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  • 1.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Det antikvariska landskapet: ett paradigmskifte inom svensk landskapsförändring. En artikel ur Med landskapet i centrum, kulturgeografiska perspektiv på nutida och historiska landskap, Meddelande 119, Kulturgeografiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet 20032003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln beskriver och analyserar hur landskapet behandlas inom den

    offentliga samhällsplaneringen, särskilt med fokus på natur- och

    kulturmiljöorganisationerna. Artikeln har växt fram ur en kritik mot att man

    idag inte beaktar landskap på ett adekvat sätt trots forskning inom denna

    disciplin, samt att man vid sektorsmyndigheterna sällan diskuterar

    konsekvenserna av sitt antikvariska betraktelsesätt.

    Författaren har valt att begränsa analysen till en del av landskapet och har

    valt bort städer och samhällen till förmån för landsbygden. Ibland kallas

    denna del av landskapet för odlingslandskapet eller kulturlandskapet.

    Bakgrunden till artikeln hämtas från praktiska erfarenheter vilka inhämtats

    under knappt 20 års arbete inom branschen vid olika myndigheter på olika

    nivåer samt inom forskarsamhället.

  • 2.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kulturmiljöns visuella dimension: utveckling av ett redskap för att identifiera det historiskt visuella innehållet i dagens kulturmiljö2002Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    MKB-handböcker om kulturmiljön: en studie utgående från användarens erfarenheter2001Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Handböckerna om kulturmiljövärdenas för arbetet med miljökonsekvensbeskrivningar (MKB) för vägar börjar bli föråldrade och bör bytas ut. De konsulter som beskriver konsekvenserna för kulturmiljön i MKB är akademiskt skolade landskapsarkitekter och saknar utbildning i flera av de klassiska kulturmiljöämnena. Det är två slutsatser av föreliggande undersökning om kulturmiljö och MKB.

    För att stärka kulturmiljövårdens intressen i MKB-arbetet föreslås:

    • att Vägverket vid upphandlingen av MKB för vägprojekt ställer krav på kulturmiljöcertifiering avMKB-författaren,
    • att kulturmiljövårdens organisationer tar fram bättre underlagsmaterial iform av regionalt anpassade beskrivningar av Sveriges kulturvärden och
    • att det ges kurser och anordnas seminarier om kulturmiljöfrågor för konsulter

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka i vilken utsträckning och på vilket sätt två handböcker om kulturvärden och MKB används av MKB-konsulter. Detta undersöktes i enkäter och intervjuer bland konsulter inom VV-regionerna Sydöst, Mälardalen, Skåne och Väst. Enkäten besvarades av 29 av de 34 tillskrivna konsultföretagen.

    Arbetet avses utgöra ett hjälpmedel till Vägverkets arbete att nå de transportrelaterade miljömålen.

  • 4.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Public participation and written submissions: A transport infrastructure planning case study2014In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 70, p. 59-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Written submissions or comments as a response on an EIS (Environmental Impact Statement) rank as one of the most common forms of public participation. Within public participation research there appears to be an international dearth of knowledge concerning such written submissions. The possible impact of such responses on an EIS is - with few exceptions - seldom put in focus. The aim in the present brief communication is to study one aspect of public participation within transport infrastructure planning, namely the role of written submissions sent to the applicant by individuals, Non-governmental organisations, companies and authorities. By comparing 34 written submissions with road planning documents (including EIS) the impact of the public views has been analysed in a south Swedish case study. At a time when the new Environmental Code only had been in force for less than one year, it does not appear as if the Road Administration's regional office accepted most of the written submissions just to show that the new regulation concerning participation had a direct impact on the planning. Sweden's long tradition of public access to official documents may explain why written submissions as one aspect of public participation worked well in the E18 highway planning process, because civil servants have long been taught to promptly furnish information and guidance, as well as to giving advice and other assistance to individuals in matters concerning an authority's activity. This study shows, then, that - if properly managed by the developer's street-level staff - the use of written submissions may improve the EIS from a stakeholder perspective and also make the stakeholders feel they are being taken seriously.

  • 5.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Lunds Universitet.
    Retrospection of medieval landscape change in mid-Sweden Historical maps analysed using a retrogressive approach2014In: NEW FOCUS ON RETROSPECTIVE METHODS: RESUMING METHODOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS - CASE STUDIES FROM NORTHERN EUROPE, 2014, no 307, p. 163-185Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars from different historical disciplines use the word 'retrospective in different ways which might sometimes be confusing. In historical geography, 'retrogressive methodology' is the term for what in history is known as retrospective methodology: using later sources to shed light upon earlier times. In this field, retrospective methodology is the opposite: making earlier sources throw light upon later times. The aim of this article is to present the retrogressive method as I know it from historical geography and in two case studies show how it works and highlight its potential for medieval landscape studies by the use of (post-medieval) maps from the provinces of Halsingland and Jamtland, mid-Sweden (fig. 1). The cases discuss medieval hamlet and village formation as well as late medieval farm desertion.

  • 6.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Trafikanalys .
    Landscape heritage objects' effect on driving: a combined driving simulator and questionnaire study.2014In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 62, p. 168-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the literature, landscape (panoramas, heritage objects e.g. landmarks) affects people in various ways. Data are primarily developed by asking people (interviews, photo sessions, focus groups) about their preferences, but to a lesser degree by measuring how the body reacts to such objects. Personal experience while driving a car through a landscape is even more rare.

    In this paper we study how different types of objects in the landscape affect drivers during their drive. A high-fidelity moving-base driving simulator was used to measure choice of speed and lateral position in combination with stress (heart rate measure) and eye tracking. The data were supplemented with questionnaires. Eighteen test drivers (8 men and 10 women) with a mean age of 37 were recruited. The test drivers were exposed to different new and old types of landscape objects such as 19th century church, wind turbine, 17th century milestone and bus stop, placed at different distances from the road driven.

    The findings are in some respect contradictory, but it was concluded that that 33% of the test drivers felt stressed during the drive. All test drivers said that they had felt calm at times during the drive but the reason for this was only to a minor degree connected with old and modern objects. The open landscape was experienced as conducive to acceleration. No significant differences could be observed concerning the test drivers' gaze between old or modern objects, but a significant difference was observed between the test drivers' gaze between road stretches with faraway objects and stretches without objects.

  • 7.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Crash Barriers and Driver Behavior: A Simulator Study2013In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 874-880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The study examines how drivers experience a conventional W-beam guardrail (metal crash barrier) along both sides of narrow versus wider roads (single carriageway with 2 lanes) in terms of stress, feelings, and driving patterns and whether subjective experience concurs with the actual driving patterns captured by the quantitative data.

    Methods: The study used different methods to capture data, including the VTI Driving Simulator III (speed and lateral vehicle position) in conjunction with electrocardiogram (ECG) data on heart rate variability (HRV) and questionnaires (oral during driving and written after driving). Eighteen participants-8 men and 10 women-were recruited for the simulator study and the simulator road section was 10 km long.

    Results: Driving speeds increased slightly on the wider road and on the road with a crash barrier, and the lateral driving position was nearer to the road center on the narrower road and on the road with a crash barrier. The HRV data did not indicate that participants experienced greater stress due to road width or due to the presence of a crash barrier. Participant experience captured in the oral questionnaires suggested that road width did not affect driver stress or driving patterns; however, the written questionnaire results supported the simulator data, indicating that a wider road led to increased speed. None of the participants felt that crash barriers made them feel calmer.

    Conclusions: We believe that there is a possibility that the increased speed on roads with crash barriers may be explained by drivers’ sense of increased security. This study demonstrates that an experimental design including experience-based data captured using both a simulator and questionnaires is productive. It also demonstrates that driving simulators can be used to study road features such as crash barriers. It seems more than likely that features such as street lamps, signs, and landscape objects could be tested in this way. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  • 8.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Does the official strategy protect or destroy our cultural heritage?: corrosion of archaeological artefacts exposed to de-icing salt in Sweden2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    When new roads are built today, the Swedish official strategy is to leave in situ the cultural layers that are not directly affected by the road construction, rather than to excavate the entire layer even if it stretches outside the verge of the planned road. This strategy has its roots in the Act concerning Ancient Monuments and Finds and is built on the assumption that the soil layers protect the archaeological artefacts far better than the national archives and museum shelves. The cultural layers are looked upon as a national archive in situ. However, recently excavated metal artefacts generally exhibit greater deterioration than those excavated many years ago, implying that recent pollution is responsible for accelerating the corrosion. Unfortunately, the de-icing salt used in winter maintenance operations does not stay on the road surface, where it has its desired effects on traffic safety and accessibility, but is transported - by different mechanisms - to the sides of the road where it may have undesired effects on e.g. vegetation, soil and groundwater, and possibly also on archaeological artefacts (metal, wood, cloth, bone, leather etc). The mechanisms responsible for the roadside exposure to salt are influenced by many factors such as wind, road surface condition, topography and surrounding vegetation. In many cases the salt will spread several tens of meters from the road, and in the worst cases raised levels of salt may be found up to some hundred meters from the road. When transported by groundwater, salt may be moved very far and may reach cultural layers in discharge areas where the ground water reaches the soil surface layers. This paper describes the problem of exposure to de-icing salt and the possible corrosion of archaeological artefacts with reference to a literature review and suggests some ways in which the extent of the suggested problem can be investigated by field studies under semi-controlled conditions and by a GIS survey.

  • 9.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Uppföljning av miljökonsekvenser av svenska väg- och järnvägsprojekt2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppföljning av miljökonsekvenser har blivit allt vanligare sedan 1995. Det ständigt pågående utvecklingsarbetet med uppföljning av miljökonsekvenser, vid Vägverket och Banverket, visar många positiva resultat. Bland annat har flera genomgripande uppföljningsprogram tagits fram för några vägobjekt, även om enstaka uppföljningsformuleringar i miljökonsekvensbeskrivningar (MKB) och arbetsplaner/järnvägsplaner fortfarande dominerar.

    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut (VTI) har studerat ca 70 uppföljningsarbeten, producerade under 1990-talet, huvudsakligen från 1996 och framåt. Materialet har eftersökts vid Vägverkets regionkontor Sydöst, Väst och Mitt samt inom hela Banverket. Det har varit svårt och tidskrävande att få tillgång till relevant material. För att underlätta eftersökningen har dessutom en rad initierade personer vid Vägverkets regionkontor kontaktats.

    Några av de viktigare slutsatserna är att:

    • det sedan 1995 har blivit vanligare med uppföljningsformuleringar, 
    • uppföljning inte självklart omfattar såväl byggskede som tiden efter färdigställande,
    • uppgifter om före-data är ovanliga,
    • de vanligaste uppföljningsparametrarna är vatten, buller, djur och landskapsbild,
    • mätmetoder sällan anges,
    • kompetenskrav sällan anges,
    • fastställda statistiska krav sällan anges,
    • syftet med uppföljningen sällan anges, och att
    • kommunikation med olika aktörsgrupper såsom allmänhet är en ovanlighet.

    Det material som insamlats, även om det är magert, kommer att kunna användas som en utgångspunkt i såväl upprättande av en handbok för uppföljning i samband med MKB, som vid utvecklandet av ett informationssystem om uppföljning.

  • 10.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bedömning av skada på bevarandeintressen: en metodutveckling, huvudrapport2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Assessment of damage to heritage assets is often a weak element in

    environmental impact assessments (EIA). General method development is needed

    in this respect as support for the authors of analyses and descriptions for

    road projects. The task of the project Assessment of damage to heritage

    assets was to develop a method which can assess damage to protected areas for

    nature, culture or outdoor activities. The types of areas which have been

    studied are areas of national interest and Natura 2000 areas. The method has

    been developed with reference to a major review of e.g. Swedish, European and

    supranational handbook and educational literature, investigation material

    from infrastructure projects, and current guidelines and laws. The method is

    designed as a checklist which deals with a number of planning stages, i.e. a

    number of questions each of which must be answered before proceeding to the

    end of the checklist where an assessment - no damage, damage or pronounced

    damage - has to be made. At the same time, those completing the checklist

    must also answer a number of relevant questions in order to motivate their

    standpoint regarding the assessment of damage, both to themselves and to

    others. The method has been tested on a newly produced EIA and has been

    judged by external reviewers to work well.

  • 11.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Bedömning av skada på bevarandeintressen: ett kunskapsunderlag inför en metodutveckling2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of damage to heritage assets is often a weak element in environmental impact assessments (EIA). General method development is needed in this respect as support for the authors of analyses and descriptions for road projects. The task of the project Assessment of damage to heritage assets was to develop a method which can assess damage to protected areas for nature, culture or outdoor activities. The types of areas which have been studied are areas of national interest and Natura 2000 areas.

    The study is based on a major review of e.g. Swedish, European and supranational handbook or educational literature, investigation material from infrastructure projects, and current guidelines and laws. From this review, the following aspects were highlighted: the environmental aspects which are listed as capable of being damaged, the way damage is assessed, the way environmental pressure, change in environmental state and related impacts are described, the evaluatory principles to be used, and the legal basis for the conservation of assets deemed worthy of conservation. These aspects have been used as building blocks in constructing a method.  

  • 12.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    KMV Forum AB.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Spatial planning and electric vehicles. A qualitative case study of horizontal and vertical organisational interplay in southern Sweden2017In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of electric-powered vehicles (EV) is experiencing a boom in some countries. Much research has been conducted on the technology per se; however, there is a research gap regarding institutional spatial planning practice concerning EVs. Here, an empirical analysis was made of planners’ interpretations of opportunities and obstacles to integration of EVs in southern Sweden. The results revealed a lack of interplay between local and regional administrations and showed that the agenda is run by individual bureaucrats rather than being based on official strategies. Moreover, there appears to be a lack of horizontal interplay within some organisations, while new arenas are being formed by actors within and outside government. The reason for formation of such external EV networks may be a single actor not being able to push the issue forward alone, due to a fragmented organisation, or a lack of clear external task formulation at central government level.

  • 13.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Identifiering av samband i landskapet: ett pilotprojekt för tillämpning inom transportinfrastruktur. EKLIPS-rapport, kulturmiljö och kvartärgeologi2004Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Eklips är ett samarbetsprojekt med många inblandade parter. VTI:s del har

    varit att undersöka vissa samband i landskapet utifrån ordinära fält och

    kartstudier. Därefter har forskare vid Metria Miljöanalys försökt identifiera

    dessa samband automatiskt. De studerade sambanden är kända sedan länge inom

    kulturgeografisk och agrarhistorisk forskning. Det är samband mellan olika

    företeelser i landskap, exempelvis mellan olika bebyggelsekategorier såsom

    mellan herrgård respektive bondgård och dess underlydande torp. Därefter har

    simulering och analys av hur vägar bryter sambanden genomförts. Att försöka

    visualisera sambanden har också varit viktigt i arbetet samt att försöka

    förstå hur sambanden uppfattas när man lyfter blicken från kartan till det

    faktiska landskapet. Vi har kommit fram till slutsatsen att sambanden måste

    vara konkreta för att kunna uppfattas, dvs. om man skall kunna förstå måste

    man också kunna se. Det räcker således inte med att sambanden går att

    grafiskt visualisera på en karta. De måste kunna upplevas i landskapet för

    att kunna pekas ut som exempelvis bevarandevärda eller hänsynsvärda.

  • 14.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    People and parking requirements: Residential attitudes and day-to-day consequences of a land use policy shift towards sustainable mobility2017In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, no 62, p. 213-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A land use policy shift is taking place in a growing number of cities regarding parking, whereby a conventional supply management approach is being replaced with a parking management approach. As part of this policy shift, many cities are lowering their parking requirements.

    This study analysed changes in car use, car ownership, spatial parking patterns and the consequences for the everyday life of residents in a housing area with a relatively restrictive parking requirement in Gothenburg, the second largest city in Sweden. The housing area, a concrete example of how lowering parking requirements can be used to achieve targets on reduced car use and sustainable urban development, is used to discuss how parking policy should be applied to achieve the desired effect.

    The results show that the consequences of the restrictive requirement was paradoxically small in the study area. In practice, the requirement did not result in a decrease in the number of parking spaces, because e.g. of access to parking in neighbouring residential areas. This shows how important it is to adopt a holistic approach in parking policy, by e.g.introducing more restrictive parking requirements in parallel with other measures, such as raising parking charges and decreasing the number of public parking spaces. It also shows that planning of parking must be coordinated with other urban planning functions. Otherwise, the actual contribution of a shift in parking policy to the development of a more environmentally friendly transport system and city risks being small, despite lower parking requirements

  • 15.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Lunds Universitet.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Storbjörk, Sofie
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Negotiating climate change responses: Regional and local perspectives on transport and coastal zone planning in South Sweden2016In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 52, p. 297-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Putting climate change policy-integration into practice is challenged by problems of institutional misfit, due to, inter alia, deficient vertical administrative interplay. While most focus within the field of climate change research has targeted the national-local interplay, less is known about the interface of regional and local perspectives.

    Here, the aim is to study that interface with a specific focus on the relation between regional and local spatial planning actors, through a case-study of transport and coastal zone management in a Swedish municipality. The article is based on interviews (focus group and single in-depth) and official planning documents.

    The material reveals a tricky planning situation, replete with conflict. In practice, various institutional frameworks, claims and ambitions collide. The attempts to steer the local spatial planning initiatives from the regional level led to conflicts, which in turn seems to have hampered the overall work for climate change management through spatial planning. Furthermore, there are few traces of prospects of a smooth vertical institutional interplay able to support the overall aims related to integrating climate change mitigation and adaptation in spatial planning.

  • 16.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Jacobsen, Jens Kr. Steem
    University of Stavanger.
    Tourism development strategy or just brown signage?: Comparing road administration policies and designation procedures for official tourism routes in two Scandinavian countries2014In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 36, p. 342-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This comparative study maps and explores planning and designation of official tourism, routes in two countries with quite similar planning traditions, responding to a deficiency in research, on tourism route planning and development.

    Based on personal semi-structured interviews with, public road planners and managers in Norway and Sweden, the paper illuminates establishment and, management of official tourism routes, with an emphasis on overall strategies, funding, and, stakeholder involvement.

    Results show that public road administration route planning procedures in, the two countries are quite different. In Norway, a top-down principle is basically employed, concerning initiatives and designation of routes.

    In Sweden, the principle is one of muddling through, giving street-level planners more opportunities for individual influence on route planning. Funding for, road stretches included in the Norwegian national route programme is earmarked, whereas Swedish, routes are financed from ordinary appropriations to the regional road administrations.

    In Norway, regular follow-up studies such as road user surveys are conducted. In Sweden, a dearth of, documentation of tourist interests and route assessments seemingly makes route development, susceptible in relation to regional road administrations' economic priorities.

  • 17.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Jacobsen, Jens Kr. Steen
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Berglund, Carl Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Turistvägar och näringsutveckling: trafikantupplevelser och planeringskriterier2007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    VTI and the Norwegian Institute of Transport Economics (TØI) have at the request of the Swedish Road Administration carried out a research and development project concerning tourist routes in Sweden. The project was done in two parts, one literature study with examples of how other countries work with tourist routes and one field study about the opinions of visitors and business operators along two Swedish tourist routes (the present publication). The two tourist routes which have been studied are Tourist Route Gränna-Ödeshög-Rök in the Counties of Jönköping and Östergötland, and Tourist Route Kullaberg in the County of Skåne. The study of the experiences of the business operators, the visitors' willingness to pay and a deepened analysis of the landscape was only done along the Gränna route. As for the experiences of the visitors the data for the two Swedish tourist routes have been compared with similar data from a Norwegian tourist route, Tourist Route Sognefjell.

  • 18.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Experiencing moose and landscape while driving: a simulator and questionnaire study2014In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 41, p. 91-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal vehicle collisions (AVC's) have large economic, medical and ecological consequences but have rarely been studied with respect to driver behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate different AVC-relevant landscape settings (vegetation cover), with and without game fencing and in combination with encountering moose. Twenty-five participants took part in an advanced driving simulator experiment. The results show that neither the presence of a game fence nor vegetation was found to affect driving speed, speed variability, lateral position or visual scanning in general. When a moose appeared at the side of the road, the drivers reacted by slowing down earlier and reducing their speed more when no game fence was present. Furthermore, the speed reduction when a moose was present was significantly larger when the vegetation was sparse. Game fencing made drivers feel at ease whereas dense vegetation was experienced as more stressful.

  • 19.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Samspel människa, fordon, transportsystem, MFT.
    Experiencing moose and landscape while driving: a simulator and questionnaire study2014In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 41, p. 91-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal vehicle collisions (AVC's) have large economic, medical and ecological consequences but have rarely been studied with respect to driver behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate different AVC-relevant landscape settings (vegetation cover), with and without game fencing and in combination with encountering moose. Twenty-five participants took part in an advanced driving simulator experiment. The results show that neither the presence of a game fence nor vegetation was found to affect driving speed, speed variability, lateral position or visual scanning in general. When a moose appeared at the side of the road, the drivers reacted by slowing down earlier and reducing their speed more when no game fence was present. Furthermore, the speed reduction when a moose was present was significantly larger when the vegetation was sparse. Game fencing made drivers feel at ease whereas dense vegetation was experienced as more stressful.

  • 20.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    KMV Forum AB.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    A crack in the Swedish welfare façade?: A review of assessing social impacts in transport infrastructure planning2018In: Progress in Planning, ISSN 0305-9006, E-ISSN 1873-4510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparison of social impact categorisation in strategic planning across European Union Member States shows that Sweden neither categorises nor breaks down categories of social impact in areas such as transport infrastructure development. This article accordingly studies how social issues are handled during transport infrastructure planning. An analysis of different source materials will answer four research questions:

    1. To what extent are social impacts integrated into environmental impact assessment (EIA) reports?
    2. Are social impacts sufficiently integrated and/or does this treatment simply amount to ‘good practice’?
    3. Can any trend be detected over time in terms of addressing social issues in impact assessments?
    4. What key measures could increase the influence of social impact issues on transport infrastructure planning practice?

    The study involved a content analysis of six EIA handbooks and EIA statements (EISs) for 18 large transport infrastructure projects. The concepts searched for in these documents largely apply to issues of vulnerability, health, social problems, perceived safety, and alienation. Our data were interpreted through the theoretical lens of institutional interplay. We found that though social aspects are not new considerations in EIA research, they are included in only a small proportion of the 18 Swedish EISs, mostly in connection with health and accessibility. We also found that the more recent documents allotted less space to social issues. It is unlikely that most individuals in the organisations that order EISs, or the consultancies that write them, are unaware of the broader interpretation of ‘human beings’ which includes social aspects.

    The conclusion is that in the absence of a government initiative to clarify how social impacts can be addressed in transport infrastructure planning, there is a need for an external network for organisations involved in transport infrastructure EISs.

  • 21.
    Antonson, Hans (red.)
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran (red.)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Folkeson, Lennart (red.)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Gustafsson, Mats (red.)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Transportrelaterad miljökvalitet: rapport från workshop den 10-11 september 20012001Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Under 10–11 september 2001 möttes 31 representanter från departement, myndigheter, forskningsfinansiärer och forskarsamhället på Scandic hotell Hasselbacken i Stockholm för att lyssna till föredragningar om och diskutera kring begreppet transportrelaterad miljökvalitet.Initiativet till workshopen togs av VTI (Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut) genom en delansökan i en bred ansökan kallad Tema miljökvalitet ställd till Vägverket, Banverket och KFB.Workshopens syfte var att diskutera begreppet miljökvalitet i relation till transportsektorn och att rekognosera intresset för bildandet av ett nätverk för transportrelaterad miljökvalitet. För att underlätta urvalsarbetet och göra workshopen hanterbar inbjöds ett antal gäster från departement, myndigheter, forskningsfinansiärer och forskarsamhället som alla hade relevanta kunskaper och erfarenheter inom området.

  • 22.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Åkerskog, Ann
    SLU.
    Landskapsanalys och upphandling: en intervjustudie med aktörer i väg- och järnvägsplaneringen2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report builds on interviews with twelve key individuals concerning issues surrounding landscape analysis (LA) during the planning and procurement process for roads and railways. The background to the study is the long-established use of LA to support broad-scale planning and large projects such as new trunk roads and mainline rail routes.

    In its strategic plan the then Swedish Road Administration (Vägverket) decided that from 2010 onwards all public road-building projects must include a formal landscape analysis and design programme. However, there is no regulatory framework to say what should be analysed, or how the analysis should be conducted.

    There is considerable variation in the experiences and opinions of those interviewed, from which it can be concluded that project leaders at the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) adopt different styles of working depending on which geographic region or individual project they are associated with. For example, a common understanding of what ‘landscape’ might mean is largely missing, while the way that the respondents describe the landscape does not correspond to the official landscape terminology as set down in the European Landscape Convention (ELC). The term design programme presents a similar case, whereas the concept of an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is well established and goes unquestioned by the interviewees, because it is used both in legislation and in the literature.

    Another conclusion is that there is little in the way of consensus concerning LA except for a common perception that there is a lack of guidelines or assistance from the responsible authority (Trafikverket) in the form of a handbook or a dedicated chapter in the existing EIA handbooks. The importance of a handbook or similar document to the respondents is striking. There is uncertainty as to how to assure the quality of a given LA, and often a review of the EIA is regarded as sufficing for the LA as well.

    There are two schools of thought among the respondents as to when an LA should be carried out: either early in the planning process, or continuously throughout the entire planning process. In reality, though, there is a third school of thought evident in the existing planning system: that an LA is a part of the EIA, and as such should first take place during the consultation process.

  • 23.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Lunds Universitet.
    Åkerskog, Ann
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet .
    "This is what we did last time". Uncertainty over landscape analysis and its procurement in the Swedish road planning process2015In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 42, p. 48-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In some European countries, landscape analysis has long been used in support of large-scale planning or major projects such as new trunk roads and mainline rail routes, in line with both the UN's Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment and the European Landscape Convention. Some countries, however, lack a regulatory framework for what should be analysed, how a landscape analysis should be conducted, or even how it should be procured. Sweden is one such country.

    The research project on which this article is based, uses in-depth interviews with twelve key Swedish officials to consider landscape analysis issues in the planning and procurement of road and railway infrastructure. The findings point to the fact that skilled transport planners are not entirely comfortable with the current situation, and the way landscape analysis is handled in daily planning practice varies enormously. For example, nearly all the respondents believe that the way formal landscape analyses are procured is important, not least to ensure quality, yet at the same time they are rarely commissioned separately, even when this is explicitly stipulated by the regulations. There is no generally accepted notion of what 'landscape' might be, and the terms in which respondents describe the landscape do not correspond to the official landscape terminology as set down in the ELC.

  • 24.
    Antonsson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nya miljökvalitetsmål, ny MKB-procedur2000Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Stakeholders’ opinions on a future in-vehicle alcohol detection system for prevention of drunk driving2015In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 336-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: There is a common understanding that driving under the influence of alcohol is associated with higher risk of being involved in crashes with injuries and possible fatalities as the outcome. Various countermeasures have therefore from time to time been taken by the authorities to prevent drunk driving. One of them has been the alcohol interlock. Up to now, interlocks have mainly been used by previously convicted drunk drivers and in the commercial road transport sector, but not in private cars.

    Objective and Method: New technology has today reached a level where broader implementation might be possible. To our knowledge, however, little is known about different stakeholders' opinions of a broader implementation of such systems. In order to increase that knowledge, we conducted a focus group study to collect in-depth thoughts from different stakeholders on this topic. Eight focus groups representing a broad societal span were recruited and conducted for the purpose.

    Results and Conclusions: The results show that most stakeholders thought that an integrated system for alcohol detection in vehicles might be beneficial in lowering the number of drunk driving crashes. They said that the system would probably mainly prevent driving by people who unintentionally and unknowingly drive under the influence of alcohol. The groups did, however, not regard the system as a final solution to the drunk driving problem, and believed that certain groups, such as criminals and alcoholics, would most likely find a way around the system.

    Concerns were raised about the risk of increased sleepy driving and driving just under the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit. The results also indicate that stakeholders preferred a system that provides information on the BAC up to the legal limit, but not for levels above the limit; for those, the system should simply prevent the car from starting. Acceptance of the system depended on the reliability of the system, on its ability to perform fast sampling, and on the analytical process, as well as the system's more or less inconspicuous placement and user-friendliness. The stakeholders thought that drivers would probably not voluntarily demand the system. So if broad implementation was desired, it would have to be made compulsory by legislation. As an incentive to increase demand, lower taxes and insurance premiums were suggested.

  • 26.
    Berglund, Ulla
    et al.
    Institutionen för stad och land, SLU .
    Nord, Jenny
    SLU.
    Eriksson, Malin
    SLU.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Butler, Andrew
    SLU.
    Hammarlund, Karin
    SLU.
    Hedfors, Per
    Institutionen för stad och land, SLU,.
    Åkerskog, Ann
    SLU.
    Landskapsanalys för transportinfrastruktur: en kunskaps- och metodredovisning för utveckling av väg- och järnvägsprojekt i enlighet med den Europeiska Landskapskonventionen2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten ”Landskapsanalys för transportinfrastruktur” har tagits fram inom forskningsprojektet ”Bättre landskapsanalys för transportsektorn” (2010-2013) i samverkan mellan SLU och VTI och handlar om hur man kan arbeta med landskapsanalys (LA) i planläggningsprocessen för väg- ochjärnvägsprojekt. Vi kallar den ett kunskapsunderlag, och dess främsta syfte är att förmedla relevantkunskap från forskarsamhället till Trafikverkets landskapsexperter och därmed stödja Trafikverketsmöjligheter att leverera den landskapsanpassade infrastruktur som regeringen kräver.Fokus för arbetet har varit planläggningsfasen, dvs. när man enligt den sammanhållna vägprocessenkommit så långt att vägen/järnvägen ska prövas i en fysisk miljö.

  • 27.
    Carlson, Annelie
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Andra generationens biodrivmedel: en litteraturöversikt2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the transport policy objectives in Sweden is that the vehicle fleet should be fossil independent by 2030. To achieve this we should replace fossil fuels with renewable fuels based on biomass. The purpose of this report is to make a knowledge-based overview of second-generation biofuels production technologies, use, energy efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions as well as the problems of land use.

    First-generation fuels such as ethanol from starch and biodiesel from plant oil have a number of limitations, which means they are not a sustainable solution in the long run. The anticipation is instead that the second-generation biofuels, which use cellulosic material, have a better potential to replace fossil fuels. These biofuels have higher energy efficiency and lower overall greenhouse gas emissions compared with the first-generation biofuels. Also, they use raw materials that do not directly compete with food or with land use for food production. It is also predicted that the new biofuels can replace some of the fuels used in air transport, which is not possible with today's options.

    For an increased biofuel production to be sustainable it is important to avoid negative effects on the environment, which for instance can be effects on biodiversity, land degradation, and that the cultivation of crops for biofuels will be on sensitive land areas. To ensure this is not happening there is a European directive stating how this should be performed. In addition, it is important to ensure that production is carried out as efficiently as possible from the perspectives of resources, environment and costs. Other restrictions apply in particular for technical and economic barriers, which will impede the commercialisation in the short run. To have a functioning market within a reasonable time frame, it is also important that the second-generation biofuels are supported by different instruments which will make them competitive. Because no single biofuel is foreseen to provide sufficient quantities to meet a demand of large volumes, it is imperative that the financial and administrative instruments do not lead to solutions that are not justifiable in the long run. And since even renewable raw materials could become scarce, we should not only rely on replacing fossil fuel with more biofuels. It is also important to continue with the making the energy use more efficient in order to reduce total energy needs.

  • 28.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Miljömål och mått avseende landskap inom väg- och järnvägsplaneringen: sammanställning och analys av skrivningar från sex länder1999Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    here is a lack of well defined environmental goals for the countryside in foreign literature. Similarly, there are few means of measuring the natural and cultural values of the countryside. This has been found in a review of goals and measures in the literature on road and railway planning in Finland, Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, the UK and Canada. The work also indicates the need for research and development focusing on:– developing methods for identifying and evaluating the collective natural and cultural values of the countryside,– further developing countryside-oriented environmental goals for different planning levels which take into account the entire landscape instead of being limited to individual areas of interest,– developing relevant indicators and traceable measures for the environmental goals,– integrating the environmental goals in the EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment) in the transport sector,– studying the consequences of the recently introduced environmental legislation in Sweden.Goals are often expressed in very general terms. The most exact formulations are found in the literature from the UK and Norway. Descriptions of goals are more commonly found for the natural environment than for the cultural environment, but in some cases both are included in the same text. Few goals are provided with measures, which makes follow-up difficult. Landscape-oriented environmental goals are more common for planning new infrastructure projects than for actions involving the existing infrastructure. The goals for the existing infrastructure are often oriented towards the cultural environment, in particular the cultural values of the infrastructure. The small number of goals concerning the existing infrastructure indicates a problem since the volume of the existing infrastructure is much larger than that of the planned infrastructure. The aim of the project is to analyse foreign descriptions of environmental goals and measures for the landscape and its natural and cultural values. The work is limited to rural conditions and the interest of the natural and cultural environment or preservation schemes, in addition to recreation, outdoor life and tourism. Relevant material has been found in 50 out of about 120 documents studied. The descriptions of the goals have been divided into seven groups: the general environment, the countryside as a whole, the rural scene, the natural environment, the cultural environment, historic sites, recreation areas. The formulations have been processed from three aspects: a) the degree of concreteness in the actions or the degree of active adoption of standpoints required from decision makers; b) whether the goals apply to existing or planned infrastructure; c) intended decision level. The work is intended to constitute an aid in the work of the Swedish National Road Administration and the Swedish National Railway Administration for operationalisation of the general environmental goals for transport policy. More precise environmental goals for the countryside will require method development for identification of its natural and cultural values. Measures need to be developed for follow-up purposes. However, the lack of measures and measuring methods should not prevent the creation of environmental goals. The establishment of environmental goals will lead to increased demands on the content of the environmental consequence analyses performed prior to infrastructure projects. This is an important aspect in meeting the high demands of the new Swedish environmental legislation on consideration for the environment.

  • 29.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Uppföljning av miljöeffekter av vägprojekt: behov av utveckling och erfarenhetsåterföring2001Report (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Helldin, Jan Olof
    SLU.
    Planners' views on cumulative effects: A focus-group study concerning transport infrastructure planning in Sweden2013In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 243-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cumulative effects (CE) still receive little attention in the Swedish processes for road and railway infrastructure planning. This article seeks to analyse how CE are treated by professionals engaged in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and Strategic Environmental Assessment of roads and railways. The aims were (i) to analyse views of CE held by professionals with long planning practice, (ii) to analyse how planners experience the handling of CE in their daily planning practice, and (iii) to identify means to strengthen the assessment of CE in the Swedish road and railway planning process. The study was performed as an international literature review and two focus groups among planners. Discussions revealed little knowledge and use of the term CE, partly due to lack of incentives and guidance. Little mention was made of research. Participants said EIA work was much directed towards the environmental compartments/aspects listed in the Environmental Code. Environmental impacts designated as significant demanded much work. The discussions revealed a need of more collaboration between various actors in EIA and of novel methods of public participation. Spatial and temporal scales were chosen with little concern of CE. The European Landscape Convention was hoped to enhance CE treatment in EIA. Improvement suggestions include (i) use of the term CE in regulatory instruments, (ii) development of the interplay between CEA practice and CE science, (iii) co-ordination of management of baseline, monitoring and follow-up data, (iv) assessment of CE in relation to project-specific environmental objectives, developed in a bottom-up process, (v) inclusion of CE, within and across environmental aspects, in determining the significance of environmental impacts, (vi) advice on CE treatment in EIA guidelines, (vii) requirement of CE assessment in EIA procurement, (viii) strengthened generalist competence in environmental assessment, and (ix) enhancing skills in stepwise analyses and indirect environmental effects. Research needs include adaptation of the Swedish EIA procedure to international state of the art, knowledge support of quantification in CE assessment, and development of innovative means of public consultation in transport infrastructure planning.

  • 31.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Thoresson, Karin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Tjänstemännen och trafiksäkerheten i kommunerna: föreställningar, roller och beslut2008Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    The aim of the present study is to describe and analyze the attitude of local government officials to traffic safety and to their roles in the decisions being made with regard to traffic safety measures. The purpose is also to give an overall picture of the decision-making processes in connection with specific traffic safety measures in two municipal authorities. The study has been divided into two parts. The first part was an interview study in which twenty local government officials in eleven municipal authorities were subject to in-depth interviews. The second part consists of case studies of the planning and decision-making processes with regard to traffic safety matters in two municipal authorities, where the source material in each case consists of written documentation.

  • 32.
    Henningsson, Marianne
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    SLU.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Mikusinski, Grzegorz
    SLU.
    Göransson, Görgen
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Angelstam, Per
    SLU.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Jönsson, Sofia
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Perceived landscape values and public participation in a road-planning process: A case study in Sweden2015In: Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, ISSN 0964-0568, E-ISSN 1360-0559, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 631-653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Landscape Convention indicates that assessment of different dimensions that exist in landscapes should be taken into account in planning. In this study, we first investigated ecological, cultural and social values as perceived by the local people in a highway-planning process in Sweden. Next, we explored which factors influenced the local people’s participation in the road-planning process. We used questionnaires, planning documents and the Theory of Planned Behavior to investigate the relations between different factors and local people's participation in the planning process. The results showed that people presumed the ecological values in the landscape to be adversely affected by the new road, while the social values would remain the same. Landowners had heard of the participatory-process, but few participated. Those who lived within 300 m of the road were more active in the planning process than people living further away. The findings suggest that people living within a few hundred metres of the road should be treated as key stakeholders in the planning process. The involvement of other stakeholders, and when in the public participation process stakeholders should be involved, is also discussed.

  • 33.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Handling User Needs: Methods for Knowledge Creation in Swedish Transport Planning2012In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 115-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport planning faces new demands for a dialogue with users. Transport planners no longer just build roads; nowadays they also must listen to users, whose wishes are meant to have an impact on the design and maintenance of the road transport system. Yet how can we know what users really want? This article sets out to analyze the methods with which transport planners gather information about users and their needs; to do so, it uses a case-study of how transport planners at the National Swedish Road Authority handle these questions on a day-to-day basis.

    The results show that the planners’ practices can be analytically understood as something that produces knowledge, representativity, and the identities and needs of the users. The planners base their analyses of user need largely on personal experience. The descriptive, interpretative, and evaluating elements in their knowledge production tend to be hidden in central policy documents and theworkings of operational planning systems. If the goals with respect to user influence are to be attained, transport planning must be pursued with a greater understanding of how it conceives of its users as specific categories with particular needs and identities.

  • 34.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Kundorientering av myndigheter: hur kunskap om medborgarna och näringslivet skapas i Vägverket2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    New demands for dialogue with users are being made in transport planning. Transport planners no longer just build roads. Nowadays they also must listen to the users, and the wishes of the users have an impact on the design and maintenance of the road transport system. But how can we know what the users really want? The aim of this report is to analyze the methods which transport planners use to create knowledge about the users and their needs. This is done by means of a case study of how transport planners at the Swedish Road Administration concretely handle these questions. The results of interviews show that planners experience problems when using the institutionalized so-called "customer capture methods" that the head office has created. Some examples of these institutionalized methods are for instance market surveys, national measurements of the satisfaction of the users with the work of the Swedish Transport Administration - so-called Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI). The planners for example feel that they cannot use these methods for solving problems of representativeness. The interviews with the planners at the Swedish Transport Administration show how they wrestle with the question of who are representative of the users and what they want. The results show that the planners' practices analytically can be understood as something that produces knowledge, representativity and the identities and needs of the users. The planners to a great extent base their analyses on personal experiences. The planners do realize the interpretive aspects of the planning, but at the same time the descriptive, interpretative and valuating aspects of the knowledge production tend to be hidden in central policy documents and systems of operational planning.

  • 35.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Parkeringsnormer för bostäder: Porslinsfabriken – ett exempel på samspelet mellan läge, kollektivtrafik- och parkeringsutbud2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report analyses the effects of lowered parking requirements for residents in the centrally located, relatively newly built housing area, Porslinsfabriken in Gothenburg. Porslinsfabriken has a relatively low parking requirement of 0.57 places per apartment and is a good example of a parking policy being introduced in many Swedish municipalities. The results show that 19 percent of households have decreased their car ownership and also drive fewer miles because of parking opportunities. However, the majority have not altered their car ownership or car use. There are few differences between groups with different occupations, education, age, gender and/or family situation as regards car ownership, car use or the consequences of parking for everyday life.

    Most are happy with the parking situation. A parking requirement of 0.57 for a centrally located housing area with good public transport, close proximity to services and good opportunities for cycling, walking and using public transport has decreased overall car use. However, the range of parking available in the immediate area gives residents a choice of parking spaces. The majority of residents commute by private car as before, and many others have kept their cars. The parking requirement could therefore have been lower. A practical implication of the results is that a lower parking requirement for construction of new apartment blocks must be accompanied by a well-coordinated battery of other measures, such as good access to public transport, higher parking charges, a reduction in public parking spaces etc.

  • 36.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Lunds Universitet.
    Eriksson, Linnea
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Layering and parallel policy making: Complementary concepts for understanding implementation challenges related to sustainable mobility2017In: Transport Policy, ISSN 0967-070X, E-ISSN 1879-310X, Vol. 53, p. 50-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is focused on implementation challenges related to the integration of sustainable mobility in strategic local/regional land use and transport planning. The work was based on a case study of Stockholm, Sweden, focusing on four current plans and strategies of key importance for sustainable mobility. We identify and discuss implementation challenges related to sustainable mobility using a theoretical framework from the policy integration literature, with a focus on the dimensions of “layering”, “drift” and “exhaustion” (Rayner & Howlett 2009).

    The empirical analysis led us to identify a complementary dimension which we call ‘Parallel policy making’. The parallel policy making reflects a fundamental lack of integration of sustainable mobility in policies and plans of strategic importance, which hinders effective policy integration. Altogether, we conclude that a better insight into the practice of parallel policy making is crucial for development of more effective implementation strategies for sustainable mobility in Stockholm and elsewhere.

  • 37.
    Jacobsen, Jens Kristian Steen
    et al.
    Institute of Transport Economics.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Lunds Universitet.
    Motivational segments for trips along the high coast byway of Sweden: a study of local leisure excursions and domestic holidaymaking2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Hospitality and Tourism, ISSN 1502-2250, E-ISSN 1502-2269, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This on-site study investigated local leisure travellers’ and domestic tourists’ motivations for taking summer trips along the High Coast of Sweden, a byway designated with brown signage as a national tourism route, responding to a dearth of research on why people are motivated to use scenic byways. Non-local Swedish leisure travellers at selected locations along the byway were asked to fill in self-completion questionnaires and hand them back to the project staff.

    The most emphasised motivations for taking this trip were “getting away from everyday life”, “beautiful view from the road”, and “interesting landscape”. Based on factor analysis, three motivational patterns were identified:

    1. sightseeing and outdoor life
    2. getting away and travelling around
    3. a quick route to family and friends

    The route attracted a large proportion of local and regional repeaters with ties to the area through family and friends and/or second homes; only 18% were on their first visit. There were considerable motivational differences between those people who were going to a second home in the area and other visitors. Among travellers who did not visit a second home, there were few motivational differences between day-trippers and persons with overnight stay(s), corroborating blurred distinctions between excursionists and tourists. The large proportions of local and regional visitors indicated that extra-regional route promotion may be improved.

  • 38.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Driving behaviour responses to a moose encounter, automatic speed camera, wildlife warning sign and radio message determined in a factorial simulator study2016In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 86, p. 229-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a driving simulator study, driving behaviour responses (speed and deceleration) to encountering a moose, automatic speed camera, wildlife warning sign and radio message, with or without a wildlife fence and in dense forest or open landscape, were analysed. The study consisted of a factorial experiment that examined responses to factors singly and in combination over 9-km road stretches driven eight times by 25 participants (10 men, 15 women). The aims were to: determine the most effective animal–vehicle collision (AVC) countermeasures in reducing vehicle speed and test whether these are more effective in combination for reducing vehicle speed; identify the most effective countermeasures on encountering moose; and determine whether the driving responses to AVC countermeasures are affected by the presence of wildlife fences and landscape characteristics. The AVC countermeasures that proved most effective in reducing vehicle speed were a wildlife warning sign and radio message, while automatic speed cameras had a speed-increasing effect. There were no statistically significant interactions between different countermeasures and moose encounters. However, there was a tendency for a stronger speed-reducing effect from the radio message warning and from a combination of a radio message and wildlife warning sign in velocity profiles covering longer driving distances than the statistical tests. Encountering a moose during the drive had the overall strongest speed-reducing effect and gave the strongest deceleration, indicating that moose decoys or moose artwork might be useful as speed-reducing countermeasures. Furthermore, drivers reduced speed earlier on encountering a moose in open landscape and had lower velocity when driving past it. The presence of a wildlife fence on encountering the moose resulted in smaller deceleration.

  • 39.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Speed reduction effects over distance of animal-vehicle collision countermeasures: a driving simulator study2018In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study examined if speed reduction effects from animal-vehicle collision (AVC) countermeasures are merely local or do extend to a wider area, and what implications the results have on road planning practice regarding AVCs.

    Methods: Twenty-five drivers drove repeatedly on a 9-km long road stretch in a high-fidelity driving simulator. The development of vehicle speed in the surrounding of an automatic speed camera, a wildlife warning sign and a radio message, were investigated in a full factorial within-subject experiment. The factors wildlife fence (with/without) and forest (dense/open landscape) were also included.

    Results: The radio warning message had the largest influence on vehicle speed with a speed reduction of 8 km/h that lasted beyond 1 km and 2 km after the implementation. Eighty-eight per cent of the drivers reported being made extra aware of AVC due to the radio message, which was also associated with stress, insecurity and unsafety. The warning sign reduced vehicle speed by 1.5 km/h, but speed reductions were not significantly reduced 1 km after the implementation. Only 8 % of the drivers felt insecure/unsafe after passing the wildlife warning sign, explaining its limited impact on speed. There were no main effects of the automatic speed camera on vehicle speed at longer distances after implementation.

    Conclusions: We recommend that AVC countermeasures should be of various design, occur at various segments along the road, and preferably be adaptive and geo-localized to minimize habituation effects on drivers.

  • 40.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Antonson, Hans
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Driving behaviour responses to a moose encounter, automatic speed camera, wildlife warning sign and radio message determined in a factorial simulator study2016In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 86, p. 229-238Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a driving simulator study, driving behaviour responses (speed and deceleration) to encountering a moose, automatic speed camera, wildlife warning sign and radio message, with or without a wildlife fence and in dense forest or open landscape, were analysed. The study consisted of a factorial experiment that examined responses to factors singly and in combination over 9-km road stretches driven eight times by 25 participants (10 men, 15 women). The aims were to: determine the most effective animal–vehicle collision (AVC) countermeasures in reducing vehicle speed and test whether these are more effective in combination for reducing vehicle speed; identify the most effective countermeasures on encountering moose; and determine whether the driving responses to AVC countermeasures are affected by the presence of wildlife fences and landscape characteristics. The AVC countermeasures that proved most effective in reducing vehicle speed were a wildlife warning sign and radio message, while automatic speed cameras had a speed-increasing effect. There were no statistically significant interactions between different countermeasures and moose encounters. However, there was a tendency for a stronger speed-reducing effect from the radio message warning and from a combination of a radio message and wildlife warning sign in velocity profiles covering longer driving distances than the statistical tests. Encountering a moose during the drive had the overall strongest speed-reducing effect and gave the strongest deceleration, indicating that moose decoys or moose artwork might be useful as speed-reducing countermeasures. Furthermore, drivers reduced speed earlier on encountering a moose in open landscape and had lower velocity when driving past it. The presence of a wildlife fence on encountering the moose resulted in smaller deceleration.

  • 41.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Kan viltolyckor förebyggas av körsätt?: En körsimulatorstudie utförd av VTI. Slutrapport till Viltvårdsfonden, projekt nr 802-0224-092013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektets syfte har varit att förstå mänskligt förarbeteende i situationer där vilt förekommer utmed vägmiljöer och även att undersöka vilka effekter förebyggande åtgärder har på förarbeteendet. Om det går att förstå förarbeteende bättre, samt undersöka exakt hur de förebyggande åtgärderna som skall förhindra viltkollisioner fungerar på människor, finns både goda möjligheter att reducera antalet viltkollisioner (oavsett viltstammens storlek), och ändra allmänhetens uppfattning av att det enbart är storleken på viltstammarna som gör att man kolliderar med vilt.

    Vi har utfört en körsimulatorstudie i SIM III där det ingick 25 försökspersoner, 10 män och 15 kvinnor. Försökspersonerna fick köra sträckor med en full-faktoriell design innehållande testvariablerna: ATK (hastighetskamera), riktat radiomeddelande, viltvarningsskylt, älg, viltstängsel samt öppet landskap och landskap med tät skog.

    Älgen förefaller vara den variabel som leder till störst reaktioner, även vad gäller stress. Det kan bero på att man inte är van att se älgar längs vägarna. Vi vet inte om det går att vänja sig vid detta, men då reaktionen av älg vid upprepning förefaller mildra effekterna av såväl stress som inbromsning tyder resultaten på att så kan vara fallet.

    Föreliggande studie har identifierat forskningsbehov inom flera områden såsom djupgående studier av att undersöka huruvida effekter av de förebyggande åtgärderna har en ihållande effekt på längre sikt, dvs. efter upprepningar. Annars föreligger en risk att förebyggande åtgärder (radiomeddelande, älg, ATK, varningsskylt), endast har en kortvarig effekt.

  • 42.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Antonson, Hans
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Kan viltolyckor förebyggas av körsätt?: En körsimulatorstudie utförd av VTI. Slutrapport till Viltvårdsfonden, projekt nr 802-0224-092013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektets syfte har varit att förstå mänskligt förarbeteende i situationer där vilt förekommer utmed vägmiljöer och även att undersöka vilka effekter förebyggande åtgärder har på förarbeteendet. Om det går att förstå förarbeteende bättre, samt undersöka exakt hur de förebyggande åtgärderna som skall förhindra viltkollisioner fungerar på människor, finns både goda möjligheter att reducera antalet viltkollisioner (oavsett viltstammens storlek), och ändra allmänhetens uppfattning av att det enbart är storleken på viltstammarna som gör att man kolliderar med vilt.

    Vi har utfört en körsimulatorstudie i SIM III där det ingick 25 försökspersoner, 10 män och 15 kvinnor. Försökspersonerna fick köra sträckor med en full-faktoriell design innehållande testvariablerna: ATK (hastighetskamera), riktat radiomeddelande, viltvarningsskylt, älg, viltstängsel samt öppet landskap och landskap med tät skog.

    Älgen förefaller vara den variabel som leder till störst reaktioner, även vad gäller stress. Det kan bero på att man inte är van att se älgar längs vägarna. Vi vet inte om det går att vänja sig vid detta, men då reaktionen av älg vid upprepning förefaller mildra effekterna av såväl stress som inbromsning tyder resultaten på att så kan vara fallet.

    Föreliggande studie har identifierat forskningsbehov inom flera områden såsom djupgående studier av att undersöka huruvida effekter av de förebyggande åtgärderna har en ihållande effekt på längre sikt, dvs. efter upprepningar. Annars föreligger en risk att förebyggande åtgärder (radiomeddelande, älg, ATK, varningsskylt), endast har en kortvarig effekt.

  • 43.
    Nilsson, Kristina L
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Larsson, Anders
    SLU Alnarp.
    Hantering av natur- och kulturvärden genom hela vägplaneringsprocessen2012Report (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Ecologize.
    Antonson, Hans
    KMV forum AB.
    Hållbara turistresor i transportplaneringen: analys och utvecklingsförslag2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Statistics show that tourism in Sweden is increasing, thus increasing its importance for the overall economy, exports and employment. However, tourism is also associated with environmental and other effects, for example from tourist travel. The objective of this study was to investigate how tourist travel and sustainable tourist travel are included in infrastructure planning and to identify potential development needs. The studies focus on regional and local planning, but also the national planning is addressed, and the need for coordination and cooperation in the planning is discussed. Two substudies, a document analysis and an interview study were conducted in four destinations (case studies) with different characteristics. These are Kiruna, Åre, Sälen and Vimmerby / Astrid Lindgren’s World. The study is part of a larger project, which is also published in a synthesis report.

    The overall picture emerging from the interviews is a relatively fragmented planning. Many different perspectives and objectives need to be addressed in regional and local planning, but the level of knowledge in planning and access to or application of different planning support does not correspond to the needs. Several interviewees highlight “åtgärdsvalsstudier” as a good model for the development of grounds for decisions and priorities, and for cooperation between actors. Complemented with clearer central governance and support regarding priorities between different types of goals and objectives, for example sustainability, this may be a good model for further development of planning for including broader and additional perspectives, for example sustainability and tourism.

    Further examples of identified development needs are clearer and explicit responsibility for tourism and sustainability in national planning, further development of processes, routines, information and communication in coordinated planning as well as better knowledge regarding the application of guidelines and tools in planning.

  • 45.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Antonson, Hans
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Arvidsson, Björn
    Rese - och Turistnäringen i Sverige.
    Evanth, Katarina
    Trivector Traffic AB.
    Genell, Anders
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Hvitlock, Nina
    Trivector Traffic AB.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Lundin, Jan
    Rese - och Turistnäringen i Sverige.
    Niska, Anna
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Drift och underhåll, DOU.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafiksäkerhet, samhälle och trafikant, TST.
    Wennberg, Hanna
    Trivector Traffic AB.
    Hållbara turistresor inom Sverige: hinder och möjligheter för resor med tåg och buss2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to analyze the conditions for the transfer of passengers from private car to public transport, primarily train and bus to, from and within a number of tourist destinations in Sweden. The goal was to develop a basis for planning for sustainable tourism. The study included an analysis of opportunities to travel by public transport, travel time and travel costs, interviews with tourists and other stakeholders, an analysis of measures, and it results in some general guidelines for planning for sustainable tourism. The possibilities to travel by public transport, travel time and travel costs to, from and within three summer destinations (Astrid Lindgren's World, the Kingdom of Crystal, Öland) and two winter destinations (Åre, Funäsdalen) were analyzed for three different categories of tourists (families with children, couples, four adults) . This showed that overall is possible to travel to the destinations studied without a private car. The conditions travelling with public transport, however, differ greatly between the different destinations. Travel time by train or bus in comparison with travelling by car was not too different for most combinations of points of departure and destinations. In some cases, however, when the point of departure was a smaller place, not located along a major railroad, the journey by train and/or bus could be both long and require many transfers. In those cases public transport is hardly an alternative to traveling by private car. The total travel cost for travelling by train or bus was in almost all cases fairly level with travelling with private car, it but could also be significantly higher. The cost for travelling by public transport was also relatively higher in comparison with private car for parties with two or more people, and in those cases the cost was sometimes seen as an obstacle. The travel opportunities within the various destinations appears to be the biggest obstacle for convincing more people to choose to travel by public transport to and from tourist destinations, particularly in summer when travel requirement in general are higher. The options for travelling within the destinations vary considerably, but are generally better in the winter destinations. In Åre the ski bus, for example, is a good option for travelling between the various ski resorts. The tourist’s views of travelling by public transport is also much more positive for journeys to winter destinations than to summer destinations, which can largely be explained by the smaller travel requirements within these destinations. In the case of families the view that it is difficult to attract families with young children to travel by public transport emerged. There may be several reasons for this, the handling of luggage being one important issue. Many also suggested that there is a need to make it easier to find information about public transport options and alternatives as well as to reserve and book tickets. Package reservations were highlighted as an interesting alternative. Many saw information searching regarding the trip components such as accommodation, flights, transfer, lift passes etc. as problematic and would appreciate a service where everything was in one place. In addition it is not easy to get an overview of pricing for both travel and accommodation. Proposals were also put forward that one way to attract to travel by public transport is to highlight the added value that it entails.

  • 46.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Arvidsson, Björn
    Rese - och Turistnäringen i Sverige.
    Evanth, Katarina
    Trivector Traffic AB.
    Genell, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Hvitlock, Nina
    Trivector Traffic AB.
    Jägerbrand, Annika
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Lundin, Jan
    Rese - och Turistnäringen i Sverige.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Wennberg, Hanna
    Trivector Traffic AB.
    Hållbara turistresor inom Sverige: hinder och möjligheter för resor med tåg och buss2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to analyze the conditions for the transfer of passengers from private car to public transport, primarily train and bus to, from and within a number of tourist destinations in Sweden. The goal was to develop a basis for planning for sustainable tourism. The study included an analysis of opportunities to travel by public transport, travel time and travel costs, interviews with tourists and other stakeholders, an analysis of measures, and it results in some general guidelines for planning for sustainable tourism. The possibilities to travel by public transport, travel time and travel costs to, from and within three summer destinations (Astrid Lindgren's World, the Kingdom of Crystal, Öland) and two winter destinations (Åre, Funäsdalen) were analyzed for three different categories of tourists (families with children, couples, four adults) . This showed that overall is possible to travel to the destinations studied without a private car. The conditions travelling with public transport, however, differ greatly between the different destinations. Travel time by train or bus in comparison with travelling by car was not too different for most combinations of points of departure and destinations. In some cases, however, when the point of departure was a smaller place, not located along a major railroad, the journey by train and/or bus could be both long and require many transfers. In those cases public transport is hardly an alternative to traveling by private car. The total travel cost for travelling by train or bus was in almost all cases fairly level with travelling with private car, it but could also be significantly higher. The cost for travelling by public transport was also relatively higher in comparison with private car for parties with two or more people, and in those cases the cost was sometimes seen as an obstacle. The travel opportunities within the various destinations appears to be the biggest obstacle for convincing more people to choose to travel by public transport to and from tourist destinations, particularly in summer when travel requirement in general are higher. The options for travelling within the destinations vary considerably, but are generally better in the winter destinations. In Åre the ski bus, for example, is a good option for travelling between the various ski resorts. The tourist’s views of travelling by public transport is also much more positive for journeys to winter destinations than to summer destinations, which can largely be explained by the smaller travel requirements within these destinations. In the case of families the view that it is difficult to attract families with young children to travel by public transport emerged. There may be several reasons for this, the handling of luggage being one important issue. Many also suggested that there is a need to make it easier to find information about public transport options and alternatives as well as to reserve and book tickets. Package reservations were highlighted as an interesting alternative. Many saw information searching regarding the trip components such as accommodation, flights, transfer, lift passes etc. as problematic and would appreciate a service where everything was in one place. In addition it is not easy to get an overview of pricing for both travel and accommodation. Proposals were also put forward that one way to attract to travel by public transport is to highlight the added value that it entails.

  • 47. Schmidtbauer Crona, Jan
    et al.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Folkeson, Lennart
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Balfors, Berit
    Blev det som det var tänkt?: en internationell kunskapsöversikt om miljöuppföljning av väg- och järnvägsprojekt2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    "Were the results as intended?" The question encapsulates the main purpose of

    environmental follow-ups of road and railway projects. Documenting how far

    the real environmental effects and consequences agree with those that were

    described in the environmental impact assessment (EIA) is the main purpose of

    an environmental follow-up. Another of its purposes is to identify unforeseen

    effects and consequences, so that appropriate countermeasures can be taken.

    Describing the extent to which any adaptive or mitigation measures had the

    desired effect may be yet a further purpose of making an environmental

    follow-up. An environmental follow-up can also aim to describe whether the

    environmental consequences of the infrastructure project was kept within the

    framework laid down at the time the investment decision was made. This

    overview reports how an EIA follow-up is organised and carried out in other

    countries, principally Norway, the Netherlands, Germany, Switzerland, the

    USA, Canada, Brazil, Australia, New Zealand and Hong Kong. Procedures are

    presented for selecting infrastructure projects to follow up, together with

    the environmental effects that are to be followed up. The importance of

    clarifying the purpose of the follow-up is emphasised, as is the importance

    of the follow-up activities being carried out according to a defined

    programme. Among other things, the follow-up programme describes the various

    players' responsibilities, access to baseline data, the timing of the

    follow-up, the methods to be used, and how the results are to be reported and

    used. The overview also takes up the follow-up's linkage to an environmental

    management system. Examples are also given of a method known as adaptive

    environmental management. Finally, the review looks at how experience gained

    from follow-ups can be disseminated and transferred to the planning of future

    infrastructure projects. The review shows that inspiration for more effective

    approaches and methodology for EIA follow-ups in the road and railway sector

    can also be sought in experience from follow-ups in other sectors.

  • 48.
    Stave, Christina
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wenäll, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Crash safety.
    Kunskapssammanställning över introduktionen av elbilar2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is an overview of the field of electric driven vehicles, aiming to give an overview of the introduction of vehicles and supporting the development of the vehicle electrification. Some current technical solutions are presented, and a possible future is outlined, in the field of vehicles, batteries as well as infrastructure and power supply solutions. A brief overview of the system perspective on society, drivers and vehicles and the impact on the environment is given. Some electrification initiatives, realized or planned, are described with a major focus on the Swedish market, although a brief international view is presented. Governmental electrification targets and duly support is presented, as well as some examples of current research in this field. For this document, the electric vehicle is mainly to be understood as a passenger type vehicle with some type of electric power supply. Initially presented are various types of electric vehicles, EV, such as (pure) electric vehicles (with no alternative power), electric hybrid vehicles, plug-in (chargeable) hybrid vehicles and fuel cell vehicles. On the 30th of April 2014 there were 3714 vehicles named “plug-in” hybrid, with an option of external charging, registered in Sweden. Out of those there were 1 260 only electric powered and 2454 of the type chargeable hybrid vehicles. The most common battery type in the modern EV is the lithiumion accumulator. EV normally retain a high purchase price, mainly due to the cost of the batteries. The sustainability of the batteries will affect the overall cost. Second hand value is still very uncertain, as well as an uncertainty by the users about the EV functionality, i.e. the possibility to drive a certain distance. An often raised question is the lack of external vehicle noise, possibly making the EV a potential risk due to low hearing detectability. To be able to use an EV, batteries need to be charged. A survey by Transport Analysis (Sweden) shows that 70% of all transportation made by passenger vehicles in Sweden are shorter than 30 km, with the implication that most of these travels are well suited to be performed by an EV. In the report various solutions to the charging of batteries are presented and whether and how power could be supplied.

  • 49.
    Wu, Chia-Jung
    et al.
    National Taiwan University.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Antonson, Hans
    KMV Forum AB.
    The struggle to achieve holistic landscape planning: Lessons from planning the E6 road route through Tanum World Heritage Site, Sweden2017In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 67, p. 167-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the EU introduced the European Landscape Convention (ELC) in 2000, the landscape has received growing attention in spatial planning and environmental impact assessments. To promote implementation of the ELC, the Swedish National Heritage Board proposed its Landscape Vision 2020, which addresses the goal of a ‘holistic landscape policy’. This study examined challenges and benefits brought by such a holistic approach to handling landscape protection/management within four issues in planning practice, namely cross-sector cooperation, local participation, integrating culture and nature, and bridging past and future. The analysis focused on a controversial road project passing through a World Heritage Site in Sweden. The results showed that the four issues were closely interlinked. In the case study, a new wave of cross-sector cooperation at authority level was observed, but it was also found to dominate the entire planning process and eventually limit the achievement of the other three issues. In conclusion, this study identified institutional culture and political context as key explanatory factors for understanding how the ELC and a holistic landscape view can be implemented in national practice.

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