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  • 1.
    Arnardóttir, Ragnheiður Harpa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Boman, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Emtner, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Interval training compared with continuous training in patients with COPD2007In: Respiratory Medicine, ISSN 0954-6111, E-ISSN 1532-3064, Vol. 101, no 6, p. 1196-1204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of interval training (3-min intervals) with continuous training on peak exercise capacity (W peak), physiological response, functional capacity, dyspnoea, mental health and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with moderate or severe COPD.

    Sixty patients exercised twice weekly for 16 weeks after randomisation to interval- or continuous training. Target intensity was 80% of baseline W peak in the interval group (I-group) and 65% in the continuous group (C-group). Patients were tested by spirometry, ergometer cycle test, cardiopulmonary test and a 12 min walk test. Dyspnoea was measured by the dyspnoea scale from Chronic Obstructive Disease Questionnaire (CRDQ), mental health by Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HAD) and HRQoL by the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form 36 (SF-36).

    After training, W peak, peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) and exhaled carbon dioxide (VCO2 peak) increased significantly in both groups, no significant differences between the groups. Minute ventilation (VE peak) increased only in the C-group. At identical work rates (isotime) VO2, VCO2 and VE were significantly more decreased in the I-group than in the C-group (p<0.05). Functional capacity, dyspnoea, mental health, and HRQoL improved significantly in both groups, no difference between the groups.

    Interval training and continuous training were equally potent in improving peak exercise capacity, functional exercise capacity, dyspnoea, mental health and HRQoL in patients with moderate or severe COPD. At isotime, the physiological response to training differed between the groups, in favour of the interval training.

  • 2.
    Arnardóttir, Ragnheiður Harpa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Emtner, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Boman, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Peak exercise capacity estimated from incremental shuttle walking test in patients with COPD: A methodological study2006In: Respiratory research (Online), ISSN 1465-9921, E-ISSN 1465-993X, Vol. 7, p. 127-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In patients with COPD, both laboratory exercise tests and field walking tests are used to assess physical performance. In laboratory tests, peak exercise capacity in watts ( W peak) and/or peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) are assessed, whereas the performance on walking tests usually is expressed as distance walked. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between an incremental shuttle walking test (ISWT) and two laboratory cycle tests in order to assess whether W peak could be estimated from an ISWT.

    Methods: Ninety-three patients with moderate or severe COPD performed an ISWT, an incremental cycle test (ICT) to measure W peak and a semi-steady-state cycle test with breath-by-breath gas exchange analysis (CPET) to measure VO2 peak. Routine equations for conversion between cycle tests were used to estimate W peak from measured VO2 peak (CPET). Conversion equation for estimation of W peak from ISWT was found by univariate regression.

    Results: There was a significant correlation between W peak and distance walked on ISWT x body weight (r=0.88, p<0.0001). The agreement between W peak measured by ICT and estimated from ISWT was similar to the agreement between measured W peak (ICT) and W peak estimated from measured VO2 peak by CPET.

    Conclusion: Peak exercise capacity measured by an incremental cycle test could be estimated from an ISWT with similar accuracy as when estimated from peak oxygen uptake in patients with COPD.

  • 3.
    Arne, Mats
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Lisspers, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology.
    Ställberg, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning i D län (CKFD).
    Boman, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Janson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Emtner, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotheraphy. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    How often is diagnosis of COPD confirmed with spirometry?2010In: Respiratory Medicine, ISSN 0954-6111, E-ISSN 1532-3064, Vol. 104, no 4, p. 550-556Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Diagnosis is customarily confirmed with spirometry, but there are few studies on documented spirometry use in everyday clinical practice. Methods: In a cross-sectional survey and study of the medical records of primary and secondary care COPD patients aged 18-75 in a Swedish region, patients with COPD were randomly selected from the registers of 56 primary care centres and 14 hospital outpatient clinics. Spirometry data at diagnosis ±6 months were analyzed. Results: From 1,114 patients with COPD, 533 with a new diagnosis of COPD during the four-year study period were identified. In 59% (n=316), spirometry data in connection with diagnosis were found in the medical records. Spirometry data with post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/ vital capacity (VC) ratios were available in 45% (n=241). FEV1/VC ratio <0.70 were found in 160 patients, which corresponds to 30% of the patients with a new diagnosis. Lower age, female gender, current smoking, higher body mass index (BMI) and shorter forced exhalation time were related to COPD diagnosis despite an FEV1/VC ratio of ≥0.70. The most common problem in the quality assessment was an insufficient exhalation time. Conclusions: Only a third of Swedish patients with COPD had their diagnosis confirmed with spirometry. Our data indicate that female gender, current smoking, higher BMI and short exhalation time increase the risk of being diagnosed with COPD without fulfilling the spirometric criteria for the disease.

  • 4.
    Bekhali, Zakaria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Upper Abdominal Surgery. Gävle City Hospital, Sweden..
    Hedberg, Jakob
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Upper Abdominal Surgery.
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Sundbom, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Upper Abdominal Surgery.
    Large Buffering Effect of the Duodenal Bulb in Duodenal Switch: a Wireless pH-Metric Study2017In: Obesity Surgery, ISSN 0960-8923, E-ISSN 1708-0428, Vol. 27, no 7, p. 1867-1871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bariatric procedures result in massive weight loss, however, not without side effects. Gastric acid is known to cause marginal ulcers, situated in the small bowel just distal to the upper anastomosis. We have used the wireless BRAVO (TM) system to study the buffering effect of the duodenal bulb in duodenal switch (DS), a procedure in which the gastric sleeve produces a substantial amount of acid. We placed a pre- and a postpyloric pH capsule in 15 DS-patients (seven men, 44 years, BMI 33) under endoscopic guidance and verified the correct location by fluoroscopy. Patients were asked to eat and drink at their leisure, and to register their meals for the next 24 h. All capsules but one could be successfully placed, without complications. Total registration time was 17.2 (1.3-24) hours prepyloric and 23.1 (1.2-24) hours postpyloric, with a corresponding pH of 2.66 (1.74-5.81) and 5.79 (4.75-7.58), p < 0.01. The difference in pH between the two locations was reduced from 3.55 before meals to 1.82 during meals, p < 0.01. Percentage of time with pH < 4 was 70.0 (19.9-92.0) and 13.0 (0.0-34.6) pre and postpylorically, demonstrating a large buffering effect. By this wireless pH-metric technique, we could demonstrate that the duodenal bulb had a large buffering effect, thus counteracting the large amount of gastric acid passing into the small bowel after duodenal switch. This physiologic effect could explain the low incidence of stomal ulcers.

  • 5.
    Donoso, Felipe
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Pediatric Surgery. Department of Pediatric Surgery, Uppsala University Children's Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Malinovschi, Andrei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Engstrand Lilja, Helene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Pediatric Surgery. Department of Pediatric Surgery, Uppsala University Children's Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pulmonary function in children and adolescents after esophageal atresia repair2020In: Pediatric Pulmonology, ISSN 8755-6863, E-ISSN 1099-0496, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 206-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Respiratory morbidity after esophageal atresia (EA) is common. The aims of this study were to assess pulmonary function, to identify risk factors for pulmonary function impairment (PFI), and to investigate the relations between respiratory morbidity, defined as medical treatment for respiratory symptoms or recent pneumonia and PFI after EA repair.

    Material and Methods

    Single center retrospective observational study including patients with EA who participated in the follow‐up program for 8‐ or 15‐year old patients from 2014 to 2018 and performed pulmonary function testing by body plethysmography, dynamic spirometry, impulse oscillometry, and diffusing capacity of the lungs. Univariate and multiple stepwise logistic regression with PFI as outcome were performed. Anastomotic leak, episodes of general anesthesia, extubation day, birth weight, age at follow up, gross classification, and abnormal reflux index were independent variables.

    Results

    In total, 47 patients were included. PFI was found in 19 patients (41%) and 16 out of 19 patients (84%) had an obstructive pattern. Respiratory morbidity was found in 23 (52%, NA = 3) of the patients with no correlation to PFI. Birth weight, age at follow‐up, and episodes of general anesthesia were identified as risk factors for PFI.

    Conclusion

    Respiratory morbidity and PFI were common in children and adolescents after EA repair. The major component of PFI was obstruction of the airways. The risk for PFI increased with lower birth weight and older age at follow up. The poor correlation between respiratory morbidity and PFI motivates the need of clinical follow up including pulmonary function tests.

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  • 6.
    Farkhooy, Amir
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Lung- allergy- and sleep research.
    Bellocchia, Michaela
    AOU Molinette, Citta Salute & Sci Torino, Cardiovasc & Thorac Dept, Pneumol Unit, Turin, Italy; Univ Turin, Turin, Italy.
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Libertucci, Daniela
    AOU Molinette, Citta Salute & Sci Torino, Cardiovasc & Thorac Dept, Pneumol Unit, Turin, Italy; Univ Turin, Turin, Italy.
    Bucca, Caterina
    AOU Molinette, Citta Salute & Sci Torino, Cardiovasc & Thorac Dept, Pneumol Unit, Turin, Italy; Univ Turin, Turin, Italy.
    Janson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Lung- allergy- and sleep research.
    Solidoro, Paolo
    AOU Molinette, Citta Salute & Sci Torino, Cardiovasc & Thorac Dept, Pneumol Unit, Turin, Italy; Univ Turin, Turin, Italy.
    Malinovschi, Andrei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Lung function in relation to six-minute walk test in pulmonary hypertension2020In: European Clinical Respiratory Journal, ISSN 2001-8525, Vol. 7, no 1, article id 1745492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a progressive disorder of the pulmonary circulation,associated with diverse medical conditions. Exercise limitation is the most prominent symptom inPH. Exercise capacity, commonly assessed through a six-minute walk test (6MWT), correlates withboth functional status and survival in PH. Few studies have analysed the relation betweenrespiratory function and exercise limitation. Therefore, we investigated the relationship betweenresting pulmonary function, exercise capacity, and exertional desaturation, assessed through the6MWT, in unselected PH patients.Methods: Fifty consecutive patients with PH diagnosis, referred for pulmonary function testing(lung volume, spirometry, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO)) and 6MWT, wererecruited at Molinette University Hospital, Turin.Results: The majority of the patients (54%) had PH due to left heart disease. Airway obstruction(FEV1/VC-ratio < 0.7) was found in 46% of the patients and they performed significantly worse inthe 6MWT than unobstructed patients (307 m vs. 377 m). Patients with PH due to left heartdisease also performed significantly poorer 6MWT when airway obstruction was present (305 mvs. 389 m). Twenty-two patients (44%) presented exertional desaturation upon 6MWT. LowerDLCO divided by the alveolar volume (DLCO/VA), FEV1/VC-ratios and resting PaO2-values weresignificantly correlated with exertional desaturation after adjustments for age, sex, BMI, andsmoking habits. DLCO/VA was the main determinant of exertional desaturation in a stepwiseregression model.Conclusions: Spirometric parameters of airway obstruction were related to walk distance andexercise-induced desaturation in PH patients. This suggests a place for spirometry in clinicalmonitoring of PH patients.

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  • 7.
    Farkhooy, Amir
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Bodegård, Johan
    Erikssen, Jan-Erik
    Janson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Lung- allergy- and sleep research.
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Stavem, Knut
    Malinovschi, Andrei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of the association between lung function and exercise capacity in healthy Norwegian men2018In: BMC Pulmonary Medicine, ISSN 1471-2466, E-ISSN 1471-2466, Vol. 18, no 118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    It is widely accepted that exercise capacity in healthy individuals is limited by the cardiac function, while the respiratory system is considered oversized. Although there is physiological, age-related decline in both lung function and physical capacity, the association between decline in lung function and decline in exercise capacity is little studied. Therefore, we examined the longitudinal association between lung function indices and exercise capacity, assessed by the total amount of work performed on a standardized incremental test, in a cohort of middle-aged men.

    METHODS:

    A total of 745 men between 40 and 59 years were examined using spirometry and standardized bicycle exercise ECG test within "The Oslo Ischemia Study," at two time points: once during 1972-1975, and again, approximately 16 years later, during 1989-1990. The subjects exercise capacity was assessed as physical fitness i.e. the total bicycle work (in Joules) at all workloads divided by bodyweight (in kg).

    RESULTS:

    Higher FEV1, FVC and PEF values related to higher physical fitness at both baseline and follow-up (all p values < 0.05). Higher explanatory values were found at follow-up than baseline for FEV1 (r2 = 0.16 vs. r2 = 0.03), FVC (r2 = 0.14 vs. r2 = 0.03) and PEF (r2 = 0.13 vs. r2 = 0.02). No significant correlations were found between decline in physical fitness and declines in FEV1, FVC or PEF.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    A weak association between lung function indices and exercise capacity, assessed through physical fitness, was found in middle-aged, healthy men. This association was strengthened with increasing age, suggesting a larger role for lung function in limiting exercise capacity among elderly subjects. However, decline in physical fitness over time was not related to decline in lung function.

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  • 8.
    Farkhooy, Amir
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Janson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Arnardottir, Rangheidur Harpa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Malinovschi, Andrei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Emtner, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Impaired Carbon Monoxide Diffusing Capacity is the Strongest Predictor of Exercise Intolerance in COPD2013In: COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, ISSN 1541-2555, E-ISSN 1541-2563, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 180-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Exercise intolerance is a hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) is the traditional metric used to define the severity of COPD. However, there is dissociation between FEV1 and exercise capacity in a large proportion of subjects with COPD. The aim of this study was to investigate whether other lung function parameters have an additive, predictive value for exercise capacity and whether this differs according to the COPD stage. Methods: Spirometry, body plethysmography and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were performed on 88 patients with COPD GOLD stages II-IV. Exercise capacity (EC) was determined in all subjects by symptom-limited, incremental cycle ergometer testing. Results: Significant relationships were found between EC and the majority of lung function parameters. DLCO, FEV1 and inspiratory capacity (IC) were found to be the best predictors of EC in a stepwise regression analysis explaining 72% of EC. These lung function parameters explained 76% of EC in GOLD II, 72% in GOLD III and 40% in GOLD IV. DLCO alone was the best predictor of exercise capacity in all GOLD stages. Conclusions: Diffusing capacity was the strongest predictor of exercise capacity in all subjects. In addition to FEV1, DLCO and IC provided a significantly higher predictive value regarding exercise capacity in COPD patients. This suggests that it is beneficial to add measurements of diffusing capacity and inspiratory capacity when clinically monitoring COPD patients.

  • 9.
    Farkhooy, Amir
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Janson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Arnardóttir, Ragnheidur Harpa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Emtner, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy.
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Malinovschi, Andrei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Impaired Carbon Monoxide Diffusing Capacity is the strongest lung function predictor of decline in 12 minute-walking distance in COPD: a 5-year follow-up study2015In: COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, ISSN 1541-2555, E-ISSN 1541-2563, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 240-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal relationship between functional exercise capacity, assessed through standardized 12-minute walk test (12 MWT), and various lung function parameters obtained using spirometry, body plethysmography and diffusing capacity (DLco) measurements in patients with COPD.

    Methods:

    Spirometry, body plethysmography and DLco-measurements were performed at baseline in 84 subjects with moderate to very severe COPD and at follow-up visit (n = 34) after 5 years. Functional exercise capacity was determined using standardized 12MWT.

    Results:

    Patients were characterized at baseline by FEV1 of 1.2 ± 0.4 L (41 ± 13% predicted), RV of 3.4 ± 1.0 L (187 ± 58% predicted) and DLco of 3.8 ± 1.2 mmol/min/kPa (51 ± 16% predicted). A decrease of 12MWD was found between baseline and follow-up (928 ± 193 m vs. 789 ± 273 m, p < 0.001). DLco and 12MWD at baseline were the only independent predictors of 12MWD at follow-up in a multiple logistic regression model that also included all other lung function parameters, gender, age and BMI. Decline in 12MWD was mainly explained by deterioration in DLco. Furthermore, DLco value at baseline had the highest explanatory value for the loss in 12MWD after 5 years (R2 = 0.18, p = 0.009).

    Conclusions:

    In a 5-year longitudinal study, DLco-measurements at baseline were the most important predictors of declining exercise capacity in COPD patients. These results suggest that integration of DLco in the clinical workup provides a more comprehensive assessment in patients with COPD.

  • 10.
    Frisk, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Arvidson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Bratteby, Lars-Eric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Lönnerholm, Gudmar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Pulmonary function after autologous bone marrow transplantation in children: a long-term prospective study2004In: Bone Marrow Transplantation, ISSN 0268-3369, E-ISSN 1476-5365, Vol. 33, p. 645-650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We performed serial pulmonary function tests (PFTs) consisting of spirometry and diffusing capacity in 26 children after BMT. The median follow-up was 10 years. The influence of total body irradiation (TBI) on long-term pulmonary function was of particular interest. In the 20 children who had received TBI, after an initial decrease the PFTs showed recovery, but the mean lung volumes were still significantly decreased 5 years after BMT at 10% below baseline. The proportions of children with restrictive impairment 5 and 10 years after BMT were 20 and 21%, respectively. Only one child was diagnosed with obstructive impairment. The proportions of children with isolated diffusing impairment at 5 and 10 years were 7/20 (35%) and 7/13 (54%), respectively. Six children had received chemotherapy only and showed isolated diffusing impairment as the only long-term sequela in 4/5 and 1/3 at 5 and 10 years. Our main finding was that there was little change in PFTs 1–10 years after BMT. TBI was associated with persistently decreased lung volumes in a proportion of patients, whereas chemotherapy also might have been of importance for the development of impaired gas exchange.

  • 11.
    Frisk, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Arvidson, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    A longitudinal study of pulmonary function after stem cell transplantation, from childhood to young adulthood2012In: Pediatric Blood & Cancer, ISSN 1545-5009, E-ISSN 1545-5017, Vol. 58, no 5, p. 775-779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Impairment of pulmonary function after stem cell transplantation (SCT) in childhood has been reported before. However, long-term longitudinal studies are scarce.

    Procedure. We measured lung volumes and performed dynamic spirometry serially in 18 patients after SCT. At the last investigation, a median of 18.2 years after SCT, the patients were compared with 18 matched controls. The diffusing capacity (DLCO) was only compared cross-sectionally.

    Results. There was a significant increase in the prevalence of restrictive lung disease (RLD, total lung capacity <80% of that predicted) from 7% (1/14) before SCT to 28% (5/18) 5 years after SCT, and 61% (11/18) a median of 18.2 years after SCT (P = 0.002). In comparison, none of the controls had RLD (61% vs. 0%, P = 0.001). Before SCT, no patient had obstructive lung disease (OLD, forced expiratory volume in 1 sec/vital capacity < 70). OLD was found in one of 18 patients (6%) 5 years after SCT but in none of the patients a median of 18.2 years after SCT. Three of the controls had OLD (P = 0.25). Eleven patients had diffusion impairment (DLCO < 80% of that predicted), as opposed to none of the controls (P = 0.001). The DLCO corrected for alveolar volume was decreased in only two patients.

    Conclusion. We documented an increase in the prevalence of RLD, but not of OLD, after SCT. At the last investigation, only two patients had diffusion impairment after correction for alveolar volume.

  • 12.
    Genberg, Margareta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Research and Development, Gävleborg. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Andrén, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Malinovschi, Andrei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Commonly used reference values underestimate oxygen uptake in healthy, 50-year-old Swedish women.2018In: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, ISSN 1475-0961, E-ISSN 1475-097X, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 25-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is the gold standard among clinical exercise tests. It combines a conventional stress test with measurement of oxygen uptake (VO2 ) and CO2 production. No validated Swedish reference values exist, and reference values in women are generally understudied. Moreover, the importance of achieved respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and the significance of breathing reserve (BR) at peak exercise in healthy individuals are poorly understood. We compared VO2 at maximal load (peakVO2 ) and anaerobic threshold (VO2@AT ) in healthy Swedish individuals with commonly used reference values, taking gender into account. Further, we analysed maximal workload and peakVO2 with regard to peak RER and BR. In all, 181 healthy, 50-year-old individuals (91 women) performed CPET. PeakVO2 was best predicted using Jones et al. (100·5%), while SHIP reference values underestimated peakVO2 most: 112·5%. Furthermore, underestimation of peakVO2 in women was found for all studied reference values (P<0·001) and was largest for SHIP: women had 128% of predicted peakVO2 , while men had 104%. PeakVO2 was similar in subjects with peak RER of 1-1·1 and RER > 1·1 (2 328·7 versus 2 176·7 ml min(-1) , P = 0·11). Lower BR (≤30%) related to significantly higher peakVO2 (P<0·001). In conclusion, peakVO2 was best predicted by Jones. All studied reference values underestimated oxygen uptake in women. No evidence for demanding RER > 1·1 in healthy individuals was found. A lowered BR is probably a normal response to higher workloads in healthy individuals.

  • 13.
    Genberg, Margareta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Öberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Andrén, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Frisk, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Flachskampf, Frank A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Cardiac Function After Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: An Echocardiographic Cross-Sectional Study in Young Adults Treated in Childhood2015In: Pediatric Blood & Cancer, ISSN 1545-5009, E-ISSN 1545-5017, Vol. 62, no 1, p. 143-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundHematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) including preparative regimens with chemotherapy and total body irradiation (TBI) is an accepted treatment for many malignant disorders but may have side-effects for several organs, including the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to study very long-term consequences on cardiac function after childhood HCT. ProcedureCardiac function was evaluated using echocardiography and levels of NT-proBNP and growth hormone (GHmax) in 18 patients, at a median of 18 years after HCT including TBI, and in 18 matched controls. ResultsPatients after HCT had cardiac dimensions, volumes, and left ventricular ejection fractions within normal range after correction for body size. However, compared with the control group, patients after HCT had significantly lower E/A ratio, as a measure of left ventricular diastolic function, significantly lower fractional shortening and mitral annular plane systolic excursion, as measures of left ventricular systolic function, significantly lower tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, as a measure of right ventricular function, and significantly higher NT-proBNP, as a measure of total cardiac function. Also, pulmonary flow acceleration time was shorter in the group after HCT, indicating possible pulmonary involvement. Heart rate was significantly higher and GHmax significantly lower in patients after HCT. ConclusionsAlmost two decades after HCT, including preparative regimens with TBI, cardiac function in patients was found to be within normal range. However, when compared with a healthy control group, patients after HCT showed lower systolic and diastolic left ventricular function as well as lower right ventricular function. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2015;62:143-147.

  • 14.
    Hedberg, Jakob
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Upper Abdominal Surgery.
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Karlsson, F. Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Edén-Engström, Britt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Sundbom, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Upper Abdominal Surgery.
    Gastric Emptying and Postprandial PYY Response After Biliopancreatic Diversion with Duodenal Switch2011In: Obesity Surgery, ISSN 0960-8923, E-ISSN 1708-0428, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 609-615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Super-obesity (BMI > 50) is increasing rapidly. We use the biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD-DS) as one option in this patient category. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emptying of the gastric tube, PYY levels and dumping symptoms after BPD-DS.

    METHODS: Emptying of the gastric tube was investigated with scintigraphy after an overnight fast. Twenty patients (median age 43 years, BMI 31.1 kg/m(2)) having undergone BPD-DS in median 3.5 years previously were included in the scintigraphic study. A technetium-labelled omelette was ingested and scintigraphic evaluation of gastric emptying was undertaken. Ten of the patients also underwent PYY measurements after a standardised meal and were compared to nine non-operated age-matched normal weight controls, both in the fasting state and after the test meal. Frequency of dumping symptoms was evaluated in all patients.

    RESULTS: The half-emptying time was 28 ± 16 min. Lag phase was present in 30% of the patients. PYY levels were significantly higher in BPD-DS patients as compared to controls both in the fasting state (p < 0.001) and after the test meal (p < 0.001). Dumping symptoms were scarce and occurred in 17 of the 20 patients only few times yearly or less.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although the pylorus is preserved in BPD-DS, the stomach emptying is faster than in non-operated subjects. PYY levels are elevated in the fasting state after BPD-DS and a marked response to a test meal is seen, likely due to the rapid stimulation of intraluminal nutrients in the distal ileum. In spite of this, dumping symptoms are uncommon.

  • 15.
    Hedberg, Jakob
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences.
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Sundbom, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Upper Abdominal Surgery.
    Wire-less pH-metry at the gastrojejunostomy after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass: a novel use of the BRAVO™-system2011In: Surgical Endoscopy, ISSN 0930-2794, E-ISSN 1432-2218, Vol. 25, no 7, p. 2302-2307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The number of gastric bypass operations being preformed is increasing rapidly due to good weight loss and alleviation of co-morbidities in combination with low mortality and morbidity. Stomal ulcers are, however, a clinical problem after gastric bypass, giving patients discomfort, risk of bleeding or even perforation. To measure the acidity in the proximal jejunum, we adopted the wire-less pH-metry (BRAVO-system) developed for evaluating reflux esophagitis.

    Methods

    25 patients (4 men, median age 44 years, BMI 29.3) who had undergone RYGBP 4 years earlier were recruited. Twenty-one asymptomatic, non-PPI users and in addition, four symtomatic patients (ongoing or stopped PPI-treatment) were studied. The wire-less BRAVO-capsule was positioned at the level of the gastrojejunal anastomosis under visual control with the endoscope. pH was registered for up to 48 hours. Time with pH<4 was calculated. Two patients were studied with two capsules.

    Results

    Of the 25 recruited patients capsule placement was successful in all but 2 patients, and in 3 patients a constant neutral environment was seen before a premature loss of signal, indicating early loss of position, thus 20 successful measurements were made. The mean time of registration was 25.7 hours (6.1-47.4, n=20). In the 16 asymtomatic patients, median percentage of time with pH<4 at the gastrojejunostomy was 10.6% (range 0.4 -37.7%). When dividing the registration time in day (08.00-22.00) and night (22.00-06.00), the median percentage of time with pH<4 was 8.4 and 6.3, respectively, (p=0.08). The two double measurements gave similar results indicating consistency. No complications occurred.

    Conclusion

    Wire-less pH-measurements in the proximal jejunum after gastric bypass are feasible and safe. The acidity was significant (10.5% of the registration time) even in asymptomatic patients with small gastric pouches. The described method could be useful in evaluation of epigastralgia after gastric bypass and in appraisal of PPI treatment of stomal ulcer.

     

  • 16.
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    KOL-diagnos enligt svensk modell: Ålderskorrelerat FEV%-värde ger godtagbar approximering2006In: Läkartidningen, Vol. 103, no 11, p. 826-Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 17.
    Hedenström, Hans
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Janson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Ställberg, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm , Centrum för klinisk forskning i D län (CKFD).
    Kvickbok om att ställa KOL-diagnos2007Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Henrohn, Dan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Björkstrand, Kristoffer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Lundberg, Jon O
    Granstam, Sven-Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Baron, Tomasz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Ingimarsdóttir, Inga J
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Malinovschi, Andrei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Wernroth, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, UCR-Uppsala Clinical Research Center. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology.
    Jansson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Hedeland, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Science.
    Wikström, Gerhard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    Effects of Oral Supplementation With Nitrate-Rich Beetroot Juice in Patients With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension-Results From BEET-PAH, an Exploratory Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Study.2018In: Journal of Cardiac Failure, ISSN 1071-9164, E-ISSN 1532-8414, Vol. 24, no 10, p. 640-653Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide (NO) pathway may represent a potential therapeutic target in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). We explored the effects of dietary nitrate supplementation, with the use of nitrate-rich beetroot juice (BRJ), in patients with PAH.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: We prospectively studied 15 patients with PAH in an exploratory randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. The patients received nitrate-rich beetroot juice (∼16 mmol nitrate per day) and placebo in 2 treatment periods of 7 days each. The assessments included; exhaled NO and NO flow-independent parameters (alveolar NO and bronchial NO flux), plasma and salivary nitrate and nitrite, biomarkers and metabolites of the NO-system, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, echocardiography, ergospirometry, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, and the 6-minute walk test. Compared with placebo ingestion of BRJ resulted in increases in; fractional exhaled NO at all flow-rates, alveolar NO concentrations and bronchial NO flux, and plasma and salivary levels of nitrate and nitrite. Plasma ornithine levels decreased and indices of relative arginine availability increased after BRJ compared to placebo. A decrease in breathing frequency was observed during ergospirometry after BRJ. A tendency for an improvement in right ventricular function was observed after ingestion of BRJ. In addition a tendency for an increase in the peak power output to peak oxygen consumption ratio (W peak/VO2 peak) was observed, which became significant in patients reaching an increase of plasma nitrite >30% (responders).

    CONCLUSIONS: BRJ administered for 1 week increases pulmonary NO production and the relative arginine bioavailability in patients with PAH, compared with placebo. An increase in the W peak/VO2 peak ratio was observed after BRJ ingestion in plasma nitrite responders. These findings indicate that supplementation with inorganic nitrate increase NO synthase-independent NO production from the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway.

  • 19.
    Högman, Marieann
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. integrativ fysiologi.
    Holmkvist, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. integrativ fysologi.
    Wegener, Thomas
    Emtner, Margareta
    Department of Medical Sciences. Department of Neuroscience.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Hedenström, Hans
    Department of Medical Sciences.
    Meriläinen, Pekka
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. integrativ fysiologi.
    Extended NO analysis applied to patients with COPD, allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis2002In: Respir Med, Vol. 96, no 24-30Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Högman, Marieann
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Lung- allergy- and sleep research.
    Sulku, Johanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Research and Development, Gävleborg.
    Ställberg, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
    Janson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Lung- allergy- and sleep research.
    Bröms, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Research and Development, Gävleborg. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Lisspers, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
    Malinovschi, Andrei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    2017 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease reclassifies half of COPD subjects to lower risk group2018In: The International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, ISSN 1176-9106, E-ISSN 1178-2005, Vol. 13, no `, p. 165-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Unlike the 2014 guidelines, the 2017 Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines have removed lung function from the risk assessment algorithm of patients with COPD. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the proportion of subjects who would change to a lower risk group when applying GOLD(2017) and determine if they exhibit different characteristics in terms of inflammation, symptoms and comorbidity compared to the subjects who would remain in a high-risk group.

    Subjects and methods: A total of 571 subjects with physician-diagnosed and spirometry-verified COPD were included in the present study. The data consisted of measurements of lung function, inflammatory markers, together with questionnaires that covered comorbidities, COPD symptoms and medication.

    Results: From group C, 53% of the subjects would be reclassified to the lower risk group A, and from group D, 47% of the subjects would be reclassified to the lower risk group B when using GOLD(2017) instead of GOLD(2014). Compared to the subjects who would remain in group D, those who would change to group B were more often men (56% vs 72%); of an older age, mean (SD), 71 (8) years vs 68 (7) years; had more primary care contact (54% vs 33%); had lower levels of blood neutrophils, geometrical mean (95% CI), 5.3 (5.0, 5.7) vs 4.6 (4.3, 4.9); reported less anxiety/depression (20% vs 34%); experienced less asthma (29% vs 46%) and had fewer symptoms according to the COPD assessment test, 16 (5) vs 21 (7). All p-values were <0.05.

    Conclusion: The removal of spirometry from risk assessment in GOLD(2017) would lead to the reclassification of approximately half of the subjects in the risk groups C and D to the lower risk groups A and B. There are differences in age, gender, health care contacts, inflammation, comorbidity and symptom burden among those changing from group D to group B. The effects of reclassification and changes in eventual treatment for disease control and symptom burden need further investigation.

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  • 21.
    Högman, Marieann
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Lung- allergy- and sleep research.
    Thornadtsson, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Research and Development, Gävleborg. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Lung- allergy- and sleep research.
    Bröms, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Research and Development, Gävleborg. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Janson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Lung- allergy- and sleep research.
    Lisspers, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Ställberg, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Malinovschi, Andrei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Higher alveolar nitric oxide in COPD is related to poorer physical capacity and lower oxygen saturation after physical testing2019In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 54, no 2, article id 1900263Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Högman, Marieann
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Lung- allergy- and sleep research.
    Thornadtsson, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Lung- allergy- and sleep research. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Research and Development, Gävleborg.
    Bröms, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Research and Development, Gävleborg. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Jansson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Lung- allergy- and sleep research.
    Lisspers, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine.
    Ställberg, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Preventive Medicine. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Malinovschi, Andrei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Different Relationships between FENO and COPD Characteristics in Smokers and Ex-Smokers2019In: COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, ISSN 1541-2555, E-ISSN 1541-2563, Vol. 16, no 3-4, p. 227-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exhaled nitric oxide (FENO) is a marker of type-2 inflammation in asthma and is used in its management. However, smokers and ex-smokers have lower FENO values, and the clinical use of FENO values in COPD patients is unclear. Therefore, we investigated if FENO had a relationship to different COPD characteristics in smoking and ex-smoking subjects. Patients with COPD (n = 533, 58% females) were investigated while in stable condition. Measurements of FENO50, blood cell counts, IgE sensitisation and lung function were performed. Medication reconciliation was used to establish medication usage. Smokers (n = 150) had lower FENO50 9 (8, 10) ppb (geometric mean, 95% confidence interval) than ex-smokers did (n = 383) 15 (14, 16) ppb, p < 0.001. FENO50 was not associated with blood eosinophil or neutrophil levels in smokers, but in ex-smokers significant associations were found (r = 0.23, p < 0.001) and (r = -0.18, p = 0.001), respectively. Lower FENO values were associated with lower FEV1% predicted in both smokers (r = 0.17, p = 0.040) and ex-smokers (r = 0.20, p < 0.001). Neither the smokers nor ex-smokers with reported asthma or IgE sensitisation were linked to an increase in FENO50. Ex-smokers treated with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) had lower FENO50 14 (13, 15) ppb than non-treated ex-smokers 17 (15, 19) ppb, p = 0.024. This was not found in smokers (p = 0.325). FENO is associated with eosinophil inflammation and the use of ICS in ex-smoking COPD subjects, but not in smoking subjects suggesting that the value of FENO as an inflammatory marker is more limited in smoking subjects. The association found between low FENO values and low lung function requires further investigation.

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  • 23.
    Johansson, Henrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Norlander, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Alving, Kjell
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Janson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Malinovschi, Andrei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Nordang, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Emtner, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Exercise test using dry air in random adolescents: temporal profile and predictors of bronchoconstriction2016In: Respirology (Carlton South. Print), ISSN 1323-7799, E-ISSN 1440-1843, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 289-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and objective

    Guidelines recommend exercise tests using dry air to diagnose exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB). Lung function changes subsequent to these tests have not been investigated in a general adolescent population, and it remains unknown whether signs of airway inflammation, measured using exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), can predict a positive response. The aim of this study was to investigate the temporal aspect of decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) after an exercise test using dry air, and to investigate predictors of EIB.

    Methods

    From a cross-sectional study on adolescents aged 13–15 years (n = 3838), a random subsample of 146 adolescents (99 with and 47 without self-reported exercise-induced dyspnoea) underwent standardized treadmill exercise tests for EIB while breathing dry air.

    Results

    Of the adolescents, 34% had a positive EIB test (decline of ≥10% in FEV1 from baseline) within 30 min. Of the subjects with EIB, 53% showed the greatest decline in FEV1 at 5 to 10 min (mean decline 18.5%), and the remaining 47% of the subjects showed the greatest decline at 15 to 30 min (mean decline 18.9%) after exercise. Increased FeNO (>20 ppb), female gender and self-reported exercise-induced dyspnoea were independently associated with a positive EIB test.

    Conclusion

    When assessing general adolescents for EIB with exercise test using dry air, there is a temporal variation in the greatest FEV1 decline after exercise. Therefore, lung function should be measured for at least 30 min after the exercise. Increased FeNO, female gender and self-reported exercise-induced dyspnoea can be predictors of a positive EIB test.

  • 24.
    Johansson, Henrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy.
    Norlander, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Janson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Nordang, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Nordvall, Lennart
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Emtner, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Exercise-induced dyspnea is a problem among the general adolescent population2014In: Respiratory Medicine, ISSN 0954-6111, E-ISSN 1532-3064, Vol. 108, no 6, p. 852-858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rationale: Respiratory symptoms during exercise are common and might limit adolescents' ability to take part in physical activity. Objective: To estimate the prevalence, determinants and consequences of exercise-induced dyspnea (EID) on daily life in a general population of 12-13 year old adolescents. Methods: A letter was sent to the parents of all 12-13 year old adolescents in the city of Uppsala (n = 3838). Parents were asked to complete a questionnaire together with their child on EID, asthma and allergy, consequences for daily life (wheeze, day time- and nocturnal dyspnea) and physical activity. The response rate was 60% (n = 2309). Results: Fourteen percent (n = 330) reported EID, i.e. had experienced an attack of shortness of breath that occurred after strenuous activity within the last 12 months. Female gender, ever-asthma and rhinitis were independently associated with an increased risk of EID. Ever-asthma was reported by 14.6% (n = 338), and 5.4% (n = 128) had both EID and ever-asthma. Sixty-one percent (n = 202) of the participants with EID did not have a diagnosis of asthma. In addition to rhinitis, participants with EID reported current wheeze and day-time as well as nocturnal dyspnea more often. than the group without EID. No difference was found in the level of physical activity between participants with and without EID. Conclusion: Adolescents with undiagnosed exercise-induced dyspnea have respiratory symptoms and are affected in daily life but have the same level of physical activity as adolescents without exercise-induced respiratory symptoms. 

  • 25.
    Ludviksdottir, Dora
    et al.
    Univ Hosp, Dept Allergy, Reykjavik, Iceland.;Univ Hosp, Dept Resp Med, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Valtysdottir, Sigridur Th.
    Univ Hosp, Ctr Rheumatol Res, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Hällgren, Roger
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Gudbjornsson, Bjorn
    Univ Hosp, Ctr Rheumatol Res, Reykjavik, Iceland.;Univ Iceland, Fac Med, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Eight-year follow-up of airway hyperresponsiveness in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome2017In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 122, no 1, p. 51-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate in a longitudinal study the influence of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) on lung function in patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome (pSS). Methods: Lung function was studied over an eight-year period in 15 patients who fulfilled the Copenhagen criteria for primary Sjogren's syndrome and who were covered in our earlier published study on AHR in patients with Sjogren's syndrome. Standard spirometry and measurements of lung volumes, diffusing capacity (DLCO), and AHR to methacholine were performed. Results: A significant decline over time was found in total lung capacity (TLC), vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), functional residual capacity (FRC), and expiratory midflows (FEF50). A sign of small airway obstruction (decrease in FEF50) at entry correlated with VC at follow-up (r = .8, P < .003), and the individual change in FEF50 during the observation period correlated with the individual change in VC (r = .6, P < .05). Six patients had increased AHR, and three of them had decreased DLCO. Six of the patients progressively reduced DLCO over time, and five of them had spirometric signs of increased small airway obstruction. Conclusions: During this eight-year follow-up we observed that one-third of the patients with pSS developed a significant reduction in lung function. Our findings suggest that small airways obstruction and AHR are associated with reduction of VC and development of impaired DLCO as a sign of interstitial lung disease in this group of patients.

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  • 26. Nieminen, Tuomo
    et al.
    Uusitalo, Hannu
    Turjanmaa, Väinö
    Bjärnhall, Gunilla
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Mäenpää, Jukka
    Ropo, Auli
    Heikkilä, Pekka
    Kähönen, Mika
    Association between low plasma levels of ophthalmic timolol and haemodynamics in glaucoma patients.2005In: Eur J Clin Pharmacol, Vol. 61, p. 369-374Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Urell, Charlotte
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotheraphy. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Emtner, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotheraphy.
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Tenling, Arne
    Breidenskog, Marie
    Westerdahl, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Deep breathing exercises with positive expiratory pressure at a higher rate improve oxygenation in the early period after cardiac surgery: a randomised controlled trial2010In: European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, ISSN 1010-7940, E-ISSN 1873-734X, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 162-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: In addition to early mobilisation, a variety of breathing exercises are used to prevent postoperative pulmonary complications after cardiac surgery. The optimal duration of the treatment is not well evaluated. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 30 versus 10 deep breaths hourly, while awake, with positive expiratory pressure on oxygenation and pulmonary function the first days after cardiac surgery.

    Methods: A total of 181 patients, undergoing cardiac surgery, were randomised into a treatment group, performing 30 deep breaths hourly the first postoperative days, or into a control group performing 10 deep breaths hourly. The main outcome measurement arterial blood gases and the secondary outcome pulmonary function, evaluated with spirometry, were determined on the second postoperative day.

    Results: Preoperatively, both study groups were similar in terms of age, SpO(2), forced expiratory volume in 1s and New York Heart Association classification. On the second postoperative day, arterial oxygen tension (PaO(2)) was 8.9±1.7kPa in the treatment group and 8.1±1.4kPa in the control group (p=0.004). Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) was 92.7±3.7% in the treatment group and 91.1±3.8% in the control group (p=0.016). There were no differences in measured lung function between the groups or in compliance to the breathing exercises. Compliance was 65% of possible breathing sessions.

    Conclusions: A significantly increased oxygenation was found in patients performing 30 deep breaths the first two postoperative days compared with control patients performing 10 deep breaths hourly. These results support the implementation of a higher rate of deep breathing exercises in the initial phase after cardiac surgery.

  • 28.
    Urell, Charlotte
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Emtner, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotherapy. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Westerdahl, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Respiratory muscle strength is not decreased in patients undergoing cardiac surgery2016In: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery, ISSN 1749-8090, E-ISSN 1749-8090, Vol. 11, article id 41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Postoperative pulmonary impairments are significant complications after cardiac surgery. Decreased respiratory muscle strength could be one reason for impaired lung function in the postoperative period. The primary aim of this study was to describe respiratory muscle strength before and two months after cardiac surgery. A secondary aim was to describe possible associations between respiratory muscle strength and lung function.

    METHODS: In this prospective observational study 36 adult cardiac surgery patients (67 ± 10 years) were studied. Respiratory muscle strength and lung function were measured before and two months after surgery.

    RESULTS: Pre- and postoperative respiratory muscle strength was in accordance with predicted values; MIP was 78 ± 24 cmH2O preoperatively and 73 ± 22 cmH2O at two months follow-up (p = 0.19). MEP was 122 ± 33 cmH2O preoperatively and 115 ± 38 cmH2O at two months follow-up (p = 0.18). Preoperative lung function was in accordance with predicted values, but was significantly decreased postoperatively. At two-months follow-up there was a moderate correlation between MIP and FEV1 (r = 0.43, p = 0.009).

    CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory muscle strength was not impaired, either before or two months after cardiac surgery. The reason for postoperative lung function alteration is not yet known. Interventions aimed at restore an optimal postoperative lung function should focus on other interventions then respiratory muscle strength training.

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  • 29.
    Urell, Charlotte
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotheraphy.
    Westerdahl, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Janson, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Emtner, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotheraphy.
    Lung Function Before and Two Days After Open-Heart Surgery2012In: Critical Care Research and Practice, ISSN 2090-1313, p. Article ID:-291628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reduced lung volumes and atelectasis are common after open-heart surgery, and pronounced restrictive lung volume impairmenthas been found. The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing lung volumes on the second postoperative day. Open-heart surgery patients (n = 107, 68 yrs, 80% male) performed spirometry both before surgery and on the second postoperative day. The factors influencing postoperative lung volumes and decrease in lung volumes were investigated with univariate and multivariate analyses. Associations between pain (measured by numeric rating scale) and decrease in postoperative lung volumes were calculated with Spearman rank correlation test. Lung volumes decreased by 50% and were less than 40% of the predictive values postoperatively. Patients with BMI > 25 had lower postoperative inspiratory capacity (IC) (33% ± 14% pred.) than normalweight patients (39% ± 15% pred.), (P = 0.04).More pain during mobilisation was associated with higher decreases in postoperative lung volumes (VC: r = 0.33, P = 0.001; FEV1: r = 0.35, P ≤ 0.0001; IC: r = 0.25, P = 0.01). Patients with high BMI are a risk group for decreased postoperative lung volumes and should therefore receive extra attention during postoperative care. As pain is related to a larger decrease in postoperative lung volumes, optimal pain relief for the patients should be identified.

  • 30. Uusitalo, H.
    et al.
    Kähönen, M.
    Ropo, A.
    Mäenpää, J.
    Bjärnhall, Gunilla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Turjanmaa, V.
    Improved systemic safety and risk-benefit ratio of topical 0.1% timolol hydrogel compared with 0.5% timolol aqueous solution in the treatment of glaucoma2006In: Graefe's Archives for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, ISSN 0721-832X, E-ISSN 1435-702X, Vol. 244, no 11, p. 1491-1496Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to compare the systemic safety and risk-benefit ratio of 0.1% timolol hydrogel and 0.5% aqueous timolol eye drops in the treatment of glaucoma.

    An 8-week randomised, double-blind, cross-over, multicentre study. A total of 25 patients with primary open-angle glaucoma, exfoliation glaucoma, or ocular hypertension was enrolled. After completing a wash-out period, patients were randomly chosen to receive either 0.1% timolol hydrogel once daily or 0.5% aqueous timolol eye drops twice daily. Intraocular pressure and heart rate during rest and exercise, head-up tilt test results, spirometry readings, and plasma concentrations of timolol were recorded. The risk-benefit ratio was determined by calculating the ratio between several heart rate endpoints and the change in intraocular pressure (IOP).

    The mean drug-induced change in the peak heart rate during exercise was -13.5 beats/min (SD 7.6) in the 0.5% aqueous timolol group and -5.1 beats/min (SD 6.7) in the 0.1% timolol hydrogel group (P < 0.001; 95% CI 4.06-12.18). There was no significant difference in the IOP-reducing efficacy between these compounds. The risk-benefit ratio was significantly improved when 0.1% timolol hydrogel was used, compared with 0.5% aqueous timolol in the exercise test. In the head-up tilt test the risk-benefit ratio was significantly improved at rest (P < 0.05), at 1 min (P < 0.05) and at 5 min (P < 0.001) after patients had received 0.1% timolol hydrogel. There were, however, no differences in spirometry readings. After patients had been treated with 0.1% timolol hydrogel, plasma concentrations of timolol were 1/6 (at peak) and 1/50 (at trough) of those of 0.5% aqueous timolol.

    Drug-induced changes in the peak heart rate, and head-up tilt test results as well as plasma concentrations of timolol, were significantly more pronounced after treatment with 0.5% aqueous timolol than with 0.1% timolol hydrogel. Because of the statistically similar IOP-reducing efficacy of these formulations the risk-benefit ratio was significantly improved when patients used 0.1% timolol hydrogel instead of 0.5% aqueous timolol.

  • 31.
    Westerdahl, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Urell, Charlotte
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotheraphy.
    Jonsson, Marcus
    Örebro universitetssjukhus.
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Örebro Universitet.
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Emtner, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiotheraphy. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine and Allergology.
    Deep Breathing Exercises Performed 2 Months Following Cardiac Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial2014In: JOURNAL OF CARDIOPULMONARY REHABILITATION AND PREVENTION, ISSN 1932-7501, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 34-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Postoperative breathing exercises are recommended to cardiac surgery patients. Instructions concerning how long patients should continue exercises after discharge vary, and the significance of treatment needs to be determined. Our aim was to assess the effects of home-based deep breathing exercises performed with a positive expiratory pressure device for 2 months following cardiac surgery. METHODS: The study design was a prospective, single-blinded, parallel-group, randomized trial. Patients performing breathing exercises 2 months after cardiac surgery (n = 159) were compared with a control group (n = 154) performing no breathing exercises after discharge. The intervention consisted of 30 slow deep breaths performed with a positive expiratory pressure device (10-15 cm H2O), 5 times a day, during the first 2 months after surgery. The outcomes were lung function measurements, oxygen saturation, thoracic excursion mobility, subjective perception of breathing and pain, patient-perceived quality of recovery (40-Item Quality of Recovery score), health-related quality of life (36-Item Short Form Health Survey), and self-reported respiratory tract infection/pneumonia and antibiotic treatment. RESULTS: Two months postoperatively, the patients had significantly reduced lung function, with a mean decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second to 93 +/- 12% (P< .001) of preoperative values. Oxygenation had returned to preoperative values, and 5 of 8 aspects in the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey were improved compared with preoperative values (P< .01). There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the measured outcomes. CONCLUSION: No significant differences in lung function, subjective perceptions, or quality of life were found between patients performing home-based deep breathing exercises and control patients 2 months after cardiac surgery.

  • 32.
    Öberg, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Neuropediatrics/Paediatric oncology.
    Genberg, Margareta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Research and Development, Gävleborg.
    Malinovschi, Andrei
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Hedenström, Hans
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology.
    Frisk, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Research group (Dept. of women´s and children´s health), Neuropediatrics/Paediatric oncology.
    Exercise capacity in young adults after hematopoietic cell transplantation in childhood.2018In: American Journal of Transplantation, ISSN 1600-6135, E-ISSN 1600-6143, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 417-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A symptom-limited incremental cycle ergometer test was performed in 17 young adult patients treated with hematopoietic cell transplantation and total body irradiation for hematologic malignancies during childhood. These 17 young adult patients were compared with 17 sex- and age-matched healthy control subjects. Assessments of pulmonary function, cardiac function, body composition, and levels of growth hormone were made. The median follow-up was 17.7 years. Patients achieved 63.2% of the predicted peak workload, whereas controls achieved 96.1% (P < .001). All patients, but only 1 control, failed to achieve a peak workload >80% (P < .001). Fat-free mass was significantly lower (43.5 vs 57.6 kg, P < .001) and fat mass percentage was significantly higher (31.8% vs 24.2%, P = .011) in the patients. The peak workload adjusted for fat-free mass was significantly lower in the patients (3.3 vs 4.3, P < .001). In the patients, peak workload correlated significantly with total lung capacity (r = .54, P = .025). In summary, long-term survivors have significantly decreased exercise capacity compared with healthy individuals. Together with their altered body composition, this may predispose them to cardiovascular disease.

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