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  • 1. Albertsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Evaluation of extrication techniques. - Is there any other quality measurement then time?2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Lindström, Anders
    FOI, Totalförsvarets forskningsinstitut, Stockholm.
    Schagen, Ingrid van
    SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, The Hague.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    FERSI position paper: Safety through automation?: ensuring that automated and connected driving contribute to a safer transportation system2020In: Proceedings of 8th Transport Research Arena TRA 2020, 2020, p. 5-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2018, the Forum of European Road Safety Research Institutes (FERSI) published a report on automated driving (AD) from a road safety point of view, prepared by a dedicated FERSI Working Group with experts from eleven European countries. The group identified 23 high priority concerns or questions, clustered into four categories, to ensure that connected AD and co-operative ITS successfully contribute to a smart, green, and integrated transport system which at the same time is a safe transport system. The discussions resulted in ten principles to be fulfilled in order to optimise the safety effects of AD. Even if these principles may seem straightforward, the underlying questions are complex, and the identification and realisation of cost-efficient and effective solutions will require considerable effort. Many strong industrial and political driving forces exist, but so far improving road safety seems to get insufficient priority. FERSI therefore recommends a number of focused actions.

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  • 3.
    Brolin, Karin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Östh, Jonas
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Svensson, Mats
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Sato, Fusako
    Japan Automotive Research Institute.
    Ono, Koshiro
    Japan Automotive Research Institute.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Kullgren, Anders
    Folksam.
    Aiming for an average female virtual human body model for seat performance assessment in rear-end impacts2015In: The 24th ESV Conference Proceedings, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The female part of the population suffers more Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) in car crashes than males. Several studies have illustrated the need to consider the female population when developing and assessing the WAD prevention performance of advanced restraint systems in rear-end collisions. Presently only one crash test dummy is available, the average sized male BioRID. Recently a virtual dummy model of an average female, EvaRID, was developed and used in rear impact simulations. The results stressed the need for models representing the female part of the population, as well. Virtual crash simulations have become essential in traffic safety and with models of both an average male and female, further steps in addressing improved assessment of WAD prevention can be taken. The present paper presents a starting point of research aiming to develop an open-source average female Finite Element (FE) model with an anatomically detailed cervical spine. This paper provides a review of the literature to identify gender specific neck biomechanics and anatomical differences, followed by a review of published FE models of the cervical spine. Data on vertebral body dimensions (height, width, depth, spinal canal diameter, facet joint angles) have been compiled from biomechanical literature. Significant gender differences exist for the vertebral body depth and width, the spinal curvature in the seated posture, and the spinal stiffness and range of motion. All have the potential to influence the outcome of an impact and should be accounted for in the development of WAD prevention. The review of FE models of the cervical spine presented 17 models based on male geometry but only one model scaled to represent a female. An overview of the models are given with respect to the solver, geometry source, number of elements, and implementation of the facet joints, ligaments, and muscles. It is recommended that an average female model is developed with focus on; 1) the shape of the female vertebral body, especially the depth and width that provides less support area than for males,2) defining the spinal curvature representative of seated female volunteers who generally display less lordosis than males, 3) the dimensions of the spinal ligaments, rather than the material properties, to capture the larger range of motion and less spinal stiffness of female subjects compared to males, and validation to female volunteers and PMHS tests for range of motion, while failure prediction seem less gender sensitive.

     

     

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  • 4.
    Carlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Chang, Fred
    Humanetics Innovative Solutions, Plymouth, Michigan.
    Lemmen, Paul
    Humanetics Innovative Solutions, Plymouth, Michigan.
    Kullgren, Anders
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Schmitt, Kai Uwe
    AGU Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Anthropometric Specifications, Development, and Evaluation of EvaRID: A 50th Percentile Female Rear Impact Finite Element Dummy Model2014In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 855-865Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Whiplash-associated disorders (WADs), or whiplash injuries, due to low-severity vehicle crashes are of great concern in motorized countries and it is well established that the risk of such injuries is higher for females than for males, even in similar crash conditions. Recent protective systems have been shown to be more beneficial for males than for females. Hence, there is a need for improved tools to address female WAD prevention when developing and evaluating the performance of whiplash protection systems. The objective of this study is to develop and evaluate a finite element model of a 50th percentile female rear impact crash test dummy.Methods: The anthropometry of the 50th percentile female was specified based on literature data. The model, called EvaRID (female rear impact dummy), was based on the same design concept as the existing 50th percentile male rear impact dummy, the BioRID II. A scaling approach was developed and the first version, EvaRID V1.0, was implemented. Its dynamic response was compared to female volunteer data from rear impact sled tests.Results: The EvaRID V1.0 model and the volunteer tests compared well until ~250 ms of the head and T1 forward accelerations and rearward linear displacements and of the head rearward angular displacement. Markedly less T1 rearward angular displacement was found for the EvaRID model compared to the female volunteers. Similar results were received for the BioRID II model when comparing simulated responses with experimental data under volunteer loading conditions. The results indicate that the biofidelity of the EvaRID V1.0 and BioRID II FE models have limitations, predominantly in the T1 rearward angular displacement, at low velocity changes (7 km/h). The BioRID II model was validated against dummy test results in a loading range close to consumer test conditions (EuroNCAP) and lower severity levels of volunteer testing were not considered.The EvaRID dummy model demonstrated the potential of becoming a valuable tool when evaluating and developing seats and whiplash protection systems. However, updates of the joint stiffness will be required to provide better correlation at lower load levels. Moreover, the seated posture, curvature of the spine, and head position of 50th percentile female occupants needs to be established and implemented in future models.

  • 5.
    Carlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Chang, Fred
    CAE Department, Humanetics Innovative Solutions.
    Lemmen, Paul
    European Engineering group, Humanetics.
    Kullgren, Anders
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Schmitt, Kai Uwe
    Swiss Federal Institute of Technology.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    EvaRID: A 50th percentile female rear impact finite element dummy model2012In: 2012 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings - International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, 2012, p. 249-262Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neck injury due to low severity vehicle crashes is of worldwide concern and the injury risk is greater for females than males. However, whiplash protection systems have shown to be more beneficial for males than females. Hence there is a need for improved tools to address female protection. The objective is to develop and evaluate a 50th percentile female rear impact crash dummy FE model. The model was based on the same design concept as the BioRID II. A scaling approach was developed and the first version, EvaRID V1.0, was implemented. Its dynamic response was compared to rear impact tests with female volunteers. The EvaRID model and volunteer tests showed good correlations until ~250 ms of the head and T1 accelerations, linear displacements and head angular displacement. Considerably less T1 angular displacement was found for the EvaRID; similar results were obtained for the BioRID II. Thus, the EvaRID V1.0 and BioRID II models have limitations at low δv (7km/h). The EvaRID model demonstrated the potential to become a valuable tool when evaluating and developing seats/whiplash protection systems, however, this will require updating the joint stiffness. The model may be used as a template for the development of a physical female dummy.

  • 6.
    Carlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Chang, Fred
    CAE Dep, United States.
    Lemmen, Paul
    Humanetics Europe GmbH, Wateringen, Netherlands.
    Kullgren, Anders
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Schmitt, Kai Uwe
    Universität Zürich, Institute for Biomedical Engineering, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    EvaRID: A 50th percentile female rear impact finite element dummy model2012In: 2012 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings: International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, 2012, p. 249-262Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neck injury due to low severity vehicle crashes is of worldwide concern and the injury risk is greater for females than males. However, whiplash protection systems have shown to be more beneficial for males than females. Hence there is a need for improved tools to address female protection. The objective is to develop and evaluate a 50th percentile female rear impact crash dummy FE model. The model was based on the same design concept as the BioRID II. A scaling approach was developed and the first version, EvaRID V1.0, was implemented. Its dynamic response was compared to rear impact tests with female volunteers. The EvaRID model and volunteer tests showed good correlations until 250 ms of the head and T1 accelerations, linear displacements and head angular displacement. Considerably less T1 angular displacement was found for the EvaRID; similar results were obtained for the BioRID II. Thus, the EvaRID V1.0 and BioRID II models have limitations at low ÎŽv (7km/h). The EvaRID model demonstrated the potential to become a valuable tool when evaluating and developing seats/whiplash protection systems, however, this will require updating the joint stiffness. The model may be used as a template for the development of a physical female dummy.

  • 7.
    Carlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers Industriteknik, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Design and Evaluation of the Initial 50th Percentile Female Prototype Rear Impact Dummy, BioRID P50F – Indications for the Need of an Additional Dummy Size2021In: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, E-ISSN 2296-4185, Vol. 9, article id 687058Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to present the design of a prototype rear impact crash test dummy, representing a 50th percentile female, and compare its performance to volunteer response data. The intention was to develop a first crude prototype as a first step toward a future biofidelic 50th percentile female rear impact dummy. The current rear impact crash test dummy, BioRID II, represents a 50th percentile male, which may limit the assessment and development of whiplash protection systems with regard to female occupants. Introduction of this new dummy size will facilitate evaluation of seat and head restraint (HR) responses in both the average sized female and male in rear impacts. A 50th percentile female rear impact prototype dummy, the BioRID P50F, was developed from modified body segments originating from the BioRID II. The mass and rough dimensions of the BioRID P50F is representative of a 50th percentile female. The prototype dummy was evaluated against low severity rear impact sled tests comprising six female volunteers closely resembling a 50th percentile female with regard to stature and mass. The head/neck response of the BioRID P50F prototype resembled the female volunteer response corridors. The stiffness of the thoracic and lumbar spinal joints remained the same as the average sized male BioRID II, and therefore likely stiffer than joints of an average female. Consequently, the peak rearward angular displacement of the head and T1, and the rearward displacement of the T1, were lesser for the BioRID P50F in comparison to the female volunteers. The biofidelity of the BioRID P50F prototype thus has some limitations. Based on a seat response comparison between the BioRID P50F and the BioRID II, it can be concluded that the male BioRID II is an insufficient representation of the average female in the assessment of the dynamic seat response and effectiveness of whiplash protection systems.

  • 8.
    Carlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers Industrial Technology, Sweden.
    Horion, Stefan
    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU), Germany.
    Davidsson, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Schick, Sylvia
    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU), Germany.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hell, Wolfram
    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU), Germany.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Dynamic Responses of Female Volunteers in Rear Impact Sled Tests at Two Head Restraint Distances2021In: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, E-ISSN 2296-4185, Vol. 9, article id 684003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to assess the biomechanical and kinematic responses of female volunteers with two different head restraint (HR) configurations when exposed to a low-speed rear loading environment. A series of rear impact sled tests comprising eight belted, near 50th percentile female volunteers, seated on a simplified laboratory seat, was performed with a mean sled acceleration of 2.1 g and a velocity change of 6.8 km/h. Each volunteer underwent two tests; the first test configuration, HR10, was performed at the initial HR distance ∼10 cm and the second test configuration, HR15, was performed at ∼15 cm. Time histories, peak values and their timing were derived from accelerometer data and video analysis, and response corridors were also generated. The results were separated into three different categories, HR10C (N = 8), HR15C (N = 6), and HR15NC (N = 2), based on: (1) the targeted initial HR distance [10 cm or 15 cm] and (2) whether the volunteers’ head had made contact with the HR [Contact (C) or No Contact (NC)] during the test event. The results in the three categories deviated significantly. The greatest differences were found for the average peak head angular displacements, ranging from 10° to 64°. Furthermore, the average neck injury criteria (NIC) value was 22% lower in HR10C (3.9 m2/s2), and 49% greater in HR15NC (7.4 m2/s2) in comparison to HR15C (5.0 m2/s2). This study supplies new data suitable for validation of mechanical or mathematical models of a 50th percentile female. A model of a 50th percentile female remains to be developed and is urgently required to complement the average male models to enhance equality in safety assessments. Hence, it is important that future protection systems are developed and evaluated with female properties taken into consideration too. It is likely that the HR15 test configuration is close to the limit for avoiding HR contact for this specific seat setup. Using both datasets (HR15C and HR15NC), each with its corresponding HR contact condition, will be possible in future dummy or model evaluation. © Copyright © 2021 Carlsson, Horion, Davidsson, Schick, Linder, Hell and Svensson.

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  • 9.
    Carlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Davidsson, Johan
    SAFER - Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hell, Wolfram
    Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Institute for Legal Medicine, München, Germany.
    Schick, Sylvia
    Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Institute for Legal Medicine, München, Germany.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Dynamic kinematic responses of female volunteers in rear impacts and comparison to previous male volunteer tests2011In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 347-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The objective was to quantify dynamic responses of 50th percentile females in rear impacts and compare to those from similar tests with males. The results will serve as a basis for future work with models, criteria, and safety systems.

    Methods: A rear impact sled test series with 8 female volunteers was performed at velocity changes of 5 and 7 km/h. The following dynamic response corridors were generated for the head, T1 (first thoracic vertebra) and head relative to T1: (1) accelerations in posterior-anterior direction, (2) horizontal and vertical displacements, (3) angular displacements for 6 females close to the 50th percentile in size. Additionally, the head-to-head restraint distance and contact time and neck injury criterion (NIC) were extracted from the data set. These data were compared to results from previously performed male volunteer tests, representing the 50th percentile male, in equivalent test conditions. T-tests were performed with the statistical significance level of.05 to quantify the significance of the parameter value differences for the males and females.

    Results: At 7 km/h, the females showed 29 percent earlier head-to-head restraint contact time (p =.0072); 27 percent shorter horizontal rearward head displacement (p =.0017); 36 percent narrower head extension angle (p =.0281); and 52 percent lower NIC value (p =.0239) than the males in previous tests. This was mainly due to 35 percent shorter initial head-to-head restraint distance for the females (p =.0125). The peak head acceleration in the posterior-anterior direction was higher and occurred earlier for the females.

    Conclusions: The overall result indicated differences in the dynamic response for the female and male volunteers. The results could be used in developing and evaluating a mechanical and/or mathematical average-sized female dummy model for rear impact safety assessment. These models can be used as a tool in the design of protective systems and for further development and evaluation of injury criteria. © 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  • 10.
    Carlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Schick, Sylvia
    Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Institute for Legal Medicine, München, Germany.
    Horion, Stefan
    Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, München, Germany.
    Hell, Wofram
    Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Institute for Legal Medicine, München, Germany.
    Female volunteer motion in rear impact sled tests in comparison to results from earlier male volunteer tests2008In: 2008 INTERNATIONAL IRCOBI CONFERENCEONTHE BIOMECHANICS OF INJURY17. – 19. September 2008– BERN (Switzerland)PROCEEDINGS, 2008, p. 461-464Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle related crashes causing neck injuries (whiplash) are costly and common, and injury statistic data shows a larger risk of neck injuries for females than for males. This study aims at investigating differences between female and male dynamic response in rear impacts. Rear impact sled tests with female volunteers were carried out and the results were compared with previously performed tests with males in matching test conditions. The volunteer tests were performed at a change of velocity of 7 km/h. The comparison of the average response of the males and the females and their response corridors showed several differences. The horizontal head acceleration peak value was on average 40% higher and occurred on average 18% earlier for the female volunteers compared to the male volunteers. The NIC value was 45% lower and 30% earlier for the females, probably due to a 27% smaller initial head-to-head restraint distance and thereby a 24% earlier head restraint contact. The results provide characteristic differences between dynamic responses of females and males in low speed rear impacts. These results contribute to the understanding of human dynamic response in rear impacts. In addition, they can be used in the process of future development if numerical and/or mechanical human models for crash testing.

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  • 11.
    Carlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Siegmund, Gunter P.
    The University of British Columbia, School of Kinesiology, Vancouver, Canada.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Motion of the Head and Neck of Female and Male Volunteers in Rear Impact Car-to-Car Impacts2012In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 378-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The objectives of this study were to quantify and compare dynamic motion responses between 50th percentile female and male volunteers in rear impact tests. These data are fundamental for developing future occupant models for crash safety development and assessment.

    Methods: High-speed video data from a rear impact test series with 21 male and 21 female volunteers at 4 and 8 km/h, originally presented in Siegmund et al. (1997), were used for further analysis. Data from a subset of female volunteers, 12 at 4 km/h and 9 at 8 km/h, were extracted from the original data set to represent the 50th percentile female. Their average height was 163 cm and their average weight was 62 kg. Among the male volunteers, 11 were selected, with an average height of 175 cm and an average weight of 73 kg, to represent the 50th percentile male. Response corridors were generated for the horizontal and angular displacements of the head, T1 (first thoracic vertebra), and the head relative to T1. T-tests were performed with the statistical significance level of.05 to quantify the significance of the differences in parameter values for the males and females.

    Results: Several differences were found in the average motion response of the male and female volunteers at 4 and 8 km/h. Generally, females had smaller rearward horizontal and angular motions of the head and T1 compared to the males. This was mainly due to shorter initial head-to-head restraint distance and earlier head-to-head restraint contact for the females. At 8 km/h, the female volunteers showed 12 percent lower horizontal peak rearward head displacement (P =.018); 22 percent lower horizontal peak rearward head relative to T1 displacement (P =.018); and 30 percent lower peak head extension angle (P =.001). The females also had more pronounced rebound motion.

    Conclusions: This study indicates that there may be characteristic differences in the head-neck motion response between 50th percentile males and females in rear impacts. The exclusive use of 50th percentile male rear impact dummies may thus limit the assessment and development of whiplash prevention systems that adequately protect both male and female occupants. The results of this study could be used in the development and evaluation of a mechanical and/or computational average-sized female dummy model for rear impact safety assessment. These models are used in the development and evaluation of protective systems. It would be of interest to make further studies into seat configurations featuring a greater head-to-head restraint distance. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  • 12.
    Carlsson, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute. Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Siegmund, Gunter P.
    The University of British Columbia, School of Kinesiology, Vancouver, Canada.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Motion of the head and neck of female and male volunteers in rear impact car-to-car tests at 4 and 8 km/h2010In: 2010 INTERNATIONAL IRCOBI CONFERENCE ON THE BIOMECHANICS OF INJURY 15. + 16. September 2010– HANOVER (Germany) PROCEEDINGS, 2010, p. 29-39Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study indications of differences in motion pattern of females and males have been found. The objective was to quantify dynamic motion responses of female and male volunteers in rear impact tests. Such data can be used as an input in the development process of improved occupant models such as computational models and crash test dummies. High-speed video data from rear impact tests at 4 km/h and 8 km/h with 12 female and 11 male volunteers was analysed. The females in this study had smaller rearward horizontal and angular motions of the head and T1 compared to the males. Furthermore, the females had more pronounced rebound motion.

  • 13.
    Clark, A
    et al.
    Monash University.
    Douglas, C
    Monash University.
    Fildes, B
    Monash University.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Yang, J
    Chalmers.
    Sparke, L
    Holden Innovation.
    Mathematical modelling of pedestrian crashes: Parameter study of the influence of the sedan vehicle contour2006In: Journal of Biomechanics, ISSN 0021-9290, E-ISSN 1873-2380, Vol. 39, no Suppl. 1, p. 160-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Ekström, Camilla
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Fatally injured cyclists in Sweden 2005–2015: analysis of accident circumstances, injuries and suggestions for safety improvements2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cycling is part of the sustainable transport system and plans are in place to increase this part of the transport system in Sweden, Europe as well as globally. Improving the safety for this group of roadusers is of great importance. The aim of this study was to identify patterns among fatally injured cyclists in Sweden, in order to suggest general safety improvements or improvements addressing different groups of cyclists as well as specific traffic conditions.

    The information was sourced from the in-depth study database of fatalities as well as the joint register for police and hospital injury and accident data, STRADA, in Sweden. Data was analysed and interpreted for an 11 year period from 2005–2015. The in-depth study of the fatalities provided details about the accidents and individuals involved in the accident and the information was retrieved by parameter values, in free text description and documents in the database. STRADA was used to sort official data within the in-depth study, assigning codes for accident type, complementing parameters and additional parameters.

    A total of 271 fatalities were identified and analysed where the majority of the accidents occurred during spring–autumn. Male fatalities accounted for two-thirds of the studied cases and in ages above 40, male fatalities are twice as many as female fatalities. Fatalities in Motor vehicle accidents are distributed in all age groups, while in the Single bike and Other bike category, there were no children and only a few young adults reported.

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  • 15.
    Genzel, Jonny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Crash safety.
    Carlsson, Anna
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Pipkorn, Bengt
    Autoliv Research, Vårgårda, Sweden.
    Svensson, Mats
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    An Open-Source Finite Element Model of a Generic Car Seat: Development and Validation for Low-Severity Rear Impact Evaluations2022In: 2022 IRCOBI Conference proceedings, IRCOBI , 2022, p. 229-242Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A Finite Element model of a generic Laboratory Seat was developed to replicate a physical counterpart used in rear-impact volunteer tests. The Laboratory Seat has a simplified design, developed to facilitate replication in computational models. The seat has a flat rigid base and the seatback consists of four horizontal panels attached to side posts by coil springs. The seat model was validated with results from component tests and sled tests, including the Anthropomorphic Test Device, BioRID II.

    An initial test series was carried out to generate data for component validation: the first set of tests to characterise the coil spring properties; and the second set comprising Impactor Tests on Head Restraint Foam to assess the head restraint material properties.

    For system level validation, sled tests were conducted both with the empty Laboratory Seat and with the BioRID II. The BioRID II tests were conducted in conjunction with an earlier volunteer test study.

    Both the component and the sled tests were reproduced in a virtual environment. Good agreement was achieved between the mechanical tests and the computational simulations.

    The seat model is freely available to use: https://openvt.eu/fem/open-access-laboratory-seat-model.

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  • 16.
    Howard, Christian
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Review of Swedish experiences concerning analysis of people injured in traffic accidents2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides a review of Swedish experiences concerning the national road traffic accident information system STRADA (Swedish Traffic Accident Data Acquisition). STRADA contains information on accidents occurring in the Swedish road transport system as reported by the police, and medical data on persons injured as reported by the hospitals. By combining data from two sources, the STRADA system can provide more comprehensive information on both the circumstances and the consequences of road traffic accidents. The aim was to provide a review of accident and injury data in STRADA, including methods for collecting, sharing and analyzing the data. The primary focus is on the injury data provided by the hospitals and how these can be used in conjunction with police data. The main results provided in this report are descriptions of how the STRADA database is structured and what data are available, how the police and hospitals collect data, and how the data are made available to various stakeholders. The report describes the organizations involved in maintaining and developing the STRADA system and a number of examples of how hospital data has been used in various projects are also provided. Information about STRADA was compiled mainly from material provided by the responsible authority – The Swedish Transport Agency. In addition, a literature review was performed in order to identify examples of how hospital data has been used in different projects. The report was commissioned by the Belgian Road Safety Institute (BRSI).

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  • 17.
    Jonsson, Bertil
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    BioRID II manikin and human seating position in relation to car head restraint2008In: International Journal of Crashworthiness, ISSN 1358-8265, E-ISSN 1754-2111, Vol. 13, no 5, p. 479-485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the study was to compare stature, weight and backset (the horizontal distance (x) between the back of the occupant’s head and the front of the seam on top of the head restraint) of the Biofidelic Rear Impact Dummy (BioRID II) to the same variables on seated volunteers in a car. The following methods were used. Data were collected from 154 randomly selected Swedish individuals (78 males and 76 females). The volunteers and the BioRID II were examined in a Volvo V70 car, year model 2003, in three positions: driver (hands on steering wheel), front passenger (hands in lap) and rear passenger. The study results were as follows: the BioRID II was found to correspond approximately to a 35th-45th percentile male in stature (-2 cm), a 35th percentile male in weight (-7 kg), a 96th percentile female in stature (+11 cm) and a 69th percentile female in weight (+8 kg). The BioRID II was designed to represent a male driver. The BioRID II backset corresponded well with the average of the male drivers of its stature. Larger deviations in backset were found for other volunteer sizes and other seating positions. The average backsets were 26 mm for females and 63 mm for males in the front seat positions. The volunteers had larger backset in the driver position (60 mm) than in the front passenger position (29 mm). Smaller differences in backset were seen between the BioRID II and the volunteers in the rear passenger position. This study provides data regarding the occupant size coverage of BioRID II, and unique data regarding backset, of different occupant positions in the car; driver with hands on steering wheel, and front and rear passengers with hands in lap, for female and male in relation to the BioRID II dummy. © 2008 Taylor & Francis.

  • 18.
    Karemyr, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Pettersson, Tommy
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Crash safety.
    Svensson, Mats
    Chalmers University, Sweden.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System. Chalmers University, Sweden.
    Seat Evaluation Tools (SETs): Development of prototype concepts of the SETs of an average female and male for low severity rear impact crash testing2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study has been to develop new Seat Evaluation Tools (SET)s with the geometries of an average female (50F) and male (50M) as seated car occupants, based on data from humanshape.org. The SETs have been designed to evaluate the occupant protection performances of car seats in a low severity rear impact.

    Focus areas have been the motion of the spine, neck and shoulders to enable a human-like interaction with the car seat. Improvements have been made to previous designs of the neck spring and damper system, and a new solution for shoulder flexibility has been implemented. Soft body materials have been used to facilitate the motion of the torso, and a 3D thoracic and lumbar spine design has been developed.

    Two physical prototypes, SET v0.1 50F and 50M, have been developed and all drawings and CAD models have been made available under open-source license on the OpenVT platform (https://openvt.eu/). The prototypes have been run in initial dynamic tests and the results have been compared to previous volunteer tests.

    This work was carried out within the EU-funded project, VIRTUAL.

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  • 19.
    Klug, Corina
    et al.
    Vehicle Safety Institute, Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Bützer, David
    AXA Versicherungen AG, Winterthur, Switzerland.
    Iraeus, Johan
    Vehicle Safety Division, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    John, Jobin
    Vehicle Safety Division, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Keller, Arne
    AGU, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Kowalik, Michal
    FAURECIA Automotive Seating, Grójec, Poland.
    Leo, Christoph
    Vehicle Safety Institute, Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Levallois, Ines
    FAURECIA Automotive Seating, Etampes, France.
    Putra, I. Putu A.
    Vehicle Safety Division, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ressi, Felix
    Vehicle Safety Institute, Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Schmitt, Kai-Uwe
    AGU, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Svensson, Mats
    Vehicle Safety Division, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Trummler, Linus
    AGU, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Wijnen, Wim
    W2Economics, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    How much does the injury risk between average female and average male anthropometry differ?: A simulation study with open source tools for virtual crash safety assessments2023In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 193, article id 107328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Differences in injury risk between females and males are often reported in field data analysis. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in kinematics and injury risks between average female and male anthropometry in two exemplary use cases. A simulation study comprising the newly introduced VIVA+ human body models (HBM) was performed for two use cases. The first use case relates to whiplash associated disorders sustained in rear impacts and the second to femur fractures in pedestrians impacted by passenger cars as field data indicates that females have higher injury risk compared to males in these scenarios.

    Detailed seat models and a generic vehicle exterior were used to simulate crash scenarios close to those currently tested in consumer information tests. In the evaluations with one of the vehicle seats and one car shape the injury risks were equal for both models. However, the risk of the average female HBM for whiplash associated disorders was 1.5 times higher compared to the average male HBM for the rear impacts in the other seat and 10 times higher for proximal femur fractures in the pedestrian impacts for one of the two evaluated vehicle shapes..

    Further work is needed to fully understand trends observed in the field and to derive appropriate countermeasures, which can be performed with the open source tools introduced in the current study.

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  • 20.
    Krašna, Simon
    et al.
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Keller, Arne
    AGU Zürich, Switzerland.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System. Chalmers University, Sweden.
    Silvano, Ary P.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Xu, Jia-Cheng
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Thomson, Robert
    Chalmers University, Sweden.
    Klug, Corina
    Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Human Response to Longitudinal Perturbations of Standing Passengers on Public Transport During Regular Operation2021In: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, E-ISSN 2296-4185, Vol. 9, article id 680883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the response of standing passengers on public transport who experience balance perturbations during non-collision incidents. The objective of the study was to analyse the effects of the perturbation characteristics on the initial responses of the passengers and their ability to maintain their balance. Sled tests were conducted on healthy volunteers aged 33.8 ± 9.2 years (13 males, 11 females) standing on a moving platform, facilitating measurements of the initial muscle activity and stepping response of the volunteers. The volunteers were exposed to five different perturbation profiles representing typical braking and accelerating manoeuvres of a public transport bus in the forward and backward direction. The sequence of muscle activations in lower-extremity muscles was consistent for the perturbation pulses applied. For the three acceleration pulses combining two magnitudes for acceleration (1.5 and 3.0 m/s2) and jerk (5.6 and 11.3 m/s3), the shortest muscle onset and stepping times for the passengers to recover their balance were observed with the higher jerk value, while the profile with the higher acceleration magnitude and longer duration induced more recovery steps and a higher rate of safety-harness deployment. The tendency for a shorter response time was observed for the female volunteers. For the two braking pulses (1.0 and 2.5 m/s2), only the lower magnitude pulse allowed balance recovery without compensatory stepping. The results obtained provide a reference dataset for human body modelling, the development of virtual test protocols, and operational limits for improving the safety of public transportation vehicles and users. © Copyright © 2021 Krašna, Keller, Linder, Silvano, Xu, Thomson and Klug.

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  • 21.
    Lackner, Christian
    et al.
    Siemens Mobility Austria GmbH, Austria.
    Heinzl, Philipp
    Siemens Mobility Austria GmbH, Austria.
    Rizzi, Maria C.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Leo, Christoph
    Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Schachner, Martin
    Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Pokorny, Petr
    Institute of Transport Economics, TØI, Norway.
    Klager, Peter
    Siemens Mobility Austria GmbH, Austria.
    Buetzer, David
    Accident Research and Prevention, AXA, Switzerland.
    Elvik, Rune
    Institute of Transport Economics, TØI, Norway.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Klug, Corina
    Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Tram to Pedestrian Collisions: Priorities and Potentials2022In: Frontiers in Future Transportation, E-ISSN 2673-5210, Vol. 3, article id 913887Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve mobility in cities in line with environmental goals, in urban traffic, trams represent an increasingly important means of transport. Due to the close interaction with other road users, this makes collisions with trams fairly frequent. This study has investigated accidents between trams and vulnerable road users resulting in personal injury, aimed at identifying priorities for simulating collisions between trams and pedestrians to assess passive safety measures. Tram accident data collection established throughout Europe from multiple sources and with varying degree of details, have been combined and analysed. These analyses comprise risk assessments per km-driven and general tram accident partner and site type evaluations, with more detailed analyses on accident site distance to the closest tram stop and injured body regions, respectively. In total, 7,535 tram-pedestrian accident resulting in 8,802 pedestrian injuries, collected in the year 2000–2021, was analysed. Accident risk ranges from 0.934 accidents per number of tram (million) km-driven, for slight injuries to 0.063 for fatal injuries. Pedestrians represent a large proportion of tram accident collision partners, especially for severe and fatal accidents. In accidents between trams and pedestrians, 3% of reported injuries are fatal, 23% severe and 74% minor. Generally, low-speed accidents close to tram stops often leading to minor injuries were observed to be of significant importance (<20m to the GPS location of a stop). Analysis of accidents was done bases on gender of the pedestrian showing overall similar involvements in accident with slight difference for various age groups and sites. Regardless of injury severity, the most frequently injured body region in accidents involving a tram is the head. Likewise, injuries sustained to the thorax, especially for higher injury severities are of high relevance, followed by injuries to the lower extremities. Based on this study, recommendations for developing reasonable tram-pedestrian accident scenarios for virtual testing can be derived for further optimisation of pedestrian safety of trams.

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  • 22.
    Leo, Christoph
    et al.
    Vehicle Safety Institute, Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Fredriksson, Anders
    Volvo Car Corporation, Torslanda HABVS-VAK, Sweden.
    Grumert, Ellen
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System. Mechanics and Maritime Science, Chalmers University, Sweden.
    Schachner, Martin
    Vehicle Safety Institute, Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Tidborg, Fredrik
    Volvo Car Corporation, Torslanda HABVS-VAK, Sweden.
    Klug, Corina
    Vehicle Safety Institute, Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Holistic pedestrian safety assessment for average males and females2023In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 11, article id 1199949Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: An integrated assessment framework that enables holistic safety evaluations addressing vulnerable road users (VRU) is introduced and applied in the current study. The developed method enables consideration of both active and passive safety measures and distributions of real-world crash scenario parameters.

    Methods: The likelihood of a specific virtual testing scenario occurring in real life has been derived from accident databases scaled to European level. Based on pre-crash simulations, it is determined how likely it is that scenarios could be avoided by a specific Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) system. For the unavoidable cases, probabilities for specific collision scenarios are determined, and the injury risk for these is determined, subsequently, from in-crash simulations with the VIVA+ Human Body Models combined with the created metamodel for an average male and female model. The integrated assessment framework was applied for the holistic assessment of car-related pedestrian protection using a generic car model to assess the safety benefits of a generic AEB system combined with current passive safety structures.

    Results: In total, 61,914 virtual testing scenarios have been derived from the different car-pedestrian cases based on real-world crash scenario parameters. Considering the occurrence probability of the virtual testing scenarios, by implementing an AEB, a total crash risk reduction of 81.70% was achieved based on pre-crash simulations. It was shown that 50 in-crash simulations per load case are sufficient to create a metamodel for injury prediction. For the in-crash simulations with the generic vehicle, it was also shown that the injury risk can be reduced by implementing an AEB, as compared to the baseline scenarios. Moreover, as seen in the unavoidable cases, the injury risk for the average male and female is the same for brain injuries and femoral shaft fractures. The average male has a higher risk of skull fractures and fractures of more than three ribs compared to the average female. The average female has a higher risk of proximal femoral fractures than the average male.

    Conclusions: A novel methodology was developed which allows for movement away from the exclusive use of standard-load case assessments, thus helping to bridge the gap between active and passive safety evaluations.

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  • 23.
    Leo, Christoph
    et al.
    Graz University of Technology.
    Klug, Corina
    Graz University of Technology.
    Ohlin, Maria
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Bos, Niels M
    SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research.
    Davidse, Ragnhild J
    SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Analysis of Swedish and Dutch accident data on cyclist injuries in cyclist-car collisions.2019In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 20, no S2, p. S160-S162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To reduce the number of severe injuries sustained by cyclists in crashes with vehicles, it is important to understand which kinds of injuries are occurring to identify what should be assessed by means of virtual testing.

    Method: A detailed analysis of injuries was made based on Swedish and Dutch accident data. The most frequently injured body regions and the most frequent single injuries of these body regions were analysed.

    Results: Cyclists most frequently injured their heads, upper and lower extremities, and bone fractures as well as brain injuries were identified as one of the most important injuries.

    Conclusions: For the virtual assessment of cyclist protection, injury predictors for long bone, skull and pelvic fractures as well as brain injuries are required in Human Body Models.

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  • 24.
    Leo, Christoph
    et al.
    Graz University of Technology.
    Klug, Corina
    Graz University of Technology.
    Ohlin, Maria
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Analysis of pedestrian injuries in pedestrian-car collisions with focus on age and gender2019In: Conference proceedings International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, IRCOBI, International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury , 2019, p. 256-257Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Leo, Christoph
    et al.
    Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Rizzi, Maria C.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Bos, Niels M.
    SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, Netherlands..
    Davidse, Ragnhild J.
    SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, Netherlands..
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Tomasch, Ernst
    Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Klug, Corina
    Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Are There Any Significant Differences in Terms of Age and Sex in Pedestrian and Cyclist Accidents?2021In: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, E-ISSN 2296-4185, Vol. 9, article id 677952Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study has analyzed sex-specific differences in pedestrian and cyclist accidents involving passenger cars. The most frequently injured body regions, types of injuries, which show sex-specific differences and the general accident parameters of females and males were compared. Accident data from three different European countries (Austria, Netherlands, Sweden) were analyzed. The current analysis shows that for both, females and males, pedestrian and cyclist injuries are sustained mainly to the body regions head, thorax, upper extremities and lower extremities. The results show that the odds for sustaining skeletal injuries to the lower extremities (incl. pelvis) in females are significantly higher. It was observed in all datasets, that the odds of females being involved in a rural accident or an accident at night are lower than for males. Elderly pedestrian and cyclist (>= 60YO) tend to sustain more severe injuries (AIS2+ and AIS3+) than younger pedestrian and cyclists (<60YO) in some of the datasets. The findings of this study highlight the differences in males and females in both, accident scenarios and sustained injuries. Further investigations are needed to distinguish between gender- and sex-specific differences causing the different injury patterns.

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  • 26.
    Levin, Lena
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Heikkinen, Satu
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nielsen, Benny
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Äldre i transportsystemet: mobilitet, design och träningsproblematik2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Generally, more elderly will be travelling and be out on the roads as active road-users in the future. Research exists on the travelling habits of the elderly; but more in-depth knowledge on the elderly's preferences as license-holders, drivers, road-users and actors in public transport is required. The aim of this report is to give an overview of previous research as well as to indicate a number of directions for future research on the mobility of the elderly as actors within the transport system. The work has a clear multidisciplinary approach, with knowledge from social science, behavioural science and technical research on transport and the elderly. However, the main weight lays on social science and behavioural science issues. The report is divided into eleven chapters: 1) contains a short background, purpose and method questions; 2) discusses the project's scientific and social relevance; 3) provides theoretical background and theoretical concepts; 4) mentions previous research on the elderly as car drivers; 5) is a chapter on license-less vehicles; 6) discusses traffic and road design for the elderly; 7) discusses the elderly as pedestrians and bicycle road-users; 8) is about the elderly in public transport and 9) is about the training of elderly drivers. Chapter 10) consists of a final discussion and chapter 11) summarises point by point the need for research on issues which have come to light in the report

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  • 27.
    Linder, Astrid
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    A new mathematical neck model for a low-velocity rear-end impact dummy: Evaluation of components influencing head kinematics2000In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 261-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mathematical model of a new rear-end impact dummy neck was implemented using MADYMO. The main goal was to design a model with a human-like response of the first extension motion in the crash event. The new dummy neck was modelled as a series of rigid bodies (representing the seven cervical vertebrae and the uppermost thoracic element, T1) connected by pin joints, and supplemented by two muscle substitutes. The joints had non-linear stiffness characteristics and the muscle elements possessed both elastic stiffness and damping properties. The new model was compared with two neck models with the same number of vertebrae, but without muscle substitutes. The properties of the muscle substitutes and the need of these were evaluated by using three different modified neck models. The motion of T1 in the simulations was prescribed using displacement data obtained from volunteer tests. In a sensitivity analysis of the mathematical model the influence of different factors on the head-neck kinematics was evaluated. The neck model was validated against kinematics data from volunteer tests: linear displacement, angular displacement, and acceleration of the head relative to the upper torso at 7 km/h velocity change. The response of the new model was within the corridor of the volunteer tests for the main part of the time history plot. This study showed that a combination of elastic stiffness and damping in the muscle substitutes, together with a non-linear joint stiffness, resulted in a head-neck response similar to human volunteers, and superior to that of other tested neck models.

  • 28.
    Linder, Astrid
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System. Chalmers University of Technology.
    Bridging the gender gap in vehicle occupant safety assessments2021In: Transport Innovation for Sustainable Development: A Gender Perspective, OECD/ITF , 2021, p. 51-52Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 29.
    Linder, Astrid
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Neck injuries in rear impacts: Dummy neck development, dummy evaluation and test condition specifications2001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of the work underlying this thesis was firstly to develop a neck for a new rear impact dummy, to evaluate the complete dummy and to specify test conditions for a consumer test with attention to AIS 1 neck injuries in rear impacts. In the development of the dummy neck, a mathematical neck model was developed and evaluated. Furthermore, impact severity and seat designs were also investigated.

    Rear collisions can result in AIS 1 neck injuries. These injuries, which are becoming more frequent, occur mostly at low changes of velocity (less than 30km/h). Since AIS 1 neck injuries can result in long-term symptoms, it is of major importance to devise protection from these injuries. When testing the safety performance of seats and head restraints, an essential tool is the crash test dummy. However, the standard crash dummy of today, the Hybrid III, has had limitations in its interaction with the seat and head restraint.

    The new dummy neck developed was evaluated by using data from crash tests involving volunteers as well as post mortem human subjects. For comparison, the Hybrid III frontal impact dummy was also tested under the same conditions. The new neck was found to have more human-like motion than that of the Hybrid III in low velocity rear tests when compared to both volunteers and post mortem human subjects. This was found to be the case for the head relative to upper torso horizontal and angular displacement. The new dummy neck became a fundamental part of the new, low-velocity rear impact crash dummy, the BioRID. The BioRID was found to have more human-like motion than that of the Hybrid III in low velocity rear impact tests when compared to both volunteers and post mortem human subjects. This result was observed for angular, vertical and horizontal displacement of the upper torso.

    The variations in acceleration pulse characteristics in different vehicle models in identical impact conditions was shown to be substantial. A similar delta-V could be generated in a large variety of ways in terms of mean acceleration and acceleration pulse shape in a rear impact. The variation in crash pulse characteristics for the same car model from different real-world crashes of similar delta-Vs was also shown to be significant. This served as a background for the specifications of the test conditions for a proposed consumer test.

    Real-world rear impact collisions with crash recorder-equipped vehicles, were reconstructed on a sled reproducing the real-world crash pulse. The results illustrate the risk of sub-optimisation when using only a single test in assessing neck injury protection. Further, five different seat configurations were evaluated in a series of sled tests at four impact severities. Identical vehicle seats were found to perform differently in tests with of different severities. Changing the mean acceleration (from 4.2g to 7.6g) influenced key dummy readings more than changing the delta-V (from 15km/h to 25km/h). Therefore, it should be expected that different real-world rear collisions at similar delta-Vs imply highly differing loading conditions to the occupants. As a consequence, the test conditions for the proposed consumer test program included specifications for several levels of change of velocity and mean acceleration.

    The results of this thesis are expected to become important input in the definition of future rear impact test procedures for neck injury risk assessment.

  • 30.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Bergman, Ulf
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Svensson, Mats
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Viano, David
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Evaluation of the BioRID P3 and the Hybrid III in pendulum impacts to the back: a comparison to human subject test data2000In: Annual proceedings / Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, ISSN 1540-0360, Vol. 44, p. 283-297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The BioRID P3 (Biofidelic Rear Impact Dummy) and the Hybrid III were evaluated in pendulum impacts to the back and compared to data from previous cadaver tests. The test setup impacting seated cadavers was reproduced with a pendulum impacting seated dummies at the level of T6 (6th thoracic vertebra). The pendulum mass was 23 kg and the impact velocity 4.6 m/s. The results showed that the BioRID P3 was more biofidelic than the Hybrid III in terms of the peak responses and the temporal window of the head and head relative to T1 horizontal, vertical, and angular displacement. This study is an evaluation of both the BioRID P3 and the Hybrid III against a recently available set of human subject data. The study meets the need for validation of the BioRID P3 at a higher impact severity than has been previously accomplished.

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  • 31.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bützer, David
    AXA Versicherungen AG, Switzerland.
    Keller, Arne
    AGU, Stiftung Arbeitsgruppe fur Unfallsmechanik, Switzerland.
    Klug, Corina
    Vehicle Safety Institute, Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Wijnen, Wim
    W2Economics, The Netherlands.
    Schmitt, Kai-Uwe
    AGU, Stiftung Arbeitsgruppe fur Unfallsmechanik, Switzerland.
    The VIRTUAL project: Open source human body models and tools for virtual crash safety assessment2022In: Road Safety on Five Continents – RS5C. Proceedings, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2022, p. 20-22Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the assessment of road user and vehicle occupant safety, physical testing is limited to a few scenarios. To advance transport safety, it is vital to further develop the test procedures and, for example, to consider additional impact conditions. Virtual Testing (VT) offers an opportunity to introduce such additional scenarios and thus to broaden our safety assessment. 

    The current standards in testing consider very few anthropometries, and population inhomogeneity is not appropriately represented. Future safety assessment procedures should thus aim for a more inclusive approach to better embrace diversity of all road users. VT is likely the most feasible technique to assess safety performance in a multitude of impact configurations. VT incorporating evaluation through advanced Human Body Models (HBMs) has not only the potential to expand the 21 current safety assessment with respect to population diversity, but also allows for additional test scenarios and additional injury mechanisms. VT provides a far wider range of occupant specific characteristics than is, and would ever be, viable in physical testing. 

    The VIRTUAL project strives to contribute to the development of VT in the crash safety assessment area. It will develop and provide models and procedures needed to conduct VT in scenarios addressing vehicle occupant and vulnerable road users (VRU) safety. 

  • 32.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Carlsson, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Svensson, Mats Y
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Siegmund, Gunter P.
    The University of British Columbia.
    Dynamic responses of female and male volunteers in rear impacts2008In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 9, no 6, p. 592-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Whiplash injuries from vehicle collisions are common and costly. These injuries most frequently occur as a result of a rear impact and, compared to males, females have up to twice the risk of whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) resulting from vehicle crashes. The present study focuses on the differences in the dynamic response corridors of males and females in low-severity rear impacts.

    Methods: In this study, analysis of data from volunteer tests of females from previously published data has been performed. Corridors for the average female response were generated based on 12 volunteers exposed to a change of velocity of 4 km/h and 9 volunteers exposed to a change of velocity of 8 km/h. These corridors were compared to corridors for the average male response that were previously generated based on 11 male volunteers exposed to the same test conditions.

    Results: Comparison between the male and female data showed that the maximum x-acceleration of the head for the females occurred on average 10 ms earlier and was 29% higher during the 4 km/h test and 12 ms earlier and 9% higher during the 8 km/h test. Head-to-head restraint contact for the females occurred 14 ms earlier at 4 km/h and 11 ms earlier at 8 km/h compared to the males. For the same initial head-to-head restraint distance, head restraint contact occurred 11 and 7 ms earlier for the females than the males at 4 and 8 km/h, respectively. Furthermore, the calculated Neck Injury Criteria (NIC) values were similar for males and females at 4 km/h, whereas they were lower for females compared to the males at 8 km/h (3.2 and 4.0 m2/s2, respectively).

    Conclusions: The results of this study highlight the need to further investigate the differences in dynamic responses between males and females at low-severity impacts. Such data are fundamental for the development of future computer models and dummies for crash safety assessment. These models can be used not only as a tool in the design and development process of protective systems but also in the process of further evaluation and development of injury criteria. Copyright © 2008 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  • 33.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Davidse, Ragnhild J.
    SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research, The Hague.
    Iraeus, Johan
    Chalmers University, Gothenburg.
    John, Jobin D
    Chalmers University, Gothenburg.
    Keller, Arne
    AGU Zurich, Zurich.
    Klug, Corina
    Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Krašna, Simon
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Leo, Christoph
    Graz University of Technology, Austria.
    Rizzi, Maria C.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Silvano, Ary P.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Svensson, Mats
    Chalmers University, Gothenburg.
    Wågström, Linus
    Volvo Car Corporation, Gothenburg.
    Schmitt, Kai-Uwe
    AGU Zurich, Zurich.
    VIRTUAL - a European approach to foster the uptake of virtual testing in vehicle safety assessment2020In: Proceedings of 8th Transport Research Arena TRA 2020, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the assessment of road user and vehicle occupant safety, physical testing is limited to a few scenarios. To advance transport safety it is vital to include more relevant scenarios. Virtual Testing offers an opportunity to introduce additional test scenarios. The objectives of the VIRTUAL project, described in this paper, include: Identifying impact scenarios relevant for the future, providing tools such as models, guidelines, and a corresponding platform to foster the uptake of virtual testing. The safety of standing passengers on public transport has been reviewed, scenarios for Vulnerable Road User testing have been identified and new seated positions for future vehicles have been described. In addition, a virtual testing platform has been established on which human body models are provided. The platform follows the open access approach, complements other approaches and does not just provide the models, but also guidelines on how to implement new scenarios in test procedures.

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  • 34.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Matstoms, Ylva
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Sundström, Jerker
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Östlund, Joakim
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Methods for the evaluation of traffic safety effects of Antilock Braking System (ABS) and Electronic Stability Control (ESC): a literature review2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In today's vehicles, active safety systems are introduced addressing a large variety of safety issues such as providing optimal stability control, braking effect, preventing spin and rollover, as well as collision avoidance, to mention just a few. In this study a literature review was performed in order to establish how the traffic safety performances of active safety systems with focus on Antilock Braking System (ABS) and Electronic Stability Control (ESC) are assessed. The areas covered were statistical evaluation, testing and driver behaviour. The literature review showed that in particular statistical methods, based on odds ratios, had been used in order to evaluate the traffic safety effect. In order to evaluate the effect of ESC in physical testing there are several test methods described in this report. Estimations of driver behaviour effects have been carried out by surveys among vehicle owners. Experiments performed in field or in simulator have also been found in the literature. From EU projects a variety of measures and test methods are available for assessment of driver behavioural effects.

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  • 35.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Sundström, Jerker
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Methods for evaluation of Electronic Stability Control (ESC): a literature review2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System. Vehicle Safety Division, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Heinzl, Philipp
    Siemens Mobility, Vienna, Austria.
    Iraeus, Johan
    Vehicle Safety Division, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    John, Jobin D.
    Vehicle Safety Division, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Keller, Arne
    Faurecia Automotive Seating, Brières-les-Scellés, France.
    Klug, Corina
    Vehicle Safety Institute, Graz University of Technology, Graz, Austria.
    Lackner, Christian
    Siemens Mobility, Vienna, Austria.
    Levallois, Ines
    Faurecia Automotive Seating, Brières-les-Scellés, France.
    Svensson, Mats
    Vehicle Safety Division, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Schmitt, Kai-Uwe
    Faurecia Automotive Seating, Brières-les-Scellés, France.
    Trummler, Linus
    Faurecia Automotive Seating, Brières-les-Scellés, France.
    Xu, Jia Cheng
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Open-Source Tools for Road User Safety Abessment from the VIRTUAL Project2023In: TRA Lisbon 2022 Conference Proceedings Transport Research Arena / [ed] Luís de Picado Santos; Jorge Pinho de Sousa; Elisabete Arsenio, Elsevier, 2023, Vol. 72, p. 423-430Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the abessment of road user and vehicle occupant safety, physical testing is limited to a few scenarios. Virtual testing (VT) offers an opportunity to advance transport safety by introducing additional test cases. The objective of the VIRTUAL project is to provide tools such as finite element models, guidelines and a corresponding platform to foster the uptake of VT. A VT platform, OpenVT, has been established and provides open-source human body models (HBMs) of both an average female and male, seated and standing, as well as a seat, generic vehicle and tram front models. The tool chain from virtual to physical testing has been illustrated in the low severity impact case where the seat evaluation tool was developed. The newly established organisation OVTO will run the OpenVT platform in the future and govern the evolution of the results of the VIRTUAL project after its completion.

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  • 37.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Hjort, Mattias
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle Systems and Driving Simulation..
    Svensson, Mats
    Vehicle Safety, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Chalmers, Sweden.
    Dummy Kinematics Assessment: Evaluation of a Combined Gyro and Accelerometer Set-up2023In: 2023 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings, International Research Council on Biomechanics of Injury (IRCOBI) , 2023, p. 230-231, article id IRC-23-31Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Crash test dummy kinematics is commonly obtained from high-speed video recordings or other opticalmethods. The present study evaluates a cost-efficient sensor system combining gyros and accelerometers toderive the kinematics of different parts of a dummy. This evaluation was done on the newly designed humansurrogates, the Seat Evaluation Tools (SET) 50F and 50M, developed for low severity rear impacts and hereequipped with gyros at four locations

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  • 38.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Holmqvist, Kristian
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Average male and female virtual dummy model (BioRID and EvaRID) simulations with two seat concepts in the Euro NCAP low severity rear impact test configuration2017In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soft tissue neck injuries, also referred to as whiplash injuries, which can lead to long term suffering accounts for more than 60% of the cost of all injuries leading to permanent medical impairment for the insurance companies, with respect to injuries sustained in vehicle crashes. These injuries are sustained in all impact directions, however they are most common in rear impacts. Injury statistics have since the mid-1960s consistently shown that females are subject to a higher risk of sustaining this type of injury than males, on average twice the risk of injury. Furthermore, some recently developed anti-whiplash systems have revealed they provide less protection for females than males. The protection of both males and females should be addresses equally when designing and evaluating vehicle safety systems to ensure maximum safety for everyone. This is currently not the case. The norm for crash test dummies representing humans in crash test laboratories is an average male. The female part of the population is not represented in tests performed by consumer information organisations such as NCAP or in regulatory tests due to the absence of a physical dummy representing an average female.

    Recently, the world first virtual model of an average female crash test dummy was developed. In this study, simulations were run with both this model and an average male dummy model, seated in a simplified model of a vehicle seat. The results of the simulations were compared to earlier published results from simulations run in the same test set-up with a vehicle concepts seat. The three crash pulse severities of the Euro NCAP low severity rear impact test were applied. The motion of the neck, head and upper torso were analysed in addition to the accelerations and the Neck Injury Criterion (NIC). Furthermore, the response of the virtual models was compared to the response of volunteers as well as the average male model, to that of the response of a physical dummy model. Simulations with the virtual male and female dummy models revealed differences in dynamic response related to the crash severity, as well as between the two dummies in the two different seat models. For the comparison of the response of the virtual models to the response of the volunteers and the physical dummy model, the peak angular motion of the first thoracic vertebra as found in the volunteer tests and mimicked by the physical dummy were not of the same magnitude in the virtual models.

    The results of the study highlight the need for an extended test matrix that includes an average female dummy model to evaluate the level of occupant protection different seats provide in vehicle crashes. This would provide developers with an additional tool to ensure that both male and female occupants receive satisfactory protection and promote seat concepts that provide the best possible protection for the whole adult population. This study shows that using the mathematical models available today can provide insights suitable for future testing.

  • 39.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Holmqvist, Kristian
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Simulations with average male and female dummy models with two seat concepts in the Euro NCAP low severity rear impact test configuration2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soft tissue neck injuries, also referred to as whiplash injuries, which can lead to long term suffering are most common in rear impacts. These injuries account for more than 60% of the cost of all injuries leading to permanent medical impairment for the insurance companies with respect to injuries sustained in vehicle crashes. Injury statistics have since the mid-1960s consistently shown that females are subject to a higher risk of sustaining this type of injury than males, on average twice the risk of injury. Furthermore, recently developed anti-whiplash systems have shown to protect females less than males. The diversity of males and females should be addresses when designing and evaluating vehicle safety systems to ensure maximum safety for everyone. This is currently not the case. The norm for crash test dummies representing humans in crash test laboratories is an average male. The female part of the population is not represented in tests performed by consumer information organisations such as NCAP due to the absence of a physical dummy representing an average female. Recently, the world first virtual model of an average female crash test dummy was developed. In this study, simulations were run with both an average male, and the recently developed average female dummy model, seated in a laboratory vehicle seat. The results of the simulations were compared to earlier published results from the same test set-up with a vehicle concepts seat. The three crash pulse severities of the Euro NCAP low severity rear impact test were applied. The motion of the neck, head and upper torso were analysed in addition to the accelerations and the Neck Injury Criterion (NIC). Furthermore, the response of the virtual models was compared to that volunteers and for the average male model, to that of the response of a physical dummy model. Simulations with the male and the female dummy models revealed differences related to the crash severity, as well as between the two dummies in different crash severities in two different seats. For the comparison of the response of the virtual models to the response of the volunteers and the physical dummy model, the peak angular motion of first thoracic vertebra as found in the volunteer tests and mimicked by the physical dummy were not of the same magnitude in the virtual models.

  • 40.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kilian, Magnus
    Modeller för simulering av avåkning mot vägens sidoområde: en kunskapsöversikt2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mathematical simulations of run-off vehicles into the road side area have the potential to further increase the traffic safety. Large number of scenarios that are costly and time demanding to perform by physical testing can be simulated using computer models. The aim of this review is to describe methods and simulation programs that currently exist and identify challenges within these. This review consists of two parts. The first part is a literature review. The second part is a compilation of the experiences of a consultant in the vehicle simulation area and interviews with persons with vast simulation experience. The conclusion is that currently there is not one optimal program that in detail and with high efficiency can handle all challenges that exist in a description of the scenario when a vehicle enters the road side area. Different programs have various strengths and limitations. One way to address this is to combine different types of programs thereby using the advantages of different programs. Another way is to use one of the crash simulation programs and make simplifications in order to reduce simulation running time. Simulations with these programs can otherwise last for weeks (for one simulation). This study has also resulted in identification of challenges that are present when simulating of run-off vehicles into the road side area. These are in particular related to components that are part of the interaction between the vehicle and the surface (such as tyres, asphalt, gravel, grass etc) and the influence of the driver and active safety systems.

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  • 41.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Kircher, Albert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Vadeby, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Nygårdhs, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) in passenger cars and methods for assessment of traffic safety impact: a literature review2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The background for this study is that many Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) are currently introduced in passenger vehicles aiming at providing increased traffic safety. This provides a need to assess the traffic safety effects from these systems. The question that this report highlights is how these systems are designed and how the effects are evaluated. The review resulted in identification of 300 references of which the most relevant are found in this report. The report contains a description of the background of why and how 20 systems or groups of systems have been developed, in which vehicles they can be found, a short technical description of how they work, publication of traffic safety effects and future development plans. Regarding statistical methods, an overview of how they work and the results when using these methods on ITS are described. In addition, the report contains a summary of ways of assessing safety effects from areas such as food, nuclear power and pharmaceutical industries. The conclusion is that there are currently many different ways of supporting the driver in the task of driving the vehicle. Regarding the impact on traffic safety of these systems it is still an open question which evaluation methods to use.

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  • 42.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Monash University.
    Olsson, T.
    Monash University.
    Truedsson, N.
    Monash University.
    Morris, Andrew
    Loughborough University.
    Fildes, Brian
    Monash University.
    Sparke, Laurie
    Sparke Engineering, Melbourne, Australia.
    Dynamic performances of different seat designs for low to medium velocity rear impact.2001In: 45th Annual Proceedings: Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine, Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine , 2001, Vol. 45, p. 187-201Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is good evidence that seat design and impact severities in terms of delta-V and acceleration plays a role in AIS 1 neck injury outcomes in the event of a rear impact. This study evaluates a number of current production seats to assess the AIS 1 neck injury protection potential at different impact severities. Five different seat designs were exposed to four different impact severities in a sled simulating a rear impact. The same delta-V produced with different peak accelerations generated very different dummy responses. Head restraint position influenced the angular and horizontal displacement of the head relative to torso and the time of head to head restraint contact. The lowest motion of the head relative to the torso was found in the two anti-whiplash seats tested. The results of the study can be used for the design of future vehicle seats and anti-whiplash systems.

  • 43.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Olsén, Stefan
    Department of Vehicle Safety, Saab Automobile AB, Sweden .
    Eriksson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Anna
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Influence of gender, height, weight, age, seated position and collision site related to neck pain symptoms in rear end impacts2012In: 2012 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings: International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, 2012, p. 235-248Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rear end vehicle collisions can result in occupants suffering neck pain symptoms of varying degree and duration. These injuries are generally called whiplash injuries and they are common and costly. This study analyses the occurance and duration of neck pain symptoms of one particular vehicle make with focus on the influence of occupant specific information. Data collected from a Swedish vehicle make, model year 1993 up to model year 2007 at a maximum of three years old, were analysed. The results from this study show that passengers are more likely than drivers to suffer neck pain symptoms, in crashes that occurred in that particular make of car. No significant differences in risk related to age, gender weight, and height could be identified, except for: Females aged 35-44 had higher risk to have long and medium term neck pain symptoms than males in the same group of age. Males aged >=65 had higher risk to have long and medium term neck pain symptoms than males aged 35-44. Females in group "Braking" had higher risk of any type of neck pain symptoms than males. Where the occupant was seated in the front seat of the carinfluenced the occurance of neck pain symptoms and their duration for both males and females, with passengers posing a higher risk of suffering neck pain symptoms compared to drivers. Of the drivers, 17 percent reported neck pain symptoms compared to 44 percent of the passengers. When grouped into the categories males and females, 15 percent of the male and 19 percent of the female drivers reported neck pain symptoms compared to 44 percent of the male and 43 percent of the female passengers. With respect to the different collision sites, rear end collisions at traffic lights most often resulted in occupants reporting neck pain symptoms. Collisions in roundabouts most often resulted in different impact scenarios and occupants reported suffering neck pain symptoms of mid and long term duration. The result of this study indicates the need for improved understanding of the differences between driver and passenger response in different driving scenarios. In addition, occupant charactersisics should also be studied.

  • 44.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Schick, Sylvia
    Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Institute for Legal Medicine,.
    Hell, Wolfram
    Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, Institute for Legal Medicine,.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics,.
    Carlsson, Anna
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Mechanics,.
    Lemmen, Paul P M
    Humanetics Europe GmbH,.
    Schmitt, Kai-Uwe
    Universität Zürich, Institute for Biomedical Engineering,.
    Gutsche, Andreas
    Graz University of Technology, Vehicle Safety Institute,.
    Tomasch, Ernst
    Graz University of Technology, Vehicle Safety Institute,.
    ADSEAT - Adaptive Seat to Reduce Neck Injuries for Female and Male Occupants2013In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 60, p. 334-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neck injuries sustained in low severity vehicle crashes are of worldwide concern and the risk is higher for females than for males. The objective of the study was to provide guidance on how to evaluate protective performance of vehicle seat designs aiming to reduce the incidence of neck injuries for female and male occupants. The objective was achieved by reviewing injury risk, establishing anthropometric data of an average female, performing dynamic volunteer tests comprising females and males, and developing a finite element model, EvaRID, of an average female. With respect to injury criteria, it was concluded based on the tests that using NIC (with a lower threshold value) and Nkm (with reduced intercept values) for females would be a suitable starting point. Virtual impact simulations with seats showed that differences were found in the response of the BioRID II and EvaRID models, for certain seats. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 45.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System. VTI.
    Silvano, Ary P.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Pettersson, Tommy
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Crash safety. VTI.
    Stabilitet på cykel med och utan ABS: en pilotstudie2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet, som är en pilotstudie, syftade till att undersöka effekten av låsningsfria bromsar, ABS, på cykel. Fråga som projektet syftade till att besvara: Kan cyklars stabilitet under inbromsning förbättras av låsningsfri broms (ABS) på framhjulet? Frågan söks besvaras genom utformning och genomförande av bromsprov av cykel med och utan ABS. Cykelolyckor är bland de vanligaste orsakerna till trafikskador i Sverige, ofta med svåra skador och medicinsk invaliditet som följd. Närmare hälften av alla svårare trafikskador har uppstått på grund av cykelolyckor. ABS-bromsar har visats reducera risken för skada för motorcyklister genom ökad stabilitet och därmed minskad risk för omkullkörning i samband med bromsning. Däremot finns begränsad kunskap om effekten för cyklister. Två Crescentcyklar med sluten ram (herrcykel) testades: en konventionell, bakhjulsdriven modell med v-broms (fäljbroms) på framhjulet och en framhjulsdriven modell med el-assistans och navbroms i framhjulet. Med den konventionella cykeln utfördes två typer av tester, med och utan ABS-bromsar. ABS-bromsen var av modellen SABS V1. På el-cykeln med navbroms justerades bromsverkan så att framhjulet ej låstes, jämfört med full bromsverkan. En Hybrid II krockdocka, 50-percentil man, användes som cyklist i proven. Proven utfördes vid hastigheterna 17 och 20 km/h. Cyklarna bromsades maximalt på framhjulet. Friktionen var ungefär 0,7–0,8. Resultaten visade att ABS på cykelns framhjul gör att framhjulet inte låses vid full inbromsning och bakhjulet behåller kontakten med underlaget. Vid prov med v-broms eller navbroms med full broms-verkan blev bromssträckan cirka 2 meter, men framhjulet låstes vid full broms och bakhjulet lyfte från underlaget. Det innebar att cykeln då endast balanserade på framhjulet. Prov med ABS-broms på v-bromsen och justerad bromsverkan på navbromsen resulterade däremot i inbromsning utan låsning av framhjulet. Bromssträckan var i dessa prov cirka 4 meter. Resultaten var liknande för de båda cyklarna.

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  • 46.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Silvano, Ary P.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Trafiksäkerhet och trafiksystem, TST.
    Pettersson, Tommy
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Krocksäkerhet, KRO.
    Stabilitet på cykel med och utan ABS: en pilotstudie2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet, som är en pilotstudie, syftade till att undersöka effekten av låsningsfria bromsar, ABS, på cykel. Fråga som projektet syftade till att besvara: Kan cyklars stabilitet under inbromsning förbättras av låsningsfri broms (ABS) på framhjulet? Frågan söks besvaras genom utformning och genomförande av bromsprov av cykel med och utan ABS. Cykelolyckor är bland de vanligaste orsakerna till trafikskador i Sverige, ofta med svåra skador och medicinsk invaliditet som följd. Närmare hälften av alla svårare trafikskador har uppstått på grund av cykelolyckor. ABS-bromsar har visats reducera risken för skada för motorcyklister genom ökad stabilitet och därmed minskad risk för omkullkörning i samband med bromsning. Däremot finns begränsad kunskap om effekten för cyklister. Två Crescentcyklar med sluten ram (herrcykel) testades: en konventionell, bakhjulsdriven modell med v-broms (fäljbroms) på framhjulet och en framhjulsdriven modell med el-assistans och navbroms i framhjulet. Med den konventionella cykeln utfördes två typer av tester, med och utan ABS-bromsar. ABS-bromsen var av modellen SABS V1. På el-cykeln med navbroms justerades bromsverkan så att framhjulet ej låstes, jämfört med full bromsverkan. En Hybrid II krockdocka, 50-percentil man, användes som cyklist i proven. Proven utfördes vid hastigheterna 17 och 20 km/h. Cyklarna bromsades maximalt på framhjulet. Friktionen var ungefär 0,7–0,8. Resultaten visade att ABS på cykelns framhjul gör att framhjulet inte låses vid full inbromsning och bakhjulet behåller kontakten med underlaget. Vid prov med v-broms eller navbroms med full broms-verkan blev bromssträckan cirka 2 meter, men framhjulet låstes vid full broms och bakhjulet lyfte från underlaget. Det innebar att cykeln då endast balanserade på framhjulet. Prov med ABS-broms på v-bromsen och justerad bromsverkan på navbromsen resulterade däremot i inbromsning utan låsning av framhjulet. Bromssträckan var i dessa prov cirka 4 meter. Resultaten var liknande för de båda cyklarna.

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  • 47.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Svedberg, Wanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Occupant safety assessment in European regulatory tests: review of occupant models, gaps and suggestion for bridging any gaps2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are two parts to the aim of this study. The first part was to review how adult men and women are represented in regulatory tests conducted to assess adult occupant safety in vehicles. Based on the results of the review an outline for how to better represent the adult population in regulatory tests was suggested. The second part of the aim, described as emancipatory knowledge of interest, included highlighting the values declared in the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (hereinafter referred as "the Treaties"). This means that the purpose of the knowledge is to recognize the legal values of equality between women and men, as well as non-discrimination on which the Union is founded, article 2 of the Treaty on European Union. as expressed in the above-mentioned Treaties. In addition to that to contribute to women's and men's liberation and to the development of society.

  • 48.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Svedberg, Wanna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Review of average sized male and female occupant models in European regulatory safety assessment tests and European laws: Gaps and bridging suggestions2019In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 127, p. 156-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are two parts to the aim of this study. The first part comprised reviewing how men and women are represented in regulatory tests conducted to assess adult occupant safety in vehicles in Europe. This part also contains an overview of some differences between females and males that may influence dynamic responses in a crash. Based on the results of the review an outline for how to better represent the adult population in regulatory tests has been suggested. The second part was to reflect on these issues from a specific critical legal perspective, that is from a Gender Legal Studies point of view, focusing on the European legal framework that governs the tests of adult occupant safety in vehicles in Europe. Since the beginning of the 1970s legal scholars have shown in several areas of law that there is a gap between superior legislation and practice, but also between gender equality as a superior legal principle and subordinate legal rules that govern safety requirements. The same pattern can be discerned in the area of Transportation Law.

    The results of the review of the ECE regulations shows that the average sized male represents the adult population and that the average sized female has been excluded from regulations assessing the protection of adult vehicle occupants. The fundamental values, on which the Union is founded, including the overarching goals of the Union, seem to be rendered invisible in the laws and critically impact the safety of women in everyday life. According to the gender system theory, the interests and priorities of men are continuing to shape the law. Consequently, the law neglecting the safety of women on roads has implications on the development of society. The lack of legal provisions that demand female crash test dummies representing the female part of the population, means that there is no incentive for car manufacturers, authorities or other stakeholders to develop test methods and female crash test dummies in ways that promote political objectives expressed in legal form, i.e., the legal values expressed in general provisions and principles stated in the Treaty on European Union and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, such as gender equality between women and men as well as non-discrimination This study highlights the undeniable gap between the legal framework and legal requirements with regard to occupant safety for the whole adult population. It would be attainable to bridge this particular gender gap by providing equal representation for the female part of the population with regard to vehicle safety, as that males benefit from.

  • 49.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Road safety: the average male as a norm in vehicle occupant crash safety assessment2019In: ISR. Interdisciplinary science review, ISSN 0308-0188, E-ISSN 1743-2790, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 140-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This review addresses how women and men are represented in regulatory tests conducted to assess adult occupant safety in vehicles. Injury statistics show that protection in the event of a crash is lower for females than males. Still, vehicle crash safety assessment for adult occupants is only using the average sized male to represent the entire adult population, while the average sized female is not represented. In order to enable car manufacturers and road safety regulators to safeguard that females benefit equally from crash safety measures as males, it is necessary to develop new dedicated occupant models. These new models must represent the female part of the population, i.e. crash test dummies and human body models representing the average female. New female models would, together with their male equivalents, make it possible to identify the vehicle occupant safety systems which provide the best safety features for both females and males.

  • 50.
    Linder, Astrid
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic safety, society and road-user.
    Svensson, Mats Y.
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Carlsson, Anna
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Lemmen, Paul
    Humanetics Europe GmbH, Wateringen, Netherlands.
    Chang, Fred
    Schmitt, Kai Uwe
    Universität Zürich.
    Kullgren, Anders
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    EvaRID: Anthropometric and biomechanical specification of a finite element dummy model of an average female for rear impact testing2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Neck injury due to low severity vehicle crashes is of worldwide concern and it is well established that the risk of such injuries are higher for females than for males, even in similar crash conditions. In addition, recently developed protective systems have shown to be less protective of females than males. Hence there is a need for improved tools when developing and evaluating the performance of protective systems for occupants.

    The objective of this study was to develop a finite element model of a 50th percentile female rear impact crash dummy model. The anthropometry of the 50th percentile female was specified based on data found in the scientific published literature and is called EvaRID (Eva - female/RID - Rear Impact Dummy). EvaRID is based on the same design concept as the 50th percentile male rear impact dummy, the BioRID. A first version, EvaRID V1.0, was developed in LSDyna. The dynamic response of EvaRID V1.0 was compared to data from rear impact tests with female volunteers. It was found that it is necessary to further adjust the stiffness of the joints in the spine in order to fully mimic the motion of the volunteers. In future, the EvaRID dummy model has the potential to be a valuable tool when evaluating and developing seats and whiplash protection systems.

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