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  • 1.
    Abbott, Benjamin
    et al.
    Univ Rennes 1, OSUR, CNRS, ECOBIO,UMR 6553, Rennes, France.
    Baranov, Viktor
    Leibniz Inst Freshwater Ecol & Inland Fisheries, Berlin, Germany.
    Mendoza-Lera, Clara
    Ctr LyonVilleurbanne, UR MALY, Irstea, F-69616 Villeurbanne, France.
    Nikolakopoulou, Myrto
    Naturalea, Barcelona, Spain.
    Harjung, Astrid
    Univ Barcelona, E-08007 Barcelona, Spain.
    Kolbe, Tamara
    Univ Rennes 1, CNRS, OSURGeosci Rennes, UMR 6118, F-35014 Rennes, France.
    Balasubramanian, Mukundh
    BioSistemika Ltd, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Vaessen, Timothy N
    CEAB CSIC, Girona, Spain.
    Ciocca, Francesco
    Silixa, Elstree, England.
    Campeau, Audrey
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Wallin, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Romeijn, Paul
    Univ Birmingham, Sch Geog Earth & Environm Sci, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England.
    Antonelli, Marta
    LIST, Esch Sur Alzette, Luxembourg.
    Goncalves, José
    Natl Inst Biol, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Datry, Thibault
    Ctr LyonVilleurbanne, UR MALY, Irstea, F-69616 Villeurbanne, France.
    Laverman, Anniet
    Univ Rennes 1, OSUR, CNRS, ECOBIO,UMR 6553, Rennes, France.
    de Dreuzý, Jean-Raynald
    Univ Rennes 1, CNRS, OSURGeosci Rennes, UMR 6118, F-35014 Rennes, France.
    David, Hannah M.
    Univ Birmingham, Sch Geog Earth & Environm Sci, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England.
    Krause, Stefan
    Univ Birmingham, Sch Geog Earth & Environm Sci, Birmingham B15 2TT, W Midlands, England.
    Oldham, Carolyn
    Univ Western Australia, Civil Environm & Min Engn, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Pinay, Gilles
    Univ Rennes 1, OSUR, CNRS, ECOBIO,UMR 6553, Rennes, France.
    Using multi-tracer inference to move beyond single-catchment ecohydrology2016In: Earth-Science Reviews, ISSN 0012-8252, E-ISSN 1872-6828, Vol. 160, p. 19-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protecting or restoring aquatic ecosystems in the face of growing anthropogenic pressures requires an understanding of hydrological and biogeochemical functioning across multiple spatial and temporal scales. Recent technological and methodological advances have vastly increased the number and diversity of hydrological, biogeochemical, and ecological tracers available, providing potentially powerful tools to improve understanding of fundamental problems in ecohydrology, notably: 1. Identifying spatially explicit flowpaths, 2. Quantifying water residence time, and 3. Quantifying and localizing biogeochemical transformation. In this review, we synthesize the history of hydrological and biogeochemical theory, summarize modem tracer methods, and discuss how improved understanding of flowpath, residence time, and biogeochemical transformation can help ecohydrology move beyond description of site-specific heterogeneity. We focus on using multiple tracers with contrasting characteristics (crossing proxies) to infer ecosystem functioning across multiple scales. Specifically, we present how crossed proxies could test recent ecohydrological theory, combining the concepts of hotspots and hot moments with the Damkohler number in what we call the HotDam framework.

  • 2.
    Campeau, Audrey
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Carbon in Boreal Streams: Isotopic Tracing of Terrestrial Sources2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The boreal biome comprises vast areas of coniferous forests, dotted with millions of peatlands. Plants harbouring these ecosystems fix CO2 from the atmosphere, which is later incorporated into the vegetation biomass and subsequently buried in soils. Over the course of millennia, this process has led to the formation of a large repository of organic C, currently stored in boreal soils. Streams draining this landscape are typically enriched with carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). As a consequence, streams tend to emit CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere, two potent greenhouse gases, and thus contribute positively to radiative climate forcing. The sources fuelling C to boreal streams are not well understood. This thesis aims to unravel these sources, and promote a better consolidation of terrestrial and aquatic C biogeochemical processes. The work is largely based on stable and radiogenic C isotope characterization of various dissolved C forms in stream and groundwater, within contrasting ecosystem types across Sweden.

    This thesis identifies boreal soils as the main source of CO2 in streams. Soil respiration (i.e. biogenic sources) overwhelmingly supply CO2 to streams, leaving only a few exceptions where geogenic CO2 sources were present. An array of biological processes also transform CO2 during its transport from soils to streams. These include; methanogenesis, aquatic DOC mineralization and primary production. The majority of C in boreal streams is sustained by the decomposition of recent photosynthates, with ancient C substrates holding a negligible share of the total C export. While these results suggest that the repository of ancient soil organic C is currently stable, within boreal forests and peatlands, the close connection with recently occurring photosynthesis suggest that forecasted alterations in plant C allocation patterns, driven by climate and land-use changes, will produce a rapid response in stream CO2 emissions. Isotopic characterization of C in stream and groundwater can help reveal these sources and transformation processes, but its interpretation must be made with care.

  • 3.
    Campeau, Audrey
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Uppsala University, Department of Air Water and Landscape.
    Dataset for manuscript : Stable carbon isotopes reveal soil-stream DIC linkages in contrasting headwater catchments2018Data set
  • 4.
    Campeau, Audrey
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Datasets for Rilm et al., (2019) Spectral decomposition of high-frequency CO2 concentrations reveals soil-stream linkages. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences.2019Data set
  • 5.
    Campeau, Audrey
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Lennart Hjelms Vag 9, S-75651 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Amvrosiadi, Nino
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Billett, Mike
    Garnett, Mark
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Öquist, Mats
    Wallin, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Current forest carbon fixation fuels stream CO2 emissions2019In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, article id 1876Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stream CO2 emissions contribute significantly to atmospheric climate forcing. While there are strong indications that groundwater inputs sustain these emissions, the specific biogeochemical pathways and timescales involved in this lateral CO2 export are still obscure. Here, via an extensive radiocarbon (C-14) characterisation of CO2 and DOC in stream water and its groundwater sources in an old-growth boreal forest, we demonstrate that the C-14-CO2 is consistently in tune with the current atmospheric C-14-CO2 level and shows little association with the C-14-DOC in the same waters. Our findings thus indicate that stream CO2 emissions act as a shortcut that returns CO2 recently fixed by the forest vegetation to the atmosphere. Our results expose a positive feedback mechanism within the C budget of forested catchments, where stream CO2 emissions will be highly sensitive to changes in forest C allocation patterns associated with climate and land-use changes.

  • 6.
    Campeau, Audrey
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Billett, Michael
    Biological and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, UK.
    Garnett, Mark
    NERC Radiocarbon Facility, Scottish Enterprise Technology Park, East Kilbride, Glasgow, UK.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Leach, Jason
    Department of Geography, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, Canada.
    Nilsson, Mats
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Öquist, Mats
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Wallin, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Aquatic export of young dissolved and gaseous carbon from a pristine boreal fen: Implications for peat carbon stock stability2017In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 23, no 12, p. 5523-5536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The stability of northern peatland's carbon (C) store under changing climate is of major concern for the global C cycle. The aquatic export of C from boreal peatlands is recognized as both a critical pathway for the remobilization of peat C stocks as well as a major component of the net ecosystem C balance (NECB). Here, we present a full year characterization of radiocarbon content (14C) of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) exported from a boreal peatland catchment coupled with 14C characterization of the catchment's peat profile of the same C species. The age of aquatic C in runoff varied little throughout the year and appeared to be sustained by recently fixed C from the atmosphere (<60 years), despite stream DOC, CO2, and CH4 primarily being sourced from deep peat horizons (2–4 m) near the mire's outlet. In fact, the 14C content of DOC, CO2, and CH4 across the entire peat profile was considerably enriched with postbomb C compared with the solid peat material. Overall, our results demonstrate little to no mobilization of ancient C stocks from this boreal peatland and a relatively large resilience of the source of aquatic C export to forecasted hydroclimatic changes.

  • 7.
    Campeau, Audrey
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Nilsson, Mats
    Klemedtsson, Leif
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Leith, Fraser
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Öquist, Mats
    Wallin, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Stable carbon isotopes reveal soil - stream DIC linkages in contrasting headwater catchments2018In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, ISSN 2169-8953, E-ISSN 2169-8961, Vol. 123, no 1, p. 149-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Large CO2 evasion to the atmosphere occurs as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is transported from soils to streams. While this physical process has been the focus of multiple studies, less is known about the underlying biogeochemical transformations that accompany this transfer of C from soils to streams. Here we used patterns in stream water and groundwater C-13-DIC values within three headwater catchments with contrasting land cover to identify the sources and processes regulating DIC during its transport. We found that although considerable CO2 evasion occurs as DIC is transported from soils to streams, there were also other processes affecting the DIC pool. Methane production and mixing of C sources, associated with different types and spatial distribution of peat-rich areas within each catchment, had a significant influence on the C-13-DIC values in both soils and streams. These processes represent an additional control on C-13-DIC values and the catchment-scale cycling of DIC across different northern landscape types. The results from this study demonstrate that the transport of DIC from soils to streams results in more than just rapid CO2 evasion to the atmosphere but also represents a channel of C transformation, which questions some of our current conceptualizations of C cycling at the landscape scale. Plain Language Summary Large carbon dioxide emission to the atmosphere occurs as rainwater percolates through soils and into streams. This physical process is important for the global carbon cycle and has been the focus of multiple studies. However, less is known about the underlying processes that accompanies this transfer of carbon dioxide from soils to streams. Here we analyze the stable isotope composition of soil and stream carbon dioxide and demonstrate that methane production and mixing of carbon sources also occur in soils and streams. These processes were linked to different types and configurations of peat-rich areas, for example, bogs, fens, and riparian zones, found within each of the three studied catchments. Our results therefore demonstrate that the export of carbon dioxide from soils to streams not only results in emissions to the atmosphere but also represents a channel of transformation. This questions some of our current conceptualization of the catchment-scale cycling of carbon dioxide.

  • 8.
    Campeau, Audrey
    et al.
    Université du Québec à Montréal.
    Del Giorgio, Paul A.
    Université du Québec à Montréal.
    Patterns in CH4 and CO2 concentrations across boreal rivers: Major drivers and implications for fluvial greenhouse emissions under climate change scenarios2014In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 1075-1088Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is now widely accepted that boreal rivers and streams are regionally significant sources of carbon dioxide (CO2), yet their role as methane (CH4) emitters, as well as the sensitivity of these greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to climate change, are still largely undefined. In this study, we explore the large-scale patterns of fluvial CO2 and CH4 partial pressure (pCO(2),pCH(4)) and gas exchange (k) relative to a set of key, climate-sensitive river variables across 46 streams and rivers in two distinct boreal landscapes of Northern Quebec. We use the resulting models to determine the direction and magnitude of C-gas emissions from these boreal fluvial networks under scenarios of climate change. River pCO(2) and pCH(4) were positively correlated, although the latter was two orders of magnitude more variable. We provide evidence that in-stream metabolism strongly influences the dynamics of surface water pCO(2) and pCH(4), but whereas pCO(2) is not influenced by temperature in the surveyed streams and rivers, pCH(4) appears to be strongly temperature-dependent. The major predictors of ambient gas concentrations and exchange were water temperature, velocity, and DOC, and the resulting models indicate that total GHG emissions (C-CO2 equivalent) from the entire network may increase between by 13 to 68% under plausible scenarios of climate change over the next 50years. These predicted increases in fluvial GHG emissions are mostly driven by a steep increase in the contribution of CH4 (from 36 to over 50% of total CO2-equivalents). The current role of boreal fluvial networks as major landscape sources of C is thus likely to expand, mainly driven by large increases in fluvial CH4 emissions.

  • 9.
    Campeau, Audrey
    et al.
    Université du Québec à Montréal.
    Lapierre, Jean-Francois
    Université du Québec à Montréal.
    Vachon, Dominic
    Université du Québec à Montréal.
    del Giorgio, Paul A.
    Université du Québec à Montréal.
    Regional contribution of CO2 and CH4 fluxes from the fluvial network in a lowland boreal landscape of Quebec2014In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, ISSN 0886-6236, E-ISSN 1944-9224, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 57-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Boreal rivers and streams are known as hot spots of CO2 emissions, yet their contribution to CH4 emissions has traditionally been assumed to be negligible, due to the spatially fragmented data and lack of regional studies addressing both gases simultaneously. Here we explore the regional patterns in river CO2 and CH4 concentrations (pCO(2) and pCH(4)), gas exchange coefficient (k), and the resulting emissions in a lowland boreal region of Northern Quebec. Rivers and streams were systematically supersaturated in both gases, with both pCO(2) and pCH(4) declining along the river continuum. The k was on average low and increased with stream order, consistent with the hydrology of this flat landscape. The smallest streams (order 1), which represent <20% of the total river surface, contributed over 35% of the total fluvial greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The end of winter and the spring thaw periods, which are rarely included in annual emission budgets, contributed on average 21% of the annual GHG emissions. As a whole, the fluvial network acted as significant source of both CO2 and CH4, releasing on average 1.5 tons of C (CO2 eq) yr(-1)km(-2) of landscape, of which CH4 emissions contributed approximately 34%. We estimate that fluvial CH4 emissions represent 41% of the regional aquatic (lakes, reservoirs, and rivers) CH4 emissions, despite the relatively small riverine surface (4.3% of the total aquatic surface). We conclude that these fluvial networks in boreal lowlands play a disproportionately large role as hot spots for CO2 and more unexpectedly for CH4 emissions. Key Points <list list-type="bulleted" id="gbc20122-list-0001"> <list-item id="gbc20122-li-0001">pCO(2) and pCH(4) decrease, whereas the k600 increases with increasing stream order <list-item id="gbc20122-li-0002">Small streams and spring thaw period play a large role in regional C balance <list-item id="gbc20122-li-0003">Rivers are significant sources of CO2 and unexpectedly large sources of CH4</IN

  • 10.
    Campeau, Audrey
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Wallin, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Giesler, Reiner
    Climate Impacts Research Centre, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umeå University, Abisko, Sweden.
    Löfgren, Stefan
    Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Geology and Geochemistry, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schiff, Sherry
    Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
    Venkiteswaran, Jason
    Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Multiple sources and sinks of dissolved inorganic carbon across Swedish streams, refocusing the lens of stable C isotopes2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 9158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that stream dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) fluxes play a central role in the global C cycle, yet the sources of stream DIC remain to a large extent unresolved. Here, we explore large-scale patterns in delta C-13-DIC from streams across Sweden to separate and further quantify the sources and sinks of stream DIC. We found that stream DIC is governed by a variety of sources and sinks including biogenic and geogenic sources, CO2 evasion, as well as in-stream processes. Although soil respiration was the main source of DIC across all streams, a geogenic DIC influence was identified in the northernmost region. All streams were affected by various degrees of atmospheric CO2 evasion, but residual variance in delta C-13-DIC also indicated a significant influence of in-stream metabolism and anaerobic processes. Due to those multiple sources and sinks, we emphasize that simply quantifying aquatic DIC fluxes will not be sufficient to characterise their role in the global C cycle.

  • 11. Riml, Joakim
    et al.
    Campeau, Audrey
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Wallin, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Spectral decomposition reveals new perspectives on CO2 concentration patterns and soil‐stream linkages2019In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, ISSN 2169-8953, E-ISSN 2169-8961Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Wallin, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Campeau, Audrey
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Audet, Joachim
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping Univ, Dept Themat Studies Environm Change, Linköping, Sweden.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kokic, Jovana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Forest Ecol & Management, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lundin, Erik
    Umeå Univ, Dept Ecol & Environm Sci, Climate Impacts Res Ctr, Umeå, Sweden.
    Löfgren, Stefan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Aquat Sci & Assessment, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika
    Linköping Univ, Dept Themat Studies Environm Change, Linköping, Sweden.
    Sobek, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Teutschbein, Claudia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Grabs, Thomas J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, LUVAL.
    Carbon dioxide and methane emissions of Swedish low-order streams: a national estimate and lessons learnt from more than a decade of observations2018In: Limnology and Oceanography: Letters, ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 156-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low‐order streams are suggested to dominate the atmospheric CO2 source of all inland waters. Yet, many large‐scale stream estimates suffer from methods not designed for gas emission determination and rarely include other greenhouse gases such as CH4. Here, we present a compilation of directly measured CO2 and CH4 concentration data from Swedish low‐order streams (> 1600 observations across > 500 streams) covering large climatological and land‐use gradients. These data were combined with an empirically derived gas transfer model and the characteristics of a ca. 400,000 km stream network covering the entire country. The total stream CO2 and CH4 emission corresponded to 2.7 Tg C yr−1 (95% confidence interval: 2.0–3.7) of which the CH4 accounted for 0.7% (0.02 Tg C yr−1). The study highlights the importance of low‐order streams, as well as the critical need to better represent variability in emissions and stream areal extent to constrain future stream C emission estimates.

1 - 12 of 12
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