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  • 1.
    Abreu, Murilo S.
    et al.
    Fed Univ Santa Maria UFSM, Grad Program Pharmacol, BR-97105900 Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.
    Messias, Joao P. M.
    Univ Porto, Ctr Invest Biodiversidade & Recursos Genet, CIBIO, Campus Agr Vairao, P-4485661 Vairao, Portugal.
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Soares, Marta C.
    Univ Porto, Ctr Invest Biodiversidade & Recursos Genet, CIBIO, Campus Agr Vairao, P-4485661 Vairao, Portugal.
    Monoaminergic levels at the forebrain and diencephalon signal for the occurrence of mutualistic and conspecific engagement in client reef fish2018In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, article id 7346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social interactions are commonly found among fish as in mammals and birds. While most animals interact socially with conspecifics some however are also frequently and repeatedly observed to interact with other species (i.e. mutualistic interactions). This is the case of the (so-called) fish clients that seek to be cleaned by other fish (the cleaners). Clients face an interesting challenge: they raise enough motivation to suspend their daily activities as to selectively visit and engage in interactions with cleaners. Here we aimed, for the first time, to investigate the region-specific brain monoaminergic level differences arising from individual client fish when facing a cleaner (interspecific context) compared to those introduced to another conspecific (socio-conspecific context). We show that monoaminergic activity differences occurring at two main brain regions, the diencephalon and the forebrain, are associated with fish clients' social and mutualistic activities. Our results are the first demonstration that monoaminergic mechanisms underlie client fish mutualistic engagement with cleanerfish. These pathways should function as a pre-requisite for cleaning to occur, providing to clients the cognitive and physiological tools to seek to be cleaned.

  • 2.
    Cocco, Arianna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Rönnberg, A. M. Carolina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Jin, Zhe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    André, Goncalo Igreja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Univ Western Australia, Ctr Evolutionary Biol, 35 Stirling Hwy, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia..
    Vossen, Laura E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Bhandage, Amol K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Birnir, Bryndis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Characterization of the gamma-aminobutyric acid signaling system in the zebrafish (danio rerio hamilton) central nervous system by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction2017In: Neuroscience, ISSN 0306-4522, E-ISSN 1873-7544, Vol. 343, p. 300-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the vertebrate brain, inhibition is largely mediated by raminobutyric acid (GABA). This neurotransmitter comprises a signaling machinery of GABA(A), GABA(B) receptors, transporters, glutamate decarboxylases (gads) and 4-aminobutyrate aminotransferase (abat), and associated proteins. Chloride is intimately related to GABAA receptor conductance, GABA uptake, and GADs activity. The response of target neurons to GABA stimuli is shaped by chloride-cation co-transporters (CCCs), which strictly control Cl- gradient across plasma membranes. This research profiled the expression of forty genes involved in GABA signaling in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain, grouped brain regions and retinas. Primer pairs were developed for reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The mRNA levels of the zebrafish GABA system share similarities with that of mammals, and confirm previous studies in non-mammalian species. Proposed GABAA receptors are alpha(1)beta(2)gamma(2), alpha(1)beta(2)delta, alpha(2b)beta(3), alpha(2b)beta(3)delta, alpha(4)beta(2)gamma(2), alpha(4)beta(2)gamma, alpha(6b)beta(2)gamma(2) and alpha(6b)beta(2)delta. Regional brain differences were documented. Retinal hetero- or homomeric rho-composed GABAA receptors could exist, accompanying alpha(1)beta(y)gamma(2), alpha(1)beta(y)delta, alpha(6a)beta(y)gamma(2,) alpha(6a)beta(y)delta. Expression patterns of alpha(6a) and alpha(6b) were opposite, with the former being more abundant in retinas, the latter in brains. Given the stoichiometry alpha(6w)beta(y)gamma(z), alpha(6a-) or alpha(6b)-containing receptors likely have different regulatory mechanisms. Different gene isoforms could originate after the rounds of genome duplication during teleost evolution. This research depicts that one isoform is generally more abundantly expressed than the other. Such observations also apply to GABAB receptors, GABA transporters, GABA-related enzymes, CCCs and GABAA receptor associated proteins, whose presence further strengthens the proof of a GABA system in zebrafish.

  • 3.
    de Abreu, Murilo S.
    et al.
    Univ Fed Santa Maria, Programa Posgrad Farmacol, Santa Maria, RS, Brazil.
    Messias, Joao P. M.
    Univ Porto, Ctr Invest Biodiversidade & Recursos Genet, CIBIO, Porto, Portugal.
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala Univ, Dept Neurosci, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Soares, Marta C.
    Univ Porto, Ctr Invest Biodiversidade & Recursos Genet, CIBIO, Porto, Portugal.
    The variable monoaminergic outcomes of cleaner fish brains when facing different social and mutualistic contexts2018In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 6, article id e4830Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The monoamines serotonin and dopamine are important neuromodulators present in the central nervous system, known to be active regulators of social behaviour in fish as in other vertebrates. Our aim was to investigate the region-specific brain monoaminergic differences arising when individual cleaners face a client (mutualistic context) compared to when they are introduced to another conspecific (conspecific context), and to understand the relevance of visual assessment compared to the impact of physical contact with any partner. We demonstrated that serotoninergic activity at the diencephalon responds mostly to the absence of physical contact with clients whereas cerebellar dopaminergic activity responds to actual cleaning engagement. We provide first insights on the brain's monoaminergic (region-specific) response variations, involved in the expression of cleaner fishes' mutualistic and conspecific behaviour. These results contribute to a better understanding of the monoaminergic activity in accordance to different socio-behavioural contexts.

  • 4.
    Eriksson, BJ
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. paleontologi.
    Larson, ET
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Tait, NN
    Budd, Graham E
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. paleontologi.
    Expression of engrailed in the developing brain and appendages of the onychophoran Euperipatoides kanangrensis (Reid)2005In: JOURNAL OF EXPERIMENTAL ZOOLOGY PART B-MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL EVOLUTION, Vol. 304, no 3, p. 220-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have cloned an engrailed-class gene in the onychophoran Euperipatoides kanangrensis and investigated its expression using in situ hybridisation. The expression pattern was found to differ drastically from that previously described for another onychophoran species. In the present investigation, engrailed transcripts were detected in a subset of developing neurons in the brain anlage, and in the mesoderm as well as ectoderm of the developing limb buds. The engrailed positive cells of the brain are of differing developmental maturity, ranging from subepidermal neuronal precursors to neurons located basally in the embryo with developing axons. The lack of the traditional expression in the posterior compartment of segments reported earlier in onychophorans is discussed, and we suggest that onychophorans may have acquired two copies of engrailed with different functions.

  • 5. Fraser, Thomas William Kenneth
    et al.
    Vindas, Marco Antonio
    Fjelldal, Per Gunnar
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Overli, Oyvind
    Skjaeraasen, Jon-Egil
    Hansen, Tom Jonny
    Mayer, Ian
    Increased reactivity and monoamine dysregulation following stress in triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)2015In: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A, ISSN 1095-6433, E-ISSN 1531-4332, Vol. 185, p. 125-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Artificial triploid salmonids are sterile and therefore commercially bred to prevent genetic interactions between wild and domestic fish strains. The full biological effects of having an extra chromosome set are largely unknown, but triploids are considered to be more sensitive to sub-optimal environmental conditions and to be stressed by the presence of diploid conspecifics. Brain serotonergic and dopaminergic activity are known to regulate the stress response in vertebrates, but monoamine systems in diploid and triploid fish have yet to be compared. Here we study monoamine neurochemistry in the telencephalon and brain stem of juvenile diploid and triploid Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in response to stress (unstressed vs stressed individuals) and holding (separate- vs mixed-ploidy) conditions. Both diploids and triploids showed an increase in serotonergic activity following stress, but the increase was significantly greater in the telencephalon of triploids compared to diploids. Furthermore, while telencephalic dopaminergic activity was significantly increased in diploids following stress, there was no response in triploids. Holding conditions had a significant effect on dopaminergic activity in the brain stem of diploids only, with lower values in mixed- compared to separate-ploidy conditions. These results suggest artificially produced triploids experience increased reactivity and monoaminergic dysregulation following stress that may impede their welfare and performance.

  • 6. Johansson, M W
    et al.
    Lind, M I
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. Jämförande fysiologi.
    Holmblad, T
    Thörnqvist, P O
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Söderhäll, K
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Comparative Physiology. jämförande fysiologi.
    Peroxinectin, a novel cell adhesion protein from crayfish blood.1995In: Biochem Biophys Res Commun, ISSN 0006-291X, Vol. 216, no 3, p. 1079-87Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Koeck, Barbara
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden;Univ Glasgow, Inst Biodivers Anim Hlth & Comparat Med, Coll Med Vet & Life Sci, Graham Kerr Bldg, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Lanark, Scotland.
    Zavorka, Libor
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden;Univ Toulouse, Lab Evolut & Diversite Biol EDB UMR 5174, CNRS, Toulouse, France.
    Aldven, David
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Naslund, Joacim
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden;Univ Stockholm, Dept Zool, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Arlinghaus, Robert
    Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Dept Biol & Ecol Fishes, Berlin, Germany;Humboldt Univ, Div Integrat Fisheries Management, Fac Life Sci, Berlin, Germany.
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johnsson, Jorgen I.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Angling selects against active and stress-resilient phenotypes in rainbow trout2019In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 76, no 2, p. 320-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selection induced by human harvest can lead to different patterns of phenotypic change than selection induced by natural predation and could be a major driving force of evolution of wild populations. The vulnerability of individuals to angling depends on the individual decision to ingest the bait, possibly mediated by their neuroendocrine response towards the associated stimulus. To investigate the mechanisms behind individual vulnerability to angling, we conducted angling experiments in replicated ponds and quantified individual behavioral traits and neuroendocrine stress responsiveness in two salmonid species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta). We discovered a phenotypic syndrome in rainbow trout, but not in brown trout, where lower serotonergic and dopaminergic brain activity and cortisol levels (i.e., lower stress responsiveness) in response to a standardized experimental stressor were associated with higher activity, forming a proactive phenotype that showed increased vulnerability to angling. Our results show that angling targets the most stress-resilient and active phenotypes of rainbow trout, supporting the suggestion that fishing-induced phenotypic selection may lead to an increased representation of stress-responsive and low-activity phenotypes in harvested populations.

  • 8. Larsen, Martin H.
    et al.
    Johnsson, Jorgen I.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Wilson, Alexander D. M.
    Hammenstig, David
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Midwood, Jonathan D.
    Aarestrup, Kim
    Hoglund, Erik
    Effects of Emergence Time and Early Social Rearing Environment on Behaviour of Atlantic Salmon: Consequences for Juvenile Fitness and Smolt Migration2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 3, article id e0119127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Consistent individual differences in behaviour have been well documented in a variety of animal taxa, but surprisingly little is known about the fitness and life-history consequences of such individual variation. In wild salmonids, the timing of fry emergence from gravel spawning nests has been suggested to be coupled with individual behavioural traits. Here, we further investigate the link between timing of spawning nest emergence and behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits in fish with different emergence times, and assess whether behavioural traits measured in the laboratory predict growth, survival, and migration status in the wild. Atlantic salmon fry were sorted with respect to emergence time from artificial spawning nest into three groups: early, intermediate, and late. These emergence groups were hatchery-reared separately or in co-culture for four months to test effects of social rearing environment on behavioural traits. Twenty fish from each of the six treatment groups were then subjected to three individual-based behavioural tests: basal locomotor activity, boldness, and escape response. Following behavioural characterization, the fish were released into a near-natural experimental stream. Results showed differences in escape behaviour between emergence groups in a net restraining test, but the social rearing environment did not affect individual behavioural expression. Emergence time and social environment had no significant effects on survival, growth, and migration status in the stream, although migration propensity was 1.4 to 1.9 times higher for early emerging individuals that were reared separately. In addition, despite individuals showing considerable variation in behaviour across treatment groups, this was not translated into differences in growth, survival, and migration status. Hence, our study adds to the view that fitness (i.e., growth and survival) and life-history predictions from laboratory measures of behaviour should be made with caution and ideally tested in nature.

  • 9.
    Moltesen, Maria
    et al.
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Biol, Sect Ecol & Evolut, Univ Pk 15,Bldg 3,4th Floor, DK-2100 Copenhagen O, Denmark.;Danish Tech Univ, Inst Aquat Resources, Sect Aquaculture, POB 101, DK-9850 Hirtshals, Denmark..
    Laursen, Danielle Caroline
    Danish Tech Univ, Inst Aquat Resources, Sect Aquaculture, POB 101, DK-9850 Hirtshals, Denmark..
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Andersson, Madelene Aberg
    Lund Univ, Dept Expt Med Sci, Chem Biol & Therapeut, POB 188, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Hoglund, Erik
    Danish Tech Univ, Inst Aquat Resources, Sect Aquaculture, POB 101, DK-9850 Hirtshals, Denmark.;NIVA, Norwegian Inst Water Res, Gaustadalleen 21, NO-0349 Oslo, Norway..
    Effects of acute and chronic stress on telencephalic neurochemistry and gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)2016In: Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0022-0949, E-ISSN 1477-9145, Vol. 219, no 24, p. 3907-3914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By filtering relevant sensory inputs and initiating stress responses, the brain is an essential organ in stress coping and adaptation. However, exposure to chronic or repeated stress can lead to allostatic overload, where neuroendocrinal and behavioral reactions to stress become maladaptive. This work examines forebrain mechanisms involved in allostatic processes in teleost fishes. Plasma cortisol, forebrain serotonergic (5-HTergic) neurochemistry, and mRNA levels of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), CRF-binding protein (CRFBP), CRF receptors (CRFR1 and CRFR2), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), glucocorticoid receptors (GR1 and GR2) and serotonin type 1A (5-HT1A) receptors (5-HT1A alpha and 5-HT1A beta) were investigated at 1 h before and 0, 1 and 4 h after acute stress, in two groups of rainbow trout held in densities of 25 and 140 kg m(-3) for 28 days. Generally, being held at 140 kg m(-3) resulted in a less pronounced cortisol response. This effect was also reflected in lower forebrain 5-HTergic turnover, but not in mRNA levels in any of the investigated genes. This lends further support to reports that allostatic load causes fish to be incapable of mounting a proper cortisol response to an acute stressor, and suggests that changes in forebrain 5-HT metabolism are involved in allostatic processes in fish. Independent of rearing densities, mRNA levels of 5-HT1A alpha and MR were downregulated 4 h post-stress compared with values 1 h post-stress, suggesting that these receptors are under feedback control and take part in the downregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis after exposure to an acute stressor.

  • 10.
    Mustafa, Arshi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology. Uppsala University.
    Cetinkaya, Dicle
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Cheng, Xi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Spiegeldanio: A bold and aggressive fish but what if it loses a fight?2018In: Measuring Behavior 2018: Conference Proceedings / [ed] Grant R, Allen T, Spink A, Sullivan M, 2018, p. 24-26Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Aggression is a competition based survival strategy. The spiegeldanio (spd) strain of zebrafish (Danio rerio), which has a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1a, is bolder and more aggressive than the wild type fish [1]. Usually a socially dominant fish has preferential access to food, mate and shelter, and shows very characteristic postures like erection of the fins. It is also aggressive frequently biting, striking and chasing the subordinate fish as well as threatening its own mirror image in mirror tests [2]. However, what happens when an already known bold and dominant fish like spiegeldanio loses a dyadic fight. Spd fish are more aggressive in mirror tests, attacking their mirror image more frequently than wild type conspecifics. However, are they more aggressive in dyadic fights? Do they show an inhibition of aggressive behaviour when losing fights, the typical loser effect? The behavioural inhibition observed in animals losing fights for dominance is at least in part believed to be mediated by an activation of the brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system. Do spd fish show a typical increase in brain 5-HT activity in response to social subordination? Dopamine (DA), on the other hand, is associated with aggression and social dominance. What are the effects of winning and losing fights for social dominance in spd fish? In the present study these questions were addressed in an attempt to increase or understanding of the control of agonistic behaviour and social stress.

    Animals and Methods

    The Spd strain of zebrafish were raised and reared at 27°C in an Aquaneering Zebrafish system at Uppsala University Biomedical Center. The animals were kept at a 14:10 h of light-dark photoperiod. The water used in the fish tanks was Uppsala municipal tap water (pH 7.2-7.6) of which 10% was exchanged daily. Fish were fed twice daily with Tropical energy food (Aquatic Nature, Belgium) and Artemia (Platinum Grade 0, Argentemia, Argent, Aquaculture, Redmond, USA). The use of animals was approved by the Uppsala Animal Ethical Committee (permit Dnr 55/13) and followed the guidelines of the Swedish Legislation on Animal Experimentation (Animal Welfare Act SFS1998:56), and the European Union Directive on the Protection of Animals Used for Scientific Purposes (Directive 2010/63/EU). The fish were transferred to the individual compartments of dimension 29 x 7.5 x 20 cm (length x breadth x height) in experimental tanks used for dyadic interaction and allowed to recover in isolation overnight. These experimental tanks were made from poly methyl methacrylate plastic and each tank was equipped with a submerged pump with filter (Eheim, typ 2006020, pumping capacity 1/h180, made in China), a heater (Sera aquarium, 25W, made in EU) and an air stone, all of which were placed at the back of the tank separated from the fish by a white perforated PVC screen (Figure 1). The setup of the arena was such that the two fish (1 dyadic pair) had an olfactory but not any visual cue of each other before the dyadic interaction. In the mirror test the fish were made to fight against the mirror image that was displayed in the mirror which was pasted on the wall of the arena. Prior to the beginning of the dyadic contest the mirror was covered with a black plexiglas slide cover. The experiment was carried out in the following sequence: The fishes were netted out and placed in the arena in the compartments A and B (Figure 1) and separated from each other by a partition. The cover of the mirror (opaque black PVC partition, Figure 1) was then removed and fish were made to interact with their own mirror image for 10 minutes. Then the slide covering the mirror was pulled down and the middle separating partition was pulled out and the fish were given an opportunity to fight. Dyadic fight was recorded two times, morning and evening on day one with the help of a video filming camera. Then next day in the morning the dyadic fight was again recorded. During the dyadic interaction the two fishes indulged in mutual display of aggressive behaviour which was followed by chasing and biting attacks performed by the dominant fish over the subordinate fish. Then middle partition was introduced again. Fish were given 6 minutes to habituate and the cover from the mirror was removed and fishes were again allowed to interact with their mirror image. Again the mirror was covered and the fish was allowed to get involved in the dyadic fight.  Then each fish was taken out from the compartment at the same time and sacrificed for sampling of brain tissue.

    The three dimensional model of tank used in the behavioural tests I) Tank used for mirror test and for dyadic fight later on. It consists of two compartments, A and B. The movable partition separating the two compartments would be removed during the dyadic fight test. Compartment C is located at the back and is separated from the compartment A and B with the help of white coloured opaque perforated partition. It contains an air stone (for diffusion of air bubbles), heater (27°C), water pump (for circulation of water) and a drainage tube to exchange the water. II) Diagram of the settings used for dyadic interactions. The mirrors are covered with the help of a black PVC slide and the middle partition is pulled out. This allows the fish to interact.

    Brain dissection and analysis of monaoamines and monoamine metabolites

    Brains were divided into forebrain (telencephalon and diencephalon), optic tectum and the rest (here denoted brain stem). The frozen brains were homogenised in 4% (w/v) ice-cold perchloric acid containing 100 ng/ml 3, 4-dihydroxybenzylamine (DHBA, the internal standard) using a Sonifier cell disruptor B-30 (Branson Ultrasonics, Danbury, CT, USA) and were immediately put on dry ice. Subsequently, the homogenised samples were thawed and centrifuged at 15,000 rpm for 10 min at 4o C. The supernatant was used for high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC), analysing the monoamines dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) as well as the DA metabolite 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and the 5-HT metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), as described by Øverli et al. [3]. In short, the HPLC-EC system consisted of a solvent delivery system model 582 (ESA, Bedford, MA, USA), an autoinjector Midas type 830 (Spark Holland, Emmen, the Netherlands), a reverse phase column (Reprosil-Pur C18-AQ 3 µm, 100 mm × 4 mm column, Dr. Maisch HPLC GmbH, Ammerbuch-Entringen, Germany) kept at 40° C and an ESA 5200 Coulochem II EC detector (ESA, Bedford, MA, USA) with two electrodes at reducing and oxidizing potentials of -40 mV and +320 mV. A guarding electrode with a potential of +450 mV was employed before the analytical electrodes to oxidize any contaminants. The mobile phase consisted of 75 mM sodium phosphate, 1.4 mM sodium octyl sulphate and 10 µM EDTA in deionised water containing 7 % acetonitrile brought to pH 3.1 with phosphoric acid. The quantification of samples was done by comparing it with standard solutions of known concentrations. DHBA was used as an internal standard to correct for recovery with the help of HPLC software ClarityTM (Data Apex Ltd, Czech Republic). The serotonergic and dopaminergic activity was measured as the ratio of 5-HIAA/5-HT and DOPAC/DA respectively. The brain monoamines were normalized with respect to brain protein weights which were determined with Bicinchoninic acid protein determination kit (Sigma Aldrich, Sweden). The assay was read at a wavelength of 570 nm with the help of a plate reader (Labsystems multiskan 352, Labsystems Thermo Fisher Scientific).

    Results

    A clear dominant subordinate hierarchy was established within 30 minutes of dyadic interaction. The number of aggressive acts (bites, strikes and chases) performed by the looser fish decreased significantly from the first dyadic fight to the last (i.e. the fourth) dyadic fight. For the winner fish the number of aggressive acts performed against a mirror during the second mirror test increased or remained same as before after winning a dyadic fight, whereas for the looser fish it decreased significantly. The results from the present study indicate that subordinate fish have higher 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in the optic tectum as compared to the dominants. More results from this study would be presented at the conference.

    References

    1. Norton W, Bally-Cuif L (2010) Adult zebrafish as a model organism for behavioural genetics. BMC Neurosci. 11:90.

    2. Rowland WJ (1999) Studying visual cues in fish behaviour: a review of ethological techniques. Env Biol Fishes. 56:285-305.

    3. Øverli Ø, Harris CA, Winberg S (1999) Short-term effects of fights for social dominance and the establishment of dominant-subordinate relationships on brain monoamines and cortisol in rainbow trout. Brain Behav Evol. 54:263-275.

     

     

  • 11.
    Mustafa, Arshi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Winberg: Behavioral Neuroendocrinology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology.
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Winberg: Behavioral Neuroendocrinology.
    Roman, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Winberg: Behavioral Neuroendocrinology.
    The aggressive spiegeldanio, carrying a mutation in the fgfr1a gene, has no advantage in dyadic fights with zebrafish of the AB strain2019In: Behavioural Brain Research, ISSN 0166-4328, E-ISSN 1872-7549, Vol. 370, article id 111942Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Zebrafish which carries a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 1A (fgfr1a), also known as spiegeldanio (spd), has previously been reported to be bolder and more aggressive than wildtype (AB) zebrafish. However, in previous studies aggression has been quantified in mirror tests. In dyadic fights the behavior of the combatants is modified by the behavior of their opponent, and fighting a mirror has been reported to have different effects on brain gene expression and brain monoaminergic systems. In the present study aggression was quantified in fgfr1a mutants and AB zebrafish using a mirror test after which the fish were allowed to interact in pairs, either consisting of two fgfr1a mutants or one AB and one fgfr1a mutant fish. Following dyadic interaction aggressive behavior was again quantified in individual fish in a second mirror test after which the fish were sacrificed and brain tissue analyzed for monoamines and monoamine metabolites. The results confirm that fgfr1a mutants are more aggressive than AB zebrafish in mirror tests. However, fgfr1a mutant fish did not have any advantage in fights for social dominance, and agonistic behavior of fgfr1a mutants did not differ from that of AB fish during dyadic interactions. Moreover, as the AB fish, fgfr1a mutant fish losing dyadic interactions showed a typical loser effect and social subordination resulted in an activation of the brain serotonergic system in fgfr1a mutants as well as in AB fish. Overall the effects of dyadic interaction were similar in fgfr1a mutant fish and zebrafish of the AB strain.

  • 12.
    Paula, Jose Ricardo
    et al.
    Univ Lisbon, MARE Marine & Environm Sci Ctr, Lab Maritimo da Guia, Fac Ciencias, Av Nossa Senhora do Cabo 939, P-2750374 Cascais, Portugal.
    Repolho, Tiago
    Univ Lisbon, MARE Marine & Environm Sci Ctr, Lab Maritimo da Guia, Fac Ciencias, Av Nossa Senhora do Cabo 939, P-2750374 Cascais, Portugal.
    Pegado, Maria Rita
    Univ Lisbon, MARE Marine & Environm Sci Ctr, Lab Maritimo da Guia, Fac Ciencias, Av Nossa Senhora do Cabo 939, P-2750374 Cascais, Portugal.
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Winberg: Behavioral Neuroendocrinology.
    Bispo, Regina
    Univ Nova Lisboa, Dept Matemat, Ctr Matemat & Aplicacoes, Fac Ciencias & Tecnol, Campus Caparica, P-2829516 Caparica, Portugal.
    Winberg, Svante
    Univ Lisbon, MARE Marine & Environm Sci Ctr, Lab Maritimo da Guia, Fac Ciencias, Av Nossa Senhora do Cabo 939, P-2750374 Cascais, Portugal.
    Munday, Philip L.
    James Cook Univ, ARC Ctr Excellence Coral Reef Studies, Townsville, Qld 4811, Australia.
    Rosa, Rui
    Univ Lisbon, MARE Marine & Environm Sci Ctr, Lab Maritimo da Guia, Fac Ciencias, Av Nossa Senhora do Cabo 939, P-2750374 Cascais, Portugal.
    Neurobiological and behavioural responses of cleaning mutualisms to ocean warming and acidification2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 12728Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cleaning interactions are textbook examples of mutualisms. On coral reefs, most fishes engage in cooperative interactions with cleaners fishes, where they benefit from ectoparasite reduction and ultimately stress relief. Furthermore, such interactions elicit beneficial effects on clients' ecophysiology. However, the potential effects of future ocean warming (OW) and acidification (OA) on these charismatic associations are unknown. Here we show that a 45-day acclimation period to OW (+3 degrees C) and OA (980 mu atm pCO(2)) decreased interactions between cleaner wrasses (Labroides dimidiatus) and clients (Naso elegans). Cleaners also invested more in the interactions by providing tactile stimulation under OA. Although this form of investment is typically used by cleaners to prolong interactions and reconcile after cheating, interaction time and client jolt rate (a correlate of dishonesty) were not affected by any stressor. In both partners, the dopaminergic (in all brain regions) and serotoninergic (forebrain) systems were significantly altered by these stressors. On the other hand, in cleaners, the interaction with warming ameliorated dopaminergic and serotonergic responses to OA. Dopamine and serotonin correlated positively with motivation to interact and cleaners interaction investment (tactile stimulation). We advocate that such neurobiological changes associated with cleaning behaviour may affect the maintenance of community structures on coral reefs.

  • 13.
    Roman, Erika
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Brunberg, Ronja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Mustafa, Arshi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Behavioral profiling using a modified version of the zebrafish multivariate concentric square field™ (zMCSF) test2018In: Measuring Behavior 2018: 11th International Conference on Methods and Techniques in Behavioral Research / [ed] Grant R, Allen T, Spink A, Sullivan M, 2018, p. 27-29Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Rosengren, Malin
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, POB 463, S-40531 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Johnsson, Jörgen I.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, POB 463, S-40531 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Sandblom, Erik
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, POB 463, S-40531 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Sundell, Kristina
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, POB 463, S-40531 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    High risk no gain-metabolic performance of hatchery reared Atlantic salmon smolts, effects of nest emergence time, hypoxia avoidance behaviour and size2017In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 175, p. 104-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When animals are reared for conservational releases it is paramount to avoid reducing genetic and phenotypic variation over time. This requires an understanding of how diverging behavioural and physiological traits affect performance both in captivity and after release. In Atlantic salmon, emergence time from the spawning gravel has been linked to certain behavioural and physiological characteristics and to the concept of stress coping styles. Early emerging fry has for example been shown to be bolder and more aggressive and to have higher standard metabolic rates compared to late emerging fry. The first aim was therefore to examine if emergence latency affect the behavioural stress coping response also beyond the fry and parr stage. This was done using a hypoxia avoidance test, where an active behavioural avoidance response can be related to higher risk taking. No behavioural differences were found between the two emergence fractions either at the parr or pre-smolt stage, instead smaller individuals were more prone to express an "active" hypoxia avoidance response. Further, an individual expressing a "passive" response as parr were also more prone to express this behaviour at the pre-smolt stage. While there are some previous studies showing that early emerging individuals with a bolder personality may be favored within a hatchery setting it is not known to what extent these early differences persist to affect performance after release. The second aim was therefore to compare the physiological performance at the time of release as smolts using the two subgroups; 1) early emerging fish showing active hypoxia avoidance (Early + Bold) and 2) late emerging fish showing a passive hypoxia response (Late + Shy). The Early + Bold group showed a higher red blood cell swelling, suggesting a higher adrenergic output during stress, whereas there was no difference in post-stress plasma cortisol or physiological smolt status. While there was no difference in standard metabolic rate between the groups, the Early + Bold group exhibited a lower maximum metabolic rate and aerobic scope following strenuous swimming. In captivity this may have no clear negative effects, but in the wild, a more risk prone behavioural profile linked to a lower aerobic capacity to escape from e.g. a predator attack, could clearly be disadvantageous.

  • 15.
    Rosengren, Malin
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, POB 463, SE-40531 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Sundell, Kristina
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, POB 463, SE-40531 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    The brain-gut axis of fish: Rainbow trout with low and high cortisol response show innate differences in intestinal integrity and brain gene expression2018In: General and Comparative Endocrinology, ISSN 0016-6480, E-ISSN 1095-6840, Vol. 257, p. 235-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In fish, the stress hormone cortisol is released through the action of the hypothalamic pituitary interrenal axis (HPI-axis). The reactivity of this axis differs between individuals and previous studies have linked this to different behavioural characteristics and stress coping styles. In the current study, low and high responding (LR and HR) rainbow trout in terms of cortisol release during stress were identified, using a repeated confinements stress test. The expression of stress related genes in the forebrain and the integrity of the stress sensitive primary barrier of the intestine was examined. The HR trout displayed higher expression levels of mineralocorticoid and serotonergic receptors and serotonergic re-uptake pumps in the telencephalon during both basal and stressed conditions. This confirms that HPI-axis reactivity is linked also to other neuronal behavioural modulators, as both the serotonergic and the corticoid system in the telencephalon are involved in behavioural reactivity and cognitive processes. Involvement of the HPI-axis in the brain-gut-axis was also found. LR trout displayed a lower integrity in the primary barrier of the intestine during basal conditions compared to the HR trout. However, following stress exposure, LR trout showed an unexpected increase in intestinal integrity whereas the HR trout instead suffered a reduction. This could make the LR individuals more susceptible to pathogens during basal conditions where instead HR individuals would be more vulnerable during stressed conditions. We hypothesize that these barrier differences are caused by regulation/effects on tight junction proteins possibly controlled by secondary effects of cortisol on the intestinal immune barrier or differences in parasympathetic reactivity.

  • 16. Skaalsvik, Tormod H.
    et al.
    Bolla, Sylvie L.
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Babiak, Igor
    Quantitative characteristics of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) egg quality throughout the reproductive season2015In: Theriogenology, ISSN 0093-691X, E-ISSN 1879-3231, Vol. 83, no 1, p. 38-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of egg quality is an important aspect in finfish hatchery management, but guidelines for such assessment are scarce, especially for marine fish production. In the present work, potential indicators of egg and larval quality were measured in 39 batches of eggs of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L) throughout the reproductive season. The paternal influence on offspring was minimized by using the same cryopreserved semen for all fertilizations; consequently, maternal effects were emphasized. The progression of the spawning season and ovarian fluid parameters, including pH, electrical conductivity (EC), osmolality, and the amount of fluid were registered. The behavior of the broodfish at egg collection was registered and the eggs were analyzed for cortisol content. Fertilization and hatching rates as well as larvae survival were calculated, and larval standard length and myotome height were measured. Furthermore, the occurrence of major types of larval deformities was registered. The myotome height was significantly (P < 0.05) affected by the spawning season progress. Cortisol content in the eggs was decreasing with the progressing spawning season and correlated positively with the occurrence of yolk-sac edema. The ovarian fluid pH and EC were significantly related to fertilization and hatching rates. High fertilization and hatching success was associated with pH greater than 7.9 and EC less than 2.5 mS/cm. Low fertilization rates (<50%) resulted in further low hatchability from such egg batches. Ovarian fluid EC was significantly and positively related to increased occurrence of yolk-sac edema. High quantity of ovarian fluid in egg batches was associated with reduced egg quality in terms of fertilization and hatching rates and occurrence of yolk-sac edema. A cumulative effect of ovarian fluid pH, EC, osmolality, and quantity explained up to 62% of the total variation in fertilization rates. The findings from the present study indicate that parameters measurable at the initial phase of production, in particular ovarian fluid pH and EC, might have a potential for future use as egg quality indicators in hatchery management.

  • 17.
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Hoglund, Erik
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Natural selection constrains personality and brain gene expression differences in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)2015In: Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0022-0949, E-ISSN 1477-9145, Vol. 218, no 7, p. 1077-1083Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In stream-spawning salmonid fishes there is a considerable variation in the timing of when fry leave the spawning nests and establish a feeding territory. The timing of emergence from spawning nests appears to be related to behavioural and physiological traits, e.g. early emerging fish are bolder and more aggressive. In the present study, emerging Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) alevins were sorted into three fractions: early, intermediate and late emerging. At the parr stage, behaviour, stress responses, hindbrain monoaminergic activity and forebrain gene expression were explored in fish from the early and late emerging fractions (first and last 25%). The results show that when subjected to confinement stress, fish from the late emerging fraction respond with a larger activation of the brain serotonergic system than fish from the early fraction. Similarly, in late emerging fish, stress resulted in elevated expression of mRNA coding for serotonin 1A receptors (5-HT1A), GABA-A receptor-associated protein and ependymin, effects not observed in fish from the early emerging fraction. Moreover, fish from the early emerging fraction displayed bolder behaviour than their late emerging littermates. Taken together, these results suggest that time of emergence, boldness and aggression are linked to each other, forming a behavioural syndrome in juvenile salmon. Differences in brain gene expression between early and late emerging salmon add further support to a relationship between stress coping style and timing of emergence. However, early and late emerging salmon do not appear to differ in hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis reactivity, another characteristic of divergent stress coping styles.

  • 18.
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology. Uppsala Univ, Dept Neurosci, Biomed Ctr BMC, Physiol Unit, Box 593, SE-75124 Uppsala, Sweden.
    McCarrick, Sarah
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Biochem Toxicol Unit, Box 210, SE-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ericsson, Maja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Roman, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Bold zebrafish (Danio rerio) express higher levels of delta opioid and dopamine D2 receptors in the brain compared to shy fish2019In: Behavioural Brain Research, ISSN 0166-4328, E-ISSN 1872-7549, Vol. 359, p. 927-934Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individual variation in coping with environmental challenges is a well-known phenomenon across vertebrates, including teleost fish. Dopamine is the major transmitter in the brain reward networks, and important for motivational processes and stress coping. Functions of the endogenous opioid system are not well studied in teleosts. However, in mammals the activity in the brain reward networks is regulated by the endogenous opioid system. This study aimed at investigating if there was a correlation between risk-taking behavior and the expression of dopamine and opioid receptors in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) brain. Risk-taking behavior was assessed in a novel tank diving test, and the most extreme high risk taking, i.e. bold, and low risk taking, i.e. shy, fish were sampled for qPCR analysis of whole brain gene expression. The expression analysis showed a significantly higher expression of the dopamine D2 receptors (drd2a and drd2b) and the delta opioid receptor (DOR; oprd1b) in bold compared to shy fish. Besides reward and reinforcing properties, DORs are also involved in emotional responses. Dopamine D2 receptors are believed to be important for active stress coping in rodents, and taken together the results of the current study suggest similar functions in zebrafish. However, additional experiments are required to clarify how dopamine and opioid receptor activation affect behavior and stress coping in this species.

  • 19.
    Ullah, Imdad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Quaid I Azam Univ, Fac Biol Sci, Dept Anim Sci, Islamabad, Pakistan..
    Zuberi, Amina
    Quaid I Azam Univ, Fac Biol Sci, Dept Anim Sci, Islamabad, Pakistan..
    Khan, Kifayat Ullah
    Quaid I Azam Univ, Fac Biol Sci, Dept Anim Sci, Islamabad, Pakistan..
    Ahmad, Shahzad
    Quaid I Azam Univ, Fac Biol Sci, Dept Anim Sci, Islamabad, Pakistan..
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Effects of enrichment on the development of behaviour in an endangered fish mahseer (Tor putitora)2017In: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, ISSN 0168-1591, E-ISSN 1872-9045, Vol. 186, p. 93-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural enrichment in the rearing environment, not only promotes fish welfare, but also affects several aspects of behavioural biology of fish in aquaculture. Here an attempt was made to use physical enrichment to improve the behaviour of hatchery-reared fish. In this study, three groups of 15 days old mahseer (Tor putitora) hatchlings were reared up to advanced fry stage in barren (without any substrate), physically-enriched (gravel bed, substrate and plants) and semi-natural environments (earthen pond having a natural feed) respectively and the behavioural profiles of fish from these environments were compared. We illustrate that increased structural complexity during early life significantly affect various behavioural characteristics of the fish. Exploratory behaviour, predation and anti-predatory response were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in fish reared in physical enrichment and semi-natural environment than in barren-reared fish. These results have important implications for a possible way of improving the outcomes of restocking program of endangered fish species by modifying conventional hatchery-rearing environments.

  • 20.
    Vindas, Marco A.
    et al.
    Uni Res AS, Uni Environm, NO-5020 Bergen, Norway.;Univ Oslo, Dept Biosci, NO-0316 Oslo, Norway..
    Gorissen, Marnix
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Inst Water & Wetland Res, Dept Anim Ecol & Physiol, NL-6525 AJ Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Hoglund, Erik
    Tech Univ Denmark, Natl Inst Aquat Resources, DK-9850 Hirtshals, Denmark..
    Flik, Gert
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Inst Water & Wetland Res, Dept Anim Ecol & Physiol, NL-6525 AJ Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Tronci, Valentina
    Uni Res AS, Uni Environm, NO-5020 Bergen, Norway..
    Damsgard, Borge
    Univ Ctr Svalbard, NO-9171 Longyearbyen, Norway.;Nofima, NO-9291 Tromso, Norway..
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Nilsen, Tom O.
    Uni Res AS, Uni Environm, NO-5020 Bergen, Norway..
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Overli, Oyvind
    Norwegian Univ Life Sci, Dept Food Safety & Infect Biol, NO-0033 Oslo, Norway..
    Ebbesson, Lars O. E.
    Uni Res AS, Uni Environm, NO-5020 Bergen, Norway..
    How do individuals cope with stress?: Behavioural, physiological and neuronal differences between proactive and reactive coping styles in fish2017In: Journal of Experimental Biology, ISSN 0022-0949, E-ISSN 1477-9145, Vol. 220, no 8, p. 1524-1532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the use of fish models to study human mental disorders and dysfunctions, knowledge of regional telencephalic responses in non-mammalian vertebrates expressing alternative stress coping styles is poor. As perception of salient stimuli associated with stress coping in mammals is mainly under forebrain limbic control, we tested region-specific forebrain neural (i.e. mRNA abundance and monoamine neurochemistry) and endocrine responses under basal and acute stress conditions for previously characterised proactive and reactive Atlantic salmon. Reactive fish showed a higher degree of the neurogenesis marker proliferating cell nuclear antigen (pcna) and dopamine activity under basal conditions in the proposed hippocampus homologue (Dl) and higher post-stress plasma cortisol levels. Proactive fish displayed higher post-stress serotonergic signalling (i.e. higher serotonergic activity and expression of the 5-HT1A receptor) in the proposed amygdala homologue (Dm), increased expression of the neuroplasticity marker brain-derived neurotropic factor (bdnf) in both Dl and the lateral septum homologue (Vv), as well as increased expression of the corticotropin releasing factor 1 (crf(1)) receptor in the Dl, in line with active coping neuro-profiles reported in the mammalian literature. We present novel evidence of proposed functional equivalences in the fish forebrain with mammalian limbic structures.

  • 21.
    Vossen, Laura E.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Jutfelt, Fredrik
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology , Department of Biology, Høgskoleringen 5, Realfagbygget, Trondheim , Norway..
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Winberg, Svante
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) behaviour is largely unaffected by elevated pCO22016In: Conservation Physiology, E-ISSN 2051-1434, Vol. 4, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ocean acidification, the decrease in ocean pH caused by anthropogenic emission of carbon dioxide, can cause behavioural disturbances in marine teleost species. We investigated whether AB-strain zebrafish (Danio rerio) show similar behavioural disturbances in the presence of elevated CO2, because this model species could open up a toolbox to investigate the physiological and neurological mechanisms of CO2 exposure. We found no effect of elevated CO2 (~1600 μatm) on the behaviour of zebrafish in the open field test, indicating that zebrafish are largely insensitive to this elevated CO2 level. In the detour test of lateralization, however, zebrafish exposed to elevated CO2 swam more often to the right, whereas individuals exposed to control CO2 (~400 μatm) had no preference for left or right. This may indicate that some behaviours of some freshwater fishes can be altered by elevated CO2 levels. Given that elevated CO2 levels often occur in recirculating aquaculture and aquarium systems, we recommend that dissolved CO2 levels are measured and, if necessary, the aquarium water should be aerated, in order to exclude CO2 level as a confounding factor in experiments.

  • 22.
    Winberg, Svante
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Thörnqvist, Per-Ove
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Dahlbom, Josefin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Roman, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Hoglund, Erik
    Danish Tech Univ, Inst Aquat Resources Aquaculture, Hirtshals, Denmark.;Univ Agder, Res Secretariat, Kristiansand, Norway..
    Neuronal and neuroendocrine mechanisms of social rank and stress coping in teleost fish2015In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 29, no S1Article in journal (Other academic)
1 - 22 of 22
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