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  • 1.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Trafikanalys .
    Landscape heritage objects' effect on driving: a combined driving simulator and questionnaire study.2014In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 62, p. 168-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the literature, landscape (panoramas, heritage objects e.g. landmarks) affects people in various ways. Data are primarily developed by asking people (interviews, photo sessions, focus groups) about their preferences, but to a lesser degree by measuring how the body reacts to such objects. Personal experience while driving a car through a landscape is even more rare.

    In this paper we study how different types of objects in the landscape affect drivers during their drive. A high-fidelity moving-base driving simulator was used to measure choice of speed and lateral position in combination with stress (heart rate measure) and eye tracking. The data were supplemented with questionnaires. Eighteen test drivers (8 men and 10 women) with a mean age of 37 were recruited. The test drivers were exposed to different new and old types of landscape objects such as 19th century church, wind turbine, 17th century milestone and bus stop, placed at different distances from the road driven.

    The findings are in some respect contradictory, but it was concluded that that 33% of the test drivers felt stressed during the drive. All test drivers said that they had felt calm at times during the drive but the reason for this was only to a minor degree connected with old and modern objects. The open landscape was experienced as conducive to acceleration. No significant differences could be observed concerning the test drivers' gaze between old or modern objects, but a significant difference was observed between the test drivers' gaze between road stretches with faraway objects and stretches without objects.

  • 2.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Crash Barriers and Driver Behavior: A Simulator Study2013In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 874-880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The study examines how drivers experience a conventional W-beam guardrail (metal crash barrier) along both sides of narrow versus wider roads (single carriageway with 2 lanes) in terms of stress, feelings, and driving patterns and whether subjective experience concurs with the actual driving patterns captured by the quantitative data.

    Methods: The study used different methods to capture data, including the VTI Driving Simulator III (speed and lateral vehicle position) in conjunction with electrocardiogram (ECG) data on heart rate variability (HRV) and questionnaires (oral during driving and written after driving). Eighteen participants-8 men and 10 women-were recruited for the simulator study and the simulator road section was 10 km long.

    Results: Driving speeds increased slightly on the wider road and on the road with a crash barrier, and the lateral driving position was nearer to the road center on the narrower road and on the road with a crash barrier. The HRV data did not indicate that participants experienced greater stress due to road width or due to the presence of a crash barrier. Participant experience captured in the oral questionnaires suggested that road width did not affect driver stress or driving patterns; however, the written questionnaire results supported the simulator data, indicating that a wider road led to increased speed. None of the participants felt that crash barriers made them feel calmer.

    Conclusions: We believe that there is a possibility that the increased speed on roads with crash barriers may be explained by drivers’ sense of increased security. This study demonstrates that an experimental design including experience-based data captured using both a simulator and questionnaires is productive. It also demonstrates that driving simulators can be used to study road features such as crash barriers. It seems more than likely that features such as street lamps, signs, and landscape objects could be tested in this way. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  • 3.
    Hjort, Mattias
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Andersson, Håkan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sundström, Jerker
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    A test method for evaluating safety aspects of ESC equipped passenger cars: a prototype proposal2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Active safety systems are becoming increasingly common in today's vehicles. Electronic Stability Control (ESC) systems were introduced during the end of the 1990s, and accident statistics show that they have had a huge impact on traffic safety. In the USA, a new legislation has recently been adopted which demands on every new light vehicle that is sold to be equipped with ESC, beginning 2011. New systems require new testing methods, and there is a need expressed by the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP), which at present time only evaluates the passive safety of cars, also to include tests for active safety systems. In a previous VTI work, a literature review regarding methods for the evaluation of traffic safety effects of Antilock Braking Systems (ABS) and ESC was performed. Based on the findings of that review, we have proceeded with defining a test method for evaluating safety aspects of ESC equipped passenger cars. The objective has been to suggest a (prototype) test method that can be used for a more holistic evaluation of the safety effect of ESC in cars, including the driver behaviour perspective. From discussions with leading experts on traffic safety and ESC, possible benefits of ESC systems on traffic safety were identified. In addition to increasing the yaw stability of the vehicle, the following ESC benefit effects were identified: - A warning system for slippery roads. ESC activation indication may act as a warning system to the driver about slippery road conditions. - Reduced collision speed. In a critical situation, ESC activation may reduce the collision speed, which will mitigate the outcome of the collision. - Improved vehicle roll stability. The ESC system may also stabilise the vehicle with respect to untripped rollovers. Most rollovers are however tripped rollovers, which can occur when a vehicle, with some lateral slip, strikes an object or slides off the road. These rollovers also benefit from the ESC system as it aids in keeping the vehicle on the road.

  • 4.
    Ihs, Anita
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Andren, Peter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mård Berggren, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sjögren, Leif
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Utformning av väg och vägyta för säkerhet, komfort och hälsa: en förstudie2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    During summer 2002 a special directive about employees' health and security at exposure to risks due to vibrations during work, also called "Physical agents vibration directive" (Directive 2002/44/EC), was adopted by the EC. The member states had until July 6th 2005 to transfer the directive into the national legislation. Certainly the condition of parts of the road network can be such that the vibration levels that professional drivers are exposed to exceed the limits that are given in the vibration directive. VTI has therefore been commissioned to carry out a pilot study including a survey of the responsibility of the Swedish Road Administration (SRA) as well as the interpretation of the directive made by the Swedish Work Environment Authority, but also to study how different designs of the road's longitudinal profile may give rise to vibrations that are harmful or uncomfortable to humans. The present pilot study has included a literature survey concerning vibrations and their influence on humans with particular reference to roads and their design, demonstration measurements of road geometry and vibrations and analyses of these with regard to the directive as well as discussions on suitable measures for health risks or discomfort during travel on road.

  • 5.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Handikappvetenskap.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Linköpings universitet, Psykologi.
    Marcusson, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Geriatrik.
    Emotion and recollective experience in Alzheimer’s diseaseManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotional changes are common in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In addition, damage to brain regions involved in emotion is abundant in AD. Although these finding imply that emotion memory is severely compromised in AD, absolute or relative sparing of emotional memory has occasionally been reported. Hence, we wanted to clarify how well AD patients can remember emotion words. Eighteen AD patients and fifteen healthy older persons participated in the experiment. Participants studied neutral, positive, and negative words. Implicit and explicit memory was assessed in two tasks: a word-fragment completion task and a recognition task, respectively. In the latter task, participants were asked to provide recollective judgments when they indicated that they recognized a word from previous study. Results indicated that AD patients responded to valence, and in particular negative valence, similar to controls, that AD patients evidenced severe deficits as to recollective experience, and that implicit memory remained intact in AD.

  • 6.
    Levin, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sagberg, Fridulv
    TØI.
    Older car drivers in Norway and Sweden: studies of accident involvement, visual search behaviour, attention and hazard perception2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hazardous situations for older drivers and older drivers' accident involvement and visual behaviour in complex traffic situations have been studied in the reported research project. Three main methods have been used: 1) a thorough accident analysis of police reported accidents in Norway, 2) a literature study on existing research on older drivers' behaviour (i.e. cognitive aspects on car driving) and accident involvement, and 3) experimental studies comprising visual and perception tests accomplished in Norway and Sweden and a field study on the road, accomplished in Sweden. In the experimental study and in the field study it was found significantly more individual differences among the older than among the younger drivers in the samples from Norway and Sweden. From in depth analyses of fatal crashes in Norway during the years 2005-2007 it was found that tiredness was the most often suspected cause of the accident among the group aged 35-55 years (28 %) and the second most often suspected cause in the group aged 75+ (19 %). Illness could be the cause of the accident twice as often among the older drivers (28 %) as in the younger control group (14 %). Concerning suicide, the situation could be the reverse with more deliberate actions among the younger (11 %) compared to the older drivers (6 %)

  • 7.
    Levin, Lena (red.)
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Heikkinen, Satu
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nielsen, Benny
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Äldre i transportsystemet: mobilitet, design och träningsproblematik2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Generally, more elderly will be travelling and be out on the roads as active road-users in the future. Research exists on the travelling habits of the elderly; but more in-depth knowledge on the elderly's preferences as license-holders, drivers, road-users and actors in public transport is required. The aim of this report is to give an overview of previous research as well as to indicate a number of directions for future research on the mobility of the elderly as actors within the transport system. The work has a clear multidisciplinary approach, with knowledge from social science, behavioural science and technical research on transport and the elderly. However, the main weight lays on social science and behavioural science issues. The report is divided into eleven chapters: 1) contains a short background, purpose and method questions; 2) discusses the project's scientific and social relevance; 3) provides theoretical background and theoretical concepts; 4) mentions previous research on the elderly as car drivers; 5) is a chapter on license-less vehicles; 6) discusses traffic and road design for the elderly; 7) discusses the elderly as pedestrians and bicycle road-users; 8) is about the elderly in public transport and 9) is about the training of elderly drivers. Chapter 10) consists of a final discussion and chapter 11) summarises point by point the need for research on issues which have come to light in the report

  • 8.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Matstoms, Ylva
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sundström, Jerker
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Östlund, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Methods for the evaluation of traffic safety effects of Antilock Braking System (ABS) and Electronic Stability Control (ESC): a literature review2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In today's vehicles, active safety systems are introduced addressing a large variety of safety issues such as providing optimal stability control, braking effect, preventing spin and rollover, as well as collision avoidance, to mention just a few. In this study a literature review was performed in order to establish how the traffic safety performances of active safety systems with focus on Antilock Braking System (ABS) and Electronic Stability Control (ESC) are assessed. The areas covered were statistical evaluation, testing and driver behaviour. The literature review showed that in particular statistical methods, based on odds ratios, had been used in order to evaluate the traffic safety effect. In order to evaluate the effect of ESC in physical testing there are several test methods described in this report. Estimations of driver behaviour effects have been carried out by surveys among vehicle owners. Experiments performed in field or in simulator have also been found in the literature. From EU projects a variety of measures and test methods are available for assessment of driver behavioural effects.

  • 9.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sundström, Jerker
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Methods for evaluation of Electronic Stability Control (ESC): a literature review2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Mård, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bussförares arbetsmiljö2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to describe the working environment of bus drivers according to contemporary research. The result of the study is supposed to act as basis for future development of the working environment of bus drivers. The study comprises the following three parts: Part one - An introductory interview study with bus driver employers. Part two - A literature review on recent research on bus drivers' working environment. Part three - A questionnaire study with bus drivers in active service. The three parts of the study gave a somewhat diversified picture of what is the centre of attention for the different groups when it comes to the working environment of bus drivers. Furthermore the results implicate that there is a lot of work that needs to be done in order to improve the physical and psychosocial working environment of bus drivers. It seems important to strive for consensus between bus driver, employers and vehicle developers with the purpose of developing an optimal working environment for bus drivers.

  • 11.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction. Linköpings universitet, Psykologi.
    Cognitive erosion and its implications in Alzheimer’s disease2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present thesis was twofold, first to map the semantic memory decline in Alzheimer patients over time, second to take the patient’s perspective and create a multifaceted picture of the individual with Alzheimer’s disease through the study of memory, awareness, central coherence and emotions. Further issues concerned how Alzheimer individuals handled their cognitive erosion in everyday life and if they were well calibrated with their spouse in disease related matters.

    Two studies were performed, the first involved a longitudinal study of sematic deterioration, the second had a mixed methods design involving both quantitative and qualitative measures as in neuropsychological assessment and interviews.

    Through the longitudinal study it could be concluded that the nature of semantic deterioration is best described as loss of memory information rather than problems in accessing the information. It was further concluded that semantic concepts gradually lose their specific features during course of illness.

    The results from the second study revealed that the Alzheimer individuals were aware of their disease although they could not foresee the implications of their cognitive shortcomings in their everyday life. They evidenced weak central coherence, in that they were unable to infer details into a meaningful whole. This implies that they perceive their surrounding world in a fragmented way as consisting of separate objects rather than a comprehensible context. Concerning emotions it was found that they responded to negatively valenced words in the same way as normal ageing individuals, although being impaired in their response to positively and neutral words. Finally, the Alzheimer individuals and their spouses were not well calibrated regarding disease related issues.

    The findings of the present thesis have important clinical implications and gives valuable input to the understanding of the individual with Alzheimer’s disease.

  • 12.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Identifying factors for traffic safety support in older drivers2016In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 38, p. 118-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed at identifying factors for traffic safety support in older drivers. This was achieved by studying the co-operation between older drivers and their ordinary front seat passenger (co-driver). The knowledge emerging from such study can enhance the understanding of what kind of support an older driver needs and also help facilitate proper design of in-vehicle support systems and intervention training programs for older drivers. A within group field study was carried out, using a mixed-methods evaluation design. Four elderly couples participated in the study. The drivers included in the study requested and received on-going directional support, traffic -and driving strategic help, help with look-out and reminding of current speed limit. It was evident from comparisons between interview data and field data that how the participants themselves described their need of support differed from what support they requested (drivers) and gave (co-drivers) in real driving. Furthermore, data revealed that three out of four drivers were given a score of 2 in the Useful Field Of View test (UFOV). It was evident that there are areas in which older drivers need and request support. The results from the present study could be used in the design process, and in evaluation of, in-vehicle support systems as well as in developing intervention training programs customised for older drivers.

  • 13.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Weak central coherence in patients with Alzheimer’s disease2013In: Neural Regeneration Research, ISSN 1673-5374, E-ISSN 1876-7958, Vol. 8, no 8, p. 760-766Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Central coherence refers to the ability to interpret details of information into a whole. To date, the concept of central coherence is mainly used in research of autism, Asperger’s syndrome and recently in the research on eating disorders. The main purpose of the present study was to examine central coherence in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Nine Alzheimer’s disease patients and ten age- and gender-matched control subjects, who differed significantly in neurological assessment, were shown a picture of a fire. Compared to control subjects, the Alzheimer’s disease patients described the picture in a fragmented way by mentioning details and separate objects without perceiving the context of the fire. In conclusion, patients with Alzheimer’s disease are at the weak end of central coherence, and hence suffer from a fragmented view of their surroundings. The findings have important clinical implications for the understanding of patients with Alzheimer’s diseaseand also for the possibility of caregivers to meet the Alzheimer’s disease individual in an appropriate way in the everyday care.

  • 14.
    Mårdh, Selina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Karlsson, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Marcusson, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Geriatrik.
    Aspects of awareness in patients with Alzheimer's disease2013In: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 1167-1179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The purpose of the present study was to gain insight into Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients' perception of the world through the study of a few aspects of awareness. The aspects in focus of the study were disease awareness, metacognition, managing of everyday life, and as a complement, the agreement (calibration) between patients and their spouses on the studied aspects was considered.

    Method: A mixed-method evaluation design was used involving 15 AD patients, their spouses, and 15 elderly healthy control subjects. The study comprised both a semistructured interview (AD patients and spouse) and a neuropsychological assessment (AD patients and control subjects).

    Results: The patients were aware of their disease and able to report on their illness. Despite this awareness, they were unable to realize and manage the practical and cognitive implications of their impairment. The results also indicate that patients and spouses were not well calibrated regarding thoughts about the disease and problems in handling the cognitive deterioration.

    Conclusions: The findings of our study have relevance to patients' well being and how they manage everyday life. An open dialogue on these issues between spouses and in the care for AD patients would hopefully enhance quality of life for all parties involved.

  • 15.
    Mårdh, Selina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Nägga, Katarina
    Clinical Memory Research, Lund University, Sweden.
    Samuelsson, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Pedagogik och didaktik.
    A longitudinal study of semantic memory impairment in patients with Alzheimer’s disease2013In: Cortex, ISSN 0010-9452, E-ISSN 1973-8102, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 528-533Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study explored the nature of the semantic deterioration normally displayed in the course of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The aim was to disentangle the extent to which semantic memory problems in patients with AD are best characterized as loss of semantic knowledge rather than difficulties in accessing semantic knowledge.

    A longitudinal approach was applied. The same semantic tests as well as same items were used across three test occasions a year apart. Twelve Alzheimer patients and 20 matched control subjects, out of a total of 25 cases in each group, remained at the final test occasion.

    Alzheimer patients were impaired in all the semantic tasks as compared to the matched comparison group. A progressing deterioration was evident during the study period. Our findings suggest that semantic impairment is mainly due to loss of information rather than problems in accessing semantic information.

  • 16.
    Nåbo, Arne
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Börjesson, Conny
    Viktoria Swedish ICT).
    Eriksson, Gabriella
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Holmén, Lotta
    Viktoria Swedish ICT).
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Thorslund, Birgitta
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Elvägar i körsimulator: design, test, utvärdering och demonstration av elvägstekniker och elfordon med virtuella metoder2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric road systems, ERS, where vehicles receive electricity continuously while driving, could be a way to reach the target of a fossil-free transport sector. A demonstration environment in a driving simulator was developed in order to test and evaluate ERS concepts and electric vehicles driving on ERS. A user study was conducted, where 25 drivers drove a 40 kilometre long route, both with a hybrid truck on ERS and with a conventional truck with no ERS. Driving on ERS showed no remarkable difference on driver’s experience of safety and aestethics or the driving behaviour compared to no ERS. The exception was average speed which was 2 kilometres/hour higher when driving on ERS. The energy consumption decreased 35 per cent on ERS. In order to disseminate project results to actors and potential users of ERS, a large number of simulator demonstrations have been conducted. There has also been a press release and a number of magazine articles. In addition, a portable ERS driving simulator was constructed and used in order to reach a broader public.

  • 17.
    Olstam, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Linköpings universitet, Kommunikations- och transportsystem.
    Espié, Stéphane
    INRETS, Institut National de REcherche sur les Transports et leur Sécurité, 58, Bd Lefebvre F-75732 Paris, France.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Lundgren, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap.
    An algorithm for combining autonomous vehicles and controlled events in driving simulator experiments2011In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 1185-1201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous vehicles can be used to create realistic simulations of surrounding vehicles in driving simulators. However, the use of autonomous vehicles makes it difficult to ensure reproducibility between subjects. In this paper, an effort is made to solve the problem by combining autonomous vehicles and controlled events, denoted plays. The aim is to achieve the same initial play conditions for each subject, since the traffic situation around the subject will be dependant upon each subject's actions while driving in the autonomous traffic. This paper presents an algorithm that achieves the transition from autonomous traffic to a predefined start condition for a play. The algorithm has been tested in the VTI driving simulator III with promising results. In most of the cases the algorithm could reconstruct the specified start condition and conduct the transition from autonomous to controlled mode in a non-conspicuous way. Some problems were observed regarding moving unwanted vehicles away from the closest area around the simulator vehicle, and this part of the algorithm has to be enhanced. The experiment also showed that the controlled every-day life traffic normally used in the VTI driving simulator makes subjects drive faster than in autonomous traffic.

  • 18.
    Patten, Christopher
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Förbifart Stockholm: utvärdering av ett gestaltningsförslag för tunnel2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stockholm Bypass (FFS) tunnel has been scheduled to commence construction in 2013 and will pass on the western side of Stockholm city centre. The tunnel will be approximately 18 km in length and the interior design is expected to affect the drivers’ experiences pertaining drowsiness, arousal, distraction and feelings of safety and security. This study examines drivers’ experiences of the interior design of the tunnel in VTI’s driving simulator III in Linköping. The study had 24 participants where 12 were men and 12 were women, with an age range of 30-45 years old. The study was performed at VTI driving simulator in Linköping. The tunnel that was studied was based on the blue-prints of the FFS tunnel (version FST Plan 2011-11-08). The results of the lateral position measure generally suggested large statistical effects, however, in practical terms; the mean values were relatively small. There were however, a number of inadvertent lane departures by two of the participants. Inadvertent lane departures are a safety concern, but there is too little data in this study to draw any conclusions concerning the tunnel design. A limited effect of the tunnel’s interior design was found in section 7, with male drivers only, where an improved (more centred) cornering line in the bend of section 7 was found, when the supporting ceiling lighting was present. Eye tracking analyses of the sections of the tunnel with supporting ceiling lighting were compared to the same sections of tunnel without the lighting. The mean glance duration was 234.3 ms without the lighting and 445.3 ms in the tunnel with the ceiling lighting and was significantly longer but should nevertheless be seen as mild from a traffic safety perspective. When specifically asked about their preferences, the 58 per cent of the participants preferred the tunnel with the ceiling lighting, 29 per cent preferred the tunnel without the ceiling lighting and 13 per cent didn’t prefer one tunnel design more than the other. In summary, a good rating of approval for the tunnel design concept in the opinion of the participants.

  • 19.
    Patten, Christopher
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Interior tunnel design and road traffic safety2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintaining high levels of road traffic safety is always important and when the road is in a tunnel, and especially in a long tunnel, maintaining the highest possible level of safety is paramount. In Sweden, the Stockholm Bypass tunnel (FFS), has been scheduled to commence construction in 2013. The tunnel will be approximately 16.5 km in length. The length of the tunnel is expected to affect the drivers’ experiences pertaining drowsiness, arousal, distraction and feelings of safety and security. The study included 24 participants, 12 men and 12 women, aged 30-45. All of the participants drove two versions of the tunnel, one version with a decoration design in terms of strings of lights in the ceiling of the tunnel and one version of the tunnel without any decoration design. The results revealed that 58 per cent of the participants preferred the tunnel with the strings of light in the ceiling and 29 per cent preferred the tunnel without the ceiling lighting. 13 per cent prefer neither one design more than the other. The participants perceived feelings of their driving through the tunnel suggested that the tunnel with the ceiling light design was experienced as being more ”visually cluttered” than the tunnel without the light strings but at the same time it was also experienced as more ”arousing/stimulating”. The results also revealed that 58 per cent of the participants preferred the tunnel with the strings of light in the ceiling and 29 per cent preferred the tunnel without the ceiling lighting. 13 per cent did not prefer either one design over the other. The negative safety implications of the elaborate interior lighting features would appear to be minimal in terms of distraction and irritation whereas the safety benefits in this particularly long road tunnel, in terms of subjective feelings of visual stimulation is encouraging. Based on the participants’ experiences of the interior design concept of the 16 km long tunnel, having stimulating lighting features in different locations alone the length of the tunnel is recommended.

  • 20.
    Patten, Christopher
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Interior Tunnel Design and Traffic Safety Aspects2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintaining high levels of road traffic safety is always important and when the road is in a tunnel, and especially in a long tunnel, maintaining the highest possible level of safety is paramount. In Sweden, the Stockholm Bypass tunnel (FFS), has been scheduled to commence construction in 2013. The tunnel will be approximately 18 km in length. The length of the tunnel is expected to affect the drivers’ experiences pertaining drowsiness, arousal, distraction and feelings of safety and security. The study included 24 participants, 12 men and 12 women, aged 30-45. All of the participants drove two versions of the tunnel in VTI driving simulator; with a decoration design in terms of strings of lights in the ceiling of the tunnel and without any decoration design. The results revealed that 58 per cent of the participants preferred the tunnel with the strings of light in the ceiling. The participants perceived feelings of their driving through the tunnel suggested that the tunnel with the ceiling light design was experienced as being more ”visually cluttered” than the tunnel without the light strings but at the same time it was also experienced as more ”arousing/stimulating”. The negative safety implications of the elaborate interior lighting features would appear to be minimal in terms of distraction and irritation whereas the safety benefits in this particularly long road tunnel, in terms of subjective feelings of visual stimulation is encouraging. Based on the participants’ experiences of the interior design concept of the 18 km long tunnel, having stimulating lighting features in different locations alone the length of the tunnel is recommended.

  • 21.
    Patten, Christopher
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ceci, Ruggero
    Trafikverket.
    Stockholm bypass tunnel – merging traffic study: technical report2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Stockholm bypass (Förbifart Stockholm) project is a new road project that will create a bypass of central Stockholm. The entire project includes motorways, bridges and two tunnels, one of which will be 16.5 km. The Stockholm bypass is the largest infrastructure project in Sweden to date. When the road is in a tunnel, and especially in a long tunnel, maintaining the highest possible level of safety is paramount. The present report describes a simulator study on the merging of traffic from entry-ramps into the main tunnel. The study focused upon the specific situation of driving down the entry-ramps and entering (merging) into the main tunnel with a special emphasis on measures of safety and driving performance. A group of 21 test drivers, 11 males and 10 females, participated in the study. They were instructed to drive a series of test scenarios in a 3D-model of the Stockholm bypass tunnel in the VTI driving simulator III. There was simulated traffic in the main tunnel to improve the realism. Two relatively small gap sizes between vehicles in the main tunnel were used, representing gape sizes that road users can observe on a daily basis when using the E4 motorway through Stockholm. Driving performance (speed, time headway, vehicle position, and distance to tunnel wall) and the test drivers’ experiences of the driving task were measured. The main results of the study suggest that the merging zones were too short for some of the drivers to merge comfortably and safely. The merging zones are found at the point where the entry-ramp tunnels merge with the main motorway tunnel and comprise an observation section, an adjustment section and a completion section. The distance-to-wall results for the Vinsta ramp (0.5 km) with heavy traffic are particularly concerning from a road traffic safety perspective because more than 25 % of the drivers completed the merging manoeuvre with less than two seconds of time headway remaining before the end of the completion section.

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