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  • 1.
    Enblom, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Nausea and vomiting in patients receiving acupuncture, sham acupuncture or standard care during radiotherapy2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aim: Many patients with cancer experience emesis (nausea and vomiting) during radiotherapy. The overall aim of this thesis was to improve the situation for patients with risk for emesis during radiotherapy, by evaluating emesis in patients receiving verum (genuine) acupuncture, sham (simulated) acupuncture or standard care during radiotherapy.

    Methods: In study I, a cross-sectional sample (n=368) treated with radiotherapy over various fields answered a study-specific questionnaire. In study II, 80 healthy volunteers were randomized to receive needling with verum acupuncture or non-penetrating telescopic sham needles by one of four physiotherapists. In study III, 215 patients were randomly allocated to verum (n=109) or non-penetrating telescopic sham (n=106) acupuncture during their entire radiotherapy period over abdominal or pelvic fields. The same 215 patients were also included in study IV. They were compared to 62 patients irradiated over abdominal or pelvic fields, selected from study I.

    Results: In study I, the weekly prevalence of nausea was 39 % in all radiotherapy-treated patients and 63 % in abdominal or pelvic irradiated patients. Age younger than 40 years and previous experience of nausea in other situations were characteristics associated with an increased risk for nausea. Of the 145 nauseous patients, 34 % considered their antiemetic treatment as insufficient. Patients with nausea reported lower level of quality of life compared to patients free from nausea. In study II, most individuals needled with verum (68 %) or sham (68 %) acupuncture could not identify needling type, and that blinding result varied from 55 to 80 % between the four therapists. In study III, nausea was experienced by 70 % (mean number of days=10.1) and 25 % vomited during the radiotherapy period. In the sham group 62 % experienced nausea (mean number of days=8.7) and 28 % vomited. Ninety five percent in the verum and 96 % in the sham group believed that the treatment had been effective for nausea. In both groups, 67 % experienced other positive effects, on relaxation, mood, sleep or pain-reduction, and 89 % were interested in receiving the treatment again. In study IV, the weekly prevalence of nausea and vomiting was 38 and 8 % in the verum group, 37 and 7 % in the sham group and 63 and 15 % in the standard care group. The nausea difference between the acupuncture and the standard care cohort was statistically significant, also after overall adjustments for potential confounding factors. The nausea intensity in the acupuncture cohort was lower compared to the standard care cohort (p=0.002). Patients who expected nausea had increased risk for nausea compared to patients who expected low risk for nausea (Relative risk 1.6).

    Conclusions and implications: Nausea was common during abdominal or pelvic field irradiation in patients receiving standard care. Verum acupuncture did not reduce emesis compared to sham acupuncture, while reduced emesis was seen in both patients treated with verum or sham acupuncture. Health-care professionals may consider identifying and treating patients with increased risk for nausea in advance. The telescopic sham needle was credible. Researchers may thus use and standardize the sham procedure in acupuncture control groups. The choice of performing acupuncture during radiotherapy cannot be based on arguments that the specific characters of verum acupuncture have effects on nausea. It is important to further study what components in the acupuncture procedures that produce the dramatic positive but yet not fully understood antiemetic effect, making it possible to use those components to further increase quality of care during radiotherapy.

  • 2.
    Enblom, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Patients and physiotherapists belief in and use of acupuncture for cancer-related symptoms2017In: Acupuncture in Medicine, ISSN 0964-5284, E-ISSN 1759-9873, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 251-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background It is important to investigate attitudes to acupuncture, because therapists and patients expectations may affect the treatment outcome. Aim To explore the use of and belief in acupuncture among oncological physiotherapists and to explore patients interest in receiving acupuncture during cancer therapy and their belief in its effectiveness. Methods 522 patients (80% female, mean age 67 years) reported on their interest in receiving acupuncture for nausea during radiotherapy treatment; a subgroup (n=198) additionally disclosed their belief in the effectiveness of acupuncture. 117 Swedish oncological physiotherapists (96% female, mean age 48 years) answered a questionnaire regarding their use of and belief in acupuncture. Results Of the patients initiating cancer therapy, 359 (69%) were interested in receiving acupuncture. The patients believed acupuncture to be effective for pain (79%), nausea (79%) and vasomotor symptoms (48%). Of the 117 physiotherapists, 66 (56%) practised acupuncture. Physiotherapists generally believed in the effectiveness of acupuncture. For pain, 89% believed that acupuncture was effective and 42% of them practised it. Similar responses were noted for chemotherapy-induced nausea (86% and 38%, respectively) and vasomotor symptoms (80% and 28%, respectively). Younger physiotherapists and patients were more likely to believe in the effectiveness of acupuncture compared with older ones. Conclusions More than two thirds of patients with cancer were interested in receiving acupuncture during therapy. Patients and oncological physiotherapists believed that acupuncture was effective for cancer pain, nausea and vasomotor symptoms. Further studies of acupuncture for cancer-related symptoms and of the effect of patients and clinicians therapeutic relationships, including treatment expectations, would be welcome.

  • 3.
    Enblom, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Vårdal Institute, Lund, Sweden; .
    Bergius Axelsson, Beata
    Department of Oncology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Department of Oncology, Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Oncology and Pathology, Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Börjeson, Sussanne
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology.
    One third of patients with radiotherapy-induced nausea consider their antiemetic treatment insufficient2009In: Supportive Care in Cancer, ISSN 0941-4355, E-ISSN 1433-7339, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 23-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of nausea and vomiting during radiotherapy and to compare quality of life, psychological and functional status in patients experiencing or not experiencing nausea.

    Materials and methods: A cross-sectional selection of 368 cancer patients treated with radiotherapy answered a questionnaire (=93% answering rate) regarding nausea, vomiting, actual use of and interest in antiemetic treatment, quality of life and psychological and functional status during the preceding week of radiotherapy. Mean age was 60 years and 66% were women.

    Main results: Nausea was experienced by 39% ( 145) and vomiting by 7% ( 28) of patients in general, by 63% in abdominal or pelvic fields and by 48% in head/neck/brain fields. Abdominal/pelvic field (Relative risk (RR) 2.0), age <= 40 years (RR 1.9) and previous nausea in other situations (RR 1.8) implied an increased risk for nausea. Antiemetics were used by 17% and 78% were interested in or wanted more information about acupuncture treatment against nausea. Of the 145 nauseous patients only 25% felt that antiemetics had helped them and 34% would have liked additional treatment, although the nausea intensity was mild in 72%. The nauseous patients reported lower well-being and quality of life, lower satisfaction with aspects of daily living and more frequent anxiety and depressed mood than the patients without nausea.

    Conclusions: Of all patients undergoing radiotherapy, 39% experienced nausea and one third of them would have liked more treatment against the nausea. This study stresses the importance to identify and adequately treat patients with increased risk for nausea related to radiotherapy.

  • 4.
    Enblom, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Department of Oncology-Pathology, Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Börjeson, Sussanne
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Can individuals identify if needling was performed with an acupuncture needle or a non-penetrating sham needle?2008In: Complementary Therapies in Medicine, ISSN 0965-2299, E-ISSN 1873-6963, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 288-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A control treatment in acupuncture research must be credible, regardless if the needling is performed by one or by several therapists.

    Objective: To investigate if individuals could identify whether needling had been given with an acupuncture needle or a sham needle and if the therapist influenced this ability.

    Design: Eighty individuals were randomized to one single needling given by one of four physiotherapists using either an invasive needle or a non-penetrating telescopic sham needle.

    Results: An equal proportion of individuals, 27 (68%), in the acupuncture group and the sham group answered incorrectly or was not sure at all regarding needling type but the proportion varied between the therapists from 55 to 80% (ns). Bang's blinding index was 0.20 (95% CI 0.03-0.36) in the acupuncture group and 0.10 (95% CI 0.09-0.29) in the sham group (interpretation: 20 and 10% identified needling type beyond statistical chance). Acupuncture was on a four-grade scale rated as median "mildly painful" and sham as "not painful" (ns). Pain ratings varied from median "not" to "mildly painful" in the therapists (p = 0.01).

    Conclusions: Two thirds of individuals needled by acupuncture as well as sham could not identify needling type and only 10-20% of the individuals were unblinded beyond chance. The therapists, not the needling type, influenced how painful the needling was perceived. IMPLICATIONS: To achieve blinding success in acupuncture efficacy studies using the sham needle, the needling procedure must be strictly standardized in order to minimize differences between the therapists.

  • 5.
    Enblom, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Johnsson, Anna
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden; Lund University, Sweden.
    Type and frequency of side effects during PC6 acupuncture: observations from therapists and patients participating in clinical efficacy trials of acupuncture2017In: Acupuncture in Medicine, ISSN 0964-5284, E-ISSN 1759-9873, Vol. 35, no 6, p. 421-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Many therapists practise PC6 acupuncture for emesis (nausea and vomiting) during pregnancy, different cancer therapies, palliative care, after surgery, or to induce relaxing effects in general. Knowledge of side effects is central to shared decision-making. Aim To describe the type and frequency of side effects and the level of needle-induced pain during PC6 acupuncture. Methods We included 1298 PC6 acupuncture treatments, delivered to 221 participants (77% women, mean age 52.5, range 18-91 years). The subjects had received genuine PC6 acupuncture, in one of two previous randomised controlled trials, aimed at inducing antiemetic (n=100, with 100 providing data on side effects and 94 on needle-induced pain, respectively) or relaxing (n=121, with 120 providing data) effects. Side effects during and after the acupuncture treatments were registered in structured treatment protocols and study diaries. Results No serious complications occurred. Side effects during the acupuncture sessions included minor bleeding in 5.0%, tiredness in 4.9%, numbness in 4.5% and dizziness in 1.4% of the 1298 treatments. After treatment, the mean proportions of participants reporting side effects each week were: tiredness 25.8%; feeling cold 17.8%; dizziness 9.7%; sweating 9.3%; haematoma 8.8%; and soreness at the needling sites 4.3%. Participants perceived the needling to be not painful (47.4% of participants), or mildly (39.1%), moderately (11.6%) or very painful (1.4%). Conclusions Few side effects occurred and those that did were mild. Nearly 90% found PC6 acupuncture to be not painful or only mildly painful. Healthcare professionals may consider the observed levels of side effects when informing patients about side effects of PC6 acupuncture.

  • 6.
    Enblom, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science.
    Johnsson, Anna
    Department of Oncology, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Onelöv, Erik
    Department of Oncology-Pathology, Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Department of Oncology-Pathology, Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Börjeson, Sussanne
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Acupuncture Compared To Placebo Acupuncture in Radiotherapy-induced Nausea: a Randomized Controlled Study2012In: Annals of Oncology, ISSN 0923-7534, E-ISSN 1569-8041, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 1353-1361Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To evaluate if verum (real) acupuncture is effective against nausea and vomiting during radiotherapy.

    PATIENTS AND METHODS: We randomised blinded cancer patients to verum; penetrating “deqi” creating acupuncture (n=109) in the antiemetic acupuncture point PC6 (three cm above the wrist), or sham (n=106) with a non-penetrating sham needle at a non-acupuncture point six cm above the wrist 2-3 times/week. The patients daily during the radiotherapy period documented nausea and vomiting. Primary endpoint was number of patients with at least one episode of nausea during the whole radiotherapy period. RESULTS: Data was provided by 205 patients (95 %). In the verum acupuncture group, 70 % experienced nausea at least once during the radiotherapy period (p=0.12 compared to the sham group) (mean number of days of 10.1), 25 % vomited and 42 % used antiemetic drugs at least once. In the sham group 62 % experienced nausea (mean number of days 8.7), 28 % vomited and 37 % consumed antiemetic drugs. Ninety five percent in the verum and 96 % in the sham acupuncture group believed that the treatment had been effective against nausea. In both groups 67 % experienced positive effects on relaxation, mood, sleep or pain-reduction, and 89 % wished to receive the treatment again.

    CONCLUSION: Acupuncture creating deqi is not more effective than sham in radiotherapy-induced nausea, but in this study nearly all patients in both groups experienced that the treatment was effective for nausea.

  • 7.
    Enblom, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lagerstedt, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Avonova, Sweden.
    Understanding rationales for acupuncture treated individuals beliefs in acupuncture effects, to be able to maximize therapeutic results: A qualitative analysis2018In: Complementary Therapies in Medicine, ISSN 0965-2299, E-ISSN 1873-6963, Vol. 39, p. 101-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate how individuals expressed rationales for their beliefs regarding efficacy of acupuncture. Methods: Qualitative data from participants of two different randomized sham-controlled trials, of relaxing (non cancer volunteers of the general population) or antiemetic (patients with cancer undergoing radiotherapy) effects of acupuncture was analyzed. Participants (n = 441) received genuine (n = 120 and n = 100) or sham (n = 121 and n = 100) (telescopic blunt sham-needle) relaxing or antiemetic acupuncture. The participants (n = 428; 97% response rate) expressed their belief regarding the efficacy of acupuncture, and n = 264 delivered qualitative rationales for their belief, analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results: Of the 428 participants, 35 (8%) believed entirely that the acupuncture was effective, 209 (49%) believed much, 136 (32%) believed moderately, 39 (9%) believed a little, and 9 (2%) did not believe that the acupuncture was effective. Five categories and seven subcategories represented the meaning units of the central message of the rationales for the treatment belief. Participants with positive beliefs (believed entirely/much, n = 244) presented rationales related to: "Experienced positive effects", "Knowledge regarding effect-mechanisms of acupuncture", and "General trustworthiness of acupuncture". Participants with more negative beliefs (believed a little or not, n = 48) presented rationales related to: "Lack of feasibility of the acupuncture", "Varying effects", and "The effect is individual, not available for everybody". Conclusion: In order to strengthen acupuncture treated patients beliefs in the efficacy of acupuncture during clinical practice or research, acupuncture therapists may consider emphasizing these aspects in the therapeutic situation.

  • 8.
    Enblom, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lekander, Mats
    Karolinska Institute.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Johnsson, Anna
    Lund University Hospital.
    Onelov, Erik
    Karolinska Institute.
    Ingvar, Martin
    Karolinska Institute.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institute.
    Börjeson, Sussanne
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Surgery and Oncology, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Getting the Grip on Nonspecific Treatment Effects: Emesis in Patients Randomized to Acupuncture or Sham Compared to Patients Receiving Standard Care2011In: PLOS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is not known whether or not delivering acupuncture triggers mechanisms cited as placebo and if acupuncture or sham reduces radiotherapy-induced emesis more than standard care. Methodology/Principal Findings: Cancer patients receiving radiotherapy over abdominal/pelvic regions were randomized to verum (penetrating) acupuncture (n = 109; 99 provided data) in the alleged antiemetic acupuncture point PC6 or sham acupuncture (n = 106; 101 provided data) performed with a telescopic non-penetrating needle at a sham point 2-3 times/week during the whole radiotherapy period. The acupuncture cohort was compared to a reference cohort receiving standard care (n = 62; 62 provided data). The occurrence of emesis in each group was compared after a mean dose of 27 Gray. Nausea and vomiting were experienced during the preceding week by 37 and 8% in the verum acupuncture group, 38 and 7% in the sham acupuncture group and 63 and 15% in the standard care group, respectively. The lower occurrence of nausea in the acupuncture cohort (verum and sham) compared to patients receiving standard care (37% versus 63%, relative risk (RR) 0.6, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.5-0.8) was also true after adjustment for potential confounding factors for nausea (RR 0.8, CI 0.6 to 0.9). Nausea intensity was lower in the acupuncture cohort (78% no nausea, 13% a little, 8% moderate, 1% much) compared to the standard care cohort (52% no nausea, 32% a little, 15% moderate, 2% much) (p = 0.002). The acupuncture cohort expected antiemetic effects from their treatment (95%). Patients who expected nausea had increased risk for nausea compared to patients who expected low risk for nausea (RR 1.6; Cl 1.2-2.4). Conclusions/Significance: Patients treated with verum or sham acupuncture experienced less nausea and vomiting compared to patients receiving standard care, possibly through a general care effect or due to the high level of patient expectancy.

  • 9.
    Enblom, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Lekander, Mats
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Osher Centre for Integrative Medicine.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology . Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Johnsson, Anna
    Department of Oncology, Division of Physiotherapy, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Onelöv, Erik
    Department of Oncology, Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Karoliniska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ingvar, Martin
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Osher Centre for Integrative Medicine.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Department of Oncology, Division of Clinical Cancer Epidemiology, Karoliniska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Börjeson, Sussanne
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Radiotherapy-induced Emesis in Patients Treated with Acupuncture, Sham Acupuncture or Standard Care: Effects of Unspecific Acupuncture Mechanisms2010Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is not known if acupuncture or sham reduces radiotherapy-induced emesis more than standard care.

    Methods: Cancer patients were randomized to verum (skin penetrating) acupuncture (n = 109) in the alleged antiemetic acupuncture point PC6 or sham acupuncture (n = 106) performed with a telescopic nonpenetrating needle at a sham point during the whole radiotherapy period. The verum and sham treated patients were compared to a reference cohort receiving standard care only (n = 62). All patients received radiotherapy over abdominal or pelvic regions. The occurrence of emesis in each group was compared using replies documented in questionnaires after a mean dose of 27 Gray.

    Findings: Nausea (p=0.001) and vomiting were experienced during the preceding week by 37 and 7%, respectively, in the verum group, 38 and 7% in the sham group and 63 and 15% in the standard care group. The nausea intensity in the acupuncture cohort was lower (78% no nausea, 13% a little, 8% moderate, 1% much) compared to the standard care cohort (52% no nausea, 32% a little, 15% moderate, 2% much) (p=0.002). Almost all the verum and sham treated patients (95%) expected antiemetic effects from their treatment. Patients who expected nausea had increased risk for nausea compared to patients who expected low risk for nausea (relative risk 1.6; 95 % confidence interval 1.2-2.4).

    Interpretations: Both verum acupuncture and nonpenetrating sham acupuncture seem to reduce nausea and vomiting during radiotherapy, possibly by psychobiological mechanisms related to the extra care and expectancy.

  • 10.
    Enblom, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lindquist, H.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Bergmark, K.
    Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Participation in water-exercising long-term after breast cancer surgery: Experiences of significant factors for continuing exercising as a part of cancer rehabilitation2018In: European Journal of Cancer Care, ISSN 0961-5423, E-ISSN 1365-2354, Vol. 27, no 1, article id e12736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although physical exercising has great benefits, little is known regarding factors of significance for cancer survivors to continue exercising within their rehabilitation. The objective was to describe factors experienced to be of significance for cancer survivors to continue with water-exercising long-term after breast cancer surgery. Women (n=29) who had undergone breast cancer surgery (mastectomy 79%, axillary surgery 86%, and radiotherapy 86%) for median (md) 13 (25th-75th percentile 3-21.5) was followed up regarding their rehabilitation, arm function Disabilities of Arm Shoulder and Hand (md 14, IQR 7-32), EQ-5D score (md 0.8, IQR 0.73-1.0) and quality of life EQ health barometer (md 80, IQR 64-95). We performed qualitative focus-group interviews regarding the womens views (n=24). The women had participated in water-exercising 1-46 semesters, md 8 (25th-75th percentile 3-21.5) semesters. Nearly all, 97%, participated in the water-exercising group every week, and 21 (72%) had participated in the water-exercising group at least half of the time since their breast cancer surgery, without complications. The women experienced that factors of significance to continue with water-exercising were the convenience of easily modified weightless exercising in the water, social interaction, and access to a private dressing room. These factors would be important to consider to encourage continuing in exercising.

  • 11.
    Enblom, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Steineck, G
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Börjeson, Susanne
    Linköping University, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Emesis and gastrointestinal problems during radiotherapy: A comparison of performance of daily activities between patients experiencing nausea and patients free from nausea2010In: European Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1462-3889, E-ISSN 1532-2122, Vol. 14, no 5, p. 359-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose of the research

    To describe the experiences of nausea, vomiting and gastrointestinal problems during radiotherapy, and to compare patients experiencing nausea with patients not experiencing nausea regarding performance in daily activities, sleeping and eating capacity.

    Methods and sample

    A cross-sectional sample of 131 Swedish radiotherapy patients answered a questionnaire regarding the preceding week of radiotherapy. Mean age was 63 years (standard deviation 12.1) and 56% were women. The radiotherapy fields were breast (35%), abdomen/pelvis (15%), prostate/bladder (21%), head/neck (10%) and other (8%).

    Key results

    The patients experiencing nausea within the observed week (n = 31) had, compared to the patients not experiencing nausea (n = 100), lower ability in daily activities in general (p = 0.001), in shopping (p = 0.014), walking (p = 0.007) and social interaction (p = 0.007). Of the patients with nausea 48% had seldom woken up rested and 34% were not able to eat as much as they used to. Corresponding figures for nausea free patients were 27% (not significant; ns) and 16% (ns). Six (5%) experienced vomiting, 15 (12%) diarrhoea, 23 (18%) constipation and 52 (40%) any gastrointestinal symptoms. Forty seven (90%) were negatively bothered by the experienced gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Conclusions

    The fourth of patients experiencing nausea during radiotherapy had lower ability to perform daily activities than the three quarters of patients who were free from nausea. Few patients vomited while 40% experienced gastrointestinal symptoms during the observed week of radiotherapy. This implies that health care professionals could consider identifying nauseous patients that possibly need support in nausea-reduction and in daily activities during radiotherapy.

  • 12.
    Enblom, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Börjeson, Sussanne
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology.
    Complementary and alternative medicine self-care strategies for nausea in patients undergoing abdominal or pelvic irradiation for cancer: A longitudinal observational study of implementation in routine care2017In: Complementary Therapies in Medicine, ISSN 0965-2299, E-ISSN 1873-6963, Vol. 34, p. 141-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To longitudinally describe practice of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) self-care strategies for nausea during radiotherapy. Methods: Two hundred patients daily registered nausea and practice of CAM self-care strategies, beside conventional antiemetic medications, for nausea during abdominal/pelvic irradiation (median five weeks) for gynecological (69%) colorectal (27%) or other tumors (4%). Results: During radiotherapy, 131 (66%) experienced nausea, and 50 (25%) practiced self-care for nausea at least once, for a mean (m) of 15.9 days. The six of 50 patients who stayed free from nausea practiced self-care more frequent (m = 25.8 days) than the 44 patients experiencing nausea (m = 14.5) (p = 0.013). The CAM self-care strategies were: modifying eating (80% of all self-care practicing patients, 80% of the nauseous patients versus 83% of the patients free from nausea; ns) or drinking habits (38%, 41% vs 17%; ns), taking rests (18%, 20% vs 0%; ns), physical exercising (6%, 2% vs 33%; p = 0.035), acupressure (4%, 5% vs 0%; ns) and self-induced vomiting (2%, 2% vs 0%; ns). Conclusion: A fourth of patients undergoing emetogenic radiotherapy practiced CAM self-care for nausea, mostly by modifying eating or drinking habits. The CAM self-care practicing patients who did not become nauseous practiced self-care more frequent than the nauseous patients did. To make such self-care evidence based, we need studies evaluating its efficacy.

  • 13.
    Enblom, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Institutionen för klinisk neurovetenskap, Osher centrum för integrativ medicin, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Institutionen för onkologi-patologi, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm; Institutionen för kliniska vetenskaper, avdelning för onkologi, Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Börjeson, Sussanne
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology. Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science.
    Reduced Need for Rescue Antiemetics and Improved Capacity to Eat in Patients Receiving Acupuncture Compared to Patients Receiving Sham Acupuncture or Standard Care during Radiotherapy.2017In: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, ISSN 1741-427X, E-ISSN 1741-4288, Vol. 2017, article id 5806351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To evaluate if consumption of emesis-related care and eating capacity differed between patients receiving verum acupuncture, sham acupuncture, or standard care only during radiotherapy. Methods. Patients were randomized to verum (n = 100) or sham (n = 100) acupuncture (telescopic blunt sham needle) (median 12 sessions) and registered daily their consumption of antiemetics and eating capacity. A standard care group (n = 62) received standard care only and delivered these data once. Results. More patients in the verum (n = 73 of 89 patients still undergoing radiotherapy; 82%, Relative Risk (RR) 1.23, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.01-1.50) and the sham acupuncture group (n = 79 of 95; 83%, RR 1.24, CI 1.03-1.52) did not need any antiemetic medications, as compared to the standard care group (n = 42 out of 63; 67%) after receiving 27 Gray dose of radiotherapy. More patients in the verum (n = 50 of 89; 56%, RR 1.78, CI 1.31-2.42) and the sham acupuncture group (n = 58 of 94 answering patients; 62%, RR 1.83, CI 1.20-2.80) were capable of eating as usual, compared to the standard care group (n = 20 of 63; 39%). Conclusion. Patients receiving acupuncture had lower consumption of antiemetics and better eating capacity than patients receiving standard antiemetic care, plausible by nonspecific effects of the extra care during acupuncture.

  • 14.
    Enblom, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Tomasson, Annica
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting.
    Hammar, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Obstetrics and gynecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre of Paediatrics and Gynecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Steineck, Gunnar
    Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Börjeson, Sussanne
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Oncology UHL.
    Pilot testing of methods for evaluation of acupuncture for emesis during radiotherapy: a randomised single subject experimental design2011In: ACUPUNCTURE IN MEDICINE, ISSN 0964-5284, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 94-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Many acupuncture studies are of weak methodological quality, possibly due to lack of pilot testing. This pilot study tested design features, including test of feasibility, compliance to treatment and data collection, level of blinding success and the patients potential perceived effects of the treatment, in preparation for an efficacy study. Method A modified single subject experimental design was conducted. 10 cancer patients were randomised to verum penetrating acupuncture or non-penetrating sham needles for 30 min 2-3 times/week during radiotherapy over abdomen/pelvis. They answered test-retested emesis questions (r=0.527-1.0) covering nausea, vomiting, use of antiemetics, wellbeing and activities of daily living. Results Overall, the patients completed 98% of the 345 emesis-questionnaire days and 101 of the 115 offered treatments. All patients believed they received verum acupuncture. 10 patients experienced antiemetic effects, seven relaxation, five pain-reduction and five experienced sleep improvement. Two types of nausea questions showed absolute concordance (r=1.0) (n of observations=456). Nausea was experienced by one of five verum acupuncture treated patients (duration median 0% of the radiotherapy-days) and four of five sham acupuncture treated patients (duration median 24% of the radiotherapy-days). Patients experiencing nausea rated decreased wellbeing and performance of daily activities compared to patients free from nausea. Conclusions All patients were blinded, complied with verum/sham treatments and data-collection, and believed they had effects of the received treatment. The methods for verum/sham treatment and data collection may thus be used in an adequately powered randomised controlled study of the effect of acupuncture for radiotherapy-induced emesis.

  • 15.
    Lindgren, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dunberger, G.
    Ersta Skondal University of Coll, Sweden.
    Enblom, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Experiences of incontinence and pelvic floor muscle training after gynaecologic cancer treatment2017In: Supportive Care in Cancer, ISSN 0941-4355, E-ISSN 1433-7339, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 157-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study is to describe how gynaecological cancer survivors (GCS) experience incontinence in relation to quality of life, their possibilities for physical activity and exercise and their perceptions and experiences of pelvic floor muscle training. This qualitative interview content analysis study included 13 women (48-82 age) with urinary (n = 10) or faecal (n = 3) incontinence after radiation therapy (n = 2), surgery (n = 5) and surgery and radiation therapy (n = 6) for gynaecological cancer, 0.5-21 years ago. Symptoms related to incontinence and restrictions in daily activities reduced physical quality of life. Emotions related to incontinence reduced psychological quality of life and social and existential quality of life, due to restrictions in activity and feelings of exclusion. Practical and mental strategies for maintaining quality of life were described, such as always bringing a change of clothes and accepting the situation. Possibilities for sexual and physical activity as well as exercise were also restricted by incontinence. The women had little or no experience of pelvic floor muscle training but have a positive attitude towards trying it. They also described a lack of information about the risk of incontinence. The women were willing to spend both money and time on an effective treatment for their incontinence. Nine out of 10 were willing to spend at least 7 h a week. GCS experienced that incontinence reduced quality of life and limited possibilities for sexual and physical activity as well as exercise. Coping strategies, both practical and emotional, facilitated living with incontinence. The women had a positive attitude towards pelvic floor muscle training. Lack of information had a negative impact on their way of dealing with the situation.

  • 16.
    Lindgren, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Dunberger, G.
    Ersta Skondal Univ Coll, Sweden.
    Steineck, G.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Gothenburg Univ, Sweden.
    Bergmark, K.
    Gothenburg Univ, Sweden.
    Enblom, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Identifying female pelvic cancer survivors with low levels of physical activity after radiotherapy: women with fecal and urinary leakage need additional support2019In: Supportive Care in Cancer, ISSN 0941-4355, E-ISSN 1433-7339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectiveTo investigate the frequency of physical activity among female pelvic cancer survivors (i.e., gynecological, rectal, and anal cancer survivors) and to investigate if survivors who practiced physical activity less than once a week differed from survivors practicing physical activity at least once a week with respect to urinary and fecal leakage, clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, quality of life (QoL), and depressed and anxious mood.MethodsFemale pelvic cancer survivors (n=578, mean age 64 years) answered a questionnaire 6-48 months after radiotherapy. A multivariable regression model analyzed factors covarying with frequency of physical activity. We compared QoL and depressed and anxious mood between women practicing physical activity at least or less than once a week.ResultsOf 568 women delivering data, 186 (33%) practiced physical activity less than once a week while 382 (67%) practiced physical activity at least weekly. Women who leaked a large or all volume of stools (p=0.01), had just elementary school level of education (pamp;lt;0.001), smokers (p=0.049), or had lymphedema without receiving lymphedema treatment (p=0.030) were more likely to practice physical activity less than weekly (50%, 45%, 45%, and 37%, respectively) compared with other women. Women practicing physical activity at least weekly reported better QoL (pamp;lt;0.001) and lower frequency of depressed mood (p=0.044) compared with the others.ConclusionsFemale cancer survivors experiencing fecal leakage were less likely to practice weekly physical activity than survivors without leakage. The survivors practicing weekly physical activity experienced better QoL and experienced depressed mood less frequently than the others.

  • 17.
    Rosen, Annelie
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lekander, Mats
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Jensen, Karin
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Sachs, Lisbeth
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Petrovic, Predrag
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ingvar, Martin
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Enblom, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Retracted article: The Effects of Positive or Neutral Communication during Acupuncture for Relaxing Effects: A Sham-Controlled Randomized Trial2016In: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, ISSN 1741-427X, E-ISSN 1741-4288, Vol. 2016, p. 11-, article id 3925878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction. The link between patient-clinician communication and its effect on clinical outcomes is an important clinical issue that is yet to be elucidated. Objective. Investigating if communication type (positive or neutral) about the expected treatment outcome affected (i) participants(expectations and (ii) short-term relaxation effects in response to genuine or sham acupuncture and investigating if expectations were related to outcome. Methods. Healthy volunteers (n = 243, mean age of 42) were randomized to one treatment with genuine or sham acupuncture. Within groups, participants were randomized to positive or neutral communication, regarding expected treatment effects. Visual Analogue Scales (0-100 millimeters) were used to measure treatment expectations and relaxation, directly before and after treatment. Results. Participants in the positive communication group reported higher treatment expectancy, compared to the neutral communication group (md 12 versus 6 mm, p = 0.002). There was no difference in relaxation effects between acupuncture groups or between communication groups. Participants with high baseline expectancy perceived greater improvement in relaxation, compared to participants with low baseline levels (md 27 versus 15 mm, p = 0.022). Conclusion. Our data highlights the importance of expectations for treatment outcome and demonstrates that expectations can be effectively manipulated using a standardized protocol that in future research may be implemented in clinical trials.

  • 18.
    Widgren, Ylva
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Enblom, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Emesis in patients receiving acupuncture, sham acupuncture or standard care during chemo-radiation: A randomized controlled study2017In: Complementary Therapies in Medicine, ISSN 0965-2299, E-ISSN 1873-6963, Vol. 34, p. 16-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To study nausea, vomiting and need for rescue antiemetics in patients receiving antiemetic acupuncture, sham acupuncture or standard care during concomitant chemotherapy during pelvic radiotherapy. Methods: In total, 68 patients participated (75% women, mean age 56 years, 53% had gynecological, 43% colorectal, and 4% other cancer types). Fifty-seven of them were blinded randomized to verum (n = 28) or sham (n = 29) acupuncture, median 10 sessions. During the study period of four weeks, the patients daily registered their nausea, vomiting and consumption of antiemetics. They were compared to a reference group (n = 11) receiving standard care only, who delivered these data once (after receiving mean 27 Gy radiotherapy dose). Results: More patients in the sham acupuncture group (17 of 20; 85%, p = 0.019, RR 1.81, CI 1.06-3.09) consumed antiemetics, compared to the verum acupuncture group (8 of 17; 47%). In the standard care group, 7 of 11 (63%) consumed antiemetics. The verum acupuncture treated patients experienced lower intensity of nausea than the other patients (p = 0.049). There was a non-significant tendency that more patients receiving either sham acupuncture or standard care experienced nausea (21 of 31; 68%) than patients receiving verum acupuncture (9 of 17; 53%: p = 0.074, RR 1.58, CI 0.91-2.74). Conclusion: Patients treated with verum acupuncture needed less antiemetics and experienced milder nausea than other patients. Our study was small and many analyses lacked statistical power to detect differences; we welcome further sham-controlled efficacy studies and studies regarding the role of non-specific treatment components for experiencing antiemetic effects of acupuncture.

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