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  • 1. Atienza, Ricardo
    et al.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Falkenberg, Kjetil
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Playing the design: Creating soundscapes through playful interaction2023In: SMC 2023 - Proceedings of the Sound and Music Computing Conference 2023, Sound and Music Computing Network , 2023, p. 362-369Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study takes inspiration from provocative design methods to gain knowledge on sound preferences regarding future vehicles’ designed sounds. A particular population subset was a triggering component of this study: people with hearing impairments. To that aim, we have developed a public installation in which to test a hypothetical futuristic city square. It includes three electrical vehicles whose sound can be designed by the visitor. The interface allows the user to interact and play with a number of provided sonic textures within a real-time web application, thus “playing” the design. This opens a design space of three distinct sounds that are mixed into an overall soundscape presented in a multichannel immersive environment. The paper describes the design processes involved. 

  • 2. Atienza, Ricardo
    et al.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music and Media Production. Royal College of Music.
    Falkenberg, Kjetil
    KTH, Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Playing the design: Creating soundscapes through playful interaction2023In: SMC 2023 - Proceedings of the Sound and Music Computing Conference 2023, Sound and Music Computing Network , 2023, p. 362-369Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study takes inspiration from provocative design methods to gain knowledge on sound preferences regarding future vehicles’ designed sounds. A particular population subset was a triggering component of this study: people with hearing impairments. To that aim, we have developed a public installation in which to test a hypothetical futuristic city square. It includes three electrical vehicles whose sound can be designed by the visitor. The interface allows the user to interact and play with a number of provided sonic textures within a real-time web application, thus “playing” the design. This opens a design space of three distinct sounds that are mixed into an overall soundscape presented in a multichannel immersive environment. The paper describes the design processes involved. 

  • 3.
    Falkenberg, Kjetil
    et al.
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm. KTH.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH.
    Holzapfel, Andre
    KTH.
    Pauletto, Sandra
    KTH.
    Gulz, Torbjörn
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Jazz. KTH.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music and Media Production. KTH.
    Misgeld, Olof
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Folk Music. KTH.
    Mattias, Sköld
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Folk Music. Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Composition and Conducting. KTH.
    Student involvement in sound and music computing research: Current practices at KTH and KMH2019In: Combined proceedings of the Nordic Sound and Music Computing Conference 2019 and the Interactive Sonification Workshop 2019, 2019, p. 36-42Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To engage students in and beyond course activities has been a working practice both at KTH Sound and Music Computing group and at KMH Royal College of Music since many years. This paper collects experiences of involving students in research conducted within the two institutions.  We describe how students attending our courses are given the possibility to be involved in our research activities, and we argue that their involvement both contributes to develop new research and benefits the students in the short and long term.  Among the assignments, activities, and tasks we offer in our education programs are pilot experiments, prototype development, public exhibitions, performing, composing, data collection, analysis challenges, and bachelor and master thesis projects that lead to academic publications.

  • 4.
    Falkenberg, Kjetil
    et al.
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm. KTH.
    Latupeirissa, Adrian Benigno
    KTH.
    Frid, Emma
    KTH.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music and Media Production. KTH.
    Unproved methods from the frontier in the course curriculum: A bidirectional and mutually beneficial research challenge2020In: INTED2020 Proceedings, IATED , 2020, p. 7033-7038Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we report the experiences of students and teachers in a master course in Musical Communication and Music Technology at KTH Royal Institute of Technology. The students were exposed to vocal sketching [1], a novel sound design method, both as their course material and for the examination. The results in terms of learning outcome and course experience were confirmed and more than convincing, while the results in terms of validating the efficacy of the method were meagre.As part of our research, we designed an experiment where the students first interviewed preschool children who were asked to describe a fantasy musical instrument and then built it. The course schedule included lectures on voice sketching, sound synthesis, sound quality, new musical instruments, parameter mapping, and music programming. The project work and idea was presented during the first lecture, eight weeks before meeting the children. The interview took place in a workshop at the Swedish Museum for Performing Arts who had an exhibition of new musical instruments. Student/child pairs visited the exhibition in order to 1) familiarize themselves, 2) establish communication, and 3) get a common point of reference in terms of the exhibited instruments. After this process, the pairs completed an interview session inspired by [2]. The parents and teacher could join in if desired. The students got two weeks to build the instruments and present these at the museum. The purpose was not to evaluate the instruments, but to explore the vocal sketch method. The design and building phase was a prototyping task which the students were comfortable with. All design decisions needed to be set in relation to the course literature. All the presented projects followed a scenario- and contextual-inspired design approach [3] where a target solution needed to be established quickly grounded on a basic understanding of the agent (the child), its goals, and its presumed actions [4], and where the child mainly acted as informant [5]. While all the children could voice sketch, few actually did so in the interview. Despite this, the finished instruments matched the expectations of the children, and the course work satisfied the intended learning outcomes. As a research outcome, we suggest that future studies should include training vocal sketch techniques to produce suitable sounds. As for the pedagogical outcome, we are convinced from both the high quality of the works and the unusually positive course evaluations compared to previous years that the unproved research method was appropriate as course material. The bidirectional challenge in the research where students know that the method is experimental is hypothesized to further boost student motivation.

  • 5.
    Falkenberg, Kjetil
    et al.
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm. KTH.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music and Media Production. KTH.
    Frid, Emma
    KTH.
    Creating digital musical instruments with and for children: Including vocal sketching as a method for engaging in codesign2020In: Human Technology, E-ISSN 1795-6889Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A class of master of science students and a group of preschool children codesigned new digital musical instruments based on workshop interviews involving vocal sketching, a method for imitating and portraying sounds. The aim of the study was to explore how the students and children would approach vocal sketching as one of several design methods. The children described musical instruments to the students using vocal sketching and other modalities (verbal, drawing, gestures). The resulting instruments built by the students were showcased at the Swedish Museum of Performing Arts in Stockholm. Although all the children tried vocal sketching during preparatory tasks, few employed the method during the workshop. However, the instruments seemed to meet the children’s expectations. Consequently, even though the vocal sketching method alone provided few design directives in the given context, we suggest that vocal sketching, under favorable circumstances, can be an engaging component that complements other modalities in codesign involving children.

  • 6.
    Falkenberg, Kjetil
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Latupeirissa, Adrian Benigno
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Frid, Emma
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Creating digital musical instruments with and for children: Including vocal sketching as a method for engaging in codesign2020In: Human Technology, E-ISSN 1795-6889, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 348-371Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A class of master of science students and a group of preschool children codesigned new digital musical instruments based on workshop interviews involving vocal sketching, a method for imitating and portraying sounds. The aim of the study was to explore how the students and children would approach vocal sketching as one of several design methods. The children described musical instruments to the students using vocal sketching and other modalities (verbal, drawing, gestures). The resulting instruments built by the students were showcased at the Swedish Museum of Performing Arts in Stockholm. Although all the children tried vocal sketching during preparatory tasks, few employed the method during the workshop. However, the instruments seemed to meet the children’s expectations. Consequently, even though the vocal sketching method alone provided few design directives in the given context, we suggest that vocal sketching, under favorable circumstances, can be an engaging component that complements other modalities in codesign involving children.

  • 7.
    Frid, Emma
    et al.
    KTH.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music and Media Production. KTH.
    Haptic Music: Exploring Whole-Body Vibrations and Tactile Sound for a Multisensory Music Installation2020In: Proceedings of the Sound and Music Computing Conference (SMC) 2020, 2020, p. 68-75Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study on the composition of haptic music for a multisensory installation and how composers could be aided by a preparatory workshop focusing on the perception of whole-body vibrations prior to such a composition task. Five students from a Master’s program in Music Production were asked to create haptic music for the installation Sound Forest. The students were exposed to a set of different sounds producing whole-body vibrations through a wooden platform and asked to describe perceived sensations for respective sound. Results suggested that the workshop helped the composers successfully complete the composition task and that awareness of haptic possibilities of the multisensory installation could be improved through training. Moreover, the sounds used as stimuli provided a relatively wide range of perceived sensations, ranging from pleasant to unpleasant. Considerable intra-subject differences motivate future large-scale studies on the perception of whole-body vibrations in artistic music practice.

  • 8.
    Frid, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    KMH Royal College of Music.
    Haptic Music: Exploring Whole-Body Vibrations and Tactile Sound for a Multisensory Music Installation2020In: Proceedings of the Sound and Music Computing Conference (SMC) 2020 / [ed] Simone Spagnol and Andrea Valle, Torino, Italy, 2020, p. 68-75Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study on the composition of haptic music for a multisensory installation and how composers could be aided by a preparatory workshop focusing on the perception of whole-body vibrations prior to such a composition task. Five students from a Master’s program in Music Production were asked to create haptic music for the installation Sound Forest. The students were exposed to a set of different sounds producing whole-body vibrations through a wooden platform and asked to describe perceived sensations for respective sound. Results suggested that the workshop helped the composers successfully complete the composition task and that awareness of haptic possibilities of the multisensory installation could be improved through training. Moreover, the sounds used as stimuli provided a relatively wide range of perceived sensations, ranging from pleasant to unpleasant. Considerable intra-subject differences motivate future large-scale studies on the perception of whole-body vibrations in artistic music practice.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Frid, Emma
    et al.
    KTH.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music and Media Production. KTH.
    Falkenberg, Kjetil
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm. KTH.
    Elblaus, Ludvig
    KTH.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH.
    Sound Forest - Evaluation of an Accessible Multisensory Music Installation2019In: Proceedings of the 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems / [ed] ACM, ACM: ACM Publications, 2019, Vol. 2019, p. 1-12, article id 677Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sound Forest is a music installation consisting of a room with light-emitting interactive strings, vibrating platforms and speakers, situated at the Swedish Museum of Performing Arts. In this paper we present an exploratory study focusing on evaluation of Sound Forest based on picture cards and interviews. Since Sound Forest should be accessible for everyone, regardless age or abilities, we invited children, teens and adults with physical and intellectual disabilities to take part in the evaluation. The main contribution of this work lies in its fndings suggesting that multisensory platforms such as Sound Forest, providing whole-body vibrations, can be used to provide visitors of diferent ages and abilities with similar associations to musical experiences. Interviews also revealed positive responses to haptic feedback in this context. Participants of diferent ages used diferent strategies and bodily modes of interaction in Sound Forest, with activities ranging from running to synchronized music-making and collaborative play.

  • 10.
    Hansen, Kjetil Falkenberg
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Holzapfel, Andre
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Pauletto, Sandra
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Gulz, Torbjörn
    KMH Royal College of Music in Stockholm.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    KMH Royal College of Music in Stockholm.
    Misgeld, Olof
    KMH Royal College of Music in Stockholm.
    Mattias, Sköld
    KMH Royal College of Music in Stockholm.
    Student involvement in sound and music computing research: Current practices at KTH and KMH2019In: Combined proceedings of the Nordic Sound and Music Computing Conference 2019 and the Interactive Sonification Workshop 2019, Stockholm, 2019, p. 36-42Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To engage students in and beyond course activities has been a working practice both at KTH Sound and Music Computing group and at KMH Royal College of Music since many years. This paper collects experiences of involving students in research conducted within the two institutions. 

    We describe how students attending our courses are given the possibility to be involved in our research activities, and we argue that their involvement both contributes to develop new research and benefits the students in the short and long term.  Among the assignments, activities, and tasks we offer in our education programs are pilot experiments, prototype development, public exhibitions, performing, composing, data collection, analysis challenges, and bachelor and master thesis projects that lead to academic publications.

  • 11.
    Hansen, Kjetil Falkenberg
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Latupeirissa, Adrian Benigno
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Frid, Emma
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. KMH Royal Acad Mus, Mus & Media Prod, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Unproved methods from the frontier in the course curriculum: A bidirectional and mutually beneficial research challenge2020In: INTED2020 Proceedings, IATED , 2020, p. 7033-7038Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music and Media Production. KTH.
    IMMERSIVE AND INTERACTIVE MUSIC FOR EVERYONE2019In: Proceedings of the Nordic Sound and Music Computing Conference 2019 (NSMC2019) and the Interactive Sonification Workshop 2019 (ISON2019) / [ed] Andre Holzapfel and Sandra Pauletto, Stockholm, 2019, p. 16-20Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study seeks to understand how new and accessible technology can be used and developed to include produc- ers of standard music into making immersive, interactive, music experiences. Through observations during a stu- dent project and an analysis of the participant’s reflections it argues that even if the technology worked well, there are still many opportunities for improvements. The result shows that the repeated, non-creative, tasks like exporting and naming files can reduce musical inspiration for stu- dents with little interest in technology and that further de- velopment and studies potentially could make interactive music accessible even for them. The aspect of the project that caused most positive response was producing and and mixing for super-surround which led the students to new insights and ideas for their everyday music production. Finally the result indicates that even if there would have been no technical barriers interactive music production might not appeal to everyone. Interactive music should maybe be seen as a separate discipline and students with a linear approach to composition will not necessarily find it inter- esting.

  • 13.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. Royal College of Music, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Interactive Sound and Music Technology for Everyone: Designing Inclusive Standards for Web Audio Applications2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this compilation thesis, I examine how systems and formats can be designed to include more people in creating interactive sound and music applications. I contribute knowledge, aiming to include everyone, but focus specifically on musicians with no programming skills and little interest in technical challenges. 

    I have designed, developed, and evaluated a system – WebAudioXML (WAXML) – for implementing interactive sound and music in web pages using native web technologies. The system’s design is novel, and the work contributes knowledge about how markup language and spreadsheet concepts can describe sound and music structures. The results give insights into how high-level musical representation can be structured, named, and designed to be understood by those without prior programming experience. 

    I also use WAXML to address musical diversity in interactive applications. I identify and solve technical challenges where current systems struggle to implement traditionally performed music. Novel solutions are designed, evaluated, discussed, and presented in the included papers. 

    The system is finally implemented in applications aimed at education and inclusion, where I evaluate them through a series of case studies. The results confirm Web Audio as a solid platform for accessible learning, sharing, and distribution of audio applications and suggest that collective efforts shaping an ecosystem with a universal format would enable even more creators to make interactive sound and music applications. 

    I research FOR the art THROUGH design. The knowledge output is valid for any interactive sound and music system but specifically addresses the design of Web Audio applications. 

    Download (pdf)
    PhD Thesis - Interactive Sound and Music Technology for Everyone
  • 14.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music and Media Production. KTH.
    Learning Body Movement Sonification in an Hour2024Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sonification in general, and sonification of body movements in particular, can be of great interest for different purposes, including research activities and artistic work. Up till recently, it has often been a time-consuming and sometimes expensive procedure to explore the field which can make sonification difficult for beginners to enter. The current study aims to solve these challenges by using radically inclusive and accessible technologies for learning and sharing sonification applications. It uses Google MediaPipe, the p5.js online editor, and WebAudioXML (WAXML) as a platform where it is possible to learn, create, and share sonification of body movements without having any earlier experiences from sonification, audio programming, or web development. The platform was evaluated during a one-hour workshop using observations and user responses through an online form. The result is promising and shows that web technologies work well on various computers and that all participants succeeded in meeting the goals for the workshop within the limited time. The answers from the online form also give insights into further development of platforms for learning sonification and ideas for new syntax and features for WAXML. 

  • 15.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music and Media Production. KTH.
    Music without an end: students perspective on music production for an interactive exhibition2017In: SMC Sweden 2017, Stockholm, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music and Media Production.
    Musikproduktion i olika medier2021In: Introduktion till medieteknik / [ed] Pernilla Falkenberg Josefsson; Mikael Wiberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2021, 1, p. 143-153Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Frågor om vad musik gör med människor och vad människor gör med musik är fascinerande. Musik är ett av de viktigaste och största intressena i människors liv (Lilliestam, 2009). Därför är det lätt att förstå att människor under hela vår kända civilisation strävat efter att såväl spela och sjunga som att lyssna på musik. Sedan flera hundra år tillbaka finns väletablerade traditioner att kombinera musik med andra konstformer, som till exempel teater i form av opera eller dans genom balettföreställningar. Det finns också mycket gamla traditioner att använda musik i religiösa sammanhang, vid ceremonier eller festligheter av olika slag (Östman, 2018). Människors tankar om och värderingar av musik, samt i vilka syften musiken används påverkas och förändras av den omgivande kulturen. Och kulturer förändras och utvecklas. Dagens många metoder och tekniker för att producera, distribuera och konsumera musik är resultatet av en lång och omfattande medieteknisk utveckling (Burgess, 2014). Denna utveckling har haft mycket stor betydelse för hur musiken i vårt samhälle och de kulturer vi lever i har utvecklats. Samtidigt har vårt behov av musik efterfrågat och bidragit till utvecklingen av ny teknologi.

  • 17.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music and Media Production. KTH.
    Towards a Standard for Interactive Music2024In: Innovation in Music: Technology and Creativity, London: Taylor & Francis , 2024Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactive Media is a rapidly growing market and an increasingly important target for music production. The field has attracted a lot of focus from both the industry and academia, but there is still a great potential for further development of tools and formats for content creation and implementation. Even if music is an important component in media production, there is still no open file format for delivering and sharing interactive musical content between different applications, and the terminology varies between different applications. This study aims at finding useful terminologies and requirements for such a format. Over a period of eight years, students, teachers, and researchers from the Royal College of Music in Stockholm (KMH) have participated with artistic visions, prototyping and testing in the development of a JavaScript framework called “iMusicXML”. In this exploratory design study, the current state of iMusicXML is analyzed to reveal important key concepts and features drawn from more than 100 student projects. Several features and solutions that have been proven useful are presented but also critiqued due to limited perspectives. It is also suggested that a wide range of users, genres, and applications should be invited to a continuing discussion about standards for interactive music.

  • 18.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. Royal College of Music.
    Towards a Standard for Interactive Music2024In: Innovation in Music: Technology and Creativity / [ed] Jan-Olof Gullö, Russ Hepworth-Sawyer, Justin Paterson, Rob Toulson, Mark Marrington, London: Taylor & Francis, 2024, 1st, p. 1-16Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactive Media is a rapidly growing market and an increasingly important target for music production. The field has attracted a lot of focus from both the industry and academia, but there is still a great potential for further development of tools and formats for content creation and implementation.

    Even if music is an important component in media production, there is still no open file format for delivering and sharing interactive musical content between different applications, and the terminology varies between different applications. This study aims at finding useful terminologies and requirements for such a format.

    Over a period of eight years, students, teachers, and researchers from the Royal College of Music in Stockholm (KMH) have participated with artistic visions, prototyping and testing in the development of a JavaScript framework called “iMusicXML”. In this exploratory design study, the current state of iMusicXML is analyzed to reveal important key concepts and features drawn from more than 100 student projects. Several features and solutions that have been proven useful are presented but also critiqued due to limited perspectives. It is also suggested that a wide range of users, genres, and applications should be invited to a continuing discussion about standards for interactive music.

  • 19.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. Royal College of Music.
    Ahlbäck, Sven
    Royal College of Music.
    Solving the Problem of Expressive Musical Timing in Interactive Music SystemsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactive music systems often implement music into games using approaches that tend to premiere music with a steady beat and quantized onsets to make seamless transitions. We identified a problem in which folk music and other genres with expressive musical timing cannot be used in these systems without violating musical traditions.

    This design study explores a novel solution and extends current practices with Flexible Horizontal Re-sequencing to solve the problem. We designed a system to evaluate the concept by running a project with all the necessary steps, from recording the music to implementing it into an open, accessible web application.

    We use notes from the development process, musicians’ evaluations, and interviews to validate the system and learn what features are needed to succeed and what musical factors contribute to the result. We conclude that the solution works well and that the system can perform seamless transitions if it has features for implementing sync points and phrase annotations to make individual crossfades for different instruments.

    We found critical musical aspects of the recording session that can improve the result without violating genre traditions or musicians’ playing styles. We also suggest that a shared file format for MIR and interactive music systems would contribute to an efficient ecosystem where Flexible Horizontal Re-sequencing could complement current interactive music approaches to include expressive musical timing.

  • 20.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    et al.
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music and Media Production. KTH.
    Falkenberg, Kjetil
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm. KTH.
    Audio Parameter Mapping Made Explicit Using WebAudioXML2021In: Proceedings of the Sound and Music Computing Conference / [ed] Sound and Music Computing Conference, Torino, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sonification using audio parameter mapping involves both aesthetic and technical challenges and requires interdisciplinary skills on a high level to produce a successful result. With the aim to lower the barrier for students to enter the field of sonification, we developed and presented WebAudioXML at SMC2020. Since then, more than 40 student projects has successfully proven that the technology is highly beneficial for non-programmers to learn how to create interactive web audio applications. With this study, we present new feature for WebAudioXML that also makes advanced audio parameter mapping, data interpolation and value conversion more accessible and easy to assess. Three student projects act as base for the syntax definition and by using an annotated portfolio and video recorded interviews with experts from the sound and music computing community, we present important insights from the project. The participants contributed with critical feedback and questions that helped us to better understand the strengths and weaknesses with the proposed syntax. We conclude that the technology is robust and useful and present new ideas that emerged from this study.

  • 21.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Institutionen för musik- och medieproduktion.
    Falkenberg, Kjetil
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Audio Parameter Mapping Made Explicit Using WebAudioXML2021In: Proceedings of the Sound and Music Computing Conference / [ed] Sound and Music Computing Conference, Torino, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sonification using audio parameter mapping involves both aesthetic and technical challenges and requires interdisciplinary skills on a high level to produce a successful result. With the aim to lower the barrier for students to enter the field of sonification, we developed and presented WebAudioXML at SMC2020. Since then, more than 40 student projects has successfully proven that the technology is highly beneficial for non-programmers to learn how to create interactive web audio applications. With this study, we present new feature for WebAudioXML that also makes advanced audio parameter mapping, data interpolation and value conversion more accessible and easy to assess. Three student projects act as base for the syntax definition and by using an annotated portfolio and video recorded interviews with experts from the sound and music computing community, we present important insights from the project. The participants contributed with critical feedback and questions that helped us to better understand the strengths and weaknesses with the proposed syntax. We conclude that the technology is robust and useful and present new ideas that emerged from this study.

  • 22.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    et al.
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music and Media Production. KTH.
    Falkenberg, Kjetil
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm. KTH.
    Evaluating Web Audio for Learning, Accessibility, and Distribution2022In: JAES Volume 70 Issue 11 pp. 951-961; November 2022, Vol. 70, no 11, p. 951-961Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Web Audio has a great potential for interactive audio content in which an open standard and easy integration with other web-based tools makes it particularly interesting. From earlier studies, obstacles for students to materialize creative ideas through programming were identified; focus shifted from artistic ambition to solving technical issues. This study builds upon 20 years of experience from teaching sound and music computing and evaluates howWeb Audio contributes to the learning experience. Data was collected from different student projects through analysis of source code, reflective texts, group discussions, and online self-evaluation forms. The result indicates that Web Audio serves well as a learning platform and that an XML abstraction of the API helped the students to stay focused on the artistic output. It is also concluded that an online tool can reduce the time for getting started with Web Audio to less than 1 h. Although many obstacles have been successfully removed, the authors argue that there is still a great potential for new online tools targeting audio application development in which the accessibility and sharing features contribute to an even better learning experience.

  • 23.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. Department of Music Production, Royal College of Music, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Falkenberg, Kjetil
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Evaluating Web Audio for learning, accessibility and distribution2022In: Journal of The Audio Engineering Society, ISSN 1549-4950, Vol. 70, no 11, p. 962-978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Web Audio has a great potential for interactive audio content in which an open standard and easy integration with other web-based tools makes it particularly interesting. From earlier studies, obstacles for students to materialize creative ideas through programming were identified; focus shifted from artistic ambition to solving technical issues. This study builds upon 20 years of experience from teaching sound and music computing and evaluates how Web Audio contributes to the learning experience. Data was collected from different student projects through analysis of source code, reflective texts, group discussions, and online self-evaluation forms. The result indicates that Web Audio serves well as a learning platform and that an XML abstraction of the API helped the students to stay focused on the artistic output. It is also concluded that an online tool can reduce the time for getting started with Web Audio to less than 1 h. Although many obstacles have been successfully removed, the authors argue that there is still a great potential for new online tools targeting audio application development in which the accessibility and sharing features contribute to an even better learning experience. 

  • 24.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    et al.
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music and Media Production. KTH.
    Falkenberg, Kjetil
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm. KTH.
    Putting Web Audio API to the test: Introducing WebAudioXML as a pedagogical platform2021In: Web Audio Conference 2021, Barcelona, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Web technologies in general and Web Audio API in particular have a great potential as a learning platform for developing interactive sound and music applications. Earlier studies at the Royal College of Music in Stockholm have led to a wide range of student projects but have also indicated that there is a high threshold for novice programmers to understand and use Web Audio API. We developed the WebAudioXML coding environment to solve this problem, and added a statistics module to analyze student works. The current study is the first presentation and evaluation of the technology. Three classes of students with technical repsectively artistic background participated through online courses by building interactive, sound-based applications. We analysed the source code and self-reflective reports from the projects to understand the impact WebAudioXML has on creativity and the learning process. The results indicate that WebAudioXML can be a useful platform for teaching and learning how to build online audio applications. The platform makes mapping between user interactions and audio parameters accessible for novice programmer and supports artists in successfully realizing their design ideas. We show that templates can be a great help for the students to get started but also a limitation for them to expand ideas beyond the presented scope.

  • 25.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    et al.
    Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Institutionen för musik- och medieproduktion.
    Falkenberg, Kjetil
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Putting Web Audio API to the test: Introducing WebAudioXML as a pedagogical platform2021In: Web Audio Conference 2021, Barcelona, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Web technologies in general and Web Audio API in particular have a great potential as a learning platform for developing interactive sound and music applications. Earlier studies at the Royal College of Music in Stockholm have led to a wide range of student projects but have also indicated that there is a high threshold for novice programmers to understand and use Web Audio API. We developed the WebAudioXML coding environment to solve this problem, and added a statistics module to analyze student works. The current study is the first presentation and evaluation of the technology. Three classes of students with technical repsectively artistic background participated through online courses by building interactive, sound-based applications. We analysed the source code and self-reflective reports from the projects to understand the impact WebAudioXML has on creativity and the learning process. The results indicate that WebAudioXML can be a useful platform for teaching and learning how to build online audio applications. The platform makes mapping between user interactions and audio parameters accessible for novice programmer and supports artists in successfully realizing their design ideas. We show that templates can be a great help for the students to get started but also a limitation for them to expand ideas beyond the presented scope.

  • 26.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    et al.
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music and Media Production. KTH.
    Falkenberg, Kjetil
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm. KTH.
    Sonification For Everyone Everywhere: Evaluating The WebAudioXML Sonification Toolkit For Browsers2021In: / [ed] International Conference on Auditory Display, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creating an effective sonification is a challenging task that requires skills and knowledge on an expertise level in several disciplines. This study contributes with WebAudioXML Sonification Toolkit (WAST) that aims at reaching new groups who have not yet considered themselves to be part of the ICAD community. We have designed, built, and evaluated the toolkit by analysing ten student projects using it and conclude that WAST did meet our expectations and that it lead to students taking a deep approach to learning and successfully contributed to reaching the learning outcomes. The result indicates that WAST is both easy-to-use, highly accessible, extensively flexible and offers possibilities to share the sonification in any device’s web browser simply through a web link, and without installations. We also suggest that a sonification toolkit would become an even more creative environment with virtual instruments and mixing features typically found in Digital Audio Workstations.

  • 27.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Falkenberg, Kjetil
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Sonification For Everyone Everywhere: Evaluating The WebAudioXML Sonification Toolkit For Browsers2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creating an effective sonification is a challenging task that requires skills and knowledge on an expertise level in several disciplines. This study contributes with WebAudioXML Sonification Toolkit (WAST) that aims at reaching new groups who have not yet considered themselves to be part of the ICAD community. We have designed, built, and evaluated the toolkit by analysing ten student projects using it and conclude that WAST did meet our expectations and that it lead to students taking a deep approach to learning and successfully contributed to reaching the learning outcomes. The result indicates that WAST is both easy-to-use, highly accessible, extensively flexible and offers possibilities to share the sonification in any device’s web browser simply through a web link, and without installations. We also suggest that a sonification toolkit would become an even more creative environment with virtual instruments and mixing features typically found in Digital Audio Workstations.

  • 28.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    et al.
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music and Media Production. KTH.
    Falkenberg, Kjetil
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm. KTH.
    WebAudioXML: Proposing a new standard for structuring web audio2020In: Sound and Music Computing Conference, Zenodo , 2020, p. 25-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present WebAudioXML as a suggested candidate for establishing a standard for describing Web Audio config- urations. The aim is to lower the barrier for artistic cre- ators for working within web audio applications as well as providing a modular system that can integrate into larger applications. WebAudioXML provides means for mak- ing interactive music without having to learn a program- ming language like JavaScript and consists of an XML syntax specification and a parser. The framework has been developed with and tested by audio experts and lecturers from music production and Sound and Music Computing. Workshop participants report that WebAudioXML has po- tential in keeping focus on the creative process instead of web development. We argue that an XML standard for Web Audio configurations would be beneficial for modular and collaborative development and therefore recommend a wider discussion on the topic. With the discussion we aim to promote the artistic in the making of interactive audio applications.

  • 29.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. Royal College of Music in Stockholm.
    Falkenberg, Kjetil
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    WebAudioXML: Proposing a new standard for structuring web audio2020In: Proceedings of the Sound and Music Computing Conferences, CERN , 2020, p. 25-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present WebAudioXML as a suggested candidate for establishing a standard for describing Web Audio configurations. The aim is to lower the barrier for artistic creators for working within web audio applications as well as providing a modular system that can integrate into larger applications. WebAudioXML provides means for making interactive music without having to learn a programming language like JavaScript and consists of an XML syntax specification and a parser. The framework has been developed with and tested by audio experts and lecturers from music production and Sound and Music Computing. Workshop participants report that WebAudioXML has potential in keeping focus on the creative process instead of web development. We argue that an XML standard for Web Audio configurations would be beneficial for modular and collaborative development and therefore recommend a wider discussion on the topic. With the discussion we aim to promote the artistic in the making of interactive audio applications. 

  • 30.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    et al.
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music and Media Production. Royal College of Music.
    Svahn, Maria
    KTH, Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Hölling, Josefine
    KTH, Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Falkenberg, Kjetil
    KTH, Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Frid, Emma
    KTH, Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Collaborative music-making: special educational needs school assistants as facilitators in performances with accessible digital musical instruments2023In: Frontiers in Computer Science, E-ISSN 2624-9898, Vol. 5, article id 1165442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of research dedicated to Accessible Digital Musical Instruments (ADMIs) is growing and there is an increased interest in promoting diversity and inclusion in music-making. We have designed a novel system built into previously tested ADMIs that aims at involving assistants, students with Profound and Multiple Learning Disabilities (PMLD), and a professional musician in playing music together. In this study the system is evaluated in a workshop setting using quantitative as well as qualitative methods. One of the main findings was that the sounds from the ADMIs added to the musical context without making errors that impacted the music negatively even when the assistants mentioned experiencing a split between attending to different tasks, and a feeling of insecurity toward their musical contribution. We discuss the results in terms of how we perceive them as drivers or barriers toward reaching our overarching goal of organizing a joint concert that brings together students from the SEN school with students from a music school with a specific focus on traditional orchestral instruments. Our study highlights how a system of networked and synchronized ADMIs could be conceptualized to include assistants more actively in collaborative music-making, as well as design considerations that support them as facilitators.

  • 31.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. KMH Royal Coll Mus, Dept Mus & Media Prod, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Svahn, Maria
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Hölling, Josefine
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Falkenberg, Kjetil
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Frid, Emma
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. Inst Res & Coordinat Acoust Mus IRCAM, Sci & Technol Mus & Sound STMS, Paris, France..
    Collaborative music-making: special educational needs school assistants as facilitators in performances with accessible digital musical instruments2023In: Frontiers in Computer Science, E-ISSN 2624-9898, Vol. 5, article id 1165442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of research dedicated to Accessible Digital Musical Instruments (ADMIs) is growing and there is an increased interest in promoting diversity and inclusion in music-making. We have designed a novel system built into previously tested ADMIs that aims at involving assistants, students with Profound and Multiple Learning Disabilities (PMLD), and a professional musician in playing music together. In this study the system is evaluated in a workshop setting using quantitative as well as qualitative methods. One of the main findings was that the sounds from the ADMIs added to the musical context without making errors that impacted the music negatively even when the assistants mentioned experiencing a split between attending to different tasks, and a feeling of insecurity toward their musical contribution. We discuss the results in terms of how we perceive them as drivers or barriers toward reaching our overarching goal of organizing a joint concert that brings together students from the SEN school with students from a music school with a specific focus on traditional orchestral instruments. Our study highlights how a system of networked and synchronized ADMIs could be conceptualized to include assistants more actively in collaborative music-making, as well as design considerations that support them as facilitators.

  • 32.
    Misgeld, Olof
    et al.
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Folk Music.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music and Media Production.
    Ahlbäck, Sven
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Folk Music.
    Holzapfel, Andre
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Människocentrerad teknologi, Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID. (Sound and Music Computing).
    Exploring sonification as a tool for folk music-dance interactions.2022In: Proceedings of the Second Symposium of the ICTM Study Group on Sound, Movement, and the Sciences (SoMoS), 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present ongoing work on the sonification of movements by dancers and players in Swedish folk music, with the aim to develop oral music theory tools for artistic and pedagogical purposes.

    An advantage of using sonification in the exploration of dance and music interaction is that it places dance movements within the same sensory domain as music - sound. In general, human beings are more accurate in perceiving time differences with auditory than visual stimuli, and the ability to listen to the dance movements can facilitate a more precise understanding of the complex temporal relations between movements and music. Sonifying dance movements extend traditional music and dance practices into an artificially created sonic world. With sounding dance movements, the roles in the interaction of dancers and musicians become entangled, which can allow new ways of artistic expression.

    This work aims at sonifying movement patterns in the dance in ways that 1) correspond to the embodied experience of the performers, 2) make the experience of how rhythms and meter interact in dancing and playing more tangible and, 3) allow for artistic explorations of performing with sonifications of dance.

    As a first step we explore sonifying motion capture data of dancers and musicians performing together and sonify movements that are relevant to the rhythmic and metrical patterns of the music and dance forms. This initial focus on recorded data facilitates a sound design that involves first-person perspectives. To this end, we invite expert dancers and musicians to contribute to the design process. We sonify using WebaudioXML to facilitate accessible interactions in this process, through a web interface, and we will present the insights from our ongoing design process. In future extensions we aim to explore using real-time sensors to allow live interactions between sonified dancers and musicians.

  • 33.
    Misgeld, Olof
    et al.
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Folk Music.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music and Media Production.
    Holzapfel, Andre
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Människocentrerad teknologi, Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID. (Sound and Music Computing).
    Accessible sonification of movement: A case in Swedish folk dance2023In: Proceedings of the Sound and Music Computing Conference 2023 / [ed] Roberto Bresin, Kjetil Falkenberg and Henrik Frisk, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a sonification tool – SonifyFOLK – designed for intuitive access by musicians and dancers in their sonic explorations of movements in dance performances. It is implemented as a web-based application to facilitate accessible audio parameter mapping of movement data for non-experts, and applied and evaluated with Swedish folk musicians and dancers in their exploration of sonifying dance. SonifyFOLK is based on the WebAudioXML Sonification Toolkit and is designed within a group of artists and engineers using artistic goals as drivers for the sound design. The design addresses challenges of providing an accessible interface for mapping movement data to audio parameters, managing multi-dimensional data and creating audio mapping templates for a contextually grounded sound design. The evaluation documents a diversity of sonification outcomes, reflections by participants that imply curiosity for further work on sonification, as well as the importance of the immediacy of the both visual and acoustic feedback of parameter choices.

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  • 34.
    Misgeld, Olof
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Holzapfel, Andre
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Accessible sonification of movement: A case in Swedish folk dance2023In: Proceedings of SMC 2023 - Sound and Music Computing Conference, Sound and Music Computing Network , 2023, p. 201-208Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a sonification tool – SonifyFOLK –designed for intuitive access by musicians and dancers in their sonic explorations of movements in dance performances. It is implemented as a web-based application to facilitate accessible audio parameter mapping of movement data for non-experts, and applied and evaluated with Swedish folk musicians and dancers in their exploration of sonifying dance. SonifyFOLK is based on the WebAudioXML Sonification Toolkit and is designed within a group of artists and engineers using artistic goals as drivers for the sound design. The design addresses challenges of providing an accessible interface for mapping movement data to audio parameters, managing multi-dimensional data and creating audio mapping templates for a contextually grounded sound design. The evaluation documents a diversity of sonification outcomes, reflections by participants that imply curiosity for further work on sonification, as well as the importance of the immediacy of the both visual and acoustic feedback of parameter choices. 

  • 35.
    Svahn, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Hölling, Josefine
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    Royal Academy of Music, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Frid, Emma
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Falkenberg, Kjetil
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Collaborative music-making with Special Education Needs students and their assistants: A study on music playing among preverbal individuals with the Funki instruments2023In: NNDR 16th Research Conference Nordic Network on Disability Research (NNDR), 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The field of research dedicated to Accessible Digital Musical Instruments (ADMIs) is growingand there is an increased interest in how different accessible music technologies can beused to promote diversity and inclusion in music-making. Researchers currently voice theneed to move away from a techno-centric view of musical expression and to focus more onthe sociocultural contexts in which ADMIs are used. In this study, we explore how “Funki”, aset of ADMIs developed for students with Profound and Multiple Learning Disabilities(PMLD) can be used in a collaborative music-making setting in a Special Educational Needs(SEN) school, together with assistants. Previous findings have suggested that the musicalinteractions taking place, as well as the group dynamics, were highly dependent on thesession assistants and their level of participation. It is therefore important to consider theactive role of assistants, who may have little or no prior music training. The instrumentsprovided should allow the assistant to not only help the students in making music but alsoenable the assistants themselves to create sounds without interfering or disturbing thesounds produced by the students. In the current work, we show how the Funki instrumentscould be expanded with WebAudioXML (waxml) for mapping user interactions to controlmusic and audio parameters and make it possible for assistants to control musical aspectslike the tonality, rhythmic density, or structure of the composition. The system was tested in acase study with four students and their assistants at a SEN school, including semi-structuredinterviews on how Funki supported inclusive music-making and the assistant’s role in thiscontext. The findings of this work highlight how ADMIs could be conceptualized anddesigned to include special education teachers, teaching assistants, and other carers moreactively in collaborative music-making. 

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