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  • 1.
    Ali, Sheikh Nawaz
    et al.
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow.
    Shekhar, Mayank
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow.
    (Pandey, Pratima
    Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Singh, Shaktiman
    Department of Environmental Science, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida.
    Indian Himalayan capacity and adaptation programme: capacity-building in Himalayan glaciology2014In: Current Science, ISSN 0011-3891, Vol. 106, no 3, 346- p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University.
    Joshi, Prakash C.
    Space Applications Centre, ISRO, Ahmedabad, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Group, Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation, Ahmedabad, Department of Natural Resources, TERI University, New Delhi.
    Sam, Lydia
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University.
    Snehmani, Snehmani
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Remote sensing of alpine glaciers in visible and infrared wavelengths: a survey of advances and prospects2016In: Geocarto International, ISSN 1010-6049, E-ISSN 1752-0762, Vol. 31, no 5, 557-574 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Remote sensing is an efficient tool for temporal monitoring of inaccessible alpine glacial terrain. This study discusses the methods of remote sensing in visible and infrared (IR) wavelengths, which are helpful in providing important information about alpine glaciers. The scope of this study covers recent advances and prospects in optical and thermal remote sensing of glacier facies, glacier velocity, mass balance, glacial hazards and automated mapping techniques. The technology is ever evolving with the advent of new remote sensors capturing data in visible/IR wavelengths and better digital computing technology. An extensive list of significant studies further helps the reader to explore a particular topic of interest. We survey recent advances in this field and additionally highlight the emerging prospects

  • 3.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    et al.
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Joshi, Prakash C.
    Space Applications Centre, ISRO, Ahmedabad, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Group, Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation, Ahmedabad.
    Snehmani, Snehmani
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Sam, Lydia
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University.
    Singh, Mritunjay Kumar
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Singh, Shaktiman
    Department of Environmental Science, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida.
    Kumar, Ramesh
    Department of Environmental Science, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida.
    Applicability of Landsat 8 data for characterizing glacier facies and supraglacial debris2015In: International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, ISSN 1569-8432, E-ISSN 1872-826X, Vol. 38, 51-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    present work evaluates the applicability of operational land imager (OLI) and thermal infrared sensor (TIRS) on-board Landsat 8 satellite. We demonstrate an algorithm for automated mapping of glacier facies and supraglacial debris using data collected in blue, near infrared (NIR), short wave infrared (SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) bands. The reflectance properties invisible and NIR regions of OLI for various glacier facies are in contrast with those in SWIR region. Based on the premise that different surface types (snow, ice and debris) of a glacier should show distinct thermal regimes, the 'at-satellite brightness temperature' obtained using TIRS was used as a base layer for developing the algorithm. This base layer was enhanced and modified using contrasting reflectance properties of OLI bands. In addition to fades and debris cover characterization, another interesting outcome of this algorithm was extraction of crevasses on the glacier surface which were distinctly visible in output and classified images. The validity of this algorithm was checked using field data along a transect of the glacier acquired during the satellite pass over the study area. With slight scene-dependent threshold adjustments, this work can be replicated for mapping glacier facies and supraglacial debris in any alpine valley glacier

  • 4.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    et al.
    Department of Natural Resources, TERI University, New Delhi.
    Joshi, Prakash C.
    Space Applications Centre, ISRO, Ahmedabad, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Group, Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation, Ahmedabad, Department of Natural Resources, TERI University, New Delhi.
    Snehmani, Snehmani
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Singh, Mritunjay Kumar
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Sam, Lydia
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University.
    Gupta, R.D.
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology (MNNIT), Allahabad.
    Mapping debris-covered glaciers and identifying factors affecting the accuracy2014In: Cold Regions Science and Technology, ISSN 0165-232X, E-ISSN 1872-7441, Vol. 106-107, 161-174 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Supraglacial debris significantly hampers the mapping of glaciers using remote sensing data. A semi-automated approach for the mapping of debris-covered glacier was applied, which combined the inputs from thermal and optical remote sensing data and the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) derived morphometric parameters. A thermal mask that delineates the supraglacial debris extent was generated by the thresholding of surface temperature layer obtained from Landsat TM/ETM. + thermal band satellite data. The extent of clean glacier ice was identified by band ratioing and thresholding of TM/ETM. + 4 and TM/ETM. + 5 bands. Morphometric parameters like slope, plan curvature and profile curvature were rearranged in similar surface groups using the technique of cluster analysis. All these masks were vectorized and final classification maps were generated using geographic information system (GIS) overlay operations. The areal extent of semi-automated outlines of Hamtah and Patsio Glaciers derived from cluster analysis varied from manually derived outline using pan-sharpened Landsat ETM. + September 2000 image by -. 1.3% and -. 1.6%, respectively. Year 2011 classification map for Patsio Glacier was compared with the field observations and a high correlation and overall accuracy (~. 91%) were observed. The same classification methodology was adopted for images of years 2000 and 1989 for Patsio Glacier to observe the effects of varying snow cover patterns on adopted methodology. Also the methodology was adopted and verified for Hamtah Glacier, with different geometry and terrain conditions as compared to Patsio Glacier. Although the spatial resolution limitation of ASTER GDEM and Landsat TM/ETM. + thermal band limits the automated mapping of small debris-covered glaciers, the outcomes are still favorable enough to apply such methodologies for mapping different types of debris-covered glaciers in the future

  • 5.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Identification and Mapping of Glacier-Like Forms (GLFs) Near Martian Subpolar Latitudes2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    et al.
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment-Research and Development Center (SASE-RDC), Him Parisar, Plot No. 1, Sector 37A, Chandigarh.
    Pandit, Anala Aniruddha
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment-Research and Development Center (SASE-RDC), Him Parisar, Plot No. 1, Sector 37A, Chandigarh.
    Ganju, Ashwagosha
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh, Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment-Research and Development Center (SASE-RDC), Him Parisar, Plot No. 1, Sector 37A, Chandigarh.
    Demarcation of potential avalanche sites using remote sensing and ground observations: A case study of Gangotri glacier2014In: Geocarto International, ISSN 1010-6049, E-ISSN 1752-0762, Vol. 29, no 5, 520-535 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study demonstrates the effectiveness of remote sensing and analytical hierarchy process for avalanche hazard mapping. The layers incorporated in this study were of slope, aspect, profile curvature, ground cover and elevation. The accuracy of output was determined using the registered avalanche sites based on ground observations and field-based modelling techniques. 93.35% of avalanche-affected areas came under maximum and moderate hazard zones, thus proving the effectiveness of this technique for Gangotri glacier basin. A parallel study was done to observe the change in the results, if any, by using high-resolution DEM and Cartosat-1 imagery. Similar methodology was adopted and the outcome was having significant improvement over the previous result as 98.8% of the preregistered avalanche area falling within maximum and moderate hazard zones

  • 7.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    et al.
    Department of Natural Resources, TERI University, New Delhi.
    Sam, C.L.
    Department of Natural Resources, TERI University, New Delhi.
    Joshi, Pawan Kumar Umar
    Department of Natural Resources, TERI University.
    Sinha, Vinay S.P.
    Department of Natural Resources, TERI University.
    Developing a statistical dengue risk prediction model for the state of delhi based on various environmental variables2012In: International Journal of Geoinformatics, ISSN 1686-6576, Vol. 8, no 3, 45-52 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigates dengue affected localities of Delhi using static and dynamic environmental factors and their possible spatial relationships. The static variables include soil drainage, built-up area and vegetation. The dynamic variables represent seasonal precipitation and temperature data for past hundred years. Significance test (t-test) provided deterministic evidence of variable importance to model. Weighted sum and quantile classification helped to create a final risk map. The model indicated non-uniform distribution of risk across the state and showed elevated risk in urban built-up areas mainly alongside the river Yamuna. Three years (2007, 2008 and 2009) data for confirmed dengue cases for affected localities were obtained from Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD) for validation. 57.98% of the reported cases were observed under high risk category as modeled in this study. Modeling results indicate that environmental factors like Precipitation, temperature, soil drainage, built-up area and vegetation govern mosquito breeding and are correlated with human dengue risk The approach verified that dengue risk can be modeled at the state level and can be modified for risk predictions of other vector-borne diseases in varied ecological regions

  • 8.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Sam, Lydia
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University.
    Akanksha, Akanksha
    Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Kumar, Rejesh
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University.
    UAVs as remote sensing platform in glaciology: Present applications and future prospects2016In: Remote Sensing of Environment, ISSN 0034-4257, E-ISSN 1879-0704, Vol. 175, 196-204 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Satellite remote sensing is an effective way to monitor vast extents of global glaciers and snowfields. However, satellite remote sensing is limited by spatial and temporal resolutions and the high costs involved in data acquisition. Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)-based glaciological studies are gaining pace in recent years due to their advantages over conventional remote sensing platforms. UAVs are easy to deploy, with the option of alternating the sensors working in visible, infrared, and microwave wavelengths. The high spatial resolution remote sensing data obtained from these UAV-borne sensors are a significant improvement over the data obtained by traditional remote sensing. The cost involved in data acquisition is minimal and researchers can acquire imagery according to their schedule and convenience. We discuss significant glaciological studies involving UAV as remote sensing platforms. This is the first review work, exclusively dedicated to highlight UAV as a remote sensing platform in glaciology. We examine polar and alpine applications of UAV and their future prospects in separate sections and present an extensive reference list for the readers, so that they can delve into their topic of interest. Because the technology is still widely unexplored for snow and glaciers, we put a special emphasis on discussing the future prospects of utilising UAVs for glaciological research.

  • 9.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Sam, Lydia
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University.
    Bhardwaj, Akanksha
    Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    LiDAR remote sensing of the cryosphere: Present applications and future prospects2016In: Remote Sensing of Environment, ISSN 0034-4257, E-ISSN 1879-0704, Vol. 177, 125-143 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cryosphere consists of frozen water and includes lakes/rivers/sea ice, glaciers, ice caps/sheets, snow cover, and permafrost. Because highly reflective snow and ice are the main components of the cryosphere, it plays an important role in the global energy balance. Thus, any qualitative or quantitative change in the physical properties and extents of the cryosphere affects global air circulation, ocean and air temperatures, sea level, and ocean current patterns. Due to the hardships involved in collecting ground control points and field data for high alpine glaciers or vast polar ice sheets, several researchers are currently using remote sensing. Satellites provide an effective space-borne platform for remotely sensing frozen areas at the global and regional scales. However, satellite remote sensing has several constraints, such as limited spatial and temporal resolutions and expensive data acquisition. Therefore, aerial and terrestrial remote sensing platforms and sensors are needed to cover temporal and spatial gaps for comprehensive cryospheric research. Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) antennas form a group of active remote sensors that can easily be deployed on all three platforms, i.e., satellite, aerial, and terrestrial. The generation of elevation data for glacial and snow-covered terrain from photogrammetry requires high contrast amongst various reflective surfaces (ice, snow, firn, and slush). Conventional passive optical remote sensors do not provide the necessary accuracy, especially due to the unavailability of reliable ground control points. However, active LiDAR sensors can fill this research gap and provide high-resolution and accurate Digital Elevation Models (DEMs). Due to the obvious advantages of LiDAR over conventional passive remote sensors, the number of LiDAR-based cryospheric studies has increased in recent years. In this review, we highlight studies that have utilised LiDAR sensors for the cryospheric research of various features, such as snow cover, polar ice sheets and their atmospheres, alpine glaciers, and permafrost. Because this technology shows immense promise for applications in future cryospheric research, we also emphasise the prospects of utilising LiDAR sensors. In this paper, a large compilation of relevant references is presented to allow readers to explore particular topics of interest.

  • 10.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Sam, Lydia
    Institut für Kartographie, Technische Universität Dresden.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Rock glaciers as proxies for identifying terrestrial and analogous Martian permafrost2016In: XI. International Conference On Permafrost: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Günther, F. and Morgenstern, A., Potsdam: Bibliothek Wissenschaftspark Albert Einstein , 2016, 535-537 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Sam, Lydia
    Institut für Kartographie, Technische Universität Dresden.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Zorzano Mier, Maria-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Fonseca, Ricardo
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Martian slope streaks as plausible indicators of transient water activity2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, no 1, 7074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Slope streaks have been frequently observed in the equatorial, low thermal inertia and dusty regions of Mars. The reason behind their formation remains unclear with proposed hypotheses for both dry and wet mechanisms. Here, we report an up-to-date distribution and morphometric investigation of Martian slope streaks. We find: (i) a remarkable coexistence of the slope streak distribution with the regions on Mars with high abundances of water-equivalent hydrogen, chlorine, and iron; (ii) favourable thermodynamic conditions for transient deliquescence and brine development in the slope streak regions; (iii) a significant concurrence of slope streak distribution with the regions of enhanced atmospheric water vapour concentration, thus suggestive of a present-day regolith-atmosphere water cycle; and (iv) terrain preferences and flow patterns supporting a wet mechanism for slope streaks. These results suggest a strong local regolith-atmosphere water coupling in the slope streak regions that leads to the formation of these fluidised features. Our conclusions can have profound astrobiological, habitability, environmental, and planetary protection implications

  • 12.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    et al.
    TERI University, New Delhi.
    Sam, Lydia
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University.
    Singh, Shaktiman
    Department of Environmental Science, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida.
    Kumar, Ramesh
    Department of Environmental Science, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida.
    Automated detection and temporal monitoring of crevasses using remote sensing and their implications for glacier dynamics2016In: Annals of Glaciology, ISSN 0260-3055, E-ISSN 1727-5644, Vol. 57, no 71, 81-91 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Detailed studies on temporal changes of crevasses and their linkage with glacier dynamics are scarce in the Himalayan context. Observations of temporally changing surficial crevasse patterns and their orientations are suggestive of the processes that determine seasonal glacier flow characteristics. In the present study, on a Himalayan valley glacier, changing crevasse patterns and orientations were detected and mapped on Landsat 8 images in an automated procedure using the ratio of Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) band 10 to Optical Land Imager (OLI) shortwave infrared (SWIR) band 6. The ratio was capable of mapping even crevasses falling under mountain shadows. Differential GPS observations suggested an average error of 3.65% and root-mean-square error of 6.32m in crevasse lengths. A year-round observation of these crevasses, coupled with field-based surface velocity measurements, provided some interesting interpretations of seasonal glacier dynamics.

  • 13.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    et al.
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Singh, Mritunjay Kumar
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Joshi, Prakash C.
    Space Applications Centre, ISRO, Ahmedabad, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Group, Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation, Ahmedabad.
    Snehmani, Snehmani
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Singh, Shaktiman
    Department of Environmental Science, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida.
    Sam, Lydia
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University.
    Gupta, R.D.
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Kumar, Rajesh
    Department of Environmental Science, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida.
    A lake detection algorithm (LDA) using Landsat 8 data: A comparative approach in glacial environment2015In: International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, ISSN 1569-8432, E-ISSN 1872-826X, Vol. 38, 150-163 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glacial lakes show a wide range of turbidity. Owing to this, the normalized difference water indices (NDWIs) as proposed by many researchers, do not give appropriate results in case of glacial lakes. In addition, the sub-pixel proportion of water and use of different optical band combinations are also reported to produce varying results. In the wake of the changing climate and increasing GLOFs (glacial lake outburst floods), there is a need to utilize wide optical and thermal capabilities of Landsat 8 data for the automated detection of glacial lakes. In the present study, the optical and thermal bandwidths of Landsat 8 data were explored along with the terrain slope parameter derived from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer Global Digital Elevation Model Version2 (ASTER GDEM V2), for detecting and mapping glacial lakes. The validation of the algorithm was performed using manually digitized and subsequently field corrected lake boundaries. The pre-existing NDWIs were also evaluated to determine the supremacy and the stability of the proposed algorithm for glacial lake detection. Two new parameters, LDI (lake detection index) and LF (lake fraction) were proposed to comment on the performances of the indices. The lake detection algorithm (LDA) performed best in case of both, mixed lake pixels and pure lake pixels with no false detections (LDI = 0.98) and very less areal underestimation (LF= 0.73). The coefficient of determination (R-2) between areal extents of lake pixels, extracted using the LDA and the actual lake area, was very high (0.99). With understanding of the terrain conditions and slight threshold adjustments, this work can be replicated for any mountainous region of the world.

  • 14.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Singh, Shaktiman
    Institut für Kartographie, Technische Universität Dresden.
    Sam, Lydia
    Institut für Kartographie, Technische Universität Dresden.
    Bhardwaj, Akanksha
    Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi.
    Martin-Torres, Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Singh, Atar
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University.
    Kumar, Rajesh
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University.
    MODIS-based estimates of strong snow surface temperature anomaly related to high altitude earthquakes of 20152017In: Remote Sensing of Environment, ISSN 0034-4257, E-ISSN 1879-0704, Vol. 188, 1-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high levels of uncertainty associated with earthquake prediction render earthquakes some of the worst natural calamities. Here, we present our observations of MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived Land Surface Temperature (LST) anomaly for earthquakes in the largest tectonically active Himalayan and Andean mountain belts. We report the appearance of fairly detectable pre-earthquake Snow Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies. We use 16 years (2000–2015) of MODIS LST time-series data to robustly conclude our findings for three of the most destructive earthquakes that occurred in 2015 in the high mountains of Nepal, Chile, and Afghanistan. We propose the physical basis behind higher sensitivity of snow towards geothermal emissions. Although the preliminary appearance of SST anomalies and their amplitudes vary, we propose employing a global-scale monitoring system for detecting and studying such spatio-temporal geophysical signals. With the advent of improved remote sensors, we anticipate that such efforts can be another step towards improved earthquake predictions.

  • 15.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University.
    Singh, Shaktiman
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University,.
    Sam, Lydia
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University,.
    Joshi, PK
    School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi.
    Bhardwaj, Akanksha
    Banaras Hindu University.
    Martín-Torres, Javier F.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology. Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra (CSIC-UGR).
    Kumar, Rajesh
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University.
    A review on remotely sensed land surface temperature anomaly as an earthquake precursor2017In: International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, ISSN 0303-2434, Vol. 63, 158-166 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The low predictability of earthquakes and the high uncertainty associated with their forecasts make earthquakes one of the worst natural calamities, capable of causing instant loss of life and property. Here, we discuss the studies reporting the observed anomalies in the satellite-derived Land Surface Temperature (LST) before an earthquake. We compile the conclusions of these studies and evaluate the use of remotely sensed LST anomalies as precursors of earthquakes. The arrival times and the amplitudes of the anomalies vary widely, thus making it difficult to consider them as universal markers to issue earthquake warnings. Based on the randomness in the observations of these precursors, we support employing a global-scale monitoring system to detect statistically robust anomalous geophysical signals prior to earthquakes before considering them as definite precursors.

  • 16.
    Kumar, Rajesh
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Science, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida.
    Singh, Shaktiman
    Department of Environmental Science, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida.
    Kumar, Ramesh
    Department of Environmental Science, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida.
    Singh, Atar
    Department of Environmental Science, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Sam, Lydia
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University, Department of Environmental Science, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida.
    Randhawa, Surjeet Singh
    State Council for Science, Technology. & Environment, Shimla.
    Gupta, Akhilesh
    Department of Science and Technology, Technology Bhavan, New Delhi.
    Development of a Glacio-hydrological Model for Discharge and Mass Balance Reconstruction2016In: Water resources management, ISSN 0920-4741, E-ISSN 1573-1650, Vol. 30, no 10, 3475-3492 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The reconstruction of glacio-hydrological records for the data deficient Himalayan catchments is needed in order to study the past and future water availability. The study provides outcomes of a glacio-hydrological model based on the degree-day approach. The model simulates the discharge and mass balance for glacierised Shaune Garang catchment. The degree-day factors for different land covers, used in the model, were estimated using daily stake measurements on Shaune Garang glacier and they were found to be varying between 2.6 ± 0.4 and 9.3 ± 0.3 mm °C−1day−1. The model is validated using observed discharge during ablation season of 2014 with coefficient of determination (R2) 0.90 and root mean square error (RMSE) 1.05 m3 sec−1. The model is used to simulate discharge from 1985 to 2008 and mass balance from 2001 to 2008. The model results show significant contribution of seasonal snow and ice melt in total discharge of the catchment, especially during summer. We observe the maximum discharge in July having maximum contribution from snow and ice melt. The annual melt season discharge shows following a decreasing trend in the simulation period. The reconstructed mass balance shows mass loss of 0.89 m we per year between 2001 and 2008 with slight mass gain during 2000/01 and 2004/05 hydrological years.

  • 17.
    Sam, Lydia
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University, Defence Terrain Research Laboratory, New Delhi.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    Sharda University.
    Singh, Shaktiman
    Department of Environmental Science, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida, Sharda University.
    Kumar, Rajesh
    Department of Environmental Science, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida, Sharda University.
    Remote sensing flow velocity of debris-covered glaciers using Landsat 8 data2016In: Progress in physical geography, ISSN 0309-1333, E-ISSN 1477-0296, Vol. 40, no 2, 305-321 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in ice velocity of a glacier regulate its mass balance and dynamics. The estimation of glacier flow velocity is therefore an important aspect of temporal glacier monitoring. The utilisation of conventional ground-based techniques for detecting glacier surface flow velocity in the rugged and alpine Himalayan terrain is extremely difficult. Remote sensing-based techniques can provide such observations on a regular basis for a large geographical area. Obtaining freely available high quality remote sensing data for the Himalayan regions is challenging. In the present work, we adopted a differential band composite approach, for the first time, in order to estimate glacier surface velocity for non-debris and supraglacial debris covered areas of a glacier, separately. We employed various bandwidths of the Landsat 8 data for velocity estimation using the COSI-Corr (co-registration of optically sensed images and correlation) tool. We performed the accuracy assessment with respect to field measurements for two glaciers in the Indian Himalaya. The panchromatic band worked best for non-debris parts of the glaciers while band 6 (SWIR - short wave infrared) performed best in case of debris cover. We correlated six temporal Landsat 8 scenes in order to ensure the performance of the proposed algorithm on monthly as well as yearly timescales. We identified sources of error and generated a final velocity map along with the flow lines. Over- and underestimates of the yearly glacier velocity were found to be more in the case of slow moving areas with annual displacements less than 5 m. Landsat 8 has great capabilities for such velocity estimation work for a large geographic extent because of its global coverage, improved spectral and radiometric resolutions, free availability and considerable revisit time.

  • 18.
    Sam, Lydia
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Sinha, Vinay S.P.
    Department of Natural Resources, TERI University.
    Joshi, Pawan Kumar Umar
    Department of Natural Resources, TERI University.
    Kumar, Rajesh C.
    Department of Environmental Science, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida.
    Use of Geospatial Tools to Prioritize Zones of Hydro-Energy Potential in Glaciated Himalayan Terrain2016In: Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing, ISSN 0255-660X, Vol. 44, no 3, 409-420 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development of the Himalayan region is directly linked to optimal utilization of available renewable resources. There is a need to first select the zones suitable for hydropower sites, and then to focus on them only; as purely field-based surveying of rugged mountainous regions for hydropower generation requires too much of time and effort. We used geospatial tools to identify suitable sites for hydropower generation. A Geographic Information System (GIS)-based tool called Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) was used for computing annual runoff volume using watershed-wise topography and biophysical variables. The zones suitable for hydropower generation were then identified based on calculated hydropower energy using derived runoff volumes and hydraulic head. The model accuracy was checked using well established efficiency criteria: coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.98), RMSE-observations standard deviation ratio (RSR), Percent bias (PBIAS) and Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE). For all these parameters, the model was found to be performing satisfactorily.

  • 19.
    Shekhar, Mayank
    et al.
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Singh, Shaktiman
    Institut für Kartographie, Technische Universität Dresden.
    Ranhotra, Parminder S.
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Bhattacharyya, Amalava
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Pal, Ashish K.
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Roy, Ipsita
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow, India.
    Martín-Torres, F. Javier
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Zorzano Mier, María-Paz
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Himalayan glaciers experienced significant mass loss during later phases of little ice age2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, 10305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To date, there is a gap in the data about the state and mass balance of glaciers in the climate-sensitive subtropical regions during the Little Ice Age (LIA). Here, based on an unprecedented tree-ring sampling coverage, we present the longest reconstructed mass balance record for the Western Himalayan glaciers, dating to 1615. Our results confirm that the later phase of LIA was substantially briefer and weaker in the Himalaya than in the Arctic and subarctic regions. Furthermore, analysis of the time-series of the mass-balance against other time-series shows clear evidence of the existence of (i) a significant glacial decay and a significantly weaker magnitude of glaciation during the latter half of the LIA; (ii) a weak regional mass balance dependence on either the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) or the Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) taken in isolation, but a considerable combined influence of both of them during the LIA; and (iii) in addition to anthropogenic climate change, the strong effect from the increased yearly concurrence of extremely high TSI with El Niño over the past five decades, resulting in severe glacial mass loss. The generated mass balance time-series can serve as a source of reliable reconstructed data to the scientific community.

  • 20.
    Singh, Mritunjay Kumar
    et al.
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Gupta, R.D.
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh, Geographical Information System Cell (GIS Cell), Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology (MNNIT), Allahabad.
    Snehmani, Snehmani
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Ganju, Ashwagosha
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Effect of sensor modelling methods on computation of 3-D coordinates from Cartosat-1 stereo data2016In: Geocarto International, ISSN 1010-6049, E-ISSN 1752-0762, Vol. 31, no 5, 506-526 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The orbital and the rational polynomial coefficients (RPC) models are the two most commonly used models to compute a three-dimensional coordinates from an image stereo-pair. But it is still confusing that with the identical user provided inputs, which one of these two models provides more accurate digital elevation model (DEM), especially for mountainous terrain. This study aimed to find out the answer by evaluating the impact of used models on the vertical accuracy of DEM extracted from Cartosat-1 stereo data. We used high-accuracy photogrammetric DEM as the reference DEM. Apart from general variations in statistics, surprisingly in a few instances, both the DEMs provided contrasting results, thus proving the significance of this study. The computed root mean square errors and linear error at 90% (LE90) were lower in case of RPC DEM for various classes of slope, aspect and land cover, thus suggesting its better relative accuracy

  • 21.
    Singh, Mritunjay Kumar
    et al.
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Gupta, R.D.
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Snehmani, Snehmani
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Ganju, Ashwagosha
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Scenario-Based Validation of Moderate Resolution DEMs Freely Available for Complex Himalayan Terrain2016In: Pure and Applied Geophysics, ISSN 0033-4553, E-ISSN 1420-9136, Vol. 173, no 2, 463-485 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accuracy of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) affects the accuracy of various geoscience and environmental modelling results. This study evaluates accuracies of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global DEM Version-2 (GDEM V2), the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) X-band DEM and the NRSC Cartosat-1 DEM V1 (CartoDEM). A high resolution (1 m) photogrammetric DEM (ADS80 DEM), having a high absolute accuracy [1.60 m linear error at 90 % confidence (LE90)], resampled at 30 m cell size was used as reference. The overall root mean square error (RMSE) in vertical accuracy was 23, 73, and 166 m and the LE90 was 36, 75, and 256 m for ASTER GDEM V2, SRTM X-band DEM and CartoDEM, respectively. A detailed error analysis was performed for individual as well as combinations of different classes of aspect, slope, land-cover and elevation zones for the study area. For the ASTER GDEM V2, forest areas with North facing slopes (0°–5°) in the 4th elevation zone (3773–4369 m) showed minimum LE90 of 0.99 m, and barren with East facing slopes (>60°) falling under the 2nd elevation zone (2581–3177 m) showed maximum LE90 of 166 m. For the SRTM DEM, pixels with South-East facing slopes of 0°–5° in the 4th elevation zone covered with forest showed least LE90 of 0.33 m and maximum LE90 of 521 m was observed in the barren area with North-East facing slope (>60°) in the 4th elevation zone. In case of the CartoDEM, the snow pixels in the 2nd elevation zone with South-East facing slopes of 5°–15° showed least LE90 of 0.71 m and maximum LE90 of 1266 m was observed for the snow pixels in the 3rd elevation zone (3177–3773 m) within the South facing slope of 45°–60°. These results can be highly useful for the researchers using DEM products in various modelling exercises.

  • 22.
    Singh, Mritunjay Kumar
    et al.
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh, Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment-Research and Development Center (SASE-RDC), Him Parisar, Plot No. 1, Sector 37A, Chandigarh.
    Snehmani, Snehmani
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh, Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment-Research and Development Center (SASE-RDC), Him Parisar, Plot No. 1, Sector 37A, Chandigarh.
    Gupta, R.D.
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology (MNNIT), Allahabad.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment-Research and Development Center (SASE-RDC), Him Parisar, Plot No. 1, Sector 37A, Chandigarh.
    Joshi, Prakash C.
    Space Applications Centre, ISRO, Ahmedabad, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Group, Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation, Ahmedabad, TERI University, New Delhi.
    Ganju, Ashwagosha
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh, Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment-Research and Development Center (SASE-RDC), Him Parisar, Plot No. 1, Sector 37A, Chandigarh.
    High resolution DEM generation for complex snow covered Indian Himalayan Region using ADS80 aerial push-broom camera: a first time attemp72015In: Arabian Journal of Geosciences, ISSN 1866-7511, E-ISSN 1866-7538, Vol. 8, no 3, 1-12 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Updated and Accurate Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of snow covered and glaciated mountainous area is essential for many applications such as avalanche hazard and numerical modelling of mass movements or mapping of terrain changes. The best high resolution terrain product available for Himalayan region is the DEM, with a spatial resolution of 10 m, generated using Cartosat-1 stereo ortho-kit data. Even this spatial resolution is insufficient for many applications like avalanche hazard mapping or forecasting in complex mountainous terrain. This study reports the process of high spatial resolution (1 m) DEM generation for Manali and nearby areas using digital aerial photogrammetric survey data of 40 cm Ground Sampling Distance (GSD), captured through airborne ADS80 push-broom camera for the first time in Indian Himalayas. This DEM was also evaluated with Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) points for accuracy assessment. The ADS80 DEM gave Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of ∼<1 m and Linear Error, at 90 % confidence interval (LE 90) of 1.36 m in comparison with the DGPS points.

  • 23.
    Singh, Shaktiman
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Science, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida.
    Kumar, Rajesh
    Department of Environmental Science, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Space Technology.
    Sam, Lydia
    Department of Environmental Science, Sharda University, Department of Environmental Science, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida.
    Shekhar, Mayank
    Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow.
    Singh, Atar
    Department of Environmental Science, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida.
    Kumar, Ramesh
    Department of Environmental Science, School of Basic Sciences and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida.
    Gupta, Akhilesh
    Department of Science and Technology, Technology Bhavan, New Delhi.
    Changing climate and glacio-hydrology in Indian Himalayan Region: a review2016In: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, ISSN 1757-7780, E-ISSN 1757-7799, Vol. 7, no 3, 393-410 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a comprehensive review of the published literature on the evidences of a changing climate in the Indian Himalayan Region (IHR) and its impacts on the glacio-hydrology of the region. The IHR serves as an important source of fresh water for the densely populated areas downstream. It is evident from the available studies that temperature is significantly increasing in all parts of the IHR, whereas precipitation is not indicative of any particular spatiotemporal trend. Glacio-hydrological proxies for changing climate, such as, terminus and areal changes of the glaciers, glacier mass balance, and streamflow in downstream areas, highlight changes more evidently in recent decades. On an average, studies have predicted an increase in temperature and precipitation in the region, along with increase in streamflow of major rivers. Such trends are already apparent in some sub-basins of the western IHR. The region is particularly vulnerable to changing climate as it is highly dependent on snow and glacier melt run-off to meet its freshwater demands. We present a systematic review of key papers dealing with changing temperature, precipitation, glaciers, and streamflow in the IHR. We discuss these interdisciplinary themes in relation to each other, in order to establish the present and future impacts of climatic, glaciological, and hydrological changes in the region.

  • 24.
    Snehmani, Snehmani
    et al.
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Joshi, Pawan Kumar Umar
    Department of Natural Resources, TERI University.
    Oanju, A.
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Study of temporal changes in snout position and wet snow line for Gangotri glacier using remote sensing, ground observations and meteorological data2013In: International Journal of Geoinformatics, ISSN 1686-6576, Vol. 9, no 1, 49-60 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temporal changes (1891-2010) in snout position of Gangotri glacier were monitored using Landsat images, ground observations and SoI (Survey of India) toposheets. Temporal changes (2001-09) in wet snow line (wsl) altitude were also observed using LISS-III images and high resolution (6 m pixel size) DEM generated using Cartosat stereopair. These observations were correlated and justified with available snow meteorological data. OCGM (Oerlemans Coarse Grained Model) was run in parallel using meteorological inputs to support the obtained glacier retreat using Landsat data during 2001-10. The retreats observed were 73 m and 54 m respectively using Landsat data and OCGM. The difference was less than 20 m (less than a pixel of Landsat image) thus supporting the usefulness of remote sensing observations for monitoring of rough and hard to access terrain. The wsl altitude showed an overall ascending trend during melting season (May to September). Some atypical fluctuations in this trend were observed for different years which could be explained using available meteorological records

  • 25.
    Snehmani, Snehmani
    et al.
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Singh, Mritunjay Kumar
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Gupta, Rajeev D.
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh, Geographical Information System Cell (GIS Cell), Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology (MNNIT), Allahabad.
    Joshi, Prakash C.
    Space Applications Centre, ISRO, Ahmedabad, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Group, Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation, Ahmedabad, Department of Natural Resources, TERI University, New Delhi.
    Ganju, Ashwagosha
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Modelling the hypsometric seasonal snow cover using meteorological parameters2015In: Journal of Spatial Science, ISSN 1449-8596, Vol. 60, no 1, 51-64 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study established a decadal correlation between meteorological observations (temperature and snowfall) and satellite-derived seasonal snow cover for a glacier catchment. The study area was classified into 10 elevation zones. The time period for considering climatic variables was from the start of the significant fresh snowfall of the new season to the date of satellite image acquisition. The snowfall inputs from the five meteorological stations at different altitudes were interpolated for the entire catchment using a discretised thin-plate spline technique. A local temperature lapse rate for this specific time period was calculated. It was applied throughout the catchment for interpolating the temperature, which was further used to refine the interpolated snowfall. Such a hypsometric approach along with third-order polynomial curve fitting (R2=0.998) finally gave an equation for estimating percent snow-covered area for different elevation zones with a good accuracy and very low average RMSE (Root Mean Square Error) of 3.16 percent.

  • 26.
    Snehmani, Snehmani
    et al.
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Singh, Mritunjay Kumar
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology (MNNIT), Allahabad.
    Gupta, R.D.
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology (MNNIT), Allahabad.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Joshi, Prakash C.
    Space Applications Centre, ISRO, Ahmedabad, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences Group, Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation, Ahmedabad, Department of Natural Resources, TERI University, New Delhi.
    Remote sensing of mountain snow using active microwave sensors: a review2015In: Geocarto International, ISSN 1010-6049, E-ISSN 1752-0762, Vol. 30, no 1, 1-27 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work provides an overview of various methods for estimating snow cover and properties in high mountains using remote sensing techniques involving microwaves. Satellite-based remote sensing with its characteristics such as synoptic view, repetitive coverage and uniformity over large areas has great potential for identifying the temporal snow cover. Many sensors have been used in the past with various algorithms and accuracies for this purpose. These methods have been improving with the use of Synthetic Aperture Radar sensors, working in different microwave frequencies, polarisation and acquisition modes. The limitations, advantages and drawbacks are illustrated while error sources and strategies on how to ease their impacts are also reviewed. An extensive list of references, with an emphasis on studies since 1990s, allows the reader to delve into specific topics

  • 27.
    Snehmani, Snehmani
    et al.
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Singh, Mritunjay Kumar
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Pakrasi, Krishnanjan
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Bhardwaj, Anshuman
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Ganju, Ashwagosha
    Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment, Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO), Him Parisar, Sector-37A, Chandigarh.
    Monitoring the status of Siachen glacier using multi temporal remote sensing approach2014In: Geostatistical and geospatial approaches for the characterization of natural resources in the environment : challenges, processes and strategies: proceedings of the 16th International Association for Mathematical Geosciences, New Delhi/India/17-20 October 2014 / [ed] N Janardhana Raju, New Delhi: Capital Publishing Company , 2014, 513-515 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temporal monitoringof any glacier is important for observing the effects of changing climate. This study reports the decadal changes in Siachen glacier. Analysis was carried out on decadal basis by processing and analyzing Landsat images from 1978 to 2013. Images were coregistered within Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) limit of 0.5 pixel. An object based classification approach was adopted to perform temporal semi-automated areal change detection. The glacier inventory of 1978 showed around 74976 ha of glacier area which further decreased by around 1302 ha in 2013 with a shift of 1.5 km in the snout position.

1 - 27 of 27
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