Change search
Refine search result
1 - 12 of 12
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Goscinski, Gunilla
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Tano, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Löwdin, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Sjölin, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Propensity to release endotoxin after two repeated doses of cefuroxime in an in vitro kinetic model: Higher release after the second dose2007In: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, ISSN 0305-7453, E-ISSN 1460-2091, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 328-333Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To study endotoxin release from two strains of Escherichia coli after exposure to two repeated doses of cefuroxime in an in vitro kinetic model.

    Methods: Cefuroxime in concentrations simulating human pharmacokinetics was added to the bacterial solution with a repeated dose after 12 h. In another experiment, tobramycin was given concomitantly with the second dose of cefuroxime. Samples for viable counts and endotoxin analyses were drawn before the addition of antibiotics and at 2 and 4 h after each dose.

    Results: The propensity to release endotoxin, expressed as log10 endotoxin release (EU)/log10 killed bacteria, was higher after the second than after the first dose, 0.80 ± 0.04 and 0.65 ± 0.01, respectively, in the ATCC strain and 0.80 ± 0.04 and 0.65 ± 0.02, respectively, in the clinical strain (P < 0.001). Endotoxin was released earlier after the second dose (P < 0.001). Addition of tobramycin at the second dose reduced the endotoxin release in comparison with that of cefuroxime alone (P < 0.001).

    Conclusions: The propensity to liberate endotoxin is higher after the second dose of cefuroxime than after the first, resulting in a higher release of endotoxin than expected from bacterial count. The release after the second dose can be reduced by the addition of tobramycin.

  • 2.
    Kurland, Siri
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Furebring, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infection medicine.
    Löwdin, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Eliasson, E.
    Karolinska Inst, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Lab Med, Clin Pharmacol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nielsen, Elisabet I.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Sjölin, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Pharmacokinetics of Caspofungin in Critically Ill Patients in Relation to Liver Dysfunction: Differential Impact of Plasma Albumin and Bilirubin Levels2019In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ISSN 0066-4804, E-ISSN 1098-6596, Vol. 63, no 6, article id e02466-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Caspofungin has a liver-dependent metabolism. Reduction of the dose is recommended based on Child-Pugh (C-P) score. In critically ill patients, drug pharmacokinetics (PK) may be altered. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of abnormal liver function tests, increased C-P scores, their effects on caspofungin PK, and whether pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) targets were attained in patients with suspected candidiasis. Intensive care unit patients receiving caspofungin were prospectively included. PK parameters were determined on days 2, 5, and 10, and their correlations to the individual liver function tests and the C-P score were analyzed. Forty-six patients were included with C-P class A (n = 5), B (n = 40), and C (n = 1). On day 5 (steady state), the median and interquartile range for area under the curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC(0-24)), clearance (CL), and central volume of distribution (V-1) were 57.8 (51.6 to 69.8) mg.h/liter, 0.88 (0.78 to 1.04) liters/h, and 11.9 (9.6 to 13.1) liters, respectively. The C-P score did not correlate with AUC(0-24) (r = 0.03; P = 0.84), CL (r = -0.07; P = 0.68), or V-1 (r = 0.19; P = 0.26), but there was a bilirubin-driven negative correlation with the elimination rate constant (r = -0.46; P = 0.004). Hypoalbuminemia correlated with low AUC(0-24) (r = 0.45; P = 0.005) and was associated with higher clearance (r = -0.31; P = 0.062) and somewhat higher V-1 (r = -0.15; P = 0.37), resulting in a negative correlation with the elimination rate constant (r = -0.34; P = 0.042). For Candida strains with minimal inhibitory concentrations of >= 0.064 mu g/ml, PK/PD targets were not attained in all patients. The caspofungin dose should not be reduced in critically ill patients in the absence of cirrhosis, and we advise against the use of the C-P score in patients with trauma- or sepsis-induced liver injury.

  • 3.
    Kurland, Siri
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Furebring, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Löwdin, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Nielsen, Elisabet I.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Sjölin, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Elimination ability of caspofungin in critically ill patients in relation to liver dysfunction in an ICU setting2017In: Mycoses (Berlin), ISSN 0933-7407, E-ISSN 1439-0507, Vol. 60, p. 225-225Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Lignell, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Johansson, A.
    Löwdin, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Cars, Otto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Sjölin, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    A new in-vitro kinetic model to study the pharmacodynamics of antifungal agents: inhibition of the fungicidal activity of amphotericin B against Candida albicans by voriconazole2007In: Clinical Microbiology and Infection, ISSN 1198-743X, E-ISSN 1469-0691, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 613-619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate a new in-vitro kinetic model for the combination of two drugs with different half-lives, and to use this model for the study of the pharmacodynamic effects of amphotericin B and voriconazole, alone or in combination, against a strain of Candida albicans. Bolus doses of voriconazole and amphotericin B were administered to a starting inoculum of C. albicans. Antifungal-containing medium was eliminated and replaced by fresh medium using a peristaltic pump, with the flow-rate adjusted to obtain the desired half-life of the drug with the shorter half-life. A computer-controlled dosing pump compensated for the agent with the longer half-life. Voriconazole and amphotericin B half-lives were set to 6 and 24 h, respectively. Pharmacokinetic parameters were close to target values when both single doses and sequential doses were simulated. Voriconazole and amphotericin B administered alone demonstrated fungistatic and fungicidal activity, respectively. Simultaneous administration resulted in fungicidal activity, whereas pre-exposure of C. albicans to voriconazole, followed by amphotericin at 8 and 32 h, resulted in fungistatic activity similar to that observed with voriconazole alone. Using this model, which allowed a combination of antifungal agents with different half-lives, it was possible to demonstrate an antagonistic effect of voriconazole on the fungicidal activity of amphotericin B. The characteristics and clinical relevance of this interaction require further investigation.

  • 5.
    Lignell, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Löwdin, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Cars, Otto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Chryssanthou, Erja
    Sjölin, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Posaconazole in human serum: A greater pharmacodynamic effect than predicted by the non-protein-bound serum concentration2011In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ISSN 0066-4804, E-ISSN 1098-6596, Vol. 55, no 7, p. 3099-3104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is generally accepted that only the unbound fraction of a drug is pharmacologically active. Posaconazole is an antifungal agent with a protein binding of 98 to 99%. Taking into account the degree of protein binding, plasma levels in patients, and MIC levels of susceptible strains, it can be assumed that the free concentration of posaconazole sometimes will be too low to exert the expected antifungal effect. The aim was therefore to test the activity of posaconazole in serum in comparison with that of the calculated unbound concentrations in protein-free media. Significant differences (P < 0.05) from the serum control were found at serum concentrations of posaconazole of 1.0 and 0.10 mg/liter, with calculated free concentrations corresponding to 1× MIC and 0.1× MIC, respectively, against one Candida lusitaniae strain selected for proof of principle. In RPMI 1640, the corresponding calculated unbound concentration of 0.015 mg/liter resulted in a significant effect, whereas that of 0.0015 mg/liter did not. Also, against seven additional Candida strains tested, there was an effect of the low posaconazole concentration in serum, in contrast to the results in RPMI 1640. Fluconazole, a low-grade-protein-bound antifungal, was used for comparison at corresponding concentrations in serum and RPMI 1640. No effect was observed at the serum concentration, resulting in a calculated unbound concentration of 0.1× MIC. In summary, there was a substantially greater pharmacodynamic effect of posaconazole in human serum than could be predicted by the non-protein-bound serum concentration. A flux from serum protein-bound to fungal lanosterol 14α-demethylase-bound posaconazole is suggested.

  • 6.
    Nielsen, Elisabet I.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Division of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Therapy.
    Viberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Division of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Therapy.
    Löwdin, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Cars, Otto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Karlsson, Mats O.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Division of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Therapy.
    Sandström, Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Division of Pharmacokinetics and Drug Therapy.
    Semimechanistic pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model for assessment of activity of antibacterial agents from time-kill curve experiments2007In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ISSN 0066-4804, E-ISSN 1098-6596, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 128-136Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dosing of antibacterial agents is generally based on point estimates of the effect, even though bacteria exposed to antibiotics show complex kinetic behaviors. The use of the whole time course of the observed effects would be more advantageous. The aim of the present study was to develop a semimechanistic pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) model characterizing the events seen in a bacterial system when it is exposed to antibacterial agents with different mechanisms of action. Time-kill curve experiments were performed with a strain of Streptococcus pyogenes exposed to a wide range of concentrations of the following antibiotics: benzylpenicillin, cefuroxime, erythromycin, moxifloxacin, and vancomycin. Bacterial counts were monitored with frequent sampling during the experiment. A simultaneous fit of all data was accomplished. The degradation of the drugs was monitored and corrected for in the model, and a link model was used to account for an effect delay. In the final PK/PD model, the total bacterial population was divided into two subpopulations: one growing drug-susceptible population and one resting insusceptible population. The drug effect was included as an increase of the killing rate of bacteria in the susceptible state, according to a maximum-effect (Emax) model. An internal model validation showed that the model was robust and had good predictability. In conclusion, for all drugs, the final PK/PD model successfully described bacterial growth and killing kinetics when the bacteria were exposed to different antibiotic concentrations. The semimechanistic model that was developed might, after further refinement, serve as a tool for the development of optimal dosing strategies for antibacterial agents.

  • 7.
    Odenholt, I
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Lowdin, E
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Gustafsson, I
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Cars, O
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Infektion.
    Pharmacodynamics of moxifloxacin against Streptococcus pyogenes in an invitro kinetic model.2002In: Antimicrob Agents Chemother, Vol. 46, p. 2046-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Odenholt, Inga
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Infektion.
    Cars, Otto
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Löwdin, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Pharmacodynamic studies of amoxicillin against Streptococcus pneumoniae: comparison of a new pharmacokinetically enhanced formulation (2000 mg twice daily) with standard dosage regimens.2004In: J Antimicrob Chemother, ISSN 0305-7453, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 1062-6Article in journal (Other scientific)
  • 9.
    Odenholt, Inga
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Löwdin, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Cars, Otto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Pharmacodynamic effects of telavancin against methicillin-resistant and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains in the presence of human albumin or serum and in an in vitro kinetic model2007In: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, ISSN 0066-4804, E-ISSN 1098-6596, Vol. 51, no 9, p. 3311-3316Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Telavancin is a novel bactericidal lipoglycopeptide with multiple mechanisms of action against gram-positive pathogens. The aim of this study was to describe the dynamics of the antimicrobial effect of telavancin against two strains of Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin susceptible and methicillin resistant) in an in vitro kinetic model with simulated human pharmacokinetics. Also, static experiments were performed to determine the rate and extent of killing by telavancin in the presence and absence of human albumin and human serum. Experiments in broth and in nutrient-depleted medium were performed to study the rate and extent of killing by telavancin of bacteria in different growth phases. In the in vitro kinetic model regrowth was noted at 24 h for both strains when exposed to initial concentrations below 5 mg/liter. There was a >3-log10 killing at all concentrations from 0.5 x MIC and above at 24 h both in broth and in the presence of 40-g/liter human albumin. In contrast to the methicillin-susceptible strain, the methicillin-resistant strain in 40-g/liter human albumin showed a regrowth at concentrations of 0.5 x MIC and 1x MIC at 24 h. At all the other concentrations >3-log10 killing was seen at 24 h. Concordant results were seen in 50% human serum. At a target area under the curve/MIC ratio of 50 (corresponding to the human dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight, administered intravenously), >3-log10 killing was observed at 6 to 8 h. Unlike most antibiotics, telavancin was able to kill both strains in a nongrowing phase.

  • 10.
    Tano, E
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Cars, O
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Lowdin, E
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Pharmacodynamic studies of moxifloxacin and erythromycin against intracellular Legionella pneumophila in an in vitro kinetic model.2005In: J Antimicrob Chemother, ISSN 0305-7453, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 240-2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Tängdén, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Adler, Marlen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Cars, Otto
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Sandegren, Linus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Löwdin, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Frequent emergence of porin-deficient subpopulations with reduced carbapenem susceptibility in ESBL-producing Escherichia coli during exposure to ertapenem in an in vitro pharmacokinetic model2013In: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, ISSN 0305-7453, E-ISSN 1460-2091, Vol. 68, no 6, p. 1319-1326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES:

    Ertapenem resistance is increasing in Enterobacteriaceae. The production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and reduced expression of outer membrane porins are major mechanisms of resistance in ertapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. Less is known of ertapenem resistance in Escherichia coli. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of ESBL production in E. coli on the antibacterial activity of ertapenem.

    METHODS:

    Two E. coli strains, with and without ESBL production, were exposed to ertapenem in vitro for 48 h at concentrations simulating human pharmacokinetics with conventional and higher dosages.

    RESULTS:

    Isolates with non-susceptibility to ertapenem (MICs 0.75-1.5 mg/L) were detected after five of nine time-kill experiments with the ESBL-producing strain. All of these isolates had ompR mutations, which reduce the expression of outer membrane porins OmpF and OmpC. Higher dosage did not prevent selection of porin-deficient subpopulations. No mutants were detected after experiments with the non-ESBL-producing strain. Compared with other experiments, experiments with ompR mutants detected in endpoint samples showed significantly less bacterial killing after the second dose of ertapenem. Impaired antibacterial activity against E. coli with ESBL production and ompR mutation was also demonstrated in time-kill experiments with static antibiotic concentrations.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The combination of ESBL production and porin loss in E. coli can result in reduced susceptibility to ertapenem. Porin-deficient subpopulations frequently emerged in ESBL-producing E. coli during exposure to ertapenem at concentrations simulating human pharmacokinetics. Inappropriate use of ertapenem should be avoided to minimize the risk of selection of ESBL-producing bacteria with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems.

  • 12.
    Tängdén, Thomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Furebring, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Löwdin, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Werner, Sonja
    Korsallergi mellan penicilliner och övriga betalaktam­antibiotikaRisken är betydligt mindre än man tidigare trott: [Cross allergy between penicillins and other beta lactam antibiotics--the risk is much less than previously thought]2015In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 112, article id C9A4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid misstänkt IgE-medierad allergi mot antibiotika bör ansvarig läkare dokumentera substans, symtom och förlopp i journalen, informera patienten och skriva remiss för allergiutredning.Patienter med anafylaxi, angio-ödem eller annan livshotande reaktion mot penicillin bör inte ånyo behandlas med penicilliner eller andra betalaktamantibio-tika.Risken för korsallergi mot cefa-losporiner och karbapenemer hos patienter med misstänkt penicillinallergi är betydligt lägre än vad man tidigare har trott.Till patienter med lindriga symtom och låg misstanke om IgE-medierad penicillinallergi kan man särskilt vid allvarliga infektioner överväga att ge beta-laktamantibiotika direkt eller efter provdos.

1 - 12 of 12
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf