3. Evacuation, leadlight (e.g., tunnels, underground station facilities). 4. Vehicle lighting (e.g., bicycles, motorbikes, other two wheelers). 5. Road, traffic esthetics (e.g., roundabouts, bridges, tunnels etc.). The results from the demonstrations carried out within the project indicates a positive trend for the use of EL-light in the roadside environment, especially for the darkness tests where EL-panels reinforced the visibility of the objects in the road environment. The blinking light function seemed to give the best visibility in this particular test.

  • 15.
    Fors, Carina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Symboler i vägbanan: en sammanställning av gällande regelverk i Danmark, Finland, Norge, Sverige, Nederländerna, Storbritannien och Tyskland2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study has been to synthesize existing regulations and guiding principles for use of road marking symbols in the Nordic countries Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, together with the Netherlands, Great Britain and Germany. Additionally, a small literature study has been carried out in order to investigate what documented knowledge the regulations are based upon. Road marking symbols are used in a similar way in the studied countries. However, documented knowledge and research on what the symbols should look like are to a great extent missing. Therefore, it should be possible to standardize the road marking symbols within the Nordic countries, which could lead to a more homogeneous impression where the road users recognize and understand the information, at the same time as the application of the symbols could be simplified.

    In summary, the following road marking symbols could be of interest to standardize within the Nordic countries, regarding use, design and dimensions:

    • Lane arrows
    • Deflection arrows
    • Give way symbols
    • STOP text
    • Speed limit symbols
    • Road numbers
  • 16.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Vägbanereflektorer: trafikantbeteende, upplevelse och bidrag2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of this study was to increase the knowledge about road studs’ potential impact on road user behavior, how they are perceived and the possible contribution they make to other road equipment. The study consisted of three parts. Part one was a literature study, part two was a field study with speed measurements in a sharp rural road curve equipped with road studs either on the center or the right edge line, and part three was an interview study. The results from the literature review showed that there were relatively few studies on road studs and road user behavior. The general conclusion was that the use of road studs seems to increase speeds slightly, while the lateral position will be shifted slightly in the direction from the markings. The results from the speed measurements in a sharp curve equipped with active illuminated road studs showed no significant differences in speed in any of the conditions. The results from the interview study showed that the first contact with the studs was perceived that something had been done in order to attract attention on something, which created curiosity, but also uncertainty about what to expect and how to act ahead. An impression of a slight help to determine the road's stretching before entering the curve was expressed, but at the same time, some competition from delineator posts of the visual space was experienced which created a sense of visual overload. It was thought that non-familiar drivers, probably would reduce the speed slightly ahead of the curve when they noticed the road studs. Familiar drivers were regarded not to be affected in this sense. Regarding what unique contribution the use of road studs could give, it was expressed that they could help road users by warning that a sharp curve that required special adaptation approached. However, the overall perception was that road studs most likely would not contribute much in improving the visual guidance through curves. Instead, it was considered that road markings and delineator posts would usually be sufficient.

  • 17.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System. K2.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Scholten, Christina
    Malmö Högskola.
    Johansson, Sofie
    Malmö Högskola.
    Hot och våld mot bussförare och tågvärdar2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I studien har befintlig statistik över inrapporterat hot och våld bland bussförare och tågvärdar analyserats. Den kvalitativ ansatsen i studien bygger på intervjuer med medarbetare och chefer i trafikföretagen. Sammanlagt har 29 bussförare och tågvärdar intervjuats (16 tågvärdar och 12 bussförare), samt 7 chefer i olika befattningar i de två bolagen. Med detta som utgångspunkt har ett antal potentiala åtgärder identiferats och kategoriserats som aktörssamverkan eller organisationsutveckling. Aktörssamverkan handlar om att utveckla samverkan och tydligheten mot kund i avgörande frågor som biljettaviseringer etc. Det är framförallt samverkan mellan trafikföretag och kollektivtrafikmyndighet som är avgörande. Självklart ska även förarna vara med i denna dialog. Organisationsutveckling handlar om att ta fram, tydligt kommunicera och följa upp riktlinjer till förare och tågvärdare. Detta är framförallt viktigt när det gäller färdbeviskontroll. Det handlar även om att förbättra tillbudsrapporteringen och de förutsättningar och vilkor som desas omges med. Det måste vara tydligt att rapporteringen är viktigt, vad som ska rapporteras, när och hur, men även vad den leder till. Vidare är värderingar och värdegrundsarbete en sannolikt en viktig fråga att jobba med. I detta ingår att ha en gemensam sund företagskultur, en tydlighet i vilken roll medarbetare har i olika situationer, diskrimineringsgrunder etc. Medarbetarperspektiv är en viktigt dimension. Att se till att de förare och tågvärdar har en repetoar med svar till de som inte vill visa giligt färdbevis förväntas vara en lämplig åtgärd.

  • 18.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Kecklund, Göran
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Split-shift work in relation to stress, health and psychosocial work factors among bus drivers2017In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 531-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Shift work has been associated with poor health, sleep and fatigue problems and low satisfaction with working hours. However, one type of shift working, namely split shifts, have received little attention.

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined stress, health and psychosocial aspects of split-shift schedules among bus drivers in urban transport.

    METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed to drivers working more than 70% of full time which 235 drivers in total answered.

    RESULTS: In general, drivers working split-shift schedules (n = 146) did not differ from drivers not working such shifts (n = 83) as regards any of the outcome variables that were studied. However, when individual perceptions towards split-shift schedules were taken into account, a different picture appeared. Bus drivers who reported problems working split shifts (36%) reported poorer health, higher perceived stress, working hours interfering with social life, lower sleep quality, more persistent fatigue and lower general work satisfaction than those who did not view split shifts as a problem. Moreover, drivers who reported problems with split shifts also perceived lower possibilities to influence working hours, indicating lower work time control.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that split shifts were not associated with increased stress, poorer health and adverse psychosocial work factors for the entire study sample. However, the results showed that individual differences were important and approximately one third of the drivers reported problems with split shifts, which in turn was associated with stress, poor health and negative psychosocial work conditions. More research is needed to understand the individual and organizational determinants of tolerance to split shifts.

  • 19.
    Jopson, Ann
    et al.
    ITS Leeds.
    Batley, Richard
    ITS Leeds.
    Tanner, Reto
    ITS Leeds.
    Olstam, Johan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Jamson, Samantha
    ITS Leeds.
    Nellthorp, John
    ITS Leeds.
    Carsten, Oliver
    ITS Leeds.
    Scenarios for green driving support systems2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work package developed a range of future scenarios with varying degrees of green driver support, considering technological, human and political perspectives. These scenarios will be used in the microsimulation (WP53) and the scaling-up (WP54). Focus groups and a survey were carried out, as well as aggregation to the vehicle market. In the focus group discussions, eco-driving systems were valued for heavy vehicle, fleet markets and individual drivers, with commercial buyers sensitive to costs and HMI, but private buyers concerned with engine type and fuel economy – both relating to costs. In the survey, purchasers indicated that they were willing to pay substantially more for a built in advice system as compared with a mobile phone app.

  • 20.
    Kecklund, Göran
    et al.
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Radun, Igor
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Ingre, Michael
    Stockholms Universitet.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Bus drivers' working hours and their effects on sleep and fatigue2014In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869, Vol. 23, p. 286-287Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Kircher, Katja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Cyclist efficiency and its dependence on infrastructure and usual speed2018In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 54, p. 148-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bicyclists are a heterogeneous group, with varying abilities, traffic education and experience. While efficiency was identified as an important factor on utility bicycle trips, it might be traded for experienced safety, for example by choosing different pathways in a given situation, or by relinquishing one's right of way. In a semi-controlled study with 41 participants, a grouping was made according to self-reported riding speed in relation to other cyclists. The participants cycled twice along a 3 km inner-city route, passing four intersections with different priority rules. The cyclists were free to choose how to negotiate the intersections. Speed and the traffic surroundings were recorded via gps and cameras on the bike of the participant and of a following experimenter. For each cyclist, the ‘base’ speed on undisturbed segments was determined as reference. Based on this, the efficiency in different types of intersections was computed per cyclist group. It turned out that infrastructural aspects, cyclist group and the presence and behaviour of interacting traffic influenced cyclist efficiency. Faster cyclists were delayed more when the infrastructure required a stop regardless of the traffic situation, like at a red traffic light or a stop sign. The members of the so-called ‘comfort cyclists’ group were delayed the most in a roundabout with mixed traffic, where many chose to get off their bike and walk. In a society working for equality of access to the transport system, it is recommended to develop solutions that consider and accommodate the behaviours of different cyclist groups when planning bicycling infrastructure.

  • 22.
    Kircher, Katja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Cyklisters interaktion med extrautrustning, infrastrukturen och andra trafikanter: En semi-kontrollerad fältstudie2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How cyclists interact with the infrastructure, and how they integrate the handling of additional tasks, is dependent on the surrounding traffic situation and the cyclists’ characteristics. To study these relationships, a semi-controlled field study was conducted with 41 cyclists, who belonged to different cyclist groups with respect to their usual travel speed during transport trips. Speed, gaze direction and tactical behaviour like choice of path and the interaction with incoming text messages was logged, while the cyclists travelled along a six kilometre long route in the inner city of Linköping. Interviews and think aloud protocols, as well as video recordings from different perspectives were employed as well.

    It was common that the cyclists ignored incoming text messages, a third was answered directly while cycling. The texting while cycling did not lead to attentional decrements, because the cyclists adapted their interaction with the telephone to the prevailing traffic situation. The interaction with the phone did not differ substantially between cyclist groups. However, the design of the infrastructure affected the cyclist groups differently, where faster cyclists were delayed more in cases where the infrastructure necessitated stops regardless of the traffic situation, while comfort cyclists were the group delayed most in a roundabout that was difficult to interpret. Cycling on the pavement was common, and it mainly reflects the insecurity experienced in mixed traffic with cars. It is important to consider the different needs of different cyclist types when planning the road infrastructure, to avoid irritation, insecurity and conflicts.

  • 23.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Samband mellan hastighet och belysning2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between spontaneous choice of speed and lighting level on streets with stationary light has been studied. On ten streets in Linköping, the speed of cars which were not disturbed by other traffic, was measured. These measurements were carried out both during daylight and darkness conditions, where the daylight condition measurements were used as reference. The dependent variable was the difference between speed in daylight and darkness. The hypothesis was that this difference would be high (including sign) on streets with high illuminance level and low on streets with lower lighting level. One important question was if low lighting levels would result in lower speeds that would compensate for the worse visibility of objects in or close to the street. If so, there would be a positive effect on energy and environment without making impairing traffic safety.

  • 24.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Samband mellan vägbelysningsnivå och spontant vald hastighet: förstudie2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    If something in the road environment is improved, there is always a risk that the drivers will compensate for the better conditions by increasing speed. As an example, one study showed that the introduction of delineator posts in Finland increased the average speed by as much as 10 km/h on curvy roads. Another study, carried out in Norway, showed an increase in speed of 1 – 5 per cent when road lighting was put up. Therefore, one reasonable hypothesis is that speed will increase with increasing lighting level. The primary purpose with this study was to test a method for measurement of spontaneous choice of speed related to lighting level. This means studying the speed chosen by a driver when he or she is not disturbed by other traffic. Space mean speed was measured by the use of an instrumented vehicle which could register speed continuously. Furthermore, this vehicle was equipped with a video front camera which made it possible to afterwards reject measurements which were not undisturbed. Each subject drove the test road, which had an illumination level of 0 to 30 lx, at off-peak hours both in daylight and darkness. The speed limit on all test sections was 50 km/h, all sections dry and illuminated on one side, only. However, one section had no stationary lighting at all. The method for data collection worked out, but was slow. The results show a weak, but clear tendency to higher speed with higher illumination level. The number of subjects, six, were small, therefore significant results should not be expected.

  • 25.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion år 2012: sammanfattande resultat från Sverige2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarizes the results of the condition assessment of road markings in Sweden 2012. The measurements have been carried out using the mobile system Road Marking Tester which mainly is built up of a reflectometer and an optocator. The two units register the retroreflectivity and the macro-texture of the road marking, respectively. From these measures, the retroreflectivity of a wet road marking can be predicted, which has been done on roads with ADT > 4000 vehicles. Measurements were accomplished on 292 objects in total, each approximately 10 km of length. The objects were chosen randomly and spread all over Sweden. In each object three longitudinal road markings were measured: two edge lines and one centre- or laneline.

  • 26.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion år 2012: Trafikverket Region Mitt2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande notat redovisas tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion. Det är en av sex notat som redovisar mätningar i olika delar av landet. Mätningarna har utförts med det mobila systemet Road Marking Tester, vars två centrala komponenter är en reflektometer av typ LTL-M och en optokator för mätning av vägmarkerings makrotextur. Från retroreflexionen och texturen har våta vägmarkeringar skattats på vägar med ÅDT > 4000 fordon. Sammanlagt har mätningar gjorts på 292 cirka 10 km långa objekt, vilka hade valts slumpmässigt, jämnt fördelade över hela landet. I varje objekt på tvåfältsväg mättes de tre delobjekten höger och vänster kantlinje samt mittlinjen.

  • 27.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion år 2012: Trafikverket Region Norr2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande notat redovisas tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion. Det är en av sex notat som redovisar mätningar i olika delar av landet. Mätningarna har utförts med det mobila systemet Road Marking Tester, vars två centrala komponenter är en reflektometer av typ LTL-M och en optokator för mätning av vägmarkerings makrotextur. Från retroreflexionen och texturen har våta vägmarkeringar skattats på vägar med ÅDT > 4000 fordon. Sammanlagt har mätningar gjorts på 292 cirka 10 km långa objekt, vilka hade valts slumpmässigt, jämnt fördelade över hela landet. I varje objekt på tvåfältsväg mättes de tre delobjekten höger och vänster kantlinje samt mittlinjen.

  • 28.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion år 2012: Trafikverket Region Stockholm2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande notat redovisas tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion. Det är en av sex notat som redovisar mätningar i olika delar av landet. Mätningarna har utförts med det mobila systemet Road Marking Tester, vars två centrala komponenter är en reflektometer av typ LTL-M och en optokator för mätning av vägmarkerings makrotextur. Från retroreflexionen och texturen har våta vägmarkeringar skattats på vägar med ÅDT > 4000 fordon. Sammanlagt har mätningar gjorts på 292 cirka 10 km långa objekt, vilka hade valts slumpmässigt, jämnt fördelade över hela landet. I varje objekt på tvåfältsväg mättes de tre delobjekten höger och vänster kantlinje samt mittlinjen.

  • 29.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion år 2012: Trafikverket Region Syd2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande notat redovisas tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion. Det är en av sex notat som redovisar mätningar i olika delar av landet. Mätningarna har utförts med det mobila systemet Road Marking Tester, vars två centrala komponenter är en reflektometer av typ LTL-M och en optokator för mätning av vägmarkerings makrotextur. Från retroreflexionen och texturen har våta vägmarkeringar skattats på vägar med ÅDT > 4000 fordon. Sammanlagt har mätningar gjorts på 292 cirka 10 km långa objekt, vilka hade valts slumpmässigt, jämnt fördelade över hela landet. I varje objekt på tvåfältsväg mättes de tre delobjekten höger och vänster kantlinje samt mittlinjen.

  • 30.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion år 2012: Trafikverket Region Väst2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande notat redovisas tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion. Det är en av sex notat som redovisar mätningar i olika delar av landet. Mätningarna har utförts med det mobila systemet Road Marking Tester, vars två centrala komponenter är en reflektometer av typ LTL-M och en optokator för mätning av vägmarkerings makrotextur. Från retroreflexionen och texturen har våta vägmarkeringar skattats på vägar med ÅDT > 4000 fordon. Sammanlagt har mätningar gjorts på 292 cirka 10 km långa objekt, vilka hade valts slumpmässigt, jämnt fördelade över hela landet. I varje objekt på tvåfältsväg mättes de tre delobjekten höger och vänster kantlinje samt mittlinjen.

  • 31.
    Lundkvist, Sven-Olof
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Yahya, Mohammad Reza
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion år 2012: Trafikverket Region Öst2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I föreliggande notat redovisas tillståndsmätningar av vägmarkeringars funktion. Det är en av sex notat som redovisar mätningar i olika delar av landet. Mätningarna har utförts med det mobila systemet Road Marking Tester, vars två centrala komponenter är en reflektometer av typ LTL-M och en optokator för mätning av vägmarkerings makrotextur. Från retroreflexionen och texturen har våta vägmarkeringar skattats på vägar med ÅDT > 4000 fordon. Sammanlagt har mätningar gjorts på 292 cirka 10 km långa objekt, vilka hade valts slumpmässigt, jämnt fördelade över hela landet. I varje objekt på tvåfältsväg mättes de tre delobjekten höger och vänster kantlinje samt mittlinjen.

  • 32.
    Niska, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Henriksson, Malin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Svedberg, Wanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wehtje, Philip
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Cykling bland barn och unga: en kunskapssammanställning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cycling among children and young adults has decreased, resulting in negative effects on their health and independent mobility. The Swedish government has commissioned VTI to review and compile knowledge on plausible reasons, based on literature reviews, contacts with relevant players and analyses of travel surveys and accident statistics. The statistics showed that the number of individuals who cycle has decreased, whereas the cycled distance remains unchanged. Above all, recreational cycling among children and young adults has decreased, which could be explained by longer distances to recreational activities, more parents working full-time and children’s everyday lives having become more institutionalised. Cycling to school has also decreased. Among other things, families being able to choose what school the children attend has resulted in greater distances between the home and the school. Other reasons include households owning more cars, changes in the way children play and communicate, and inadequate actual and perceived safety conditions along cycle lanes combined with parents’ perceptions of their children’s highway skills. Cycling has been partially replaced by car journeys, but mainly by walking and use of public transport. Cycling has decreased the most among older children. As they have primarily replaced cycling by public transport, one explanation could be that more of them are offered free bus passes. There is a great commitment and competency among various players regarding cycling among children and young adults. However, there is a great need for better coordination and for actions and measures taken to be systematically evaluated.

  • 33.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Bicyclists' adaptation strategies when interacting with text messages in urban environments2018In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 377-388Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyclists' use of mobile phones in traffic has typically been studied in controlled experiments. How cyclists adapt their behaviour when they are not limited to a certain set of behaviours has not been investigated to any large extent. The aims of this study are to explore how cyclists adapt when texting and listening to music in a complex urban environment, and if they compensate sufficiently to maintain safe traffic behaviour. Forty-one cyclists participated in a semi-controlled study, using their own bike and smartphone in real traffic. They were equipped with eye tracking glasses and travelled two laps completing a total of 6 km divided into six segments. For one of the laps, the cyclists were requested to listen to music. On three occasions, they received a text message to their phone, which they were supposed to handle as they normally would when cycling. Static minimum required attention measures were used to examine the influence on attention. The results show that listening to music while cycling did not affect workload, speed, SMS interaction or attention. Seven different adaptation behaviours were identified when the cyclists dealt with received text messages. One-fourth of the text messages were replied to while cycling. In general, the cyclists manage to integrate SMS interactions with their cycling behaviour. Nevertheless, there were two occasions when basic attention criteria were violated while texting, which motivate further studies.

  • 34.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Kriterier för vägbelysning på statlig väg i och i anslutning till mindre tätorter på landsbygd: Resultat från litteraturstudie, intervjuer och projektmöte2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the prevailing road lighting guidelines, roads and streets in urban areas should be equipped with road lighting, while roads outside of urban areas normally do not need to be equipped with road lighting. Vägar och gators utformning (VGU) contains guidelines that are mandatory for public roads but advisory for municipality roads and streets. The need of road lighting on public roads outside of urban areas has been discussed between the road authorities, i.e. the Swedish Transport Administration and the municipalities.

    The aim of this study is to produce a proposal of new criteria for use of road lighting on public roads in and in connection to smaller populated areas in the countryside. This has mainly been done by a literature review of guidelines and research studies about road users’ needs and the effect of road lighting, as well as through interviews with persons responsible for road lighting in Swedish municipalities. A list containing possible criteria was compiled and discussed at a meeting with the project group for the project “Kriterier för belysning på statlig väg”, which is a group with common members from Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions (SALAR) and Swedish Transport Administration. The participants at the meeting found the following criteria interesting to apply.

    A public road on the countryside should be equipped with road lighting if:

    1. the road runs through an urban area
    2. there is a local plan where there is mixed traffic on a national arterial road
    3. there are establishments and services that generate vulnerable road users close by the road, e.g. schools, churches, community centers, gymnasiums, health care centers, museums, train stations, ferry quays or similar
    4. there are passages for pedestrians and cyclists or speed reducing measures along the road
    5. there are commuter stops, including train and boat
    6. prevailing requirements on AADT in VGU are fulfilled.
  • 35.
    Strand, Niklas
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    A case-study on drivers' mental model of partial driving automation2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The scope of this case-study was the development of driver's mental models of partial driving automation. For an adoption decision to be made, and to facilitate use of driving automation mental models are important. Systems such as Volvo´s Pilot Assist has been included as standard equipment in recent cars and drivers has the option to incorporate these systems in their driving. In our study drivers were interviewed when they had decided to buy a new car, at the delivery, one week after delivery, and finally after four months of owning it. The results suggest that mental models develop over time and may explain behaviour outcomes (system usage). Prior knowledge and the interplay between theoretical and practical experience are important factors for the development of the mental model and to help the driver over a threshold. A tentative conclusion is that drivers could be supported when introduced to automated driving systems.

  • 36.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forsman, Åsa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Gustafsson, Susanne
    NTF.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Alkohol och cykling: en multidisciplinär studie2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although previous studies have shown that alcohol impairment can be a contributing factor in cycling accidents, there is currently relatively little knowledge of the connection(s) between alcohol and cycling. The overall aim of this study was therefore to increase the knowledge of alcohol associated with cycling. The study is divided into two different parts; an analysis of the Swedish Road Administration’s in-deep data on killed cyclists and an interview study analyzed from three different perspectives; a social psychological, an emotional sociological and a phenomenographic. While the analysis of the in-deep data resulted in detailed statistics on the accidents involving alcohol impaired cyclists, the interview study resulted in a deeper understanding of cyclists' beliefs, emotions and perceptions regarding alcohol and cycling. Based on these results, information and/or campaigns to reduce the prevalence of alcohol impaired cycling as well as the amount of alcohol associated with cycling, is recommended. However, the introduction of a legal alcohol limit or improved public transport is not recommended in order to reduce the number of cyclists affected by alcohol and/or to improve the safety of those bicycling during alcohol impairment.

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