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  • 1.
    Hjertström, Andreas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Data Management in Component-Based   Embedded Real-Time Systems2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents new data management techniques for run-time data in component-based embedded real-time systems. These techniques enable data to be modeled, analyzed and structured to improve data management during system development, maintenance, and execution. The foundation of our work is a case-study that identifies a number of problems with current state-of-practice in data management for industrial embedded real-time systems.

    We introduce two novel concepts: the data entity and the database proxy. The data entity is a design-time concept that allows designers to manage data objects throughout different design and maintenance activities. It includes data-type specification, documentation, specification of timing and quality properties, tracing of dependencies between data objects, and enables analysis and automated validation.

    The database proxy is a run-time concept designed to allow the use of state-of-the-art database technologies in contemporary software-component technologies for embedded systems. Database proxies decouple components from an underlying database residing in the component framework. This allows components to remain encapsulated and reusable, while providing temporally predictable access to data maintained in a database, thus enabling the use of database technologies, which has previously excluded, in these systems.

    To validate our proposed techniques, we present a tool implementation of the data entity as well as implementations of the database proxy approach, using commercial tools, the AUTOSAR standardized automotive software architecture, and automotive hardware.  Our results show that the presented techniques can contribute to the development of future component-based embedded real-time systems, by providing structured and efficient data management.

  • 2.
    Hjertström, Andreas
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Information Centric Development of Component-Based Embedded Real-Time Systems2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents new techniques for data management of run-time data objectsin component-based embedded real-time systems. These techniques enabledata to be modeled, analyzed and structured to achieve data managementduring development, maintenance and execution.The evolution of real-time embedded systems has resulted in an increasedsystem complexity beyond what was thought possible just a few years ago.Over the years, new techniques and tools have been developed to manage softwareand communication complexity. However, as this thesis show, currenttechniques and tools for data management are not sufficient. Today, developmentof real-time embedded systems focuses on the function aspects of thesystem, in most cases disregarding data management.The lack of proper design-time data management often results in ineffectivedocumentation routines and poor overall system knowledge. Contemporarytechniques to manage run-time data do not satisfy demands on flexibility,maintainability and extensibility. Based on an industrial case-study that identifiesa number of problems within current data management techniques, bothduring design-time and run-time, it is clear that data management needs to beincorporated as an integral part of the development of the entire system architecture.As a remedy to the identified problems, we propose a design-time data entityapproach, where the importance of data in the system is elevated to beincluded in the entire design phase with proper documentation, properties, dependenciesand analysis methods to increase the overall system knowledge.Furthermore, to efficiently manage data during run-time, we introduce databaseproxies to enable the fusion between two existing techniques; ComponentBased Software Engineering (CBSE) and Real-Time Database ManagementSystems (RTDBMS). A database proxy allows components to be decoupledfrom the underlying data management strategy without violating the componentencapsulation and communication interface.

  • 3.
    Hjertström, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    A Data-Entity Approach for Component-Based Real-TimeEmbedded Systems Development2009In: 14th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technology and Factory Automation, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the data-entity approach for efficientdesign-time management of run-time data in componentbasedreal-time embedded systems is presented. The approachformalizes the concept of a data entity which enabledesign-time modeling, management, documentationand analysis of run-time data items. Previous studies ondata management for embedded real-time systems showthat current data management techniques are not adequate,and therefore impose unnecessary costs and quality problemsduring system development. It is our conclusion thatdata management needs to be incorporated as an integralpart of the development of the entire system architecture.Therefore, we propose an approach where run-time datais acknowledged as first class objects during developmentwith proper documentation and where properties such asusage, validity and dependency can be modeled. In thisway we can increase the knowledge and understanding ofthe system. The approach also allows analysis of data dependencies,type matching, and redundancy early in the developmentphase as well as in existing systems.

  • 4.
    Hjertström, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Data Management for Component-Based Embedded Real-Time Systems: the Database Proxy Approach2012In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 85, no 4, p. 821-834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce the concept of database proxies intended to mitigate the gap between two disjoint productivity-enhancing techniques: Component Based Software Engineering (CBSE) and Real-Time Database Management Systems (RTDBMS). The two techniques promote opposing design goals and their coexistence is neither obvious nor intuitive. CBSE promotes encapsulation and decoupling of component internals from the component environment, whilst an RTDBMS provide mechanisms for efficient and predictable global data sharing. A component with direct access to an RTDBMS is dependent on that specific RTDBMS and may not be useable in an alternative environment. For components to remain encapsulated and reusable, database proxies decouple components from an underlying database residing in the component framework, while providing temporally predictable access to data maintained in a database. Our approach provide access to features such as extensive data modeling tools, predictable access to hard real-time data, dynamic access to soft real-time data using standardized queries and controlled data sharing; thus allowing developers to employ the full potential of both CBSE and an RTDBMS. Our approach primarily targets embedded systems with a subset of functionality with real-time requirements. The implementation results show that the benefits of using proxies do not come at the expense of significant run-time overheads or less accurate timing predictions.

  • 5.
    Hjertström, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Data Management in AUTOSAR: a Tool Suite Extension Approach2012Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Hjertström, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nyström, dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Database Proxies: A Data Management approach for Component-Based Real-Time Systems2009Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents new techniques for data management of run-time dataobjects in component-based embedded real-time systems. These techniquesenable data to be modeled, analyzed and structured to achieve proper datamanagement during development, maintenance  and execution.The evolution of real-time embedded systems has resulted in an increasedsystem complexity beyond what was thought possible just a few years ago.Over the years, new techniques and tools have been developed to managesoftware and communication complexity. However, as this thesis show, currenttechniques and tools for data management are not sufficient. Today,development of real-time embedded systems focuses on the function aspects ofthe system, in most cases disregarding data management.The lack of proper design-time data management often results in ineffectivedocumentation routines and poor overall system knowledge. Contemporarytechniques to manage run-time data do not satisfy demands on flexibility,maintainability and extensibility. Based on an industrial case-study thatidentifies a number of problems within current data management techniques,both during design-time and  run-time, it is clear that data managementneeds to be incorporated as an integral part of the development of theentire system architecture.As a remedy to the identified problems, we propose a design-time data entityapproach, where the importance of data in the system is elevated to beincluded in the entire design phase with proper documentation, properties,dependencies and analysis methods to increase the overall system knowledge.Furthermore, to efficiently manage data during run-time, we introducedatabase proxies to enable the fusion between two existing techniques;Component Based Software Engineering (CBSE) and Real-Time DatabaseManagement Systems (RTDBMS). A database proxy allows components to bedecoupled from the underlying data management strategy without violating thecomponent encapsulation and communication interface.

  • 7.
    Hjertström, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mimer Information Technology AB, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Database Proxies for Component-Based Real-Time Systems2010In: Proceedings - 22st Euromicro Conference on Real-Time Systems, 2010, p. 79-89Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce the concept of database proxies capable of mitigating the gap between two disjoint productivityenhancing techniques: Component Based Software Engineering (CBSE) and Real-Time Database Management Systems (RTDBMS). The coexistence of the two techniques is neither obvious nor intuitive since CBSE and RTDBMS promotes opposing design goals; CBSE promotes encapsulation and decoupling of component internals from the component environment, whilst RTDBMS provide mechanisms for efficient and predictable global data sharing. Database proxies decouple components from an underlying database residing in the component framework. This enables components to remain encapsulated and reusable, while providing temporally predictable access to data maintained in a database. We specifically target embedded systems with a subset of functionality with real-time requirements. Our implementation results show that the above benefits do not come at the expense of run-time overheads or less accurate timing predictions.

  • 8.
    Hjertström, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Database Proxy Tool Support in an AUTOSAR Development Environment2012In: Proceedings - 38th EUROMICRO Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, SEAA 2012, 2012, p. 51-54Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AUTOSAR has been introduced as a remedy for the increasing complexity and rising costs within automotive systems development. However, AUTOSAR does not provide sufficient support for the increased complexity with respect to data management. Database proxies have been presented as a promising solution to provide software component technologies with the capabilities of a state-of-the-art real-time database management system. In this paper, we show how an industrial AUTOSAR development environment can be extended to include support for real-time data management.

  • 9.
    Hjertström, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Introducing Database-Centric Support in AUTOSAR2012In: 7th International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems (SIES): Conference Proceedings, IEEE , 2012, p. 138-147Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose to integrate a real-time databasemanagement system into the basic software of the AUTOSARcomponent model. This integration can be performed withoutviolating the fundamental principles of the component-basedapproach of the AUTOSAR standard. Our database-centricapproach allows developers to focus on application developmentinstead of reinventing data management techniques ordevelop solutions using internal data structures. We use stateof-the-art database pointer techniques to achieve predictabletiming, and database proxies to maintain component encapsulationand independence of data-management strategy. Thepaper illustrates the feasibility of our proposal when databaseproxies are used to manage the data communication betweencomponents and to perform run-time monitoring on the virtualfunction bus. Our implementation results show that the abovebenefits do not come at the expense of run-time overheadsor less accurate timing predictions. Under typical workloadconditions, our concept only introduces in the order of 4%CPU overhead.

  • 10.
    Hjertström, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Land, Rikard
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering.
    Design-Time Management of Run-Time Data in Industrial Embedded Real-Time Systems Development2008In: Proceedings of 13th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA'08), IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, Hamburg, Germany, 2008, p. 1285-1293Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient design-time management and documentation of run-time data elements are of paramount importance when developing and maintaining modern real-time systems. In this paper, we present the results of an industrial case-study in which we have studied the state of practice in data management and documentation. Representatives from five companies within various business segments have been interviewed and our results show that various aspects of current data management and documentation are problematic and not yet mature. Results show that companies today have a fairly good management of distributed signals, while internal ECU signals and states are, in many cases, not managed at all. This lack of internal data management results in costly development and maintenance and is often entirely dependent of the know-how of single individual experts.

    Furthermore, it has, in several cases, resulted in unused and excessive data in the systems due to the fact that

    whether or not a data is used is unknown.

  • 11.
    Hjertström, Andreas
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Nyström, Dag
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Åkerholm, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    Sjödin, Mikael
    Mälardalen University, Department of Computer Science and Electronics.
    INCENSE: Information-Centric Run-Time Support for Component-Based Embedded Real-Time Systems2007In: Proceedings of the Work-In-Progress (WIP) session, 14th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, Seattle, United States, 2007, p. 4-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a technique to allow the use of

    real-time database management together with componentbased

    software development, to achieve an information centric

    run-time platform for the development of embedded

    real-time systems. The technique allows components to

    benefit from the advantages of a real-time database management

    system while still retaining desirable component

    properties, such as isolation and a high level of reusability.

    We propose that a database is integrated in the component

    framework, and introduce the concept of database

    proxies to decouple components from the database schema.

    The resulting system fully benefits from the advantages of

    component-based software development, such as reusability,

    all component interaction through interfaces, etc, combined

    with the advantages of a real-time database management

    system, i.e., system openness, controlled data access,

    and dynamic query language capabilities.

1 - 11 of 11
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