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  • 1. Braun, Tatjana
    et al.
    Orlova, Albina
    Valegård, Karin
    Lindås, Ann-Christin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Schröder, Gunnar F.
    Egelman, Edward H.
    Archaeal actin from a hyperthermophile forms a single-stranded filament2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 112, nr 30, s. 9340-9345Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The prokaryotic origins of the actin cytoskeleton have been firmly established, but it has become clear that the bacterial actins form a wide variety of different filaments, different both from each other and from eukaryotic F-actin. We have used electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) to examine the filaments formed by the protein crenactin (a crenarchaeal actin) from Pyrobaculum calidifontis, an organism that grows optimally at 90 degrees C. Although this protein only has similar to 20% sequence identity with eukaryotic actin, phylogenetic analyses have placed it much closer to eukaryotic actin than any of the bacterial homologs. It has been assumed that the crenactin filament is double-stranded, like F-actin, in part because it would be hard to imagine how a single-stranded filament would be stable at such high temperatures. We show that not only is the crenactin filament single-stranded, but that it is remarkably similar to each of the two strands in F-actin. A large insertion in the crenactin sequence would prevent the formation of an F-actin-like double-stranded filament. Further, analysis of two existing crystal structures reveals six different subunit-subunit interfaces that are filament-like, but each is different from the others in terms of significant rotations. This variability in the subunit-subunit interface, seen at atomic resolution in crystals, can explain the large variability in the crenactin filaments observed by cryo-EM and helps to explain the variability in twist that has been observed for eukaryotic actin filaments.

  • 2.
    Couturier, Mohea
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Lindås, Ann-Christin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    The DNA Methylome of the Hyperthermoacidophilic Crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius2018Inngår i: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 9, artikkel-id 137Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    DNA methylation is the most common epigenetic modification observed in the genomic DNA (gDNA) of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Methylated nucleobases, N-6-methyladenine (m6A), N-4-methyl-cytosine (m4C), and 5-methyl-cytosine (m5C), detected on gDNA represent the discrimination mark between self and non-self DNA when they are part of restriction-modification systems in prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea). In addition, m5C in Eukaryotes and m6A in Bacteria play an important role in the regulation of key cellular processes. Although archaeal genomes present modified bases as in the two other domains of life, the significance of DNA methylations as regulatory mechanisms remains largely uncharacterized in Archaea. Here, we began by investigating the DNA methylome of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. The strategy behind this initial study entailed the use of combined digestion assays, dot blots, and genome resequencing, which utilizes specific restriction enzymes, antibodies specifically raised against m6A and m5C and single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing, respectively, to identify DNA methylations occurring in exponentially growing cells. The previously identified restriction-modification system, specific of S. acidocaldarius, was confirmed by digestion assay and SMRT sequencing while, the presence of m6A was revealed by dot blot and identified on the characteristic Dam motif by SMRT sequencing. No m5C was detected by dot blot under the conditions tested. Furthermore, by comparing the distribution of both detected methylations along the genome and, by analyzing DNA methylation profiles in synchronized cells, we investigated in which cellular pathways, in particular the cell cycle, this m6A methylation could be a key player. The analysis of sequencing data rejected a role for m6A methylation in another defense system and also raised new questions about a potential involvement of this modification in the regulation of other biological functions in S. acidocaldarius.

  • 3. Laine, Romain F.
    et al.
    Tosheva, Kalina L.
    Gustafsson, Nils
    Gray, Robert D. M.
    Almada, Pedro
    Albrecht, David
    Risa, Gabriel T.
    Hurtig, Fredrik
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Lindås, Ann-Christin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Baum, Buzz
    Mercer, Jason
    Leterrier, Christophe
    Pereira, Pedro M.
    Culley, Sian
    Henriques, Ricardo
    NanoJ: a high-performance open-source super-resolution microscopy toolbox2019Inngår i: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 52, nr 16, artikkel-id 163001Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Super-resolution microscopy (SRM) has become essential for the study of nanoscale biological processes. This type of imaging often requires the use of specialised image analysis tools to process a large volume of recorded data and extract quantitative information. In recent years, our team has built an open-source image analysis framework for SRM designed to combine high performance and ease of use. We named it NanoJ-a reference to the popular ImageJ software it was developed for. In this paper, we highlight the current capabilities of NanoJ for several essential processing steps: spatio-temporal alignment of raw data (NanoJ-Core), super-resolution image reconstruction (NanoJ-SRRF), image quality assessment (NanoJ-SQUIRREL), structural modelling (NanoJ-VirusMapper) and control of the sample environment (NanoJ-Fluidics). We expect to expand NanoJ in the future through the development of new tools designed to improve quantitative data analysis and measure the reliability of fluorescent microscopy studies.

  • 4. Lemmens, Liesbeth
    et al.
    Tilleman, Laurentijn
    De Koning, Ezra
    Valegard, Karin
    Lindås, Ann-Christin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip
    Maes, Dominique
    Peeters, Eveline
    YtrA(Sa), a GntR-Family Transcription Factor, Represses Two Genetic Loci Encoding Membrane Proteins in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius2019Inngår i: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 2084Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In bacteria, the GntR family is a widespread family of transcription factors responsible for the regulation of a myriad of biological processes. In contrast, despite their occurrence in archaea only a little information is available on the function of GntR-like transcription factors in this domain of life. The thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius harbors a GntR-like regulator belonging to the YtrA subfamily, encoded as the first gene in an operon with a second gene encoding a putative membrane protein. Here, we present a detailed characterization of this regulator, named YtrA(Sa), with a focus on regulon determination and mechanistic analysis with regards to DNA binding. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation and transcriptome experiments, the latter employing a ytrA(Sa) overexpression strain, demonstrate that the regulator acts as a repressor on a very restricted regulon, consisting of only two targets including the operon encoding its own gene and a distinct genetic locus encoding another putative membrane protein. For both targets, a conserved 14-bp semi-palindromic binding motif was delineated that covers the transcriptional start site and that is surrounded by additional half-site motifs. The crystallographic structure of YtrA(Sa) was determined, revealing a compact dimeric structure in which the DNA-binding motifs are oriented ideally to enable a specific high-affinity interaction with the core binding motif. This study provides new insights into the functioning of a YtrA-like regulator in the archaeal domain of life.

  • 5.
    Lindås, Ann-Christin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Bernander, Rolf
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    The cell cycle of archaea2013Inngår i: Nature Reviews Microbiology, ISSN 1740-1526, E-ISSN 1740-1534, Vol. 11, nr 9, s. 627-638Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth and proliferation of all cell types require intricate regulation and coordination of chromosome replication, genome segregation, cell division and the systems that determine cell shape. Recent findings have provided insight into the cell cycle of archaea, including the multiple-origin mode of DNA replication, the initial characterization of a genome segregation machinery and the discovery of a novel cell division system. The first archaeal cytoskeletal protein, crenactin, was also recently described and shown to function in cell shape determination. Here, we outline the current understanding of the archaeal cell cycle and cytoskeleton, with an emphasis on species in the genus Sulfolobus, and consider the major outstanding questions in the field.

  • 6.
    Lindås, Ann-Christin
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Chruszcz, Maksymilian
    Bernander, Rolf
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Valegård, Karin
    Structure of crenactin, an archaeal actin homologue active at 90 degrees C2014Inngår i: Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography, ISSN 0907-4449, E-ISSN 1399-0047, Vol. 70, s. 492-500Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The crystal structure of the archaeal actin, crenactin, from the rod-shaped hyperthermophilic (optimal growth at 90 degrees C) crenarchaeon Pyrobaculum calidifontis is reported at 3.35 angstrom resolution. Despite low amino-acid sequence identity, the three-dimensional structure of the protein monomer is highly similar to those of eukaryotic actin and the bacterial MreB protein. Crenactin-specific features are also evident, as well as elements that are shared between crenactin and eukaryotic actin but are not found in MreB. In the crystal, crenactin monomers form right-handed helices, demonstrating that the protein is capable of forming filament-like structures. Monomer interactions in the helix, as well as interactions between crenactin and ADP in the nucleotide-binding pocket, are resolved at the atomic level and compared with those of actin and MreB. The results provide insights into the structural and functional properties of a heat-stable archaeal actin and contribute to the understanding of the evolution of actin-family proteins in the three domains of life.

  • 7. Liu, Han
    et al.
    Orell, Alvaro
    Maes, Dominique
    van Wolferen, Marleen
    Lindås, Ann-Christin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Bernander, Rolf
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Albers, Sonja-Verena
    Charlier, Daniel
    Peeters, Eveline
    BarR, an Lrp-type transcription factor in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, regulates an aminotransferase gene in a beta- alanine responsive manner2014Inngår i: Molecular Microbiology, ISSN 0950-382X, E-ISSN 1365-2958, Vol. 92, nr 3, s. 625-639Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In archaea, nothing is known about the -alanine degradation pathway or its regulation. In this work, we identify and characterize BarR, a novel Lrp-like transcription factor and the first one that has a non-proteinogenic amino acid ligand. BarR is conserved in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and Sulfolobus tokodaii and is located in a divergent operon with a gene predicted to encode -alanine aminotransferase. Deletion of barR resulted in a reduced exponential growth rate in the presence of -alanine. Furthermore, qRT-PCR and promoter activity assays demonstrated that BarR activates the expression of the adjacent aminotransferase gene, but only upon -alanine supplementation. In contrast, auto-activation proved to be -alanine independent. Heterologously produced BarR is an octamer in solution and forms a single complex by interacting with multiple sites in the 170bp long intergenic region separating the divergently transcribed genes. In vitro, DNA binding is specifically responsive to -alanine and site-mutant analyses indicated that -alanine directly interacts with the ligand-binding pocket. Altogether, this work contributes to the growing body of evidence that in archaea, Lrp-like transcription factors have physiological roles that go beyond the regulation of -amino acid metabolism.

  • 8. Liu, Han
    et al.
    Wang, Kun
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Lindås, Ann-Christin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Peeters, Eveline
    The genome-scale DNA-binding profile of BarR, a beta-alanine responsive transcription factor in the archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius2016Inngår i: BMC Genomics, ISSN 1471-2164, E-ISSN 1471-2164, Vol. 17, artikkel-id 569Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Leucine-responsive Regulatory Protein (Lrp) family is a widespread family of regulatory transcription factors in prokaryotes. BarR is an Lrp-like transcription factor in the model archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius that activates the expression of a beta-alanine aminotransferase gene, which is involved in beta-alanine degradation. In contrast to classical Lrp-like transcription factors, BarR is not responsive to any of the alpha-amino acids but interacts specifically with beta-alanine. Besides the juxtaposed beta-alanine aminotransferase gene, other regulatory targets of BarR have not yet been identified although beta-alanine is the precursor of coenzyme A and thus an important central metabolite. The aim of this study is to extend the knowledge of the DNA-binding characteristics of BarR and of its corresponding regulon from a local to a genome-wide perspective. Results: We characterized the genome-wide binding profile of BarR using chromatin immunoprecipation combined with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq). This revealed 21 genomic binding loci. High-enrichment binding regions were validated to interact with purified BarR protein in vitro using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and almost all targets were also shown to harbour a conserved semi-palindromic binding motif. Only a small subset of enriched genomic sites are located in intergenic regions at a relative short distance to a promoter, and qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that only one additional operon is under activation of BarR, namely the glutamine synthase operon. The latter is also a target of other Lrp-like transcription factors. Detailed inspection of the BarR ChIP-seq profile at the beta-alanine aminotransferase promoter region in combination with binding motif predictions indicate that the operator structure is more complicated than previously anticipated, consisting of multiple (major and auxiliary) operators. Conclusions: BarR has a limited regulon, and includes also glutamine synthase genes besides the previously characterized beta-alanine aminotransferase. Regulation of glutamine synthase is suggestive of a link between beta-alanine and alpha-amino acid metabolism in S. acidocaldarius. Furthermore, this work reveals that the BarR regulon overlaps with that of other Lrp-like regulators.

  • 9. Reimann, Julia
    et al.
    Esser, Dominik
    Orell, Alvaro
    Amman, Fabian
    Pham, Trong Khoa
    Noirel, Josselin
    Lindås, Ann-Christin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Bernander, Rolf
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Wright, Phillip C.
    Siebers, Bettina
    Albers, Sonja-Verena
    Archaeal Signal Transduction: Impact of Protein Phosphatase Deletions on Cell Size, Motility, and Energy Metabolism in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius2013Inngår i: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics, ISSN 1535-9476, E-ISSN 1535-9484, Vol. 12, nr 12, s. 3908-3923Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the in vitro and in vivo functions of the only two identified protein phosphatases, Saci-PTP and Saci-PP2A, in the crenarchaeal model organism Sulfolobus acidocaldarius were investigated. Biochemical characterization revealed that Saci-PTP is a dual-specific phosphatase (against pSer/pThr and pTyr), whereas Saci-PP2A exhibited specific pSer/pThr activity and inhibition by okadaic acid. Deletion of saci_pp2a resulted in pronounced alterations in growth, cell shape and cell size, which could be partially complemented. Transcriptome analysis of the three strains (Δsaci_ptp, Δsaci_pp2a and the MW001 parental strain) revealed 155 genes that were differentially expressed in the deletion mutants, and showed significant changes in expression of genes encoding the archaella (archaeal motility structure), components of the respiratory chain and transcriptional regulators. Phosphoproteome studies revealed 801 unique phosphoproteins in total, with an increase in identified phosphopeptides in the deletion mutants. Proteins from most functional categories were affected by phosphorylation, including components of the motility system, the respiratory chain, and regulatory proteins. In the saci_pp2a deletion mutant the up-regulation at the transcript level, as well as the observed phosphorylation pattern, resembled starvation stress responses. Hypermotility was also observed in the saci_pp2a deletion mutant. The results highlight the importance of protein phosphorylation in regulating essential cellular processes in the crenarchaeon S. acidocaldarius.

  • 10.
    Wang, Kun
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Couturier, Mohea
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Knöppel, Anna
    Pelve, Erik
    Lundgren, Magnus
    Lindås, Ann-Christin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Genome-wide transcription responses during transition from exponential growth to stationary phase in the Archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricusManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Transition from exponential phase to stationary phase has been extensively studied in bacteria, which brings in-depth knowledge about bacterial cell adaptation, stress response, and transcriptional regulation network, such as stationary specific σ factors and (p)ppGpp mediated stringent response, etc. However, little is known for archaeal in this field. To shed light on archaeal phase adaptation and metabolic responses during growth phase transitions, global gene expression during growth of S. solfataricus were studied. Total RNAs from cells that were collected at 4 time points, representing exponential growth, the transition stage, early stationary phase and late stationary phase were extracted and sequenced. RNA-seq analysis identified a total of 1067 differentially expressed genes during phase transition, which included 456 induced genes most of which are related to transposases, stress response, and transcription factors, 464 repressed genes most of them involved in translation, basic transcriptional apparatus, DNA replication, cell division, amino acids metabolism and defense mechanisms, and 147 genes with fluctuated profile including transporters, oxidation-reduction process related genes and few metabolic genes. This study not only provide an overview of gene expression profiles of S. solfataricus during growth phase transition, but also provide a rich repository for further studies by the archaea community.

  • 11.
    Wang, Kun
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Sybers, David
    Maklad, Hassan Ramadan
    Lemmens, Liesbeth
    Lewyllie, Charlotte
    Zhou, Xiaoxiao
    Schult, Frank
    Bräsen, Christopher
    Siebers, Bettina
    Valegård, Karin
    Lindås, Ann-Christin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Peeters, Eveline
    A TetR-family transcription factor regulates fatty acid metabolism in the archaeal model organism Sulfolobus acidocaldarius2019Inngår i: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 10, artikkel-id 1542Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatty acid metabolism and its regulation are known to play important roles in bacteria and eukaryotes. By contrast, although certain archaea appear to metabolize fatty acids, the regulation of the underlying pathways in these organisms remains unclear. Here, we show that a TetR-family transcriptional regulator (FadR(sa)) is involved in regulation of fatty acid metabolism in the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius. Functional and structural analyses show that FadR(sa) binds to DNA at semi-palindromic recognition sites in two distinct stoichiometric binding modes depending on the operator sequence. Genome-wide transcriptomic and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrate that the protein binds to only four genomic sites, acting as a repressor of a 30-kb gene cluster comprising 23 open reading frames encoding lipases and beta-oxidation enzymes. Fatty acyl-CoA molecules cause dissociation of FadR(sa) binding by inducing conformational changes in the protein. Our results indicate that, despite its similarity in overall structure to bacterial TetR-family FadR regulators, FadR(sa) displays a different acyl-CoA binding mode and a distinct regulatory mechanism.

  • 12.
    Wang, Kun
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Sybers, David
    Ramadan Maklad, Hassan
    Lemmens, Liesbeth
    Lewyllie, Charlotte
    Zhou, Xiaoxiao
    Bräsen, Christopher
    Siebers, Bettina
    Valegård, Karin
    Lindås, Ann-Christin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Peeters, Eveline
    A bacterial-like FadR transcription factor regulates fatty acid metabolism in the archaeal model organism Sulfolobus acidocaldariusManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In accordance with the important biological roles of fatty acids, their metabolism is under complex regulation in bacteria and eukaryotes. In contrast, although certain archaea also appear to metabolize fatty acids, nothing is known about the regulation of the underlying pathways in these organisms. Here we show that the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius harbors a bacterial-type TetR-family transcriptional regulator FadRSa and that it is involved in regulation of fatty acid metabolism. Functional and structural analyses show that the regulator binds semi-palindromic recognition sites in two distinct operator-dependent binding modes and that binding of fatty acyl-CoA molecules causes dissociation of FadRSa-DNA complexes by inducing conformational changes in the protein. Curiously, despite the similarity in overall structure and mechanisms between FadRSa and bacterial TetR-family FadR regulators, we reveal a fundamentally different acyl-CoA binding mode that suggests convergent evolution. Genome-wide transcriptomic and FadRSa-specific chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses further demonstrate that the transcription factor acts as a local repressor of a gene cluster comprising 23 open reading frames that encode lipases, beta-oxidation enzymes and acetyl-CoA acetyltransferases. We conclude that lipid degradation and fatty acid metabolism in S. acidocaldarius is subject to an acyl-CoA responsive transcriptional repression by a homolog of bacterial TetR-family FadR proteins of which the regulatory mechanism suggests that the regulated gene cluster minimally has a catabolic function.

  • 13.
    Wassing, Gabriela
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Sigurlásdóttir, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Schroeder, Kristen
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Ilehag, Nathalie
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Lindås, Ann-Christin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Jonas, Kristina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Jonsson, Ann-Beth
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för molekylär biovetenskap, Wenner-Grens institut.
    Meningococcal DNA binds to human beta-defensin 2 and blocks its lethal effect against the bacteriaManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
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