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  • 1.
    Albrecht, James
    et al.
    Georgetown University.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Vroman, Susan
    Georgetown University.
    Unionization and the Evolution of the Wage Distribution in Sweden: 1968 to 20002011In: Industrial & labor relations review, ISSN 0019-7939, E-ISSN 2162-271X, Vol. 64, no 5, p. 1039-1057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using the 1968, 1981, and 2000 Swedish Level of Living Surveys, the authors examine the evolution of the wage distribution in Sweden over the periods 1968–1981 and 1981–2000. The first period was the heyday of the Swedish solidarity wage policy with strong equalization clauses in the central wage agreements. During the second period, there was more flexibility for firms to adjust wages to reflect conditions such as labor shortages in particular fields. The authors find a remarkable narrowing of the wage distribution in the first period, but in the second period, wages grew more equally across the distribution. The authors decompose these changes in wages across the distribution into two components—those due to changes in the distribution of characteristics such as education and experience and those due to changes in the distribution of returns to those characteristics. They find that the wage compression between 1968 and 1981 was driven by changes in the distribution of returns, but between 1981 and 2000, the change in the distribution of returns had less of an effect on wage compression. 

  • 2. Aldén, Lina
    et al.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Hammarstedt, Mats
    Early Health and School Outcomes for Children with Lesbian Parents: Evidence from Sweden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden was early to legalize same-sex partnership (1995), to allow same-sex couples to adopt children (2003), and to offer same-sex couples fertility treatment through the national health system (2005). Using population data, we identify children of lesbian parents as those whose biological mother was a registered same-sex partner no later than six months after the child's birth. The number of such children increased markedly from 1995 to 2010 with a total of 750 children for the whole period. We find that boys and girls with lesbian parents had 2.4 percent lower birth weight than other children, a difference that is statistically significant from zero at the 5 percent level. Girls, but not boys, also have a higher probability of having a low birth weight. We follow these children until age ten and observe diseases of the respiratory system. Boys with lesbian parents have a significantly lower probability of such diseases (-3.4 percentage points), and girls with lesbian parents an insignificantly higher probability (+2.4 percentage points). Our analysis of school outcomes at age ten uses a small sample so precision is low. The point estimates show that boys with lesbian parents outperform other children by around 10 percentiles higher test scores in Math and Swedish. These differences are barely significant, while estimates for girls are lower and not significant. For all outcomes, we find that children with lesbian parents benefit from their mother's socio-economic status, whereas they suffer in terms of birth weight from having been exposed to fertility treatment.

  • 3.
    Bergenhem, Carl
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Gördén, Bengt
    SUNET/KTH-NOC.
    Åhlander, Anders
    Ericsson Microwave Systems.
    Heterogeneous real-time services in high-performance system area networks - application demands and case study definitions2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To be able to verify the feasibility of high-performance networks, it is essential to evaluate them according to specific application requirements. At the same time, specifications of quite general, or understandable, application requirements are needed for the ability to make repeated analyses on different networks. Especially, heterogeneous real-time requirements must be defined to be able to analyze networks to be used in future applications. In this report, we introduce two application fields where system area networks (SANs) supporting heterogeneous real-time services are highly desirable if not required: radar signal processing and large IP routers. For each application field, a case study with heterogeneous real-time communication requirements is defined. No case studies are presented in this report. Instead, they are defined for later evaluations to determine how suitable networks are for applications with heterogeneous real-time communication requirements.

  • 4.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Comment by Anders Björklund: to: Alison L. Booth's "The glass ceiling in Europe: Why are women doing badly in the labour market?"2007Other (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Does a family-friendly policy raise fertility levels?2007Other (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Family Background and Outcomes Later in Life: A (Partial and Personal) Survey of Recent Research Using Swedish Register Data2007Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Från doktorsexamen till professor – mina år på IUI 1981-19902014In: IFN 1939—2014 - 75 år av ekonomisk forskning / [ed] Magnus Henrekson och Göran Albinsson Bruhner, Ekerlids förlag, 2014Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Inkomstfördelningen och den ekonomiska politiken2015In: Svensk ekonomisk politik - då, nu och i framtiden: festskrift tillägnad Hans Tson Söderström / [ed] Birgitta Swedenborg, Dialogos Förlag, 2015Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nationalekonomisk toppforskning i Sverige - omfattning, lokalisering och inriktning2014In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, no 5, p. 6-19Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    The Fertility of Japan and Sweden - Role of family policy2008In: Welfare Policy and Labour Markets - The Japanese and Swedish Models under Transition, Japan: Norudikku Shuppan (Nordic (Förlag)) , 2008, p. 135-154Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Bratsberg, B.
    Eriksson, T.
    Jäntti, M.
    Raaum, O.
    Interindustry Wage Differentials and Unobserved Ability: Siblings Evidence from Five Countries2007In: Industrial Relations, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 171-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the role of unobserved ability in explaining interindustry wage differentials. By using data on brothers, we account for unmeasured abilities shared by siblings. The data came from four Nordic countries and the United States. In the Nordic countries, only a moderate proportion of the variability in industry wages can be attributed to unobserved ability, while unmeasured factors explain as much as half of the U.S. industry-wage variation. Accounting for such differences, we show that the U.S. interindustry wage dispersion is similar with that in the Nordic countries.

  • 12.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Edin, Per-Anders
    Fredriksson, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Holmlund, Bertil
    Wadensjö, Eskil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Arbetsmarknaden2014 (ed. 4)Book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Fredriksson, PeterStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Economics of Education2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Fredriksson, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Economics of education: Policies and effects2012In: Nordic economic policy review, ISSN 1904-4526, no 1, p. 7-22Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Freeman, Richard B.
    Harvard University, USA.
    Searching for Optimal Inequality/Incentives2010In: Reforming the Welfare State: Recovery and Beyond in Sweden / [ed] R. Freeman, B. Swedenborg, R. Topel, Chicago/London: The University of Chicago Press , 2010, p. 25-56Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Ginther, Donna K.
    Dept. of Economics, University of Kansas, USA.
    Sundström, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Does Marriage Matter for Children? Assessing the Impact of Legal Marriage in Sweden2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines whether parental marriage confers educational advantages to children relative to cohabitation. We exploit a dramatic marriage boom in Sweden in late 1989 created by a reform of the Widow’s Pension System that raised the attractiveness of marriage compared to cohabitation to identify the effect of marriage and the effect of selection bias on marriage estimates. Sweden’s rich administrative data sources enable us to identify the children who were affected by parental marriage due to this marriage boom. Our analysis addresses the question of whether marginal marriages created by a policy initiative have an impact on children. Using grade point average at age 16 as the outcome variable, we first show the expected pattern that children with married parents do better than children with cohabiting parents. However, once we control for observable family background and compare the outcomes for children whose parents married due to the reform with those for children whose parents remained unmarried, the differences largely disappear. The results from a sibling difference analysis are consistent with the conclusion that the differentials among children of married and cohabiting parents reflect selection rather than causation.

  • 17.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Ginther, Donna K.
    Sundström, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Family structure and child outcomes in the USA and Sweden2007In: Journal of Population Economics, Vol. 20, p. 183-201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows that living in a non-intact family is associated with educational disadvantages. This paper compares the relationships between childhood family structure, schooling, and earnings in Sweden and the USA. This comparison is interesting because both family structure and public policies differ significantly. We find a negative relationship between living in a non-intact family and child outcomes, and the estimates are remarkably similar in both countries. After using sibling-difference models, the correlation with family structure is no longer significant. These results cast doubt on the causal interpretation of the negative relationship between non-intact family structures and child outcomes.

  • 18.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Hederos Eriksson, Karin
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    IQ and Family Background: Are Associations Strong or Weak?2010In: The B.E. Journals in Economic Analysis & Policy, ISSN 1935-1682, E-ISSN 1935-1682, Vol. 10, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the purpose of understanding the underlying mechanisms behind intergenerational associations in income and education, recent studies have explored the intergenerational transmission of abilities. We use a large representative sample of Swedish men to examine both intergenerational and sibling correlations in IQ. Since siblings share both parental factors and neighbourhood influences, the sibling correlation is a broader measure of the importance of family background than the intergenerational correlation. We use IQ data from the Swedish military enlistment tests. The correlation in IQ between fathers (born 1951-1956) and sons (born 1966-1980) is estimated to 0.347. The corresponding estimate for brothers (born 1951-1968) is 0.473, suggesting that family background explains approximately 50% of a person's IQ. Estimating sibling correlations in IQ, we thus find that family background has a substantially larger impact on IQ than has been indicated by previous studies examining only intergenerational correlations in IQ.

  • 19.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Hederos Eriksson, Karin
    Stockholm School of Economics.
    Sundström, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Children of Unknown Fathers: Prevalence and Outcomes in Sweden2011Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jäntti, M.
    Solon, G.
    Nature and Nurture in the Intergenerational Transmission of Socioeconomic Status: Evidence from Swedish Children and Their Biological and Rearing Parents2007In: The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, Vol. 7, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Country case study Sweden2013In: The Great Recession and the distribution of household income / [ed] Stephen J Jenkins, Andrea Brandolini, John Micklewright and Brian Nolan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013, p. 153-175Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    How important is family background for labor-economic outcomes?2012In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 465-474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses Swedish register data to examine four classical outcomes in empirical labor economics: IQ noncognitive skills, years of schooling and long-run earnings. We estimate sibling correlations - and the variance components that define the sibling correlation - in these outcomes. We also estimate correlations for MZ-twins, who share all genes. We also extend the variance-component decomposition by accounting for birth order. We find that conventional intergenerational approaches severely underestimate the role of family background, and that future research should follow a more multidimensional approach to the study of family background.

  • 23.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Intergenerational mobility, intergenerational effects, sibling correlations, and equality of opportunity: a comparison of four approaches2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and discusses four different approaches to the study of how individuals’ income and education during adulthood are related to their family background. The most well-known approach, intergenerational mobility, describes how parents’ and offspring’s income or education are related to each other. The intergenerational-effect literature addresses the question how an intervention that changes parental income or education causally affects their children’s outcome. The sibling-correlation approach estimates the share of total inequality that is attributed to factors shared by siblings. This share is generally substantially higher than what is revealed by intergenerational mobility estimates. Finally, the equality-of-opportunity approach is looking for a set of factors, in the family background and otherwise, that are important for children’s outcomes and that children cannot be held accountable for. We argue that all four approaches are most informative and that recent research has provided insightful results. However, by comparing results from the different approaches, it is possible to paint a more nuanced picture of the role of family background. Thus, we recommend that scholars working in the four subfields pay more attention to each other’s research.

  • 24.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    SNS Välfärdsrapport 2011.: Inkomstfördelningen i Sverige2011Book (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nybom, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Parental education gradients over the life cycle2012In: From Parents to Children: The Intergenerational Transmission of Advantage / [ed] Ermisch, John; Jäntti, Markus; Smeeding, Timothy, Russell Sage Foundation , 2012, p. 422-440Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nybom, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). The Institute for Evaluation of Labour Market and Education Policy (IFAU), Sweden.
    The Contribution of Early-life Versus Labour Market Factors to Intergenerational Income Persistence: A Comparison of the UK and Sweden2017In: Economic Journal, ISSN 0013-0133, E-ISSN 1468-0297, Vol. 127, p. F71-F94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We explore whether differences in intergenerational income mobility between the UK and Sweden show up early in life, finding stronger associations between parental income and birthweight, height and school performance in the UK. We investigate whether these differentials can account for the country difference in income mobility. While differences in the associations in birthweight and height are too weak to matter, school performance does account for a substantial part of this difference. However, country differences in the earnings returns to these skills are at least as important as the differences in the link between parental income and skills.

  • 27.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Robling, Per Olof
    Roine, Jesper
    Waldenström, Daniel
    Kapitalinkomster och inkomstfördelning: Bilaga 3 till Långtidsutredningen 20192019Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Roemer, John E.
    Equality of opportunity and the distribution of long-run income in Sweden2012In: Social Choice and Welfare, ISSN 0176-1714, E-ISSN 1432-217X, Vol. 39, no 2-3, p. 675-696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Equality of opportunity is an ethical goal with almost universal appeal. The interpretation taken here is that a society has achieved equality of opportunity if it is the case that what individuals accomplish, with respect to some desirable objective, is determined wholly by their choices and personal effort, rather than by circumstances beyond their control. We use data for Swedish men born between 1955 and 1967 for whom we measure the distribution of long-run income, as well as several important background circumstances, such as parental education and income, family structure and own IQ before adulthood. We address the question: in Sweden, given its present constellation of social policies and institutions, to what extent is existing income inequality due to circumstances, as opposed to 'effort'? Our results suggest that several circumstances, importantly both parental income and own IQ, are important for long-run income inequality, but that variations in individual effort account for the most part of that inequality.

  • 29.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Lindahl, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Lindquist, Matthew J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    What More Than Parental Income, Education and Occupation? An Exploration of What Swedish Siblings Get from Their Parents: (Contributions), Article 1022010In: B. E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, ISSN 1935-1682, Vol. 10, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sibling correlations are broader measures of the impact of family and community influences on individual outcomes than intergenerational correlations. Estimates of such correlations in income show that more than half of the family and community influences that siblings share are uncorrelated with parental income. We employ a data set with rich family information to explore what factors in addition to traditional measures of parents' socio-economic status can explain sibling similarity in long-run income. Measures of family structure and social problems account for very little of sibling similarities beyond that already accounted for by income, education and occupation. However, when we add indicators of parental involvement in schoolwork, parenting practices and maternal attitudes, the explanatory power of our variables increases from about one-quarter (using only traditional measures of parents' socio-economic status) to nearly two-thirds.

  • 30.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Roine, Jesper
    SITE, Stockholm School of Economics.
    Waldenström, Daniel
    Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN).
    Intergenerational top income mobility in Sweden: Capitalist dynasties in the land of equal opportunity?2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents new evidence on intergenerational mobility in the top of the income and earnings distribution. Using a large dataset of matched father-son pairs in Sweden, we find that intergenerational transmission is very strong in the top, more so for income than for earnings. In the extreme top (top 0.1 percent) income transmission is remarkable with an IG elasticity above 0.9. We also study potential transmission mechanisms and find that sons’ IQ, non-cognitive skills and education are all unlikely channels in explaining this strong transmission. Within the top percentile, increases in fathers’ income are, if anything, negatively associated with these variables. Wealth, on the other hand, has a significantly positive association. Our results suggest that Sweden, known for having relatively high intergenerational mobility in general, is a society where transmission remains strong in the very top of the distribution and that wealth is the most likely channel.

  • 31.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Roine, Jesper
    Waldenström, Daniel
    Intergenerational top income mobility in Sweden: Capitalist dynasties in the land of equal opportunity?2012In: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 96, no 5-6, p. 474-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents new evidence on intergenerational mobility at the top of the income and earnings distributions. Using a large dataset of matched father-son pairs in Sweden, we find that intergenerational transmission is very strong at the top, more so for income than for earnings. At the extreme top (top 0.1%) income transmission is remarkable with an intergenerational elasticity of approximately 0.9. We also study potential transmission mechanisms and find that IQ, non-cognitive skills and education of the sons are all unlikely channels in explaining the strong transmission. Within the top percentile, increases in the income of the fathers, if they are related at all, are negatively associated with these variables. Wealth, on the other hand, has a significantly positive association. Our results suggest that Sweden, known for having relatively high intergenerational mobility in general, is a society in which transmission remains strong at the very top of the distribution and wealth is the most likely channel.

  • 32.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Salvanes, Kjell G.
    Education and Family Background:  Mechanisms and Policies2011In: Handbook of the Economics of Education / [ed] Eric A. Hanushek, Stephen Machin, Ludger Woessmann, The Netherlands: North-Holland, Elsevier B.V. , 2011, 3, p. 201-247Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Björklund, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Sundström, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Parental Separation and Children's Educational Attainment: A Siblings Analysis on Swedish Register Data2004Report (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Forsberg, Håkan
    et al.
    Department of Computer Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Åhlander, Anders
    Airborne Radar Division, Ericsson Microwave Systems, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Radar signal processing using pipelined optical hypercube interconnects2001In: Proceedings of the 15th International Parallel and Distributed Processing Symposium: IPDPS 2001 : abstracts and CD-ROM, Los Alamitos, California: IEEE Computer Society Press , 2001, p. 2043-2052, article id 925201Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we consider the mapping of two radar algorithms on a new scalable hardware architecture. The architecture consists of several computational modules that work independently and send data simultaneously in order to achieve high throughput. Each computational module is composed of multiple processors connected in a hypercube topology to meet scalability and high bisection bandwidth requirements. Free-space optical interconnects and planar packaging technology make it possible to transform the hypercubes into planes. Optical fan-out reduces the number of optical transmitters and thus the hardware cost. Two example systems are analyzed and mapped onto the architecture. One 64-channel airborne radar system with a sustained computational load of more than 1.6 TFLOPS, and one ground-based 128-channel radar system with extreme inter-processor communication demands.

  • 35.
    Holmberg, Kirsten
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Hjern, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Pediatrics.
    Bullying and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder in 10-year-olds in a Swedish community2008In: Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, E-ISSN 1469-8749, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 134-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The association of attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with bullying in the peer group in school was studied in an entire population of 577 fourth graders (10-year-olds) in one municipality in Stockholm, Sweden. The schoolchildren were screened for ADHD in a two-step procedure that included Conners'ratings of behavioural problems: teacher and parent interviews in a first step; and a clinical assessment in the second. Information about bullying was collected from the children themselves in a classroom questionnaire. Five-hundred and sixteen children (89.4%; 252 females, 264 males), for whom there was information from all data sources, were included in the study population. Conners'ratings that were collected from parents early in first grade were available for 382 of these children. Hypotheses were tested by multivariate analyses with adjustment for sex and parental education. Pervasive ADHD was diagnosed in 9.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.6-12.8) of the males and 1.6% (CI 0.1-3.1) of the females. ADHD was associated with bullying other students (adjusted odds ratios (OR) 3.8 [CI 2.0-7.2]) as well as being bullied (often, OR 10.8 [CI 4.0-29.0]; sometimes, OR 2.9 [CI 1.5-5.7]). Bullying other students in fourth grade was associated with high scores in parental reports of behavioural problems at entry into first grade, suggesting a causal link to the ADHD syndrome. Being bullied, on the other hand, was not linked to behavioural problems at school entry. This study demonstrates a connection between ADHD and bullying in the peer group at school. Evaluation and treatment strategies for ADHD need to include assessment and effective interventions for bullying. Evaluation of ADHD should be considered in children involved in bullying.

  • 36.
    Johnsson, Dennis
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Åhlander, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Analyzing the Advantages of Run-Time Reconfiguration in Radar Signal Processing2005In: Proceedings of the 17th IASTED International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing and Systems / [ed] S. Q. Zheng, Anaheim: ACTA Press, 2005, p. 701-706Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Configurable architectures have emerged as one of the most powerful programmable signal processing platforms commercially available, obtaining their performance through the use of spatial parallelism. By changing the functionality of these devices during run-time, flexible mapping of signal processing applications can be made. The run-time flexibility puts requirements on the reconfiguration time that depend both on the application and on the mapping strategy. In this paper we analyze one such application, Space Time Adaptive Processing for radar signal processing, and show three different mappings and their requirements. The allowed time for run-time reconfiguration in these three cases varies from 1 ms down to 1 µs. Each has its own advantages, such as data reuse and optimization of computational kernels. Architectures with reconfiguration times in the order of 10 µs provide the flexibility needed for mapping the example in an efficient way, allowing for on-chip data reuse between the different processing stages.

  • 37.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Taveniku, Mikael
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Åhlander, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Fiber-ribbon pipeline ring network for high-performance distributed computing systems1997In: Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Parallel Architectures, Algorithms, and Networks, 1997. (I-SPAN '97), IEEE, 1997, p. 138-143Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we propose a high-bandwidth ring network built up with fiber-ribbon point-to-point links. The network has support for both packet switched and circuit switched traffic. Very high throughputs can be achieved in the network due to pipelining, i.e., several packets can be traveling through the network simultaneously but in different segments of the ring. The network can be built today using fiber-optic off-the-shelf components. The increasingly good price/performance ratio for fiber-ribbon links indicates a great success potential for the proposed kind of networks. We also present a massively parallel radar signal processing system with exceptionally high demands on the communication network. An aggregated throughput of tens of Gb/s is needed in this application, and this is achieved with the proposed network.

  • 38.
    Jonsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Åhlander, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Taveniku, Mikael
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Time-deterministic WDM star network for massively parallel computing in radar systems1996In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Massively Parallel Processing Using Optical Interconnections: October 27-29, 1996, Maui, Hawaii / [ed] Allan Gottlieb, Los Alamitos, California: IEEE Computer Society Press , 1996, p. 85-93Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In massively parallel computer systems for embedded real-time applications there are normally very high bandwidth demands on the interconnection network. Other important properties are time-deterministic latency and services to guarantee that deadlines are met. In this paper we analyze how these properties vary with the design parameters for a passive optical star network, specifically when used in a massively parallel radar signal processing system. The aggregated bandwidth and computational power of the radar system are approximately 45 Gb/s and 100 GOPS, respectively. The analysis is focused on the medium access control protocol, called TD-TWDMA, for the time and wavelength multiplexed network. It is concluded that the proposed network is very well suited to this kind of signal-processing applications. We also present a new distributed slot-allocation algorithm with real-time properties.

  • 39.
    Lindquist, Matthew
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Björklund, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Jäntti, Markus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Family Background and Income during the Rise of the Welfare State: Brother Correlations in Income for Swedish Men Born 1932-19682009In: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 93, no 5-6, p. 671-680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate if the association between family background and income in Sweden has changed for men born between 1932 and 1968. Our main finding is that the share of the variance in long-run income that is attributable to family background, the so-called brother correlation in income, has fallen by some 17% from 0.49 for the cohorts of brothers born in the early 1930s to below 0.32 for the cohorts born around 1950. From then on, the correlations have inched back up to around 0.37. We report suggestive evidence that the decline is driven by changes in education.

  • 40.
    Nilsson, Nils Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    It's Hard to Be a Cowboy So Far from the West: Trender i sångtexternas språkval, tematik och författarskap i Mats Rådbergs och Rankarnas skivutgivning 1969-20022008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 41.
    Nilsson, Nils Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Jag önskar det fanns nåt att säga: En studie av sångtexternas förhållningssätt till jaget, samtiden och de amerikanska originalen i artisten Alf Robertsons skivutgivning 1968–20092009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sångtexter motsvarande 352 skivspår insjungna av den svenske sångaren och låtskrivaren Alf Robertson studeras med tonvikt på de 72 egna originaltexterna och 152 egna översättningarna av som regel amerikanska originaltexter. Robertson kännetecknas som en sångare vars repertoar domineras av översatta texter framförda av honom själv som om det var hans egna. De översatta texterna analyseras utifrån hur konflikter mellan originaltexternas innehåll och den egna artistpersonans konstruktion hanterats. Ett antal återkommande teman i Robertsons texter beskrivs och exemplifieras via närläsning av utvalda texter. Sångtexternas subjekt analyseras och kvantifieras bl a utifrån om textjaget är könsfixerat eller ej. Två olika översättningar av samma originaltext analyseras kvantitativt med avseende på hur väl de följer originalet.

  • 42. Ormann, Anders
    Köparens och säljarens ansvar för fel vid köp av fast egendom, samt dess påföljder2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 43.
    Schweitz, Anders
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building Engineering, Energy Systems and Sustainability Science, Energy Systems and Building Technology.
    The potential of grid energy storage: a case study of the Nordic countries and Germany2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing share of renewable electricity will make energy storage technologies indispensable in the future. In this study, the potential of grid energy storage technologies is discussed, focusing on the Nordic countries as well as Germany. It is challenging to balance the intermittency of wind power and solar power production in the energy system. In Norway and Sweden, and to some extent Finland, hydropower is a very important balancing resource. Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) is a technology that has not had a real breakthrough yet. There are ongoing projects at different locations where one of the targets is to achieve better round-trip efficiency by taking care of the heat generated at compression. Pumped hydroelectric storage (PHS) has advantages in being cost-efficient and has a high round-trip efficiency. There is probably a high theoretical potential of new generating capacity in Norway and Sweden, but the electricity cost does not vary enough for new developments to be profitable at the moment. The environmental and social impact of PHS plants is an important and difficult aspect to handle. Power-to-gas, power-to-power and hydrogen storage has been getting more attention recently but needs more research to increase the round-trip efficiency and to reduce the costs of electrolysers, storage and fuel cells. Batteries can be well suited as a minute reserve or for peak shaving but are currently not cost-efficient for long-time storage. With lower prices and the possibility of using more abundant metals with less environmental and social impact batteries could play a larger role in electric grids. There might be possibilities of integrating batteries in electric vehicles with power systems as well.To speed up the development of energy storage technologies, governmental subsidies might be necessary. In the future, a larger variation in electricity cost can be expected during different times of the day and the year, which will make energy storage facilities more profitable.

  • 44.
    Svensson, Bertil
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Ul-Abdin, Zain
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Ericsson, Per M.
    Saab AB (EDS), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Åhlander, Anders
    Saab AB (EDS), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hoang Bengtsson, Hoai
    Viktoria Swedish ICT, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Jerker
    Saab AB (EDS), Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gaspes, Veronica
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Nordström, Tomas
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    A Running Leap for Embedded Signal Processing to Future Parallel Platforms2014In: WISE'14: Proceedings of the 2014 ACM International Workshop on Long-Term Industrial Collaboration on Software Engineering, New York, NY: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2014, p. 35-42Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper highlights the collaboration between industry and academia in research. It describes more than two decades of intensive development and research of new hardware and software platforms to support innovative, high-performance sensor systems with extremely high demands on embedded signal processing capability. The joint research can be seen as the run before a necessary jump to a new kind of computational platform based on parallelism. The collaboration has had several phases, starting with a focus on hardware, then on efficiency, later on software development, and finally on taking the jump and understanding the expected future. In the first part of the paper, these phases and their respective challenges and results are described. Then, in the second part, we reflect upon the motivation for collaboration between company and university, the roles of the partners, the experiences gained and the long-term effects on both sides. Copyright © 2014 ACM.

  • 45.
    Taveniku, Mikael
    et al.
    Department of Computer Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden & Ericsson Microwave Systems AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Åhlander, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    A multiple SIMD mesh architecture for multi-channel radar processing1996In: Proceedings of: ICSPAT'96, international conference on signal processing applications & technology, Boston MA, USA, October 7-10: Research report CCA (9602), Miller Freeman , 1996, p. 1421-1427Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In modern and future radar applications there are high demands on the signal processing chain in terms of computational power and generality. At the same time, there are hard size and power consumption constraints. This paper reports on a project whose aim is to find a good scalable computer architecture that is flexible, programmable and as general-purpose as possible without too much performance loss.

    The proposed architecture consists of multiple SIMD computing modules, each based on a number of small mesh arrays. The modules are fully programmable and work globally as a MIMD machine and locally as SIMD machines. The data network is modular and provides both high bandwidth capacity and fast response. It has a fiber-optic stars topology, and employs time and wavelength division multiplexing, together with a medium access method specially developed for real-time systems.

    In this paper, we use a radar system with 64 processing channels to illustrate the algorithms and the usage of the processor modules. We show that it is possible to use a machine, consisting of small mesh processor arrays forming larger modules, with good efficiency. The building blocks show good balance between computational power and I/O bandwidth, and the SIMD approach seems good from algorithm-mapping point of view.

  • 46.
    Taveniku, Mikael
    et al.
    Department of Computer Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology S-412 96 Goteborg, Sweden - Ericsson Microwave Systems AB, S-431 84 Molndal, Sweden .
    Åhlander, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Jonsson, Magnus
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE).
    The VEGA moderately parallel MIMD, moderately parallel SIMD, architecture for high performance array signal processing1998In: Proceedings of the first merged International Parallel Processing Symposium & Symposium on Parallel and Distributed Processing: March 30 - April 3, 1998 Orlando, Florida, Los Alamitos, Calif.: IEEE Computer Press , 1998, p. 226-232Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In array radar signal processing applications, the processing demands range from tens of GFLOPS to several TFLOPS. To address this, as well as the, size and power dissipation issues, a special purpose “array signal processing” architecture is proposed. We argue that a combined MIMD-SIMD system can give flexibility, scalability, and programmability as well as high computing density. The MIMD system level, where SIMD modules are interconnected by a fiber-optic real-time network, provides the high level flexibility while the SIMD module level provides the compute density. In this paper we evaluate different design alternatives and show how the VEGA architecture was derived. By examining the applications and the algorithms used, the SIMD mesh processor is found be sufficient. However, the smaller the meshes are the better is the flexibility and efficiency. Then, based on prototype VLSI implementations and on instruction statistics, we find that a relatively large pipelined processing element maximises the performance per area. It is thereby concluded that the small SIMD mesh processor array with powerful processing elements is the best choice. These observations are further exploited in the design of the single-chip SIMD processor array to be included in the MIMD-style overall system. The system scales from 6.4 GFLOPS to several TFLOPS peak performance.

  • 47.
    Ul-Abdin, Zain
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Åhlander, Anders
    Saab AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Energy-Efficient Synthetic-Aperture Radar Processing on a Manycore Architecture2013In: Proceedings: International Conference on Parallel Processing : The 42nd Annual Conference : ICPP 2013 : 1-4 October 2013 : Lyon, France / [ed] Randall Bilof, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, p. 330-338, article id 6687366Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The next generation radar systems have high performance demands on the signal processing chain. Examples include the advanced image creating sensor systems in which complex calculations are to be performed on huge sets of data in realtime. Manycore architectures are gaining attention as a means to overcome the computational requirements of the complex radar signal processing by exploiting massive parallelism inherent in the algorithms in an energy efficient manner.

    In this paper, we evaluate a manycore architecture, namely a 16-core Epiphany processor, by implementing two significantly large case studies, viz. an autofocus criterion calculation and the fast factorized back-projection algorithm, both key componentsin modern synthetic aperture radar systems. The implementation results from the two case studies are compared on the basis of achieved performance and programmability. One of the Epiphany implementations demonstrates the usefulness of the architecture for the streaming based algorithm (the autofocus criterion calculation) by achieving a speedup of 8.9x over a sequential implementation on a state-of-the-art general-purpose processor of a later silicon technology generation and operating at a 2.7x higher clock speed. On the other case study, a highly memory-intensive algorithm (fast factorized backprojection), the Epiphany architecture shows a speedup of 4.25x. For embedded signal processing, low power dissipation is equally important as computational performance. In our case studies, the Epiphany implementations of the two algorithms are, respectively, 78x and 38x more energy efficient. © 2013 IEEE

  • 48.
    Ul-Abdin, Zain
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Åhlander, Anders
    Saab AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Technology, Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Real-time Radar Signal Processing on Massively Parallel Processor Arrays2013In: Conference Record of The Forty-Seventh Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems & Computers: November 3–6, 2013 Pacific Grove, California / [ed] Michael B. Matthews, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE Signal Processing Society, 2013, p. 1810-1814Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The next generation radar systems have high performance demands on the signal processing chain. Among these are advanced image creating sensor systems in which complex calculations are to be performed on huge sets of data in realtime. Massively Parallel Processor Arrays (MPPAs) are gaining attention to cope with the computational requirements of complex radar signal processing by exploiting the massive parallelism inherent in the algorithms in an energy efficient manner.

    In this paper, we evaluate two such massively parallel architectures, namely, Ambric and Epiphany, by implementing a significantly large case study of autofocus criterion calculation, which is a key component in future synthetic aperture radar systems. The implementation results from the two case studies are compared on the basis of achieved performance, energy efficiency, and programmability. ©2013 IEEE.

  • 49.
    Zain-ul-Abdin,
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Åhlander, Anders
    Business Area Electronic Defence Systems, Saab AB, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bertil
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Programming Real-time Autofocus on a Massively Parallel Reconfigurable Architecture using Occam-pi2011In: Proceedings of the 19th Annual IEEE International Symposium on Field-Programmable Custom Computing Machines (FCCM'2011), Los Alamitos, Calif.: IEEE Computer Society, 2011, p. 194-201Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently we proposed occam-pi as a high-level language for programming massively parallel reconfigurable architectures. The design of occam-pi incorporates ideas from CSP and pi-calculus to facilitate expressing parallelism and reconfigurability. The feasability of this approach was illustratedby building three occam-pi implementations of DCT executing on an Ambric. However, because DCT is a simple and well studied algorithm it remained uncertain whether occam-pi would also be effective for programming novel, more complex algorithms.

    In this paper, we demonstrate the applicability of occam-pi for expressing various degrees of parallelism by implementinga significantly large case-study of focus criterion calculation inan autofocus algorithm on the Ambric architecture. Autofocus is a key component of synthetic aperture radar systems. Two implementations of focus criterion calculation were developedand evaluated on the basis of performance. The comparison of the performance results with a single threaded software implementation of the same algorithm show that the throughput of the two implementations are 11x and 23x higher than the sequential implementation despite a much lower (9x) clock frequency. The two designs are, respectively, 29x and 40x moreenergy efficient.

  • 50.
    Åhlander, Anders
    Halmstad University, School of Information Science, Computer and Electrical Engineering (IDE), Halmstad Embedded and Intelligent Systems Research (EIS), Centre for Research on Embedded Systems (CERES).
    Efficient parallell architectures for future radar signal processing2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The processing demands on future embedded radar signal processors may stretch to several trillions of floating-point operations per second (TFLOPS). This is an increase of two to three orders of magnitude realtive to the requirements of today. Still, the tight size and power constraints are unchanged. To meet this, new, highly parallel computer systems are needed. The systems should efficiently deliver very high performance as well as being general enough. Another challenge for future signal processors is the requirement for having huge working memories that are accessed in complicated patterns.

    This thesis analyses the challenges of two classes of radar signal processing applications, namely Space-Time Adaptive Processing (STAP), which represents performance-intensive applications, and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) processing, which represents memory-intensive applications. In addition to the actual performance and memory aspects of the applications, the desire for low-effort application development and maintenance is taken into consideration.

    A multiple SIMD architecture is proposed for the STAP calculations. This architecture gives a combination of the high computational density in the SIMD processing modules with the overall flexibility provided on the system level. An embedded signal processing system based on the architecture is shown to be capable of TFLOPS class performance using standard CMOS VLSI technology available in the year 2001. The system is, for the given application domain, considered to have the same generality as commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) hardware, but has several years of time lead over COTS with regard to the computational performance.

    The studied SAR processing is characterized by operating on huge data sets and having varying, non-linear data access paths. For this, algorithm solutions and execution schemes in inerplay with a system parallelization approach are proposed. It is shown that it is possible to obtain efficient memory accesses, despite the omplicated memory access patterns. It is also shown that the computational burden from complex interpolation kernels can be reduced through extensive calculation reuse.

    Efficient engineering of complex applications in this context is discussed. The use of semi-transparent, platform-based development is demonstrated for STAP and SAR, and advocated for obtaining high engineering defficiency and long system sustainability, as well as high performance efficiency.

    The overall conclusion drawn from this work is that a solid knowledge of the application domain and its future requirements, in combination with an understanding of its interaction with computational architectures, potentially enables several years of lead time in the realization of new, advanced signal prodcessing products. The important requirements on programmability and sustainability must also be taken into account in order to achieve a viable signal processing solution.

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