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  • 1. Arowolo, Aisha Olushola
    et al.
    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Qi, Wei
    Deng, Xiangzheng
    Comparison of spatial interpolation techniques to generate high-resolution climate surfaces for Nigeria2017Ingår i: International Journal of Climatology, ISSN 0899-8418, E-ISSN 1097-0088, Vol. 37, s. 179-192Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate datagaps are a major challenge for understanding the impacts of climate change on ecosystems, particularly in highly climate vulnerable countries such as Nigeria. The generation of gridded climate data sets in the form of interpolated surfaces may help to fill climate datagaps and in turns enable climate change impact assessments. This article generates climate surfaces of monthly total precipitation and minimum and maximum temperatures for Nigeria at 0.001 degrees spatial resolution by comparing two spatial interpolation techniques, i.e. kriging with external drifts and thin plate splines. Climate data from 43 meteorological stations covering the period of 1960-2012 were used to generate climate surfaces fitting the longitude, latitude, elevation and distance to coastline of the stations as independent variables. Three model error statistics, i.e. root mean square error (RMSE), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) and index of agreement (d), were used to evaluate and compare the performances of interpolation techniques. The second-order and third-order partial thin plate splines were identified as the optimal models for generating precipitation, and minimum and maximum temperatures surfaces, respectively. The best-fit surfaces yielded an average RMSE, NSE and d of 14.98, 0.87 and 0.97 for precipitation, 0.42, 0.91 and 0.98 for minimum temperature and 0.52, 0.89 and 0.97 for maximum temperature. Our high-resolution climate surfaces are freely available from an online repository and widely applicable for climate change analysis as well as for biological, forestry and agricultural studies in Nigeria.

  • 2.
    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar
    University of Koblenz-Landau, Germany.
    Industries' Location as Jeopardy for Sustainable Urban Development in Asia: A Review of the Bangladesh Leather Processing Industry Relocation Plan2013Ingår i: Environment and Urbanization Asia, ISSN 0975-4253, 0976-3546, Vol. 4, s. 93-119Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The article reviews the Bangladesh leather processing industries’ relocation plan by applying the Social Theories of the City and the three environmental economics theories—Willingness to Pay, Pigovian Tax and Hedonic Pricing Method on the data collected by a questionnaire survey among the industries’ owners and from the original project documents. Results prove the strong unwillingness of leather industries’ owners to relocate and pay for relocation, failure at imposing Pigovian tax and the high hedonic prices of the houses including threats to inhabitants’ health in the redeveloped residential area. In addition to high subsidy and compensation, historic growth trends and potential risks of flood and surface water resource pollution of Dhaka defy sustainability issues. Considering three consecutive failures to meet the relocation deadlines, these results claim that redeveloping an environment friendly leather processing zone at the present location will ensure sustainable urban development.

  • 3.
    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar
    et al.
    University of Koblenz-Landau, Germany .
    Cabral, Pedro
    Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Cyclone Sidr Impacts on the Sundarbans Floristic Diversity2013Ingår i: Earth Science Research, ISSN 1927-0542, E-ISSN 1927-0550, Vol. 2, s. 1-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Sundarbans - the world’s largest single block of tidal halophytic mangrove forest situated at the southwest of Bangladesh, plays a vital role in maintaining environmental sustainability of the country and the world in general. This study identified and quantified the extent and degree of damage caused to the floristic diversity of the Sundarbans by the tropical cyclone Sidr in 15 November 2007. It also quantified the extent and rate of the post-cyclone regeneration in the damaged flora. Unsupervised classification - ISODATA and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) were carried out over a temporal series of 2007-2010 on four Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM +) images for the months of February. Land change analysis from the classification results show that three important floristic taxa - Heritiera fomes (Sundari), Excoecaria agallocha (Gewa) and Sonneratia apetala (Kewra) have been significantly affected by the cyclone. NDVI analysis indicates that 45% area of the Bangladesh’s part of the Sundarbans (approximately 2500 sq.km) was affected due to the cyclone action. Results further indicated that the average rate of post-cyclone floristic growth in 2009-2010 is four times higher than the average rate in 2008-2009. Thus the study identified a temporary loss of the diversity (in terms of relative abundance) in the affected three floristic taxa of the Sundarbans after that severe exogenous perturbation; which took three years to regenerate. Moreover, it showed the higher efficiency and promptness of remote sensing techniques in similar cases than the ground data based studies.

  • 4.
    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper (from 2013).
    Costa, Ana Cristina
    Representativeness impacts on accuracy and precision of climate spatial interpolation in data-scarce regions2014Ingår i: Meteorological Applications, ISSN 1350-4827, E-ISSN 1469-8080, Vol. 22, s. 368-377Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 5.
    Downing, Andrea S.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bhowmik, Avit
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Collste, David
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Université Clermont Auvergne, France.
    Cornell, Sarah E.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Donges, Jonathan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany.
    Fetzer, Ingo
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Häyhä, Tiina
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    Hinton, Jennifer
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Université Clermont Auvergne, France.
    Lade, Steven
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Australian National University, Australia.
    Mooij, Wolf M.
    Matching scope, purpose and uses of planetary boundaries science2019Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 14, nr 7, artikel-id 073005Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Planetary Boundaries concept (PBc) has emerged as a key global sustainability concept in international sustainable development arenas. Initially presented as an agenda for global sustainability research, it now shows potential for sustainability governance. Weuse the fact that it is widely cited in scientific literature (>3500 citations) and an extensively studied concept to analyse how it has been used and developed since its first publication. Design: From the literature that cites the PBc, we select those articles that have the terms 'planetary boundaries' or 'safe operating space' in either title, abstract or keywords. Weassume that this literature substantively engages with and develops the PBc. Results: Wefind that 6% of the citing literature engages with the concept. Within this fraction of the literature we distinguish commentaries-that discuss the context and challenges to implementing the PBc, articles that develop the core biogeophysical concept and articles that apply the concept by translating to sub-global scales and by adding a human component to it. Applied literature adds to the concept by explicitly including society through perspectives of impacts, needs, aspirations and behaviours. Discussion: Literature applying the concept does not yet include the more complex, diverse, cultural and behavioural facet of humanity that is implied in commentary literature. Wesuggest there is need for a positive framing of sustainability goals-as a Safe Operating Space rather than boundaries. Key scientific challenges include distinguishing generalised from context-specific knowledge, clarifying which processes are generalizable and which are scalable, and explicitly applying complex systems' knowledge in the application and development of the PBc. We envisage that opportunities to address these challenges will arise when more human social dimensions are integrated, as we learn to feed the global sustainability vision with a plurality of bottom-up realisations of sustainability.

  • 6. Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah
    et al.
    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Qamar, Sehrish
    Shah, Syed Tahir Abbas
    Sohail, Muhammad
    Mulla, Sikandar I.
    Fasola, Mauro
    Shen, Heqing
    Mercury contamination in deposited dust and its bioaccumulation patterns throughout Pakistan2016Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 569, s. 585-593Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mercury (Hg) contamination of environment is a major threat to human health in developing countries like Pakistan. Human populations, particularly children, are continuously exposed to Hg contamination via dust particles due to the arid and semi-arid climate. However, a country wide Hg contamination data for dust particles is lacking for Pakistan and hence, human populations potentially at risk is largely unknown. We provide the first baseline data for total mercury (THg) contamination into dust particles and its bioaccumulation trends, using scalp human hair samples as biomarker, at 22 sites across five altitudinal zones of Pakistan. The human health risk of THg exposure via dust particles as well as the proportion of human population that are potentially at risk from Hg contamination were calculated. Our results indicated higher concentration of THg in dust particles and its bioaccumulation in the lower Indus-plain agricultural and industrial areas than the other areas of Pakistan. The highest THg contamination of dust particles (3000 ppb) and its bioaccumulation (2480 ppb) were observed for the Lahore district, while the highest proportion (>40%) of human population was identified to be potentially at risk from Hg contamination from these areas. In general, children were at higher risk of Hg exposure via dust particles than adults. Regression analysis identified the anthropogenic activities, such as industrial and hospital discharges, as the major source of Hg contamination of dust particles. Our results inform environmental management for Hg control and remediation as well as the disease mitigation on potential hotspots.

  • 7.
    Jacobson, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholms unversitet.
    Åkerman, Jonas
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Giusti, Matteo
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013).
    Tipping to Staying on the Ground: Internalized Knowledge of Climate Change Crucial for Transformed Air Travel Behavior2020Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, nr 5, s. 1-18, artikel-id 1994Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Air travel accounts for a major share of individual greenhouse gas emissions, particularly for people in high-income countries. Until recently, few have reduced flying because of climate concerns, but currently, a movement for staying on the ground is rising. Sweden has been a focal point for this movement, particularly during 2018–2019, when a flight tax was introduced, and air travel reduction was intensely discussed in the media. We performed semi-structured interviews with Swedish residents, focusing primarily on individuals who have reduced flying because of its climate impact. We explore how such individual transformation of air travel behavior comes about, and the phases and components of this process. Applying a framework of sustainability transformation, we identify incentives and barriers in personal and political spheres. We show that internalized knowledge about climate change and the impact of air travel is crucial for instigating behavioral change. Awareness evokes negative emotions leading to a personal tipping point where a decision to reduce or quit flying is made. However, the process is often counteracted by both personal values and political structures promoting air travel. Even individuals with a strong drive to reduce flying feel trapped in social practices, norms and infrastructures. Hence, we argue that personal and political spheres interact complexly and to reduce flying at larger scales, interventions are needed across spheres, e.g., change of norms, effective policy instruments and better alternatives to air travel. 

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  • 8. Otto, Ilona M.
    et al.
    Donges, Jonathan F.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany.
    Cremades, Roger
    Bhowmik, Avit
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Hewitte, Richard J.
    Lucht, Wolfgang
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany.
    Allerberger, Franziska
    McCaffrey, Mark
    Doe, Sylvanus S. P.
    Lenferna, Alex
    Morán, Nerea
    van Vuuren, Detlef P.
    Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim
    Social tipping dynamics for stabilizing Earth's climate by 20502020Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 117, nr 5, s. 2354-2365Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Safely achieving the goals of the Paris Climate Agreement requires a worldwide transformation to carbon-neutral societies within the next 30 y. Accelerated technological progress and policy implementations are required to deliver emissions reductions at rates sufficiently fast to avoid crossing dangerous tipping points in the Earth's climate system. Here, we discuss and evaluate the potential of social tipping interventions (STIs) that can activate contagious processes of rapidly spreading technologies, behaviors, social norms, and structural reorganization within their functional domains that we refer to as social tipping elements (STE5). STE5 are subdomains of the planetary socioeconomic system where the required disruptive change may take place and lead to a sufficiently fast reduction in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The results are based on online expert elicitation, a subsequent expert workshop, and a literature review. The STIs that could trigger the tipping of STE subsystems include 1) removing fossil-fuel subsidies and incentivizing decentralized energy generation (STE1, energy production and storage systems), 2) building carbon-neutral cities (STE2, human settlements), 3) divesting from assets linked to fossil fuels (STE3, financial markets), 4) revealing the moral implications of fossil fuels (STE4, norms and value systems), 5) strengthening climate education and engagement (STE5, education system), and 6) disclosing information on greenhouse gas emissions (STE6, information feedbacks). Our research reveals important areas of focus for larger-scale empirical and modeling efforts to better understand the potentials of harnessing social tipping dynamics for climate change mitigation.

  • 9.
    Otto, Ilona M.
    et al.
    Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany.
    Donges, Jonathan F.
    Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research; Germany; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Cremades, Roger
    Climate Service Center Germany, Germany.
    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för samhälls- och kulturvetenskap (from 2013).
    Hewitt, Richard J.
    James Hutton Institute, Scotland; Observatorio para una Cultura del Territorio, Spain.
    Lucht, Wolfgang
    Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany; Humboldt University, Germany.
    Rockström, Johan
    Member of the Leibniz Association, Germany; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Allerberger, Franziska
    Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany; University of Innsbruck, Austria.
    McCaffrey, Mark
    Communication and Outreach Stakeholders (ECOS), Hungary.
    Doe, Sylvanus S. P.
    GeoSustainability Consulting, Ghana.
    Lenferna, Alex
    University of Washington, USA.
    Moran, Nerea
    Germinando Sociedad Cooperativa Madrid, Spain; Foro de Transiciones, Spain.
    van Vuuren, Detlef P.
    PBL Netherlands Environmental Agency, The Netherlands; Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim
    Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany; Tsinghua University, China .
    Social tipping dynamics for stabilizing Earth's climate by 20502020Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 117, nr 5, s. 2354-2365Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Safely achieving the goals of the Paris Climate Agreement requires a worldwide transformation to carbon-neutral societies within the next 30 y. Accelerated technological progress and policy implementations are required to deliver emissions reductions at rates sufficiently fast to avoid crossing dangerous tipping points in the Earth's climate system. Here, we discuss and evaluate the potential of social tipping interventions (STIs) that can activate contagious processes of rapidly spreading technologies, behaviors, social norms, and structural reorganization within their functional domains that we refer to as social tipping elements (STE5). STE5 are subdomains of the planetary socioeconomic system where the required disruptive change may take place and lead to a sufficiently fast reduction in anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The results are based on online expert elicitation, a subsequent expert workshop, and a literature review. The STIs that could trigger the tipping of STE subsystems include 1) removing fossil-fuel subsidies and incentivizing decentralized energy generation (STE1, energy production and storage systems), 2) building carbon-neutral cities (STE2, human settlements), 3) divesting from assets linked to fossil fuels (STE3, financial markets), 4) revealing the moral implications of fossil fuels (STE4, norms and value systems), 5) strengthening climate education and engagement (STE5, education system), and 6) disclosing information on greenhouse gas emissions (STE6, information feedbacks). Our research reveals important areas of focus for larger-scale empirical and modeling efforts to better understand the potentials of harnessing social tipping dynamics for climate change mitigation.

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  • 10. Padmanaban, Rajchandar
    et al.
    Bhowmik, Avit K.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Cabral, Pedro
    A Remote Sensing Approach to Environmental Monitoring in a Reclaimed Mine Area2017Ingår i: ISPRS international journal of geo-information, ISSN 2220-9964, Vol. 6, nr 12, artikel-id 401Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mining for resources extraction may lead to geological and associated environmental changes due to ground movements, collision with mining cavities, and deformation of aquifers. Geological changes may continue in a reclaimed mine area, and the deformed aquifers may entail a breakdown of substrates and an increase in ground water tables, which may cause surface area inundation. Consequently, a reclaimed mine area may experience surface area collapse, i.e., subsidence, and degradation of vegetation productivity. Thus, monitoring short-term landscape dynamics in a reclaimed mine area may provide important information on the long-term geological and environmental impacts of mining activities. We studied landscape dynamics in Kirchheller Heide, Germany, which experienced extensive soil movement due to longwall mining without stowing, using Landsat imageries between 2013 and 2016. A Random Forest image classification technique was applied to analyze land-use and landcover dynamics, and the growth of wetland areas was assessed using a Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA). We also analyzed the changes in vegetation productivity using a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). We observed a 19.9% growth of wetland area within four years, with 87.2% growth in the coverage of two major waterbodies in the reclaimed mine area. NDVI values indicate that the productivity of 66.5% of vegetation of the Kirchheller Heide was degraded due to changes in ground water tables and surface flooding. Our results inform environmental management and mining reclamation authorities about the subsidence spots and priority mitigation areas from land surface and vegetation degradation in Kirchheller Heide.

  • 11. Padmanaban, Rajchandar
    et al.
    Bhowmik, Avit K.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Cabral, Pedro
    Satellite image fusion to detect changing surface permeability and emerging urban heat islands in a fast-growing city2019Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, nr 1, artikel-id e0208949Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid and extensive urbanization has adversely impacted humans and ecological entities in the recent decades through a decrease in surface permeability and the emergence of Urban Heat Islands (UHI). While detailed and continuous assessments of surface permeability and UHI are crucial for urban planning and management of landuse zones, they mostly involve time consuming and expensive field studies and single sensor derived large scale aerial and satellite imageries. We demonstrated the advantage of fusing imageries from multiple sensors for landuse and landcover (LULC) change assessments as well as for assessing surface permeability and temperature and UHI emergence in a fast growing city, i.e. Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, India. IRS-LISSIII and Landsat-7 ETM+ imageries were fused for 2007 and 2017, and classified using a Rotation Forest (RF) algorithm. Surface permeability and temperature were then quantified using Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) index, respectively. Finally, we assessed the relationship between SAVI and LST for entire Tirunelveli as well as for each LULC zone, and also detected UHI emergence hot spots using a SAVI-LST combined metric. Our fused images exhibited higher classification accuracies, i.e. overall kappa coefficient values, than non-fused images. We observed an overall increase in the coverage of urban (dry, real estate plots and built-up) areas, while a decrease for vegetated (cropland and forest) areas in Tirunelveli between 2007 and 2017. The SAVI values indicated an extensive decrease in surface permeability for Tirunelveli overall and also for almost all LULC zones. The LST values showed an overall increase of surface temperature in Tirunelveli with the highest increase for urban built-up areas between 2007 and 2017. LST also exhibited a strong negative association with SAVI. Southeastern built-up areas in Tirunelveli were depicted as a potential UHI hotspot, with a caution for the Western riparian zone for UHI emergence in 2017. Our results provide important metrics for surface permeability, temperature and UHI monitoring, and inform urban and zonal planning authorities about the advantages of satellite image fusion.

  • 12. Padmanaban, Rajchandar
    et al.
    Bhowmik, Avit K.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Cabral, Pedro
    Zamyatin, Alexander
    Almegdadi, Oraib
    Wang, Shuangao
    Modelling Urban Sprawl Using Remotely Sensed Data: A Case Study of Chennai City, Tamilnadu2017Ingår i: Entropy, ISSN 1099-4300, E-ISSN 1099-4300, Vol. 19, nr 4, artikel-id 163Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban sprawl (US), propelled by rapid population growth leads to the shrinkage of productive agricultural lands and pristine forests in the suburban areas and, in turn, adversely affects the provision of ecosystem services. The quantification of US is thus crucial for effective urban planning and environmental management. Like many megacities in fast growing developing countries, Chennai, the capital of Tamilnadu and one of the business hubs in India, has experienced extensive US triggered by the doubling of total population over the past three decades. However, the extent and level of US has not yet been quantified and a prediction for future extent of US is lacking. We employed the Random Forest (RF) classification on Landsat imageries from 1991, 2003, and 2016, and computed six landscape metrics to delineate the extent of urban areas within a 10 km suburban buffer of Chennai. The level of US was then quantified using Renyi's entropy. A land change model was subsequently used to project land cover for 2027. A 70.35% expansion in urban areas was observed mainly towards the suburban periphery of Chennai between 1991 and 2016. The Renyi's entropy value for year 2016 was 0.9, exhibiting a two-fold level of US when compared to 1991. The spatial metrics values indicate that the existing urban areas became denser and the suburban agricultural, forests and particularly barren lands were transformed into fragmented urban settlements. The forecasted land cover for 2027 indicates a conversion of 13,670.33 ha (16.57% of the total landscape) of existing forests and agricultural lands into urban areas with an associated increase in the entropy value to 1.7, indicating a tremendous level of US. Our study provides useful metrics for urban planning authorities to address the social-ecological consequences of US and to protect ecosystem services.

  • 13. Schreiner, Verena C.
    et al.
    Szoecs, Eduard
    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University Koblenz-Landau, Germany.
    Vijver, Martina G.
    Schaefer, Ralf B.
    Pesticide mixtures in streams of several European countries and the USA2016Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 573, s. 680-689Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Given the multitude of pesticides used in agriculture, adjacent streams are typically exposed to pesticide mixtures. Previous studies analysed the ecological risks of a few pesticide mixtures or were limited to an individual region or crop, whereas a large scale analysis of pesticide mixtures is missing. We analysed routine monitoring data from Germany, France, the Netherlands and the USA comprising a total of 4532 sites and 56,084 sampling occasions with the aim to identify the most frequently detected pesticides, their metabolites and mixtures. The most frequently detected compounds were dominated by herbicides and their metabolites. Mixtures mostly comprised of two up to five compounds, whereas mixtures in the USA and France had clearly less compounds than those of Germany and the Netherlands. The number of detected pesticides and thereby the size of mixtures is positively correlated to the number of measured pesticides (r = 0.57). In contrast, a low relationship was found to the ratio of agricultural areas within the catchment (r = 0.17), and no relationship was found to the size of the catchment (r = 0.06). Overall, our study provides priority mixtures for different countries that may be used for future ecotoxicological studies to improve risk assessment for stream ecosystems.

  • 14. Sohail, Muhammad
    et al.
    Eqani, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah
    Podgorski, Joel
    Bhowmik, Avit Kumar
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mahmood, Adeel
    Ali, Nadeem
    Sabo-Attwood, Tara
    Bokhari, Habib
    Shen, Heqing
    Persistent organic pollutant emission via dust deposition throughout Pakistan: Spatial patterns, regional cycling and their implication for human health risks2018Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 618, s. 829-837Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current study, Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in outdoor dustfall was monitored for the first time along the Indus river system of Pakistan. Among the studied OCPs (ng/g, dry weight), DDTs (0.16-62) were the predominant contaminants identified in deposited dust followed by HCHs (0.1-10.2), HCB (0.09-7.4) and chlordanes (0.1-2.8). The indicative diagnostic ratio for DDTs and HCHs suggested recent emission of DDTs as well as historical emission of both chemicals in regions where they were used for crop protection and malarial control. The levels of Sigma(31)PCBs (ng/g, dry weight) in dust ranged from 0.95-125, and compositional profiles suggested arochlor-1248, -1254 commercial mixtures as source. A few exceptions were samples from urban areas that reflected the use of aroclor-1260, and-1262 and/or unintentional leakage from several industrial processes. The WHO05-TEQ values for dioxin-like PCBs (with major contributions of PCB-126) were found to be 0.07-34.5 (median; 1.87) pg TEQ g(-1) dw for all the studied samples. Correlation analysis identified that DDTs, HCHs, HCB and PCBs were significantly associated (r = 90; p < 0.01) with dusts collected in proximity to urban centers with widespread anthropogenic activities in these areas. A few cases where high levels of POPs from remote mountain highlands were detected, point to the potential for long range transport of these chemicals. Human risk assessment analysis of contaminated dust showed that DDTs and PCBs are major constituent chemicals of concern with regard to the development of cancer in children, with ingestion being the main route of exposure of dust-borne DDTs (0.12-1.03 x 10(-6)) and PCBs (0.86-12.43 x 10(-6)).

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