Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 75
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Almblad, Ann-Charlotte
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Brylid, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Engvall, Gunn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Neuropediatrics/Paediatric oncology.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Increased intensive care admission rate after introduction of Early Detection and Treatment program for Children and the establishment of a pediatric intensive care unit at a tertiary hospital in SwedenIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate the introduction of an Early Detection and Treatment program- Children (EDT-C) including a paediatric early warning score (PEWS) in relation to admission and length of stay at intensive care unit (ICU). Design: Before-after study utilizing data from the Electronic Patient Record (EPR) system, comparing outcomes over a total time period of 60 months between April 2010 and September 2015. Setting: A Swedish tertiary hospital. Patients: A total of 16,283 paediatric patients were included over the study period. Interventions: EDT-C including PEWS Measurements and Main Results: The following variables were extracted from the EPR data: 1) Admissions to paediatric wards 2) Length of stay at paediatric wards 3) Admissions to intensive care units 4) Length of stay at intensive care unit 5) Diagnosis. Intensive care unit admission increased from 5.0% (440/8746) before to 10.2 % (772/7537) after the introduction of the EDT-C (p<0.01). Mean treatment time at ICU did not change (41.0 vs 48.3 hours, p=0.23). Conclusion: The introduction of EDT-C including PEWS, in conjunction with the establishment of a paediatric intensive care unit at the hospital, resulted in an increased intensive care admittance rate among paediatric in-patients.

  • 2.
    Almblad, Ann-Charlotte
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Engvall, Gunn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Neuropediatrics/Paediatric oncology.
    From skepticism to assurance and control: Implementation of a patient safety system at a pediatric hospital in Sweden2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 11, article id e0207744Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The use of evidence-based practice among healthcare professionals directly correlates to better outcomes for patients and higher professional satisfaction. Translating knowledge in practice and mobilizing evidence-based clinical care remains a continuing challenge in healthcare systems across the world.

    PURPOSE: To describe experiences from the implementation of an Early Detection and Treatment Program for Children (EDT-C) among health care professionals at a pediatric hospital in Sweden.

    DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixteen individual interviews were conducted with physicians, nurses and nurse assistants, which of five were instructors. Data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis.

    RESULTS: An overarching theme was created: From uncertainty and skepticism towards assurance and control. The theme was based on the content of eight categories: An innovation suitable for clinical practice, Differing conditions for change, Lack of organizational slack, Complex situations, A pragmatic implementation strategy, Delegated responsibility, Experiences of control and Successful implementation.

    CONCLUSIONS: Successful implementation was achieved when initial skepticism among staff was changed into acceptance and using EDT-C had become routine in their daily work. Inter-professional education including material from authentic patient cases promotes knowledge about different professions and can strengthen teamwork. EDT-C with evidenced-based material adapted to the context can give healthcare professionals a structured and objective tool with which to assess and treat patients, giving them a sense of control and assurance.

  • 3.
    Almblad, Ann-Charlotte
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Engvall, Gunn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Neuropediatrics/Paediatric oncology.
    From skepticism to assurance and control: implementation of a patient safety system at a pediatric hospital in SwedenIn: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Almblad, Ann-Charlotte
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Siltberg, Petra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Neuropediatrics/Paediatric oncology.
    Engvall, Gunn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Neuropediatrics/Paediatric oncology.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Implementation of Pediatric Early Warning Score: Adherence to Guidelines and Influence of Context2018In: Journal of Pediatric Nursing: Nursing Care of Children and Families, ISSN 0882-5963, E-ISSN 1532-8449, Vol. 38, p. 33-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To describe data of Pediatric Early Warning Score (PEWS) registrations and to evaluate the implementation of PEWS by examining adherence to clinical guidelines based on measured PEWS, and to relate findings to work context.

    DESIGN AND METHODS: PEWS, as a part of a concept called Early Detection and Treatment-Children (EDT-C) was implemented at three wards at a Children's Hospital in Sweden. Data were collected from the Electronic Patient Record (EPR) retrospectively to assess adherence to guidelines. The Alberta Context Tool (ACT) was used to assess work context among healthcare professionals (n=110) before implementation of EDT-C.

    RESULTS: The majority of PEWS registrations in EPR were low whereas 10% were moderate to high. Adherences to ward-specific guidelines at admission and for saturation in respiratory distress were high whereas adherence to pain assessment was low. There were significant differences in documented recommended actions between wards. Some differences in leadership and evaluation between wards were identified.

    CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of PEWS implementation indicated frequent use of the tool despite most scores being low. High scores (5-9) occurred 28 times, which may indicate that patients with a high risk of clinical deterioration were identified. Documentation of the consequent recommended actions was however incomplete and there was a large variation in adherence to guidelines. Contextual factors may have an impact on adherence.

    PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS: EDT-C can lead to increased knowledge about early detection of deterioration, strengthen nurses as professionals, optimize treatment and teamwork and thereby increase patient safety for children treated in hospitals.

  • 5.
    Ashish, K. C.
    et al.
    United Nations Childrens Fund, Nepal Country Off, POB 1187,UN House, Kathmandu, Nepal..
    Nelin, Viktoria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Raaijmakers, Hendrikus
    United Nations Childrens Fund, Nepal Country Off, POB 1187,UN House, Kathmandu, Nepal..
    Kim, Hyung Joon
    United Nations Childrens Fund, Nepal Country Off, POB 1187,UN House, Kathmandu, Nepal..
    Singh, Chahana
    United Nations Childrens Fund, Nepal Country Off, POB 1187,UN House, Kathmandu, Nepal..
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Increased immunization coverage addresses the equity gap in Nepal2017In: Bulletin of the World Health Organization, ISSN 0042-9686, E-ISSN 1564-0604, Vol. 95, no 4, p. 261-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To compare immunization coverage and equity distribution of coverage between 2001 and 2014 in Nepal. Methods We used data from the Demographic and Health Surveys carried out in 2001, 2006 and 2011 together with data from the 2014. Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. We calculated the proportion, in mean percentage, of children who had received bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccine, three doses of polio vaccine, three doses of diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) vaccine and measles vaccine. To measure inequities between wealth quintiles, we calculated the slope index of inequality (SII) and relative index of inequality (RII) for all surveys. Findings From 2001 to 2014, the proportion of children who received all vaccines at the age of 12 months increased from 68.8% (95% confidence interval, CI: 67.5-70.1) to 82.4% (95% CI: 80.7-84.0). While coverage of BCG, DPT and measles immunization statistically increased during the study period, the proportion of children who received the third dose of polio vaccine decreased from 93.3% (95% CI: 92.7-93.9) to 88.1% (95% CI: 86.8-89.3). The poorest wealth quintile showed the greatest improvement in immunization coverage, from 58% to 77.9%, While the wealthiest quintile only improved from 84.8% to 86.0%. The SII for children who received all vaccines improved from 0.070 (95% CI: 0.061-0.078) to 0.026 (95% CI: 0.013-0.039) and RII improved from 1.13 to 1.03. Conclusion The improvement in immunization coverage between 2001 and 2014 in Nepal can mainly be attributed to the interventions targeting the disadvantaged populations.

  • 6.
    Ashish, K. C.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Nepal Country Off, United Nations Childrens Fund, Lalitpur, Nepal..
    Wrammert, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Nelin, Viktoria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Ewald, Uwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Clark, Robert
    Latter Day St Char, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Uppsala Univ, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Int Maternal & Child Hlth, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Level of mortality risk for babies born preterm or with a small weight for gestation in a tertiary hospital of Nepal2015In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, article id 877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Globally, 15 million babies were born prematurely in 2012, with 37.6 % of them in South Asia. About 32.4 million infants were born small for gestational age (SGA) in 2010, with more than half of these births occurring in South Asia. In Nepal, 14 % of babies were born preterm and 39.3 % were born SGA in 2010. We conducted a study in a tertiary hospital of Nepal to assess the level of risk for neonatal mortality among babies who were born prematurely and/or SGA. Methods: This case-control study was completed over a 15-month period between July 2012 and September 2013. All neonatal deaths that occurred during the study period were included as cases and 20 % of women with live births were randomly selected as referents. Information on potential risk factors was taken from medical records and interviews with the women. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the level of risk for neonatal mortality among babies born preterm and/or SGA. Results: During this period, the hospital had an incidence of preterm birth and SGA of 8.1 and 37.5 %, respectively. In the multivariate model, there was a 12-fold increased risk of neonatal death among preterm infants compared to term. Babies who were SGA had a 40 % higher risk of neonatal death compared to those who were not. Additionally, babies who were both preterm and SGA were 16 times more likely to die during the neonatal period. Conclusions: Our study showed that the risk of neonatal mortality was highest when the baby was born both preterm and SGA, followed by babies who were born preterm, and then by babies who were SGA in a tertiary hospital in Nepal. In tertiary care settings, the risk of mortality for babies who are born preterm and/or SGA can be reduced with low-cost interventions such as Kangaroo Mother Care or improved management of complications through special newborn care or neonatal intensive care units. The risk of death for babies who are born prematurely and/or SGA can thus be used as an indicator to monitor the quality of care for these babies in health facility settings.

  • 7.
    Bergman, Mattias
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Nygren-Brunell, Olivia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Vilakati, Danisile
    Nutrition Council, Ministry of Health, Mbabane, Swaziland.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health. Siphilile Maternal & Child Hlth NGO, Matsapha, Swaziland; Church Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Prolonged Exclusive Breastfeeding Through Peer Support: A Cohort Study From a Community Outreach Project in Swaziland2016In: Journal of community health, ISSN 0094-5145, E-ISSN 1573-3610, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 932-938Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swaziland faces great public health challenges, including suboptimal breastfeeding practices and the world's highest prevalence of HIV. The objective of this study was to estimate neonatal and infant mortality rate and rate of exclusive breastfeeding for clients enrolled in a community-based peer support project in peri-urban areas of Swaziland. The intervention builds on the so called "Philani-model" with Mentor Mothers in the community under high level of supervision. Cohort data was collected from journals kept by the Mentor Mothers. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression were used to analyse data. Neonatal and infant mortality were estimated to 15 respectively 57 per 1000 live births. High level of social vulnerability was associated with risk of neonatal mortality (HR 1.12, CI 95 % 1.01-1.24) while the mother's positive HIV status was associated with infant mortality (HR 2.05, CI 95 % 1.15-3.65). More visits by a Mentor Mother could not be shown to result in lower mortality. The chance to practice exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months was estimated to 50 %. The risk of discontinuing exclusive breastfeeding before 6 months was lower for mothers being unemployed (HR 0.55, CI 95 % 0.44-0.69) or socially vulnerable (HR 0.95, CI 95 % 0.92-0.99) and higher for mothers being HIV positive (HR 1.22, CI 95 % 1.01-1.48). Receiving at least four visits by a Mentor Mother during pregnancy decreased the risk of discontinuing exclusive breastfeeding prematurely (HR 0.82, CI 95 % 0.67-0.99). Peer support with Mentor Mothers thus had a positive impact on exclusive breastfeeding rates in this disadvantaged population.

  • 8.
    Bergström, Anna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Skeen, Sarah
    Duc, Duong M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Blandon, Elmer Zelaya
    Estabrooks, Carole
    Gustavsson, Petter
    Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong
    Kallestal, Carina
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Nga, Nguyen Thu
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Pervin, Jesmin
    Peterson, Stefan Swartling
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Rahman, Anisur
    Selling, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Squires, Janet E.
    Tomlinson, Mark
    Waiswa, Peter
    Wallin, Lars
    Health system context and implementation of evidence-based practices-development and validation of the Context Assessment for Community Health (COACH) tool for low- and middle-income settings2015In: Implementation Science, ISSN 1748-5908, E-ISSN 1748-5908, Vol. 10, article id 120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The gap between what is known and what is practiced results in health service users not benefitting from advances in healthcare, and in unnecessary costs. A supportive context is considered a key element for successful implementation of evidence-based practices (EBP). There were no tools available for the systematic mapping of aspects of organizational context influencing the implementation of EBPs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, this project aimed to develop and psychometrically validate a tool for this purpose. Methods: The development of the Context Assessment for Community Health (COACH) tool was premised on the context dimension in the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework, and is a derivative product of the Alberta Context Tool. Its development was undertaken in Bangladesh, Vietnam, Uganda, South Africa and Nicaragua in six phases: (1) defining dimensions and draft tool development, (2) content validity amongst in-country expert panels, (3) content validity amongst international experts, (4) response process validity, (5) translation and (6) evaluation of psychometric properties amongst 690 health workers in the five countries. Results: The tool was validated for use amongst physicians, nurse/midwives and community health workers. The six phases of development resulted in a good fit between the theoretical dimensions of the COACH tool and its psychometric properties. The tool has 49 items measuring eight aspects of context: Resources, Community engagement, Commitment to work, Informal payment, Leadership, Work culture, Monitoring services for action and Sources of knowledge. Conclusions: Aspects of organizational context that were identified as influencing the implementation of EBPs in high-income settings were also found to be relevant in LMICs. However, there were additional aspects of context of relevance in LMICs specifically Resources, Community engagement, Commitment to work and Informal payment. Use of the COACH tool will allow for systematic description of the local healthcare context prior implementing healthcare interventions to allow for tailoring implementation strategies or as part of the evaluation of implementing healthcare interventions and thus allow for deeper insights into the process of implementing EBPs in LMICs.

  • 9.
    Bich, Tran Huu
    et al.
    Epidemiology, Hanoi School of Public Health, Ha Noi, Viet Nam.
    Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong
    Epidemiology, Hanoi School of Public Health, Ha Noi, Viet Nam.
    Ha, Nguyen Thanh
    Epidemiology, Hanoi School of Public Health, Ha Noi, Viet Nam.
    Vui, Le Thi
    Epidemiology, Hanoi School of Public Health, Ha Noi, Viet Nam.
    Nghia, Dang Thi
    Epidemiology, Hanoi School of Public Health, Ha Noi, Viet Nam.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Father's involvement and its effect on early breastfeeding practices in Viet Nam.2016In: Maternal and Child Nutrition, ISSN 1740-8695, E-ISSN 1740-8709, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 768-777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fathers have an important but often neglected role in the promotion of healthy breastfeeding practices in developing countries. A community-based education intervention was designed to mobilize fathers' support for early breastfeeding. This study aimed to evaluate an education intervention targeting fathers to increase the proportion of early breastfeeding initiation and to reduce prelacteal feeding. Quasi-experimental study design was used to compare intervention and control areas located in two non-adjacent rural districts that shared similar demographic and health service characteristics in northern Viet Nam. Fathers and expectant fathers with pregnant wives from 7 to 30 weeks gestational age were recruited. Fathers in the intervention area received breastfeeding education materials, counselling services at a commune health centre and household visits. They were also invited to participate in a breastfeeding promotion social event. After intervention, early breastfeeding initiation rate was 81.2% in the intervention area and 39.6% in the control area (P < 0.001). Babies in the intervention area were more likely to be breastfed within the first hour after birth [odds ratio (OR) 7.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.81-12.12] and not to receive any prelacteal feeding (OR 4.43, 95% CI 2.88-6.82) compared with those in the control area. Fathers may positively influence the breastfeeding practices of mothers, and as a resource for early childcare, they can be mobilized in programmes aimed at improving the early initiation of breastfeeding.

  • 10.
    Bich, Tran Huu
    et al.
    Hanoi School of Public Health, Ba Dinh, Vietnam.
    Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong
    Hanoi School of Public Health, Ba Dinh, Vietnam.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Fathers as Supporters for Improved Exclusive Breastfeeding in Viet Nam2014In: Maternal and Child Health Journal, ISSN 1092-7875, E-ISSN 1573-6628, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 1444-1453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To determine the extent of exclusive breastfeeding practices among mothers of 4 and 6 month old infants whose fathers received breastfeeding education materials and counseling services. A quasi-experimental design was used. At the baseline, 251 and 241 couples were recruited into the intervention and control sites respectively. Fathers in the intervention area received breastfeeding education materials, counseling services at commune health centers and household visits. In the control site, where mothers routinely receive services on antenatal and postpartum care, fathers did not receive any intervention services on promoting breastfeeding. Primary indicators were exclusive breastfeeding at 4 and 6 months. At 6 months of age, based on 24-hour recall, 16.0 % (38/238) of mothers in the intervention group were exclusively breastfeeding their children, compared to 3.9 % (10/230) of those mothers in the control group (p < 0.001). Significant differences were found based on last-week recall (8.8 % in the intervention group vs. 1.3 % in the control group, p < 0.001) and since-birth recall (6.7 % in the intervention group vs. 0.9 % in the control group, p < 0.01). At 4 months of age, based on since birth recall, the breastfeeding proportion was significantly higher in the intervention group than in control group (20.6 % in the intervention group vs. 11.3 % in the control group, p < 0.01). An intervention targeting fathers might be effective in increasing exclusive breastfeeding practices at 4 and 6 months. To improve exclusive breastfeeding, health care staff working in maternal and child health units, should consider integrating fathers with services delivered to mothers and children.

  • 11.
    Binder-Finnema, Pauline
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Lien, Pham T. L.
    Hoa, Dinh T. P.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Determinants of marginalization and inequitable maternal health care in North-Central Vietnam: a framework analysis2015In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 8, article id 27554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Vietnam has achieved great improvements in maternal healthcare outcomes, but there is evidence of increasing inequity. Disadvantaged groups, predominantly ethnic minorities and people living in remote mountainous areas, do not gain access to maternal health improvements despite targeted efforts from policymakers. Objective: This study identifies underlying structural barriers to equitable maternal health care in Nghe An province, Vietnam. Experiences of social inequity and limited access among child-bearing ethnic and minority women are explored in relation to barriers of care provision experienced by maternal health professionals to gain deeper understanding on health outcomes. Design: In 2012, 11 focus group discussions with women and medical care professionals at local community health centers and district hospitals were conducted using a hermeneutic-dialectic method and analyzed for interpretation using framework analysis. Results: The social determinants 'limited negotiation power' and 'limited autonomy' orchestrate cyclical effects of shared marginalization for both women and care professionals within the provincial health system's infrastructure. Under-staffed and poorly equipped community health facilities referwomen and create overload at receiving health centers. Limited resources appear diverted away from local community centers as compensation to the district for overloaded facilities. Poor reputation for low care quality exists, and professionals are held in low repute for causing overload and resulting adverse outcomes. Country-wide reforms force women to bear responsibility for limited treatment adherence and health insight, but overlook providers' limited professional development. Ethnic minority women are hindered by relatives from accessing care choices and costs, despite having advanced insight about government reforms to alleviate poverty. Communication challenges are worsened by non-existent interpretation systems. Conclusions: For maternal health policy outcomes to become effective, it is important to understand that limited negotiation power and limited autonomy simultaneously confront childbearing women and health professionals. These two determinants underlie the inequitable economic, social, and political forces in Vietnam's disadvantaged communities, and result in marginalized status shared by both in the poorest sectors.

  • 12.
    Dalmar, Abdirisak Ahmed
    et al.
    Benadir Univ, Fac Med, Mogadishu, Somalia..
    Hussein, Abdullahi Sheik
    Benadir Univ, Fac Med, Mogadishu, Somalia..
    Walhad, Said Ahmed
    Amoud Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Borama, Somaliland, Somalia..
    Ibrahim, Abdirashid Omer
    Amoud Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Borama, Somaliland, Somalia..
    Abdi, Abshir Ali
    East Africa Univ, Fac Med, Bosasso, Somalia..
    Ali, Mohamed Khalid
    East Africa Univ, Fac Med, Bosasso, Somalia..
    Ereg, Derie Ismail
    Univ Hargeisa, Coll Med, Hargeisa, Somalia..
    Egal, Khadra Ali
    Univ Hargeisa, Coll Med, Hargeisa, Somalia..
    Shirwa, Abdulkadir Mohamed
    Galkayo Univ, Coll Med, Galkayo, Somalia..
    Aden, Mohamed Hussain
    Puntland Univ Sci & Technol, Med Coll, Galkayo, Somalia..
    Yusuf, Marian Warsame
    Somali Swedish Researchers Assoc, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Abdi, Yakoub Aden
    Somali Swedish Researchers Assoc, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Freij, Lennart
    Somali Swedish Researchers Assoc, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Johansson, Annika
    Somali Swedish Researchers Assoc, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mohamud, Khalif Bile
    Somali Swedish Researchers Assoc, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Abdulkadir, Yusuf
    Somali Swedish Researchers Assoc, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Emmelin, Maria
    Lund Univ, Unit Social Med & Global Hlth, Lund, Sweden..
    Eriksen, Jaran
    Karolinska Inst, Div Clin Pharmacol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Erlandsson, Kerstin
    Dalarna Univ, Falun, Sweden..
    Gustafsson, Lars L.
    Karolinska Inst, Div Clin Pharmacol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ivarsson, Anneli
    Umea Univ, Unit Epidemiol & Global Hlth, Umea, Sweden..
    Klingberg-Allvin, Marie
    Dalarna Univ, Falun, Sweden..
    Kinsman, John
    Umea Univ, Unit Epidemiol & Global Hlth, Umea, Sweden..
    Källestål, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Osman, Fatumo
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Sahlen, Klas-Goran
    Umea Univ, Unit Epidemiol & Global Hlth, Umea, Sweden..
    Wall, Stig
    Umea Univ, Unit Epidemiol & Global Hlth, Umea, Sweden..
    Rebuilding research capacity in fragile states: the case of a Somali-Swedish global health initiative2017In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 1348693Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an initiative to revive the previous Somali-Swedish Research Cooperation, which started in 1981 and was cut short by the civil war in Somalia. A programme focusing on research capacity building in the health sector is currently underway through the work of an alliance of three partner groups: six new Somali universities, five Swedish universities, and Somali diaspora professionals. Somali ownership is key to the sustainability of the programme, as is close collaboration with Somali health ministries. The programme aims to develop a model for working collaboratively across regions and cultural barriers within fragile states, with the goal of creating hope and energy. It is based on the conviction that health research has a key role in rebuilding national health services and trusted institutions.

  • 13.
    Eriksson, Leif
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Duc, Duong M
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Eldh, Ann Catrine
    Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet.
    Thanh, Vu Pham N
    Institute of Sociology, Public Health and Environment Depertment, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Huy, Tran Q
    Nursing office, Department of Medical Services Administration, Ministry of Health Vietnam.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Wallin, Lars
    School of Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, SE-791 88, Falun.
    Lessons learned from stakeholders in a facilitation intervention targeting neonatal health in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam2013In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 13, p. 234-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In northern Vietnam the Neonatal health - Knowledge Into Practice (NeoKIP, Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN44599712) trial has evaluated facilitation as a knowledge translation intervention to improve neonatal survival. The results demonstrated that intervention sites, each having an assigned group including local stakeholders supported by a facilitator, lowered the neonatal mortality rate by 50% during the last intervention year compared with control sites. This process evaluation was conducted to identify and describe mechanisms of the NeoKIP intervention based on experiences of facilitators and intervention group members.

    METHODS: Four focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with all facilitators at different occasions and 12 FGDs with 6 intervention groups at 2 occasions. Fifteen FGDs were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated into English, and analysed using thematic analysis.

    RESULTS: Four themes and 17 sub-themes emerged from the 3 FGDs with facilitators, and 5 themes and 18 sub-themes were identified from the 12 FGDs with the intervention groups mirroring the process of, and the barriers to, the intervention. Facilitators and intervention group members concurred that having groups representing various organisations was beneficial. Facilitators were considered important in assembling the groups. The facilitators functioned best if coming from the same geographical area as the groups and if they were able to come to terms with the chair of the groups. However, the facilitators' lack of health knowledge was regarded as a deficit for assisting the groups' assignments. FGD participants experienced the NeoKIP intervention to have impact on the knowledge and behaviour of both intervention group members and the general public, however, they found that the intervention was a slow and time-consuming process. Perceived facilitation barriers were lack of money, inadequate support, and the function of the intervention groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: This qualitative process evaluation contributes to explain the improved neonatal survival and why this occurred after a latent period in the NeoKIP project. The used knowledge translation intervention, where facilitators supported multi-stakeholder coalitions with the mandate to impact upon attitudes and behaviour in the communes, has low costs and potential for being scaled-up within existing healthcare systems.

  • 14.
    Eriksson, Leif
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Nga, Nguyen T
    Research Institute for Child Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Hoa, Dinh T Phuong
    Hanoi University of Public Health, Vietnam.
    Duc, Duong M
    Hanoi University of Public Health, Vietnam.
    Bergström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition. Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, UK.
    Wallin, Lars
    School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Ewald, Uwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Huy, Tran Q
    Department of Medical Services Administration, Ministry of Health, Nursing office, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Thuy, Nguyen T
    Vietnam-Sweden Uong Bi General Hospital, Uong Bi, Vietnam.
    Do, Tran Thanh
    National Institute of Nutrition (NIN), Ministry of Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Lien, Pham T L
    Research Institute for Child Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition. London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Ekholm Selling, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Secular trend, seasonality and effects of a community-based intervention on neonatal mortality: follow-up of a cluster-randomised trial in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam2018In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 72, no 9, p. 776-782Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Little is know about whether the effects of community engagement interventions for child survival in low-income and middle-income settings are sustained. Seasonal variation and secular trend may blur the data. Neonatal mortality was reduced in a cluster-randomised trial in Vietnam where laywomen facilitated groups composed of local stakeholders employing a problem-solving approach for 3 years. In this analysis, we aim at disentangling the secular trend, the seasonal variation and the effect of the intervention on neonatal mortality during and after the trial.

    Methods: In Quang Ninh province, 44 communes were allocated to intervention and 46 to control. Births and neonatal deaths were assessed in a baseline survey in 2005, monitored during the trial in 2008–2011 and followed up by a survey in 2014. Time series analyses were performed on monthly neonatal mortality data.

    Results: There were 30 187 live births and 480 neonatal deaths. The intervention reduced the neonatal mortality from 19.1 to 11.6 per 1000 live births. The reduction was sustained 3 years after the trial. The control areas reached a similar level at the time of follow-up. Time series decomposition analysis revealed a downward trend in the intervention areas during the trial that was not found in the control areas. Neonatal mortality peaked in the hot and wet summers.

    Conclusions: A community engagement intervention resulted in a lower neonatal mortality rate that was sustained but not further reduced after the end of the trial. When decomposing time series of neonatal mortality, a clear downward trend was demonstrated in intervention but not in control areas.

    Trial registration number: ISRCTN44599712, Post-results.

  • 15.
    Eriksson, Leif
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Nga, Nguyen Thu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Ewald, Uwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Wallin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Evidence-based practice in neonatal health: knowledge among primary health care staff in northern Viet Nam2009In: Human Resources for Health, ISSN 1478-4491, E-ISSN 1478-4491, Vol. 7, p. 36-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: An estimated four million deaths occur each year among children in the neonatal period. Current evidence-based interventions could prevent a large proportion of these deaths. However, health care workers involved in neonatal care need to have knowledge regarding such practices before being able to put them into action.The aim of this survey was to assess the knowledge of primary health care practitioners regarding basic, evidence-based procedures in neonatal care in a Vietnamese province. A further aim was to investigate whether differences in level of knowledge were linked to certain characteristics of community health centres, such as access to national guidelines in reproductive health care, number of assisted deliveries and geographical location. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was completed within a baseline study preparing for an intervention study on knowledge translation (Implementing knowledge into practice for improved neonatal survival: a community-based trial in Quang Ninh province, Viet Nam, the NeoKIP project, ISRCTN44599712). Sixteen multiple-choice questions from five basic areas of evidence-based practice in neonatal care were distributed to 155 community health centres in 12 districts in a Vietnamese province, reaching 412 primary health care workers. RESULTS: All health care workers approached for the survey responded. Overall, they achieved 60% of the maximum score of the questionnaire. Staff level of knowledge on evidence-based practice was linked to the geographical location of the CHC, but not to access to the national guidelines or the number of deliveries at the community level. Two separated geographical areas were identified with differences in staff level of knowledge and concurrent differences in neonatal survival, antenatal care and postnatal home visits. CONCLUSION: We have identified a complex pattern of associations between knowledge, geography, demographic factors and neonatal outcomes. Primary health care staff knowledge regarding neonatal health is scarce. This is a factor that is possible to influence and should be considered in future efforts for improving the neonatal health situation in Viet Nam.

  • 16.
    Goland, Emilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Inequity in maternal health care utilization in Vietnam2012In: International Journal for Equity in Health, ISSN 1475-9276, E-ISSN 1475-9276, Vol. 11, p. 24-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Vietnam has succeeded in reducing maternal mortality in the last decades. Analysis of survey data however indicate that large inequities exist between different segments of the population. We have analyzed utilization of antenatal care and skilled birth attendance among Vietnamese women of reproductive age in relation to social determinants with the aim to reveal health inequities and identify disadvantaged groups. Method: Data on maternal health care utilization and social determinants were derived from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) conducted in Vietnam in 2006, and analyzed through stratified logistic regressions and g-computation. Results: Inequities in maternal health care utilization persist in Vietnam. Ethnicity, household wealth and education were all significantly associated with antenatal care coverage and skilled birth attendance, individually and in synergy. Although the structural determinants included in this study were closely related to each other, analysis revealed a significant effect of ethnicity over and above wealth and education. Within the group of mothers from poor households ethnic minority mothers were at a three-fold risk of not attending any antenatal care (OR 3.06, 95% CI 1.27-7.41) and six times more likely not to deliver with skilled birth attendance (OR 6.27, 95% CI 2.37-16.6). The association between ethnicity and lack of antenatal care and skilled birth attendance was even stronger within the non-poor group. Conclusions: In spite of policies to out rule health inequities, ethnic minority women constitute a disadvantaged group in Vietnam. More efficient ways to target disadvantaged groups, taking synergy effects between multiple social determinants into consideration, are needed in order to assure safe motherhood for all.

  • 17.
    Gurung, Rejina
    et al.
    Golden Community, Jwagal, Lalitpur, Nepal.
    Jha, Anjani Kumar
    Govt Nepal, Minist Hlth & Populat, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Pyakurel, Susheel
    Nepal Hlth Res Council, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Gurung, Abhishek
    Golden Community, Jwagal, Lalitpur, Nepal.
    Litorp, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Wrammert, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Jha, Bijay Kumar
    Govt Nepal, Minist Hlth & Populat, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Paudel, Prajwal
    Anweshan, Lalitpur, Nepal.
    Rahman, Syed Moshfiqur
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Malla, Honey
    Golden Community, Jwagal, Lalitpur, Nepal.
    Sharma, Srijana
    Golden Community, Jwagal, Lalitpur, Nepal.
    Gautam, Manish
    Anweshan, Lalitpur, Nepal.
    Linde, Jorgen Erland
    Stavanger Univ Hosp, Dept Paediat, Stavanger, Norway.
    Moinuddin, Md
    ICDDR B, Maternal & Child Hlth Div, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Ewald, Uwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Axelin, Anna
    Univ Turku, Turku, Finland.
    KC, Ashish
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Soc Publ Hlth Phys Nepal, Lalitpur, Nepal.
    Scaling Up Safer Birth Bundle Through Quality Improvement in Nepal (SUSTAIN) - a stepped wedge cluster randomized controlled trial in public hospitals2019In: Implementation Science, ISSN 1748-5908, E-ISSN 1748-5908, Vol. 14, article id 65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Each year, 2.2 million intrapartum-related deaths (intrapartum stillbirths and first day neonatal deaths) occur worldwide with 99% of them taking place in low- and middle-income countries. Despite the accelerated increase in the proportion of deliveries taking place in health facilities in these settings, the stillborn and neonatal mortality rates have not reduced proportionately. Poor quality of care in health facilities is attributed to two-thirds of these deaths. Improving quality of care during the intrapartum period needs investments in evidence-based interventions. We aim to evaluate the quality improvement packageScaling Up Safer Bundle Through Quality Improvement in Nepal (SUSTAIN)on intrapartum care and intrapartum-related mortality in public hospitals of Nepal.

    Methods: We will conduct a stepped wedge cluster randomized controlled trial in eight public hospitals with each having least 3000 deliveries a year. Each hospital will represent a cluster with an intervention transition period of 2months in each. With a level of significance of 95%, the statistical power of 90% and an intra-cluster correlation of 0.00015, a study period of 19months should detect at least a 15% change in intrapartum-related mortality. Quality improvement training, mentoring, systematic feedback, and a continuous improvement cycle will be instituted based on bottleneck analyses in each hospital. All concerned health workers will be trained on standard basic neonatal resuscitation and essential newborn care. Portable fetal heart monitors (Moyo (R)) and neonatal heart rate monitors (Neobeat (R)) will be introduced in the hospitals to identify fetal distress during labor and to improve neonatal resuscitation. Independent research teams will collect data in each hospital on intervention inputs, processes, and outcomes by reviewing records and carrying out observations and interviews. The dose-response effect will be evaluated through process evaluations.

    Discussion: With the global momentum to improve quality of intrapartum care, better understanding of QI package within a health facility context is important. The proposed package is based on experiences from a similar previous scale-up trial carried out in Nepal. The proposed evaluation will provide evidence on QI package and technology for implementation and scale up in similar settings.

  • 18.
    Hoa, Dinh P
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Nga, Nguyen T
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Persson, Lars Ake
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Persistent neonatal mortality despite improved under-five survival: a retrospective cohort study in northern Vietnam2008In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 97, no 2, p. 166-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To examine trends in neonatal, infant and under-five mortality rates in a northern Vietnamese district during 1970-2000, and to analyze socioeconomic differences in child survival over time.

    Methods: Retrospective interviews with all women aged 15-54 years in Bavi district in Northern Vietnam (n = 14 329) were conducted. Of these women, 13 943 had been pregnant, giving birth to 26 796 children during 1970-2000.

    Results: There was a dramatic reduction in infant and under-five mortality rate (47%) over time. However, the neonatal mortality rate (NMR) showed a very small reduction, thus causing its proportion of the total child mortality to increase. Mortality trends followed the political and socioeconomic development of Vietnam over war, peace and periods of reforms. There were no differences in under-five and neonatal mortalities associated with family economy, while differentials related to mothers' education and ethnicity were increasing.

    Conclusion: Interventions to reduce child mortality should be focused on improving neonatal care. In settings with a rapid economic growth and consequent social change, like in Vietnam, it is important that such interventions are targeted at vulnerable groups, in this case, families with low level of education and belonging to ethnic minorities.

  • 19.
    Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong
    et al.
    Hanoi School of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Börjesson, Lina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Nga, Nguyen Thu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Johansson, Annika
    Division of Global Health (IHCAR), Department of Public Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Sex of newborns associated with place and mode of delivery: a population-based study in northern Vietnam2012In: Gender Medicine, ISSN 1550-8579, E-ISSN 1878-7398, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 418-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence of an elevated sex ratio at birth (SRB) in many Asian countries, including Vietnam, and that this prenatal gender inequity is related to sex-selective abortion. However, few studies have investigated the relation between the sex of offspring and delivery care utilization.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to relate sex of newborns to place and mode of delivery in a province in northern Vietnam.

    METHODS: A population-based surveillance system within the Neonatal Health-Knowledge Into Practice (NeoKIP) project (ISRCTN44599712) recorded all births within eight districts of Quang Ninh province in northern Vietnam from July 2008 to June 2011.

    RESULTS: In total, there were 22,377 live births within the study area. SRB was 108 boys per 100 girls. There was a large difference in SRB depending on place of delivery, with 94 boys per 100 girls being delivered at home, whereas 113 boys per 100 girls were delivered at a district-level hospital. Cesarean section (CS) rate was 17%, and within the CS group, the SRB was 135:100.

    CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated an elevated SRB, especially at district hospital level, and that sex of offspring influenced place and mode of delivery. Although mothers to boys were more likely to receive more qualified delivery care, they were at the same time more likely to undergo unnecessary surgery. Correct information to women and family members about CS and stricter implementation of the medical indications for CS are urgently called for.

  • 20.
    Kc, A.
    et al.
    Matern & Womens Hosp, Res, Kathmandu, Nepal..
    Rana, N.
    Matern & Womens Hosp, Res, Kathmandu, Nepal..
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Andersson, Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Delayed Verses Early Cord Clamping: Anemia And Iron Deficiencyat 8 And 12 Months In A Low-Income Country2016In: European Journal of Pediatrics, ISSN 0340-6199, E-ISSN 1432-1076, Vol. 175, no 11, p. 1453-1453Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    KC, Ashish
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition. Health Section, UNICEF, UN House, Lalitpur, Nepal.
    Bergström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition. Institute for Global Health, University College London, London, UK.
    Chaulagain, Dipak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition. Lifeline Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Brunell, Olivia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Ewald, Uwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Gurung, Abhishek
    Lifeline Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Eriksson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Litorp, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Maternal and Reproductive Health and Migration.
    Wrammert, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Grönqvist, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Edin, Per-Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Le Grange, Claire
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Lamichhane, Bikash
    Department of Health Services, Ministry of Health, Nepal.
    Shrestha, Parashuram
    Department of Health Services, Ministry of Health, Nepal.
    Pokharel, Amrit
    Department of Health Services, Ministry of Health, Nepal.
    Pun, Asha
    Health Section, UNICEF, UN House, Lalitpur, Nepal.
    Singh, Chahana
    Health Section, UNICEF, UN House, Lalitpur, Nepal .
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Scaling up quality improvement intervention for perinatal care in Nepal (NePeriQIP); study protocol of a cluster randomised trial2017In: BMJ global health, Vol. 2, no 3, article id e000497Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: Nepal Perinatal Quality Improvement Project (NePeriQIP) intends to scale up a quality improvement (QI) intervention for perinatal care according to WHO/National guidelines in hospitals of Nepal using the existing health system structures. The intervention builds on previous research on the implementation of Helping Babies Breathe-quality improvement cycle in a tertiary healthcare setting in Nepal. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of this scaled-up intervention on perinatal health outcomes.

    METHODS/DESIGN: Cluster-randomised controlled trial using a stepped wedged design with 3 months delay between wedges will be conducted in 12 public hospitals with a total annual delivery rate of 60 000. Each wedge will consist of 3 hospitals. Impact will be evaluated on intrapartum-related mortality (primary outcome), overall neonatal mortality and morbidity and health worker's performance on neonatal care (secondary outcomes). A process evaluation and a cost-effectiveness analysis will be performed to understand the functionality of the intervention and to further guide health system investments will also be performed.

    DISCUSSION: In contexts where resources are limited, there is a need to find scalable and sustainable implementation strategies for improved care delivery. The proposed study will add to the scarce evidence base on how to scale up interventions within existing health systems. If successful, the NePeriQIP model can provide a replicable solution in similar settings where support and investment from the health system is poor, and national governments have made a global pledge to reduce perinatal mortality.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN30829654.

  • 22.
    Kc, Ashish
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Rana, Nisha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Ranneberg, Linda Jarawka
    Department of Paediatrics, Hospital of Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Andersson, Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping on anaemia at 8 and 12 months and later neurodevelopment in late pre-term and term infants: a facility-based, randomized-controlled trial in Nepal.2016In: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 16, article id 35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Delayed cord clamping at birth has shown to benefit neonates with increased placental transfusion leading to higher haemoglobin concentrations, additional iron stores and less anaemia later in infancy, higher red blood cell flow to vital organs and better cardiopulmonary adaptation. As iron deficiency in infants even without anaemia has been associated with impaired development, delayed cord clamping seems to benefit full term infants also in regions with a relatively low prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia. In Nepal, there is a high anaemia prevalence among children between 6 and 17 months (72-78 %). The objective of the proposed study is to evaluate the effects of delayed and early cord clamping on anaemia (and haemoglobin level) at 8 and 12 months, ferritin at 8 and 12 months, bilirubin at 2-3 days, admission to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) or special care nursery, and development at 12 and 18-24 months of age.

    METHODS/DESIGN: A randomized, controlled trial comparing delayed and early cord clamping will be implemented at Paropakar Maternity and Women's Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. Pregnant woman of gestational age 34-41 weeks who deliver vaginally will be included in the study. The interventions will consist of delayed clamping of the umbilical cord (≥180 s after delivery) or early clamping of the umbilical cord (≤60 s). At 8 and 12 months of age, infant's iron status and developmental milestones will be measured.

    DISCUSSION: This trial is important to perform because, although strong indications for the beneficial effect of delayed cord clamping on anaemia at 8 to 12 months of age exist, it has not yet been evaluated by a randomized trial in this setting. The proposed study will analyse both outcome as well as safety effects. Additionally, the results may not only contribute to practice in Nepal, but also to the global community, in particular to other low-income countries with a high prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia.

  • 23.
    KC, Ashish
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Wrammert, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Verma, Sheela
    Paropakar Maternity and Women´s Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Aryal, Dhan Raj
    Paropakar Maternity and Women´s Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Clark, Robert
    Latter Day Saints Charity, Salt Lake City, USA.
    Kc, Naresh P
    Ministry of Health and Population, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Vitrakoti, Ravi
    Paropakar Maternity and Women´s Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Baral, Kedar
    Patan Academy of Health Sciences, Patan, Nepal.
    Ewald, Uwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Implementing a simplified neonatal resuscitation protocol-helping babies breathe at birth (HBB): at a tertiary level hospital in Nepal for an increased perinatal survival2012In: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 159-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Reducing neonatal death has been an emerging challenge in low and middle income countries in the past decade. The development of the low cost interventions and their effective delivery are needed to reduce deaths from birth asphyxia. This study will assess the impact of a simplified neonatal resuscitation protocol provided by Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) at a tertiary hospital in Nepal. Perinatal outcomes and performance of skilled birth attendants on management of intrapartum-related neonatal hypoxia will be the main measurements.

    METHODS:

    The study will be carried out at a tertiary level maternity hospital in Nepal. A prospective cohort-study will include a six-month baseline a six month intervention period and a three-month post intervention period. A quality improvement process cycle will introduce the neonatal resuscitation protocol. A surveillance system, including CCD cameras and pulse oximeters, will be set up to evaluate the intervention.

    DISCUSSION:

    Along with a technique to improve health workers performance on the protocol, the study will generate evidence on the research gap on the effectiveness of the simplified neonatal resuscitation protocol on intrapartum outcome and early neonatal survival. This will generate a global interest and inform policymaking in relation to delivery care in all income settings.Trial registrationISRCTN97846009.

  • 24.
    KC, Ashish
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Nelin, Viktoria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Vitrakoti, Ravi
    Foundation for Maternal and Child Health Nepal, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Aryal, Surabhi
    College of Medical Sciences, Bharatpur, Nepal.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Validation of the foot length measure as an alternative tool to identify low birth weight and preterm babies in a low-resource setting like Nepal: a cross-sectional study2015In: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 15, article id 43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The majority of infants who die in the neonatal period are born with a low birth weight (LBW, <2500 grams), or prematurely (before 37 weeks). Most deaths among these infants could be prevented with simple, low-cost interventions like kangaroo mother care (KMC) or prevention and early identification of infection. It is difficult, however, to determine birth weight and gestational age in community settings, and therefore necessary to find an appropriate alternative screening tool that can identify LBW and preterm infants.

    Methods

    This cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary hospital in Nepal to compare the validity of using three different foot length measurement methods (plastic ruler, measuring tape, and paper footprint) as screening tools for identifying babies with birth weights <2000 grams or infants born preterm (<37 weeks). LBW was defined as less than 2000 grams because of the implication for use of KMC for these infants. Non-parametric receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was completed to determine which measurement method best predicted LBW and preterm birth. For the method that was the best predictor for each outcome (i.e. highest area under the curve), further analyses were completed to determine sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios and predictive values of an operational screening cutoff to predict LBW or preterm birth in this setting.

    Results

    Of the 811 infants included in this study, 30 infants had LBW and 54 were born preterm. The plastic ruler was the measurement method with the highest area under the curve, and thus predictive score for estimating both outcomes, so operational cutoffs were identified based on this method. An operational cutoff of 7.2 cm was identified to screen for infants weighing <2000 grams at birth (sensitivity: 75.9%, specificity: 90.3%), and 7.8 cm was determined as the operational cutoff to identify preterm infants (sensitivity: 76.9%, specificity: 53.9%).

    Conclusions

    In Nepal, at least in community settings, foot length measurement with a hard ruler may be a valid proxy to identify at-risk infants when birth weight or gestational age is unavailable. Further studies and piloting should be conducted to identify exact cutoffs that can be used within community settings.

  • 25.
    K.C, Ashish
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Nelin, Viktoria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Wrammert, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Ewald, Uwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Vitrakoti, Ravi
    Baral, Geha Nath
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Risk factors for antepartum stillbirth: a case-control study in Nepal2015In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 15, article id 146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Globally, at least 2.65 million stillbirths occur every year, of which more than half are during the antepartum period. The proportion of intrapartum stillbirths has substantially declined with improved obstetric care; however, the number of antepartum stillbirths has not decreased as greatly. Attempts to lower this number may be hampered by an incomplete understanding of the risk factors leading to the majority of antepartum stillbirths. We conducted this study in a tertiary hospital in Nepal to identify the specific risk factors that are associated with antepartum stillbirth in this setting. Methods: This case-control study was conducted between July 2012 and September 2013. All women who had antepartum stillbirths during this period were included as cases, while 20 % of all women delivering at the hospital were randomly selected and included as referents. Information on potential risk factors was taken from medical records and interviews with the women. Logistic regression analysis was completed to determine the association between those risk factors and antepartum stillbirth. Results: During the study period, 4567 women who delivered at the hospital were enrolled as referents, of which 62 had antepartum stillbirths and were re-categorized into the case population. In total, there were 307 antepartum stillbirths. An association was found between the following risk factors and antepartum stillbirth: increasing maternal age (aOR 1.0, 95 % CI 1.0-1.1), less than five years of maternal education (aOR 2.4, 95 % CI 1.7-3.2), increasing parity (aOR 1.2, 95 % CI 1.0-1.3), previous stillbirth (aOR 2.6, 95 % CI 1.6-4.4), no antenatal care attendance (aOR 4.2, 95 % CI 3.2-5.4), belonging to the poorest family (aOR 1.3, 95 % CI 1.0-1.8), antepartum hemorrhage (aOR 3.7, 95 % CI 2.4-5.7), maternal hypertensive disorder during pregnancy (aOR 2.1, 95 % CI 1.5-3.1), and small weight-for-gestational age babies (aOR 1.5, 95 % CI 1.2-2.0). Conclusion: Lack of antenatal care attendance, which had the strongest association with antepartum stillbirth, is a potentially modifiable risk factor, in that increasing the access to and availability of these services can be targeted. Antenatal care attendance provides an opportunity to screen for other potential risk factors for antepartum stillbirth, as well as to provide counseling to women, and thus, helps to ensure a successful pregnancy outcome.

  • 26.
    KC, Ashish
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition. Health Section, United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), Lalitpur, Nepal; Paropakar Maternity and Women’s Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Rana, Nisha
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition. Paropakar Maternity and Women’s Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Jarawka Ranneberg, Linda
    epartment of Pediatrics, Hospital of Halland, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Subedi, Kalpana
    Paropakar Maternity and Women’s Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Andersson, Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Effects of Delayed Umbilical Cord Clamping vs Early Clamping on Anemia in Infants at 8 and 12 Months: A Randomized Clinical Trial2017In: JAMA pediatrics, ISSN 2168-6203, E-ISSN 2168-6211, Vol. 171, no 3, p. 264-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Importance: Delayed umbilical cord clamping has been shown to improve iron stores in infants to 6 months of age. However, delayed cord clamping has not been shown to prevent iron deficiency or anemia after 6 months of age.

    Objective: To investigate the effects of delayed umbilical cord clamping, compared with early clamping, on hemoglobin and ferritin levels at 8 and 12 months of age in infants at high risk for iron deficiency anemia.

    Design, Setting, and Participants: This randomized clinical trial included 540 late preterm and term infants born vaginally at a tertiary hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal, from October 2 to November 21, 2014. Follow-up included blood levels of hemoglobin and ferritin at 8 and 12 months of age. Follow-up was completed on December 11, 2015. Analysis was based on intention to treat.

    Interventions: Infants were randomized to delayed umbilical cord clamping (≥180 seconds after delivery) or early clamping (≤60 seconds after delivery).

    Main Outcomes and Measures: Main outcomes included hemoglobin and anemia levels at 8 months of age with the power estimate based on the prevalence of anemia. Secondary outcomes included hemoglobin and anemia levels at 12 months of age and ferritin level, iron deficiency, and iron deficiency anemia at 8 and 12 months of age.

    Results: In this study of 540 infants (281 boys [52.0%] and 259 girls [48.0%]; mean [SD] gestational age, 39.2 [1.1] weeks), 270 each were randomized to the delayed and early clamping groups. At 8 months of age, 212 infants (78.5%) from the delayed group and 188 (69.6%) from the early clamping group returned for blood sampling. After multiple imputation analysis, infants undergoing delayed clamping had higher levels of hemoglobin (10.4 vs 10.2 g/dL; difference, 0.2 g/dL; 95% CI, 0.1 to 0.4 g/dL). Delayed cord clamping also reduced the prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin level <11.0 g/dL) at 8 months in 197 (73.0%) vs 222 (82.2%) infants (relative risk, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.81-0.98; number needed to treat [NNT], 11; 95% CI, 6-54). At 8 months, the risk for iron deficiency was reduced in the delayed clamping group in 60 (22.2%) vs 103 (38.1%) patients (relative risk, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.44-0.77; NNT, 6; 95% CI, 4-13). At 12 months, delayed cord clamping still resulted in a hemoglobin level of 0.3 (95% CI, 0.04-0.5) g/dL higher than in the early cord clamping group and a relative risk for anemia of 0.91 (95% CI, 0.84-0.98), resulting in a NNT of 12 (95% CI, 7-78).

    Conclusions and Relevance: Delayed cord clamping reduces anemia at 8 and 12 months of age in a high-risk population, which may have major positive effects on infants' health and development.

    Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02222805.

  • 27.
    Kc, Ashish
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). UN Childrens Fund, Nepal Country Off, UN House, Pulchowk, Nepal.
    Wrammert, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Clark, Robert B
    Latter-day Saint Charities, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.
    Ewald, Uwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Inadequate fetal heart rate monitoring and poor use of partogram associated with intrapartum stillbirth: a case-referent study in Nepal2016In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 16, article id 233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Newborns are at the greatest risk for dying during the intrapartum period, including labor and delivery, and the first day of life. Fetal heart rate monitoring (FHRM) and partogram use to track labor progress are evidence-based techniques that can help to identify maternal and fetal risk factors so that these can be addressed early. The objective of this study was to assess health worker adherence to protocols for FHRM and partogram use during the intrapartum period, and to assess the association between adherence and intrapartum stillbirth in a tertiary hospital of Nepal.

    METHODS: A case-referent study was conducted over a 15-month period. Cases included all intrapartum stillbirths, while 20 % of women with live births were randomly selected on admission to make up the referent population. The frequency of FHRM and the use of partogram were measured and their association to intrapartum stillbirth was assessed using logistic regression analysis.

    RESULTS: During the study period, 4,476 women with live births were enrolled as referents and 136 with intrapartum stillbirths as cases. FHRM every 30 min was only completed in one-fourth of the deliveries, and labor progress was monitored using a partogram in just over half. With decreasing frequency of FHRM, there was an increased risk of intrapartum stillbirth; FHRM at intervals of more than 30 min resulted in a four-fold risk increase for intrapartum stillbirth (aOR 4.17, 95 % CI 2.0-8.7), and the likelihood of intrapartum stillbirth increased seven times if FHRM was performed less than every hour or not at all (aOR 7.38, 95 % CI 3.5-15.4). Additionally, there was a three-fold increased risk of intrapartum stillbirth if the partogram was not used (aOR 3.31, 95 % CI 2.0-5.4).

    CONCLUSION: The adherence to FHRM and partogram use was inadequate for monitoring intrapartum progress in a tertiary hospital of Nepal. There was an increased risk of intrapartum stillbirth when fetal heart rate was inadequately monitored and when the progress of labor was not monitored using a partogram. Further exploration is required in order to determine and understand the barriers to adherence; and further, to develop tools, techniques and interventions to prevent intrapartum stillbirth.

    CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN97846009 .

  • 28.
    KC, Ashish
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). UNICEF, Health Section, Nepal.
    Wrammert, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Clark, Robert
    Latter-day Saint Charities, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.
    Ewald, Uwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Vitrakoti, Ravi
    Paropakar Maternity and Women's Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Chaudhary, Pushpa
    Paropakar Maternity and Women's Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Pun, Asha
    UNICEF, Health Section, Nepal.
    Raaijmakers, Hendrikus
    UNICEF, Health Section, Nepal.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Reducing perinatal mortality in Nepal using Helping Babies Breathe2016In: Pediatrics, ISSN 0031-4005, E-ISSN 1098-4275, Vol. 137, no 6, article id e20150117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Newborns are at the highest risk of dying around the time of birth, due to intrapartum-related complications. Our study’s objective was to improve adherence to the Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) neonatal resuscitation protocol and reduce perinatal mortality using a quality improvement cycle (QIC) in a tertiary hospital in Nepal.

     

    Methods: The HBB QIC was implemented through a multi-faceted approach, including: the formation of quality improvement teams; development of quality improvement goals, objectives and standards; HBB protocol training; weekly review meetings; daily skill checks; use of self-evaluation checklists; and refresher trainings. A cohort design including a nested case-control study was used to measure changes in clinical outcomes and adherence to the resuscitation protocol through video recording, before and after implementation of the QIC.

     

    Results: The intrapartum stillbirth rate decreased from 9 to 3.2 per thousand deliveries, and first-day mortality from 5.2 to 1.9 per thousand live births after intervention, demonstrating a reduction of about half in the odds of intrapartum stillbirth (aOR=0.46, 95% CI 0.32-0.66) and first-day mortality (aOR=0.51, 95% CI 0.31-0.83). After intervention, the odds of inappropriate use of suction and stimulation decreased by 87% (OR=0.13, 95% CI 0.09-0.17) and 62% (OR=0.38, 95% CI 0.29-0.49), respectively. Prior to intervention, none of the babies received bag-and-mask ventilation within 1 minute of birth, compared to 83.9% of babies after.

     

    Conclusion: The HBB QIC reduced intrapartum stillbirth and first-day neonatal mortality and led to use of suctioning and stimulation more frequently. The HBB QIC requires further testing in primary settings across Nepal.

  • 29.
    K.C, Ashish
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Wrammert, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Ewald, Uwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Clark, Robert
    Latter-day Saint Charities, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.
    Gautam, Jageshwor
    Paropakar Maternity and Women's Hospital, Nepal.
    Baral, Gehanath
    Paropakar Maternity and Women's Hospital.
    Baral, Kedar
    Patan Academy of Health Sciences.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Incidence of intrapartum stillbirth and associated risk factors in tertiary care setting of Nepal: a case-control study2016In: Reproductive Health, ISSN 1742-4755, E-ISSN 1742-4755, Vol. 12, article id 103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Each year, 1.2 million intrapartum stillbirths occur globally. In Nepal, about 50% of the total number of stillbirths occur during the intrapartum period. An understanding of the risk factors associated with intrapartum stillbirth will facilitate the development of preventative strategies to reduce the burden of death. This study was conducted in a tertiary-care setting with the aim to identify the risk factors associated with intrapartum stillbirth.

    Methods: A case-control study was completed from July 2012 to September 2013. All women who had an intrapartum stillbirth during the study period were included as cases, and 20% of women with live births were randomly selected on admission to make up the referent population. Information from the clinical records of case and referent women was retrieved. In addition, interviews were completed with each woman on their demographic and obstetric history.

    Results: During the study period, 4,476 women with live births were enrolled as referents and 136 women with intrapartum stillbirths as cases.  The following factors were found to increase the risk for intrapartum stillbirth: poor familial wealth quintile (Adj OR 1.8, 95% CI-1.1-3.4); less maternal education (Adj OR, 3.2 95% CI-1.8-5.5); lack of antenatal care (Adj OR, 4.8 95% CI 3.2-7.2); antepartum hemorrhage (Adj OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.2); multiple births (Adj. OR-3.0, 95% CI- 1.9-5.4); obstetric complication during the labor period (Adj. OR 4.5, 95% CI-2.9-6.9); lack of fetal heart rate monitoring per protocol (Adj. OR-1.9, 95% CI 1.5-2.4); no partogram use (Adj. OR-2.1, 95% CI 1.1-4.1); small weight for gestational age (Adj. OR-1.8, 95% CI-1.2-1.7); premature birth (Adj. OR-5.4, 95% CI 3.5-8.2); and being born premature and with small weight for gestational age (Adj. OR-9.0, 95% CI 7.3-15.5).

    Conclusion: Inadequate Fetal heart rate monitoring and partogram use are risk factors associated with intrapartum stillbirth and increasing the adherence to the interventions that can reduce the risk of intrapartum stillbirth. Preterm birth and small weight for gestational age were the factors that had the highest risk for intrapartum stillbirth, which indicates that adequate antenatal care can improve the health and growth of the baby and prevent premature death.

  • 30.
    KC, Ashish
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). United Nations Childrens Fund UNICEF, UN House, Lalitpur, Nepal.
    Wrammert, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Nelin, Viktoria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Clark, Robert
    Latter-day Saint Charities, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.
    Ewald, Uwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Peterson, Stefan Swartling
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Global Health, Public Health Sciences, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.; School of Public Health, Makerere University, Uganda.; United Nations Children Fund UNICEF, Hlth Sect, Programme Div, United Nations Plaza, New York, NY 10017 USA.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Evaluation of Helping Babies Breathe Quality Improvement Cycle (HBB-QIC) on retention of neonatal resuscitation skills six months after training in Nepal2017In: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 17, article id 103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Each year 700,000 infants die due to intrapartum-related complications. Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) uses an algorithm to increase knowledge and improve skills on neonatal resuscitation. Implementation of HBB in low-resource clinical settings has shown to reduce intrapartum stillbirths and first-day neonatal mortality. However, there is a lack of evidence on the effect of different HBB implementation strategies to improve and sustain the clinical competency of health workers on bag-and-mask ventilation. This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of multi-faceted implementation strategy for HBB as quality improvement cycle (HBB-QIC) on retention of neonatal resuscitation skills in a tertiary hospital of Nepal.

    Methods: A Time series design was applied. The multi-faceted intervention for HBB-QIC included training, daily bag-and-mask skill checks, preparation for resuscitation before every birth, self-evaluation and peer review on neonatal resuscitation skills and weekly review meetings. Knowledge and skills were assessed through questionnaires, skill checklists, and Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCE) before implementation of the HBB-QIC, immediately after HBB training, and again at six months. Means were compared using paired t-tests, and associations between skill retention and HBB-QIC components were analyzed using logistic regression analysis.

    Results: 137 health workers were enrolled in the study. Knowledge scores were higher immediately following the HBB training, 16.4  1.4 compared to 12.8  1.6 before (out of 17), and the knowledge was retained six months after the training (16.5  1.1). Bag-and-mask skills improved immediately after the training and were retained six months after the training. The retention of bag-and-mask skills was associated with daily bag-and-mask skill checks, preparation for resuscitation before every birth, use of a self-evaluation checklist, and attendance at weekly review meetings. The implementation strategies with the highest association to skill retention were daily bag-and-mask skill checks (RR-5.1, 95% CI 1.9-13.5) and use of self-evaluation checklists after every delivery (RR-3.8, 95% CI 1.4-9.7).

    Conclusions: Health workers who practiced bag-and-mask skills, prepared for resuscitation before every birth, used self-evaluation checklists and attended weekly review meetings retained their neonatal resuscitation skills. Further studies are required to evaluate HBB-QIC in primary care settings, where the number of deliveries is gradually increasing.

  • 31.
    Leufvén, Mia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Vitrakoti, Ravi
    Foundation for Maternal and Child Health, Maternity Hospital Road, Thapathali, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Bergström, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    KC, Ashish
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Dimensions of Learning Organizations Questionnaire (DLOQ) in a low-resource health care setting in Nepal2015In: Health Research Policy and Systems, ISSN 1478-4505, E-ISSN 1478-4505, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 6-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Knowledge-based organizations, such as health care systems, need to be adaptive to change and able to facilitate uptake of new evidence. To be able to assess organizational capability to learn is therefore an important part of health systems strengthening. The aim of the present study is to assess context using the Dimensions of the Learning Organization Questionnaire (DLOQ) in a low-resource health setting in Nepal.

    METHODS:

    DLOQ was translated and administered to 230 employees at all levels of the hospital. Data was analyzed using non-parametric tests.

    RESULTS:

    The DLOQ was able to detect variations across employee's perceptions of the organizational context. Nurses scored significantly lower than doctors on the dimension "Empowerment" while doctors scored lower than nurses on "Strategic leadership". These results suggest that the hospital's organization carries attributes of a centralized, hierarchical structure that might hinder a progress towards a learning organization.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    This study demonstrates that, despite the designing and developing of the DLOQ in the USA and its main utilization in company settings, it can be used and applied in hospital settings in low-income countries. The application of DLOQ provides valuable insights and understanding when designing and evaluating efforts for healthcare improvement.

  • 32.
    Lindbäck, Caroline
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    KC, Ashish
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Wrammert, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Vitrakoti, Ravi
    Paropakar Women’s and Maternity Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal.
    Ewald, Uwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Poor adherence to neonatal resuscitation guidelines exposed; an observational study using camera surveillance at a tertiary hospital in Nepal2014In: BMC Pediatrics, ISSN 1471-2431, E-ISSN 1471-2431, Vol. 14, p. 233-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Each year an estimated 10 million newborns require assistance to initiate breathing, and about 900 000 die due to intrapartum-related complications. Further research is required in several areas concerning neonatal resuscitation, particularly in settings with limited resources where the highest proportion of intrapartum-related deaths occur. The aim of this study is to use CCD-camera recordings to evaluate resuscitation routines at a tertiary hospital in Nepal.

    Methods: CCD-cameras recorded the resuscitations taking place and CCD-observational record forms were completed for each case. The resuscitation routines were then assessed and compared with existing guidelines. To evaluate the reliability of the observational form, 50 films were randomly selected and two independent observers completed two sets of forms for each case. The results were then cross-compared.

    Results: During the study period 1827 newborns were taken to the resuscitation table, and more than half of them (53.3%) were noted as not crying prior to resuscitation. Suction was used in almost 90% of newborns brought to the resuscitation table, whereas bag-and-mask ventilation was only used in less than 10%. The chance to receive ventilation with bag-and-mask for a newborn not crying when brought to the resuscitation table was higher for boys (AdjOR 1.44), low birth weight babies (AdjOR 1.68) and babies that were delivered by caesarean section (AdjOR 1.64). The reliability of the observational form varied considerably amongst the different variables analyzed, but was high for all variables concerning the use of bag-and-mask ventilation and the variable whether suction was used or not, all matching in over 91% of the forms.

    Conclusions: CCD camera technique was a feasible method to assess resuscitation practices in this low resource hospital setting. In most aspects, the staff did not adhere to guidelines regarding neonatal resuscitation. The use of bag-and-mask ventilation was inadequate, and suction was given excessively in terms of protocol. Further studies exploring the underlying causes behind the lack of adherence to the neonatal resuscitation guidelines should be conducted.

  • 33.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Abolishing inequity, a necessity for poverty reduction and the realisation of child mortality targets2015In: Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN 0003-9888, E-ISSN 1468-2044, Vol. 100 Suppl 1, p. S5-S9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first Millennium Development Goal (MDG 1) due in 2015 concerns poverty reduction. It has been claimed to be fulfilled on a global level, but still more than 1 billion people are living in abject poverty. There is a strong link between the economy and child survival, and only a minority of countries will have reached the MDG target for child mortality reduction by 2015. This paper discusses the relationship between poverty and child survival. It argues that a focus on equity is necessary to further reduce child mortality, through poverty reduction in absolute terms and also through targeting interventions for increased child survival to disadvantaged populations. The political will to actually achieve real change for those in greatest need is crucial but not to be taken for granted, and the distribution rather than the generation of wealth needs to be made a priority in the post-MDG era.

  • 34.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Uppsala Univ, Dept Womens & Childrens Hlth, Int Maternal & Child Hlth, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Community agency and empowerment: a need for new perspectives and deepened understanding2018In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 123, no 2, p. 123-130Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In an increasingly globalized and interlinked world it becomes ever more important to find strategies to prevent, detect, and respond to emerging public health threats. Local communities have a central role in this effort and need to be empowered and strengthened to be able to meet the challenge, and local knowledge and participation are key. This paper outlines a theoretical framework for community intervention dynamics and explores perceptions, priorities, and perspectives of stakeholders involved in community interventions. Methods: A deductive discourse analysis was performed based on the proposed theoretical framework consisting of three levels: intervention design, intervention delivery, and community agency. The setting was a workshop on community preparedness at Uppsala Health Summit 2017. Thirty-eight participants representing government officials, international organizations, and researchers as well as community implementers underwent a value exercise and were asked to prioritize good practices, challenges, and needed solutions to empower communities to meet emerging health threats. Results: The value exercise revealed a large variation in basic values among participants. Discussions mainly focused on intervention delivery and choice of methods. Need and allocation of resources at any level was not an issue. Despite being probed to take a deeper look at contextual factors and the underlying drivers of community engagement, participants scarcely mentioned and problematized community agency mechanisms. Conclusion: There is a need for new perspectives and a deepened reflection among decision-makers and public health implementers engaging at the local level to strengthen communities to face public health threats. A greater understanding and focus on contextual factors is needed which necessitates stronger interdisciplinary approaches.

  • 35.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Den nonchalerade barnadödligheten2006Other (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 36.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Känd kunskap kan rädda miljoner nyfödda2006Other (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 37.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Linking community with primary health care through peer support in Swaziland2014In: Primary Health Care, ISSN 2167-1079, Vol. 5, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Maternal health: still a long way to go2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 46, no 8, p. 783-784Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Neonatal mortality: an invisible and marginalised trauma2011In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 4, p. 5724-Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neonatal mortality is a major health problem in low and middle income countries and the rate of improvement of newborn survival is slow. This article is a review of the PhD thesis by Mats Målqvist, titled 'Who can save the unseen - Studies on neonatal mortality in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam,' from Uppsala University. The thesis aims to investigate structural barriers to newborn health improvements and determinants of neonatal death. The findings reveal a severe under-reporting of neonatal deaths in the official health statistics in Quang Ninh province in northern Vietnam. The neonatal mortality rate (NMR) found was four times higher than what was reported to the Ministry of Health. This underestimation of the problem inhibits adequate interventions and efforts to improve the survival of newborns and highlights the invisibility of this vulnerable group.

    The findings of the thesis also point at an inequity in survival chances based on ethnicity of the mother. Newborns of ethnic minority mothers were at a twofold risk of dying within the first 4 weeks of life compared to their peers belonging to the hegemonic group of Kinh (OR 2.08, 95% CI: 1.39-3.10). This increased risk was independent of maternal education and household economic status. Neonatal mortality was also associated with home deliveries, non-attendance to antenatal care and distance to the health care facilities. However, ethnic minority mothers still had an increased risk of experiencing a neonatal death even if they attended antenatal care, delivered at, or lived close to a health facility. This example of ethnic inequity highlights the importance to target those most in need.

  • 40.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Preserving misconceptions or a call for action? - A hermeneutic re-reading of the Nativity story2015In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 8, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Behaviour is guided by perceptions and traditions. As such, understanding culture and religion is important in order to understand healthcare behaviour. Religious perceptions shape a person's understanding of the world and are maintained through texts and tradition. One such important religious text in relation to sexual and reproductive health is the Nativity story. This account of the conception and birth of Jesus is well known in the Christian cultural sphere and beyond, and it has for generations shaped perceptions of childbirth.

    METHODS: This paper attempts a re-reading of the Nativity story using a hermeneutic approach.

    RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: This reveals a dual understanding of the Nativity, not just as an account of immaculate transcendence and a rosy Christmas tale, but as a source of identification for pregnant women and mothers and a call to action for improved maternal and child healthcare.

  • 41.
    Målqvist, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Who can save the unseen?: Studies on neonatal mortality in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Globally, neonatal mortality has remained basically unchanged for the last three to four decades and every year almost four million newborns die before reaching one month of age. This persistent mortality is related to an invisibility of the newborn child in policies and statistics and a neglect of health care decision-makers, planners and practitioners to deliver a perinatal continuum of care. In recent years attention has however been brought to the unchanged neonatal mortality in an effort to improve survival.

    The present thesis seeks to increase understanding of obstacles for better neonatal survival. The studies performed are undertaken as sub-studies to the NeoKIP project in Quang Ninh province in northern Vietnam, a randomized controlled trial of knowledge implementation for improved neonatal survival (Neonatal Health – Knowledge Into Practice, ISRCTN 44599712). In the first paper we investigated and discussed the scope of invisibility of neonatal mortality through measuring the accuracy of official statistics on neonatal deaths. The second paper reports an inquiry of determinants of neonatal mortality by use of a population-based case-referent design. Paper III and IV analyse delivery care utilization and care seeking patterns prior to and at delivery using narratives and GIS technique.

    There was a substantial under-reporting of neonatal mortality in the official statistics, with study results showing a four times higher neonatal mortality rate in Quang Ninh province than reported to the Ministry of Health. This neonatal mortality rate of 16/1000 live births (as compared to 4.2/1000 in official reports) was unevenly distributed in the province, showing large geographical discrepancies. In the rural and remote areas of Vietnam education level is lower and the concentrations of ethnic minorities and poor households are higher. Ethnic minority belonging was associated with a more than doubled risk of neonatal death compared to the hegemonic group of Kinh (OR 2.08 CI 95 % 1.39 – 3.10). This increased risk was independent of household economic status or maternal education level. Neonatal mortality was also associated with home deliveries, non-attendance to antenatal care and distance to the health care facilities. However, ethnic minority mothers still had an increased risk of experiencing a neonatal death even if they attended antenatal care, delivered at or lived close to a health facility.

    The invisibility of the neonatal period in health information systems hides the true width of the neonatal mortality challenge. By not acknowledging the problem, the marginalization of already disadvantaged groups continues, leaving ethnic minority babies with an elevated risk of dying during the first month in life. This example of ethnic inequity highlights the importance to target those most in need. The studies of the present thesis should therefore be looked upon as a contribution to the struggle to illuminate the global burden of neonatal mortality.

  • 42.
    Målqvist, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Siphilile Maternal & Child Hlth NGO, Matsapha, Swaziland; Church Sweden, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Clarke, Kelly
    University College London, London, UK.
    Matsebula, Themba
    Siphilile Maternal and Child Health (NGO), Matsapha, Swaziland.
    Bergman, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Tomlinson, Mark
    Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
    Screening for Antepartum Depression Through Community Health Outreach in Swaziland2016In: Journal of community health, ISSN 0094-5145, E-ISSN 1573-3610, Vol. 41, no 5, p. 946-952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maternal depression, including antepartum and postpartum depression, is a neglected public health issue with potentially far-reaching effects on maternal and child health. We aimed to measure the burden of antepartum depression and identify risk factors among women in a peri-urban community in Swaziland. We conducted a cross-sectional study within the context of a community outreach peer support project involving "Mentor Mothers". We used of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) to screen women for depression during the third trimester of pregnancy, using a cut-off score of ≥13 to indicate depression. We also collected demographic and socioeconomic factors, and assessed the association of these factors with EPDS score using logistic regression models. A total of 1038 pregnant women were screened over a period of 9 months. Almost a quarter (22.7 %) had EPDS scores ≥13 and 41.2 % were HIV positive. A fifth, 17.5 % were teenagers and 73.7 % were unemployed. Depression was not associated with HIV status, age or employment status. However, women with multiple socioeconomic stressors were found to be more likely to score highly on the EPDS. Depression was common among pregnant women in the peri-urban areas of Swaziland. Screening for depression using the EPDS is feasible and can be included in the community health worker standard tool box as a way to improve early detection of depression and to highlight the importance of maternal mental health as a core public health concern.

  • 43.
    Målqvist, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Ewald, Uwe
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Thu Nga, Nguyen
    Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Miljoner nyfödda barn dör i onödan2006Report (Other scientific)
  • 44.
    Målqvist, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Hoa, Dinh Phuong Thi
    Hanoi School of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Ekholm Selling, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Effect of Facilitation of Local Stakeholder Groups on Equity in Neonatal Survival: Results from the NeoKIP Trial in Northern Vietnam.2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 12, article id e0145510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: To operationalize the post-MDG agenda, there is a need to evaluate the effects of health interventions on equity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect on equity in neonatal survival of the NeoKIP trial (ISRCTN44599712), a population-based, cluster-randomized intervention trial with facilitated local stakeholder groups for improved neonatal survival in Quang Ninh province in northern Vietnam.

    METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with all mothers experiencing neonatal mortality and a random sample of 6% of all mothers with a live birth in the study area during the study period (July 2008-June 2011). Multilevel regression analyses were performed, stratifying mothers according to household wealth, maternal education and mother's ethnicity in order to assess impact on equity in neonatal survival.

    FINDINGS: In the last year of study the risk of neonatal death was reduced by 69% among poor mothers in the intervention area as compared to poor mothers in the control area (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.15-0.66). This pattern was not evident among mothers from non-poor households. Mothers with higher education had a 50% lower risk of neonatal mortality if living in the intervention area during the same time period (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.28-0.90), whereas no significant effect was detected among mothers with low education.

    INTERPRETATION: The NeoKIP intervention promoted equity in neonatal survival based on wealth but increased inequity based on maternal education.

  • 45.
    Målqvist, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong
    Hanoi School of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Liem, Nguyen Thanh
    Research Institute for Child Health (RICH), National Hospital of Pediatrics, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Thorson, Anna
    Division of Global Health (IHCAR), Department of Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Thomsen, Sarah
    Division of Global Health (IHCAR), Department of Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Ethnic minority health in Vietnam: a review exposing horizontal inequity2013In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 6, p. 1-19Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    Equity in health is a pressing concern and reaching disadvantaged populations is necessary to close the inequity gap. To date, the discourse has predominately focussed on reaching the poor. At the same time and in addition to wealth, other structural determinants that influence health outcomes exist, one of which is ethnicity. Inequities based on group belongings are recognised as 'horizontal', as opposed to the more commonly used notion of 'vertical' inequity based on individual characteristics.

    Objective:

    The aim of the present review is to highlight ethnicity as a source of horizontal inequity in health and to expose mechanisms that cause and maintain this inequity in Vietnam.

    Design:

    Through a systematic search of available academic and grey literature, 49 publications were selected for review. Information was extracted on: a) quantitative measures of health inequities based on ethnicity and b) qualitative descriptions explaining potential reasons for ethnicity-based health inequities.

    Results:

    Five main areas were identified: health-care-seeking and utilization, maternal and child health, nutrition, infectious diseases, and oral health and hygiene. Evidence suggests the presence of severe health inequity in health along ethnic lines in all these areas. Research evidence also offers explanations derived from both external and internal group dynamics to this inequity. It is reported that government policies and programs appear to be lacking in culturally adaptation and sensitivity, and examples of bad attitudes and discrimination from health staff toward minority persons were identified. In addition, traditions and patriarchal structures within ethnic minority groups were seen to contribute to the maintenance of harmful health behaviors within these groups.

    Conclusion:

    Better understandings of the scope and pathways of horizontal inequities are required to address ethnic inequities in health. Awareness of ethnicity as a determinant of health, not only as a covariate of poverty or living area, needs to be improved, and research needs to be designed with this in mind.

  • 46.
    Målqvist, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Hoa, Dinh Tp
    Hanoi School of Public Health, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Thomsen, Sarah
    Division of Global Health (IHCAR), Department of Public Health, Karolinska Institutet, Solna, Sweden.
    Causes and determinants of inequity in maternal and child health in Vietnam2012In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 12, p. 641-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Inequities in health are a major challenge for health care planners and policymakers globally. In Vietnam, rapid societal development presents a considerable risk for disadvantaged populations to be left behind. The aim of this review is to map the known causes and determinants of inequity in maternal and child health in Vietnam in order to promote policy action.

    METHODS:

    A review was performed through systematic searches of Pubmed and Proquest and manual searches of "grey literature." A thematic content analysis guided by the conceptual framework suggested by the Commission on Social Determinants of Health was performed.

    RESULTS:

    More than thirty different causes and determinants of inequity in maternal and child health were identified. Some determinants worth highlighting were the influence of informal fees and the many testimonies of discrimination and negative attitudes from health staff towards women in general and ethnic minorities in particular. Research gaps were identified, such as a lack of studies investigating the influence of education on health care utilization, informal costs of care, and how psychosocial factors mediate inequity.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The evidence of corruption and discrimination as mediators of health inequity in Vietnam calls for attention and indicates a need for more structural interventions such as better governance and anti-discriminatory laws. More research is needed in order to fully understand the pathways of inequities in health in Vietnam and suggest areas for intervention for policy action to reach disadvantaged populations.

  • 47.
    Målqvist, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Hultstrand, Jenny Niemeyer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Larsson, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    KC, Ashish
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH), International Child Health and Nutrition.
    High levels of unmet need for family planning in Nepal.2018In: Sexual & Reproductive HealthCare, ISSN 1877-5756, E-ISSN 1877-5764, Vol. 17, p. 1-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Providing access to family planning services is a basic component and a cost-effective intervention to reduce maternal mortality worldwide. It is closely linked to women's decision-making power and female emancipation. Unmet need for family planning is thus an indicator going beyond maternal health with far reaching societal implications. This study examines the level of unmet need for family planning in Nepal and its distribution along structural determinants.

    METHODS: Data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2014 was utilized for analysis. Prevalence of unmet need for family planning was calculated and logistic regression models used to ascertain inequity.

    RESULTS: A total unmet need for family planning of 40.9% among the 10,688 included women was observed. No major differences between socioeconomic groups could be detected, except for a somewhat higher rate of unmet need among the least educated. Total fertility rate among the women included was 2.59. Contraceptive use among adolescents was alarmingly low, with almost none reporting using any type of contraception.

    CONCLUSION: The lack of major inequity implies that the high level of unmet need for contraception is a general problem in society and must be addressed broadly. A special focus on education and provision for adolescents is needed in Nepal.

  • 48.
    Målqvist, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Lincetto, Ornella
    World Health Organization, Hanoi, Viet Nam.
    Huy Du, Nguyen
    United Nations Children’s Fund, Hanoi, Viet Nam.
    Burgess, Craig
    United Nations Children’s Fund, Hanoi, Viet Nam.
    Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong
    Hanoi School of Public Health, Hanoi, Viet Nam.
    Maternal health care utilization in Viet Nam: increasing ethnic inequity2013In: Bulletin of the World Health Organization, ISSN 0042-9686, E-ISSN 1564-0604, Vol. 91, no 4, p. 254-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To investigate changes that took place between 2006 and 2010 in the inequity gap for antenatal care attendance and delivery at health facilities among women in Viet Nam.

    Methods

    Demographic, socioeconomic and obstetric data for women aged 15–49 years were extracted from Viet Nam’s Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey for 2006 (MICS3) and 2010–2011 (MICS4). Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine if antenatal care attendance and place of delivery were significantly associated with maternal education, maternal ethnicity (Kinh/Hoa versus other), household wealth and place of residence (urban versus rural). These independent variables correspond to the analytical framework of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health.

    Findings

    Large discrepancies between urban and rural populations were found in both MICS3 and MICS4. Although antenatal care attendance and health facility delivery rates improved substantially between surveys (from 86.3 to 92.1% and from 76.2 to 89.7%, respectively), inequities increased, especially along ethnic lines. The risk of not giving birth in a health facility increased significantly among ethnic minority women living in rural areas. In 2006 this risk was nearly five times higher than among women of Kinh/Hoa (majority) ethnicity (odds ratio, OR: 4.67; 95% confidence interval, CI: 2.94–7.43); in 2010–2011 it had become nearly 20 times higher (OR: 18.8; 95% CI: 8.96–39.2).

    Conclusion

    Inequity in maternal health care utilization has increased progressively in Viet Nam, primarily along ethnic lines, and vulnerable groups in the country are at risk of being left behind. Health-care decision-makers should target these groups through affirmative action and culturally sensitive interventions.

  • 49.
    Målqvist, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Nga, Nguyen Thu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Eriksson, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Wallin, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Hoa, Dinh Phuong
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Ethnic inequity in neonatal survival: a case-referent study in northern Vietnam2011In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 100, no 3, p. 340-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: In this study from Quang Ninh province in northern Vietnam (sub-study of the trial Neonatal Health - Knowledge into Practice, NeoKIP, ISRCTN 44599712), we investigated determinants of neonatal mortality through a case-referent design, with special emphasis on socio-economic factors and health system utilization. Methods: From July 2008 until December 2009, we included 183 neonatal mortality cases and 599 referents and their mothers were interviewed. Results: Ethnicity was the main socio-economic determinant for neonatal mortality (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.39-3.10, adjusted for mothers' education and household economic status). Health system utilization before and at delivery could partly explain the risk elevation, with an increased risk of neonatal mortality for mothers who did not attend antenatal care and who delivered at home (OR 4.79, 95% CI 2.98-7.71). However, even if mothers of an ethnic minority attended antenatal care or delivered at a health facility, the increased risk for this group was sustained. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates inequity in neonatal survival that is related to ethnicity rather than family economy or education level of the mother and highlights the need to include the ethnic dimension in the efforts to reduce neonatal mortality.

  • 50.
    Målqvist, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Pun, Asha
    UNICEF Nepal Country Off, UN Hlth Sect, UN House, Pulchowk, Nepal..
    Kc, Ashish
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). UNICEF Nepal Country Off, UN Hlth Sect, UN House, Pulchowk, Nepal..
    Essential newborn care after home delivery in Nepal2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 202-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Postnatal care of the newborn is essential in order to reduce neonatal mortality. Nepal has made great efforts to improve maternal and child health by focusing on accessibility and outreach over the past decades. This study aims to examine trends, over the past decade, in levels and equity of facility delivery rates and the provision of newborn care after home delivery in Nepal. Methods: Household-level data from the Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) 2006 and 2011 and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS5) from 2014 performed in Nepal was sourced for the study. Coverage rates of facility delivery and newborn care after home delivery were calculated and logistic regression models were used to ascertain inequity. Results: Home delivery rate dropped from 79.2% in 2006 to 46.5% in 2014, a development showing an inequitable distribution, with a larger share of better-off families shifting to facility delivery. For those who still delivered at home there was an increased rate of early initiation of breastfeeding and adequate temperature control, but only 2.2% of women delivering at home received a home visit by a health professional in the first week of delivery. No inequity in receiving newborn care after home delivery could be detected. Conclusions: There have been significant improvements in facility delivery rates over the last 10 years in Nepal and postnatal care at home has improved. There is, however, an alarmingly low level of home visits during an infant's first week.

12 1 - 50 of 75
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf