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  • 1.
    Allan, Jon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Social Sciences, Technology and Arts, Music, Media and Theater.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Royal College of Music, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Listener Preferences in Streamed Music2022In: Journal of The Audio Engineering Society, ISSN 1549-4950, Vol. 70, no 3, p. 156-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A cross-disciplinary study between the two research areas of Audio Technology and Music Education was performed to assess how different aspects of education and experience may influence the experience of music listening given a typical streaming service-Spotify.(1) The point of departure is that streamed media facilitates a plenitude of versions of the same song. The paper focuses on the differences that these different songs yield from various mastering processes and production choices motivated by the end distribution media and user settings in the playback system that aim to alter the sound. These variations may all lead to differences in musical dynamics and timbre. A listening test was conducted to examine listeners’ preferences, the assessed audio quality, and subjects’ reports on how the music content affected them when given the possibility to compare versions in a controlled environment. The test subjects (n = 76) represented populations with various educational backgrounds and experience within music and audio technology. Among the results, it was found that education and experience in some cases do affect preferences.

  • 2.
    Almqvist, Cecilia Ferm
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music and dance.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music and dance.
    The Music Teacher in the Nexus of Art Origin2017In: Finnish Journal of Music Education, ISSN 1239-3908, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 45-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Artists are not born – they become. Artists are created by art, art that they have created. This twisted helix is conceptualised as ‘the origin of art’ by Heidegger. If an artist is to originate within musical educational settings, we claim that the musical educator has an inevitable role to play in this art origin. The problem of the investigation at hand are a question of how the educator can relate to this involvement; guiding the student toward the nexus of this origin without standing in the way for the originating of art nor to become a part of the origin of art as a part of the artist’s artistry. The complex phenomenon consisting of relations between art, student(s) and teacher are investigated, and in order to understand how teachers can organize their teaching towards an artistry achievement of their students, we seek to explore a number of phenomenological concepts; Heidegger’s notion of a work of art, the idea of Lifeworlds, musical intersubjectivity, responsibility in asymmetrical relationships and finally, dwelling. The conclusion are that teacher can relate to this situation in three different modes; (i) by enriching the Lifeworld of the student, (ii) by preparing for the unexpected to occur and (iii) direct the intentionality towards the nexus of artness originating instead of the artness itself.

  • 3. Almqvist, Cecilia Ferm
    et al.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music Education. Luleå Tekniska Högskola.
    Ekberg, Niclas
    Luleå Tekniska Högskola.
    Spotify as a case of musical Bildung2021In: Nordic Research in Music Education, E-ISSN 2703-8041, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 89-113Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Backman Bister, Anna
    et al.
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music Education.
    Falthin, Annika
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music Education.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music Education.
    Persson, Mikael
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music Education.
    Lönngren, Anita
    Broers, Mirjam
    Fredriksson, Carna
    Sand, Eva
    Steen, Maria
    A Prima Vista – Possibillities and Challenges with Practice-based Research in Music Education2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2017 the Swedish Government commissioned four Universities to plan and execute a project aiming to develop and test different models for long-term collaboration between Universities and Colleges and heads of Schools concerning practice-based research (Utbildningsdepartementet, 2018). This should be seen in the light of the decree in the Swedish education act from 2010, that declares that the Swedish compulsory school shall be founded in scientific basis and proven experience (SFS 2010:800; Norrestam & Alfredson, 2018).

    These four Universities became the core of a practice-based test project between Higher Education and School, called ULF (Utbildning, Lärande, Forskning) [in English ELR, Education, Learning, Research]. The four Universities have collaborated with other Universities and Colleges and formed four hubs in the ULF project network. The Royal College of Music (RCM) in Stockholm has been a part of the project through the hub administrated by Uppsala University. The trial period ends in 2021, and throughout the period RCM has been conducting four practice-based research projects where music teachers in the compulsory school have worked together with researchers from the college in pairs and in one case in a trio, researching areas that have been identified by the music teachers as important for them in their daily work. These research areas have been: Leadership in the music-classroom; Interventions for musical knowledge development and participation; Music education and digitalization; and Norm-critical music education.

    Five music teachers and four researchers together have developed multifaceted knowledge concerning, of course, the research areas of interest, but also about matters concerning arrangements supporting practice-based research. This could be called incidental findings, but we argue that these areas of interest may, in fact be part of the main findings, of the study made by the RCM, as well as of the main project nationally. The results are presented in an anthology called “A Prima Vista” which will be completed in January 2021.

    In the symposia we would like to present results and further discuss:

    -  How to define practice-based research? The definition of the term practice-based or practice-conducted research is not an easy on to make?-  The ethical codex for conducting studies that include humans, is in Sweden not updated to adequately meet the special issues that arises when practicing teachers are partaking in research that their head of the school department is engaged in. This concerns i.e., the matter of anonymization and bias.-  How do one practically take on the task of practice-based research? Little is written in Sweden on organizational matters. Our project has shown that issues like schedules, access to resources, and substitute teachers are just a few of many pressing organizational matters.-  Findings from the collaborative part-studies. 

    References 

    Norrestam S. & Alfredsson, S. (2018). Skola på vetenskaplig grund. Hur LUnd gör BFL/BFFL. I Vetenskap och beprövad erfarenhet, (s 29–38) VBE- programmet, Lund.

    SFS 2010:800. Skollagen. Stockholm, Utbildningsdepartementet.

    Utbildningsdepartementet. (2017). Uppdrag om försöksverksamhet med praktiknära forskning. Utbildningsdepartementet. Diarienummer: U2015/03573/UH, U2017/01129/UH.

  • 5.
    Bjerstedt, Sven
    et al.
    Lund University, Malmö Faculty of Fine and Performing Arts.
    Fossum, Hanne
    Norwegian Academy of Music, Oslo.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Örebro University.
    Lonnert, Lia
    Lund University, Malmö Faculty of Fine and Performing Arts.
    The musical present: A polyphonic philosophical investigation2017In: Nordisk musikkpedagogisk forskning: årbok 17 / [ed] redaksjon: Eva Georgii-Hemming..., Oslo: Norges musikkhøgskole , 2017, Vol. 17, p. 9-39Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How can music education be enriched by the concept of time? This article is based on the assumption that the present moment, the musical ‘now’, is of the utmost importance not only to the musical performer or listener but to the musical learner and teacher as well. It aims at a philosophical discussion and conceptual clarification of a number of issues of time that are considered to be crucial to music education through a presentation and discussion of thoughts and concepts put forward by four selected philosophers: Augustine, Edmund Husserl, Mikhail Bakhtin, and Paul Ricoeur. It is suggested that reflecting upon time may significantly challenge and develop students’ ways of thinking about music connected to different actions within several fields of music education. For instance, Augustine’s analysis of time offers important perspectives on practising, remembering, and performing music. Husserl’s philosophy of time constitutes the stream of consciousness, which leads to an understanding of the comprehension of tonality. Discussions of Bakhtin’s concepts of utterance and chronotope demonstrate that the need for experiencing and understanding music arguably poses a challenge for current music education in schools with regard to its predominant ways of dealing with time. With reference to Ricoeur’s analysis of time and narrative, it is suggested that musicians’ need for multi-directedness in the musical present calls for a rich learning ecology framework. In conclusion, it is argued that reflection on musical practice in general would benefit from taking the shape of polyphonic philosophical investigations.

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  • 6.
    Bjerstedt, Sven
    et al.
    Musikhögskolan i Malmö, Lunds universitet, Malmö, Sweden.
    Hanne, Fossum
    Norges musikkhøgskole, Oslo, Norge.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Lonnert, Lia
    Musikhögskolan i Malmö, Lunds universitet, Malmö, Sweden.
    The playing now: A philosophical investigation of present time in music2015In: Nordiskt nätverk för musikpedagogisk forskning (NNMPF), 2015, Helsingfors: Sibelius Academy, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Music, such as the duration of a musical piec e or length of a concert, can b e measured by metronomes and clocks in objective time ( chronos ). However, playing an instrument, singing, attending a concert, listening to a record or reading a musical score are musical activities also experienced as subjective time ( kairos) . Music has an intrinsic temporal dimension of experienced time , often including an intensification of the present moment, coexisting intertwined with its measurable dimensions. This makes music a fasc inating object for philosophical exploration. Musical practice em bodie s temporal phenomena like pulse, tempo, timing, ad lib, accelerando and fermata. The musical present can be viewed as a moment of sem antic fullness , a meaningful moment . Music can carry narrative, which is a related phenomenon, also containing intrinsic temporality. Furthermore, music can be improvised in the present moment. The tonal texture of music is experienced as a context, a coherency with an intrinsic temporality. This symposium is set to investigate how music can be experienced, philosophically speaking, in the present moment. In order to do this, we introduce a number of prominent Western philosophers who have taken an interest in the phenomenon of time by using the phenomenon o f music as a lens: Saint Augustine, Husserl, Bakhtin and Ricoeur.

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    Download full text (pdf)
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  • 7.
    Burkart, Patrick
    et al.
    Texas A&M University.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music, media and Theatre.
    The Spotifyication of public service media2019In: The Information Society, ISSN 0197-2243, E-ISSN 1087-6537, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 173-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates contemporary cultural policy reforms enabled by paid digital media distribution services, taking the case of the integration of Spotify into the Swedish public media system. Specifically, it reflects on the conflicts arising over the prioritization of digital distribution over cultural preservation, during the gradual substitution of the Spotify digital services for the services provided by the traditional material media archive, the Grammofonarkivet. It considers the factors influencing changes in the Swedish cultural policy environment and the nature of the complaints and human rights claims made by employees of the Grammofonarkivet to UNESCO regarding its structural transformation. It also postulates a “Spotification” model of public service media emerging in Sweden but potentially affecting other countries with public media systems served by traditional media archives.

  • 8.
    Falthin, Annika
    et al.
    Kungliga musikhögskolan i Stockholm.
    Mars, Annette
    Malmö universitet.
    Asp, Karl
    Borgström Källén, Carina
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music, media and Theatre.
    Nyberg, Johan
    Zadig, Sverker
    Ferm Almqvist, Cecilia
    Vad kan det musikpedagogiska forskningsfältet erbjuda framtidens musiklärarutbildningar?2019In: Nordic Network for Researchin Music Education: Abstracts / [ed] Ronny Lindeborg; Erkki Huovinen, Royal College of Music in Stockholm , 2019, p. 12-13Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Ferm Almqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music and dance.
    Ekberg, Niclas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music and dance.
    Evolving musical Bildung in streaming media – Spotify as a case: Reflections upon a pilot study2018In: Konferensbidrag: Vart är musiken på väg? Perspektiv från forskning, bransch och politiker, Mirac (Music Focused Interdisciplinary Research & Analysis Center) , 2018, p. 10-11Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presentation will share experiences of and reflections upon a pilot study based on stimulated recall interviews aiming to explore the meaning and function of streaming media as a facilitator of musical Bildung. It can be stated that new technology has the possibility to provide information and education for everyone. Today, most people can access the same information for "free", which is interesting from a democratic perspective. Access to music in relation to the new, transformed music industry has been studied from technological and economical perspectives. Even listening habits and listening frequencies, have been investigated through analyses of Big Data. Hence, we stated a need to reflect upon and discuss the meaning and function of streamed music in people's lives, taking as a starting point the affordances and constraints of the music streaming services. Using Spotify as a case, based on phenomenological perspectives of Bildung, a cross disciplinary project was created. In the presentation we want to answer share preliminary results from a pilot stimulated interview study. A netnographic oriented approach where chosen, given its focus on distinguishing meanings and human practice in varied contexts, and combined with shadowing and individual interviews, supported by stimulated recall. The participants gathered their user activities that took place during a limited period of time, and also in what ways these were shared and expressed in varied social media. The stimulated recall interviews were documented through the use of a web based videoconference application, transcribed and subjected to qualitative content analysis. The paper presentation aims to share and discuss the use of methods as well as preliminary results, which hopefully can contribute with insights when it comes to how streamed music functions, and can be used consciously, within the field of music education.

  • 10.
    Ferm Almqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Södertörns högskola.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music Education. Luleå Tekniska universitet.
    Ekberg, Niclas
    Luleå Tekniska universitet.
    Explorativ bildning i strömmande medier: Spotify som ett case2020 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
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  • 11.
    Ferm Almqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music, media and Theatre. Södertörns Högskola. Stockholms musikpedagogiska institut.
    Leijonhufvud, SusannaLuleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music, media and Theatre. Stockholms Musikpedagogiska Institut (SMI). Kungl. Musikhögskolan (KMH).Ekberg, NiclasLuleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Explorativ bildning i strömmande medier: Spotify som ett case2020Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What educational processes take place in people's Spotify use? It turns out that such use is closely linked to musical as well as digital competences. With a focus on the educational processes that take place in the interplay between people, technology and music, the understanding of what a streaming music service like Spotify can offer is challenged.

    "Evolving Bildung in the nexus of streaming services, art and users - Spotify as a case" is a cross-disciplinary project that shows how the processes of human education and self-formation are conditioned, challenged and made possible by the streaming media development. This book can be used in educations in music pedagogy, musicology, music production, audio engineering, pedagogy, cultural studies, sociology, and media and communication science.

  • 12.
    Ferm Almqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music, media and Theatre.
    Ekberg, Niclas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health, Learning and Technology, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Spotify as a case of musical Bildung2021In: Nordic Research in Music Education, E-ISSN 2703-8041, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 89-113Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the meaning and function of streaming media as a potential facilitator of musical Bildung. Taking the affordances of streaming media technologies as a starting point, the article thus focuses on the formative and cultivating dimensions a music streaming service such as Spotify might offer. The specific aim of this article is to describe and analyse how musical Bildung may evolve within a Spotify context from a user perspective. To address the aim from the point of view of music education, Spotify users’ activities and experiences of streaming media interactions were accessed, inspired by internet-related ethnography. Stimulated recall interviews, focusing on the participants’ experiences as well as their actual use of Spotify’s streaming service, were conducted, recorded, and transcribed. The generated material was subjected to co-operative hermeneutic content analysis. The results illuminate how Bildung evolves in users’ encounters with the service and with art mediated via Spotify. Relevant topics occurring in the human-art-technology relationship of Bildung from a Heideggerian perspective were Being-possible, the ability-to-be, and Spotify as the Other. In sum, it can be stated that Bildung evolves when Spotify exceeds the thingness of the Other, becoming a work of art in itself, throwing the user into Being.

  • 13.
    Ferm Almqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music, media and Theatre. Södertörns Högskola. Stockholms musikpedagogiska institut.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music, media and Theatre. Stockholms Musikpedagogiska Institut (SMI). Kungl. Musikhögskolan (KMH).
    Ekberg, Niclas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Spotify, ett sätt att vara – om musikaliskt blivande och dess förutsättningar2020In: Explorativ bildning i strömmande medier: Spotify som ett case / [ed] Cecilia Ferm Almqvist, Susanna Leijonhufvud, Niclas Ekberg, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2020, 1, p. 115-136Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Ferm Thorgersen, Cecilia
    et al.
    Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Musikhögskolan Ingesund, Karlstads Universitet, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Being – is it possible in a space offered by Music Education?: A philosophical investigation of how Music Education can embrace the space of Being presented as the Origin of the Work of Art2012In: Ontology, music, education: Symposium / [ed] Øivind Varkøy and Frederik Pio, Reykjavik: Reykjavik University , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This abstract presents a contribution to a symposium concerning the book Ontology, music, education edited by Øivind Varkøy and Frederik Pio.  More specifically, our contribution to the symposium focuses on Martin Heidegger claims that a Work of Art contains an intrinsic power to open the space of Being. If a Work of Art can be a musical Work of Art, then music posses the power to strike us and hence throw us into Being. The presentation will communicate an investigation of the philosophical thinking in Heidegger’s book The Origin of the Work of Art and what consequences that thinking could generate for music educational practice. More specifically the contribution to the theme of the symposium will be an examination of Heidegger’s thinking in relation to the new Swedish syllabus for the subject music. This theoretical study is animated by a living example of a young boy who is about to conquer music. Further, Art, as Heidegger describes it, is being focused and discussed in relation to how it can exist within music education. How is it possible to relate to Music as a Work of Art with the same distinctions as Heidegger presents for us, by looking upon Art as a Thing as well as a Tool but also as an as an opener to the space that constitutes the gap between Earth and World? To structure the philosophical investigation the presentation follows two main lines; one investigating Art as an opener to Being and the other focusing the equivalence between how the Artist makes the Work of Art in the same time as the Work of Art makes the Artist. According to Heidegger, this equivalence is the very Origin of Art. We argue, that the educator has an unquestionable role in this creational space of Origin seen as an educational practice. To be able to understand, draw parallels and exemplify Heidegger’s thinking, we choose to relate the investigation of those two main line issues to the Swedish national syllabus for the subject Music. The disposition of the presentation in the symposium starts with a narrative that describes how a musical Work of Art has changed history for a young boy. A section follows where Heidegger’s concepts The Origin of the Work of Art, and The space of Being between World and Earth are presented and explored. Heidegger’s thinking is then related to the new Swedish governing documents, an investigation aiming to explore how the syllabus embrace and perform Heidegger’s thinking in music educational practise. The presentation will be ended by a discussion about how music education can offer students a place in Being, and music educators’ roles as being parts of the creational Origin process of a Work of Art.                

  • 15.
    Ferm Thorgersen, Cecilia
    et al.
    Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och utbildningsstudier, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Institutionen för Utbildningsvetenskap med inriktning mot teknik (UTEP), Stockholms Universitet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ontology, Music, Education Heideggerian Inspirations: Panel contribution2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Ferm-Almqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music and dance.
    Ekberg, Niclas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music and dance.
    Allan, Jon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Burkhart, Patrick
    Evolving Bildung in the Nexus of Streaming Services, Art andUsers : Spotify as a Case 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The changed landscape of media, with digital distribution as a keyfactor, creates new conditions for people’s access to cultural expressions. This has mainly been studied through technical and financial perspectives, focusing on the record industry, file sharing, human–technology interaction, and click frequency. New questionsare necessary for an understanding of what functions streamed musicand art expressions can have in people’s lives, and how companies such as Spotify relate to these functions.The aim of the study is to explore Bildung in the nexus of streaming services, art and users, with Spotify as a case study. Research questions: How and to what extent do technical, legal, economic, and ethical factors control possibilities for meaningmaking in the interaction between streaming media such as Spotify, arts, and human beings? How does the quality of art/music distributed through streaming influence opportunites for Bildung? How do users make meaning in the specific contexts? To what extent is the user involved in her own Bildung via the algorithms making up the participation?

    To achieve this aim and address the research questions an interdisciplinary study is needed, which makes it possible to understand the complex phenomena of a streaming media platform in relation to Bildung. Technicians and researchers from the humanities and social sciences will approach the research problem and form a holistic understanding of streaming media in relation to human beings, art, and technology. Hence, combinations of methodological approaches are required. Big-data analysis will provide access to how varied demographics use Spotify. The Spotify users’ activities, experiences of streaming media interactions, and meaning-making will be accessed through qualitative netnographical observations, shadowing, and interviews. Sound quality analysis will clarify what aesthetic values are involved in the most appreciated listening experiences, which will be related to Bildung.

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    Abstractbok
  • 17.
    Gullberg, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music, media and Theatre.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music, media and Theatre.
    The Equalizer – Amplifying Artistic Resonance and Reducing Mental Dissonancein Artistic Processes2019In: The Science of Consciousness 2019: Conference booklet, Collegium Helveticum , 2019, p. 177-177Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding of cognitive strategies in supporting artistic expressions, reducing stress, performance anxiety and emotional blockings are of paramount importance to empower students’ and prepare for a sustainable work life as musicians. How can we aid musical artists to cope and master their emotional and mental dissonances in order to empower creative and artistic progressions in a sustainable way within higher music education?

    This pilot has several aims including investigating possibilities for higher education to interact with societal artistic communities as well as students’ DIY culture using available technology in order to analyse and co-create a professional development including artistic competence, holistic awareness and personal balance. The project will explore transformative technologies; HRV, Muse (EEG), Soma Mat & Breathing Light (heat and breath feedback), and the ARK-crystal, which differ regarding presented data (biofeedback) and function. Further, how these devices relate to research theory and methodology. We pose the critical question: Can these applications contribute to the identification, interpretation, and organization of the First Instrument, the students’ own aesthetic sensory information, embodied behaviours and cognitive strategies?

    This presentation will include methodological challenges discussed and interpreted in the transdisciplinary research group SANE – embracing researchers in art, quantum physics, medicine, sustainability learning, and biology.

  • 18.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    A phenomenological investigation of the phenomenon of singing2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper will present the results from my licentiate thesis where the phenomenon of Singing Experience from a first-person perspective is treated. The purpose of the thesis was to reveal the content that constitutes the phenomenon of singing from the singers’ point of view. Singing should be understood as a unique vocal expression carried by tones in a form that is sonorous, alive and fluid. The singing is a singing in a context with others who also experiences them selves as singing. The point of departure of the investigation is a natural attitude which develops into a philosophical attitude towards the experience where given experiences are examined upon their content and then bracketed in favour for further experiences of the phenomenon to be revealed. The study uses a phenomenological approach from a first-person perspective based on Edmund Husserl’s transcendent phenomenology. These methods provide cogitations to stretch the particular situated momentary experience into the sphere of the possible experience. In the thesis the result of the eidetic study is described with its general essence a “musical vocal confirmation of my existence in the world” as well as a description of the constitution of the phenomenon of singing.

     

    The presentation will initially briefly describe the entry to the study as well as the background and the method of gathering experiences and analysis of ditto. The main part of the presentation will focus on the results of the thesis i.e. a model of a constitution of the phenomenon of singing presented as a mind map where the relationship between essences is visualized. The main topic of the presentation will focus on three major findings. First of all the thoughts about the phenomenological body by Maurice Merleau-Ponty where the phenomenological body of the singer is an acoustic body spread out in time and space is presented. Second the findings of different aspects of experience and listening to one’s own voice is discussed. This finding suggests a possibility to tune in to an inner listening, an outer listening, an immanent listening or a combination of those three different listening modes. This particular result will explicit highlight Husserl’s thinking of pluralistic intentionality. Third, and final, the presentation will discuss the possibility for an extended version of the phenomenon of singing where transcendent dimension of experience emerges. These are dimensions stretched out into a trio of essences; love and humanity, music and thirdly, something divine. These essences, in existence, are experienced as subjects with have the power to act intersubjective with the singing subject of living body. The extension into the transcendent parts enriches and enlarges the phenomenon from a narrow into a widen phenomenon, which covers the possibility of different life-worlds within different singers.

     

  • 19.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music and dance.
    Affordances of Music Streaming based on Exploratory Media Archaeology: A presentation of the completed PhD-project Liquid Streaming focusing the affordance of musicking for the public via the Spotify streaming service with an emphasis on method2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In my dissertation, I have accounted for the affordances of musicking brought about by streamed music with the case example of Spotify. In order to perform a study orbiting the realm of music streaming, mainly digital sources have been used; Internet sources and software program of the streaming service. In the presentation, I will focus on issues concerning those two major roots. Within the latter I will present, problematize and conclude how; the Internet can be used as a field of sources, and on what terms the Internet can be regarded as an Archive. Also, what alternatives researchers can depend on when practising research within the realm of the Internet. The sources have, over time, been shown to change content, update, disappear, change resolution or package, which means that digital sources such as source material as well as methodology operating in such a field need to be problematized. First of all, I will account for how a phenomenon such as the Spotify streaming service is a multidimensional feature where appearance and featured functions depend on a number of things such as geographical market zone, subscription zone, the digital device used for access, and previous user-generated history. Researching a platform based software program like this brings particular issues for the researcher. I will present how these issues have been recognised and managed in my research. Secondly, I will address Internet as a base for research. The Internet provides a plethora of available sources, and as such Internet brings the affordance of accessing a tremendous amount of data opening up for possibilities that were not available prior to digitalisation. For instance, interviews and talks by interesting people might be available on-line whereas the same persons may be difficult or impossible to reach in ordinary life. Contemporary culture on the Internet, characterised by free culture and shared content further supply massive amount of data to be researched. Further, many services on the Internet provide access to local archives where content can be searched for, and a great number of sources can be screened regarding particular content. The popular phrase: “Once on the Internet, always on the Internet” has been found to be a truth with modification. I will present four different examples of issues concerning using the Internet as an archive and how such issues can be tackled within research concerning questions of reliability and trustworthiness. The first (i) example is how content many times are personalised, why an "objective" or public view can be impossible to gain. Further, it can be impossible to gain access to how personalisation is conducted. The second (ii) example is how sources, such as music, can be limited to certain geographical restrictions and thus only accessed from certain IP-addresses for the researcher. The third (iii) example is how sources may be removed and deleted. This is the case with some personal information as individuals have a right to be forgotten. Another example is how documents from the government offices are removed when there is a new government in office. The fourth (iv) example addresses the issue where a source might remain on the Internet but presented in a different digital format than the original content.

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  • 20.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music Education.
    An Origin of Swedish Folk Music: A Case Study of the National Project Skansen 1896-18992023In: Folk-Music Practices and Polyphonic Nationalisms in Europe, 25–29 Sep 2023 / [ed] Felix Morgenstern, Graz, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The national project of Skansen was established at the end of the 19th century. Here, the Swedish is being created during a national romantic era by bringing folk culture from all provinces of the kingdom – to be displayed and brought to life at the capital’s open-air museum. The current research project focuses on the constitution of the Swedish when it comes to folk music. Skansen has, as an institution, become significant for knowledge production and the understanding of Swedish culture in several ways. Our contemporary understanding of Swedish folk music also originates from this time and the very event – the establishment of Skansen. Therefore, it is interesting to investigate how, and in what way, music becomes manifested and displayed at Skansen. One way to investigate this is to focus on a single fiddler – Johan Edlund from the Roslagen parish of Harg in Uppland, Sweden. Edlund, engaged as a fiddler 1896-1899, is portraited his first week at Skansen by the folk music collector Karl Peter Leffler. This book has, since its publication, been one of the oldest sources that later studies depart from. This research project, at hand, critically examines the origin of this manifestation of the Swedish. When it comes to Leffler’s transcribed music from Harg, it becomes clear that the music is not merely directly retrieved from the province to the capital. The presentation will show how national folk music is by far of a national origin but rather a conglomerate of international influences.

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  • 21.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music Education. Stockholms Musikpedagogiska Institut.
    Den musiska människans utveckling2020 (ed. 1)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Experience of Singing – a musically vocal confirmation of my existence in the world: A phenomenological investigation from a first-person perspective2014In: / [ed] Jens Knigge & Anne Niessen, Neuwied-Engers, Germany, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experience of Singing - a musically vocal confirmation of my existence in the world

    A phenomenological investigation from a first-person perspective

    Susanna Leijonhufvud, Fil.Lic.PhD-student in Musicology at Örebro university,Sweden

    susanna.leijonhufvud@oru.se

    The phenomenon of singing, in music education, is primarily understood through the research of acoustics (Sundberg 1999). This research has formed the base for our understanding of the singing apparatus and hence how singing education should be postulated considering these results. During recent years we have also learned about the psychological and social aspects of singing and different types of health effects that can be added to our previous understanding of the phenomenon (Sloboda 2005, Theorell 2009). I claim that these disciplines have not yet fully described the holistic phenomenon of singing from the perspective of the singer. In this paper presentation I suggest an additional approach towards an understanding of singing – the philosophical phenomenological perspective (Ihde 2007).

    The results from my licentiate thesis where the phenomenon of Singing Experience (Erlebnis) is treated will be presented. The purpose of the thesis was to reveal the general essence and the essences that constitute the phenomenon of singing from the singers’ point of view. Singing should, in this context, be understood as a unique human vocal expression carried by tones in a form that is sonorous, alive and fluid (Smith 1979). The first-person perspective experiences the singing whilst singing with others. To reveal essences, content within the phenomenon, the study uses a transcendental phenomenological approach from a first-person perspective (Husserl 1995). The phenomenological methods provide cogitations to stretch the particular situated momentary experience into the sphere of the possible experience (Husserl 2004). In that way, the result point towards the possible and are not, in this sense limited to the situational and particular. In the thesis the result of this eidetic study is described with its general essence a “musical vocal confirmation of my existence in the world” as well as a theoretical model of the constitution of the phenomenon of singing (Leijonhufvud 2011).

    Initially the presentation will briefly describe the entry to the study as well as the background and the method of gathering experiences and analysis of ditto. The main part of the presentation will focus on the results of the thesis, a theory of singing, i.e. a model of a constitution of the phenomenon of singing. The model shows immanent and transcendent essences of singing as well as bodily and emotive essences. The theoretical model also shows the essence of cogito, humanity, time and space, music, love and the divine. At the end of the presentation of the result, I will briefly guide trough the phenomenological reduction that the phenomenon undergoes, through use of the theory, in order to suspend the belief in the existence of the phenomenon itself (Spiegelberg 1994). That means that even if the phenomenon in itself is non-existing, the experience of it must exist if it survives this appraisal of reduction. As we cannot investigate the phenomenon in itself, this epistemology provides a possibility to investigate the intentionality between the phenomenon and the cogito within the living body. Therefore, as Husserl claims, the existence of the intentionality is the closest we can get to the phenomenon itself (Husserl 2004).

    The results highlights the findings of the acoustic extension of the phenomenological body of the singer, the different aspects of listening to one's own voice as well as the tight connection the phenomenon of singing has with the very existence of what I experience as me. The result also reveals essences of transcendence. This last finding might be provoking in music educational settings. If the transcendent, hence transcendent knowledge is knowledge that lacks a priori knowledge, how then can a music educator play a part in the developing of such transcendent skills in singing? How shall we treat such aspects of singing whilst singing together or teach singing? The final discussion will invite further questions regarding the study of a musical phenomenon from a first-person and a third-person perspective. The target of such a problematization is how we, as music educators, can work with the other who only has access to her/his own experience of her/his singing voice, tone and timbre when we make music together? How is it at all possible to tune in into an inter-subjective experience of singing considering these issues?

    ReferencesHusserl, E. (2004). Idéer till en ren fenomenologi och fenomenologisk filosofi. Stockholm: Thales. Original title: Ideen zu einer reinen Phänomenologie und phänomenologischen Philosophie. Erste Buch, 1913. Translation: Jim Jakobsson.

    Husserl, E. (1995). Fenomenologins idé. Göteborg: Daidalos. Original title: Die Ideen der Phenomenologie, 1907. Published 1950. Translation: Jan Bengtsson.

    Ihde, D. (2007). Listening and Voice: Phenomenologies of Sound. State University of New York Press, 1976.

    Leijonhufvud, S. (2011). Sångupplevelse - en klingande bekrä¤ftelse på min existens i världen: en fenomenologisk undersökning ur första-person perspektiv. (Licentiate dissertation). Stockholm: KMH-förlaget. http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:446147/FULLTEXT01.pdf

    Theorell, T. (2009). Noter om musik och hälsa. Stockholm: Karolinska Institutet University Press.

    Sloboda, J. A. (2005). Exploring the musical mind: cognition, emotion, ability, function. Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press.

    Smith, J. F. (1979). The Experience of Musical Sound. Gordon and Breach Science Pub. Inc.

    Spiegelberg, H. (1994). The Phenomenological Movement. The Netherlands: The Kluwer Academic Publisher. (Part V: The Essentials of the Phenomenological Method, s. 677-719).

    Sundberg, J. (1999). Perception of singing. In: The Psychology of Music. Second Edition. Academic Press Series in Cognition and perception. California: San Diego (ed.) Diana Deutsch, p. 171-214.

  • 23.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art. Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Experience of singing: A musically vocal confirmation of my existence in the world. A phenomenological investigation from a first person perspective2012Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 24.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Fenomenologi: avtryck i tre musikpedagogiska avhandlingar2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 25.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art. Kungl Musikhögskolan i Stockholm, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Filosofiskt perspektiv på sångupplevelsen som fenomen2013In: Perspektiv på praktiknära musikpedagogisk forskning: utkomster av en forskarskola / [ed] Cecilia Ferm Thorgersen, Luleå: Luleå Tekniska Universitet , 2013, 1, p. 207-227Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music Education.
    Folkmusik till Skansen och Mazurkor till Harg: Folk music to Skansen and Mazurkas to Harg2023In: Nordic Network for Research in Music Education: Academic freedom and responsibility in music education and reserach, Örebro, 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Just before the turn of the last century, the young and promising Swedish music ethnologist Karl Peter Leffler published Om Nyckelharpospelet på Skansen. In the writing, two detailed portraits are drawn of the fiddlers Johan Edlund and Jonas Skoglund, both of whom had been summoned from Uppland to contribute with folk music to the capital’s national project in Stockholm. The booklet has worked as the basis for several studies about the nyckelharpa, and folk music in general. The institution Skansen, is emerging as part of the Nordiska Museet under Artur Hazelius’ care. Here, the Nordic and the Swedish are being established during this national romantic era by bringing folk culture from all areas of the kingdom – to be displayed and brought to life at the capital’s outdoor museum. The current research project focuses on the constitution of the Swedish when it comes to folk music. Skansen has become significant for our knowledge of and how we understand Swedish culture. What kind of music was to become a part of the Swedish? One way to investigate this is to focus on a single fiddler – which in my case is one of the two fiddlers that Leffler highlights – Johan Edlund from the Roslagen parish of Harg in Uppland. The project, which is ongoing, tries to map the musical cultural geography of the 19th century and the Roslagen’s parish of Harg with the help of genealogical research using records of parish catechetical meetings, old maps, old national surveys from Nordiska Museet, photos, newspapers, and private correspondences. What was the musical life like for those who lived at this place at this time? What occasions, venues and contexts were music present in people’s lives? Where did the music stem from? How did they learn how to play and where did the instruments come from? The emerging picture around this fiddler, his playing and learning, shows, among other things, that it is not only Roslagen that brings music to the capital – musical influences also travel in the opposite direction. The patrons of the iron mill, järnbruken, of Uppland, often live with their families in the capital during the winter months where they enjoy musical salons as well as the city’s opera performances. They return to the estates during the spring and summer months where parties and dinners with ballroom dances offer the local fiddlers to play. At these events, the fiddlers seem to expand their repertoire with the novelty of the mill pattern drawn from the city’s social life. A picture of a give-and-take emerges, not only between the upper-class milieu and the common people but also between the capital city and the rural perishes as well as music genres in between.

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  • 27.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Körledares erfarenheter av dysconsentriker: intervjuer med Eric Ericson, Karin Oldgren och Göran Staxäng2006Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 28.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music and dance.
    Liquid streaming  : an actor-network analysis of streamed music with the case of Spotify   2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently music streaming services are starting to dominate the music industry. Streaming out rule physical records as well as digital download, and by doing so music streaming has contributed to shift ownership of artefacts with access to ditto. This presentation aims to describe the affordances and surplus values that are connected to such an access service taking the Swedish founded company of Spotify as a case example. By employing Zygmunt Bauman’s concept of Liquid Modernity as a way to comprehend contemporary society in an encounter with Bruno Latour’s Actor-Network Theory (ANT) I will show how and in what ways accessed music streaming indeed are an networked actor of a liquid nature.

     

    The presentation will focus one main part of my forthcoming thesis Liquid Music Streaming, namely the actor – the Spotify streaming service. According to the ANT analysis, the feature of music streaming needs a number of networked actors in order to act as a music-streaming actor. Foremost music streaming needs an actor e.g. a company that can create a practice of musicking. The analysis of the Spotify Company and its service shows in summary how the company management structure is agile with autonomous working squads that constantly update the service based on user-generated data. Hence the Spotify music streaming are a runaway object, to use Yrjö Engeström’s terminology, a result of subject’s activity and impossible to master or overview from any single point of lookout. Secondly, music streaming needs the actor of distribution channels to reach its primary final cause – the end-user. Distribution of musical goods, e.g. musical files, are networked by Internet Service Providers (ISP) as well as providers of digital devices, the right holders of music and political jurisdictions. Besides these major actors the service is associated to yet other services and products, developers and public institutions, not to forget the end-user. These entities are not solid and static but constantly changing and reshaping. The conclusion will present the Spotify streaming service as an liquid actor that are inescapably intertwined and dependent on several other liquid actors in order to preform its liquid service of streaming.

     

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  • 29.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music and dance.
    Liquid Streaming: The Spotify Way To Music2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis accounts for the liquid affordances of musicking via streamed music from the perspective of the end-user. The study is particularly analysing the case of Spotify, which has gained an extraordinary prominent position within the Swedish market. The point of departure is that music streaming has emerged in a time where there seems to be an increased space and need for a musical presence in everyday human life. This circumstance is then related to the phenomenon that music has an exceptional position for human beings.Music may affect the human body, empower physical activity as well as regulate moods and feelings. Whatever the musical experience might be, it is affected by previous musical socialisation including formal as well as informal music learning situations. These experiences per se found the base of future musical awareness and advancement. Moreover, as musical involvement, to such a large extent currently are given via streaming, it is most crucial to understand what kind of affordances streaming brings to a lifelong learning and its more or less organized arenas, of music. To investigate music streaming from the user’s point of view, Norman’s concept of affordance has been applied to numerous public sources that in different ways houses the Spotify way to music. Here, the concept of affordance reveals the idea of the user as the user is inscribed in the design. The Spotify software program, materials from Spotify employees, newspaper articles, statistics and reports concerning music streaming have been analysed according to actor-network theory (ANT) situated in, what Bauman regards contemporary society as, an interregnum of liquid time. The thesis initially accounts for the constitution of music streaming as a feature, revealing an intrinsic network of a company with its core of employees, its agile management and playful culture, but also necessary networked actors such as Internet Service Providers, manufactures of digital devices, software algorithms and music formats to mention a few. Economic Maecenas and legislators also constitute the streaming service intertwined with the main players of users and music. This multifaceted picture shows that to comprehend a music streaming actor, its whole network needs to be accounted for as its constitutes the actor. Also, as condition changes, actor changes, why also music streaming, as a feature, changes. Consequently, any music educator at various levels within the society, e.g. public radio, artists, teachers, peers, the user herself, or even the Spotify company need to consider the liquid situation as it has become fundamental for musical experiences and learning through this kind of media. The affordances of musicking are further analysed on the level of the service’s interface, e.g. the visual display of the music service by addressing a multimodal analysis of the social semiotics used to network users to music. This cross-section also shows to be liquid as the service both continuously updates as well as being customised which means that one view is not alike the other. This protean state and the liquid affordances it brings with it needs to be related and responded to by music educators. Finally, the thesis covers the affordance of musicking on behalf of the one who streams. Based on the fact that music is available in a plethora, the central feature of streaming services is to aid and guide users to music. In this realm, intelligent algorithms have started to be employed as cicerone. Algorithmic cicerone based on usergenerated data blend humans and machines into a hybrid lifeform when musicking. User-generated data is currently being refined via an increased human embodiment by the Internet of Things starting to close up on the one who streams. Technological embodiment of the human is starting to increase to also embrace a sensuous embodiment of the musicking human. A detected human heartbeat can consequently co-constitute musical recommendation for the streamer, a recommendation that in turn can affect the heartbeat. This evolution calls for a turn toward a renewed coalition between music and human. Music streaming has the affordances to constitute an advent of something newborn - a musical cyborg.

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  • 30.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music Education.
    Lyssnande till musik i en ljudbubbla2023In: Ikaros, no 4, p. 18-27, article id LjudArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music Education. Stockholms Musikpedagogiska Institut.
    Mazurkor till Harg och folkmusik till Skansen2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Strax före förra sekelskiftet utkommer Karl Peter Leffler med en skrift om nyckelharpospelet på Skansen. I skriften tecknas två utförliga porträtt av spelmännen Johan Edlund och Jonas Skoglund, båda tillresta från Uppland enkom för denna uppgift. Institutionen Skansen, som växer fram under Artur Hazelius försorg, etablerar sig under denna nationalromantiska era genom att samla folklig kultur från riket och visa upp det svenska. Föreliggande forskningsprojekt fokuserar på en av dessa två spelmän, Johan Edlund, nybyggare på torpet Sundhagen vid Stockby i Hargs socken, Uppland. Projektet, som är pågående, försöker kartlägga Johans liv och leverne och vad som ligger bakom att han finns på Skansen 1896 och då beskrivs som en framstående spelman, en representant för den genuina folkkulturen. Vilka andra uppländska spelmän fanns att spela med och lära av i gårdarna och byarna kring Sundhagen? Hur ter sig musiklivet för de som bor på denna plats vid denna tid? Vilka tillfällen, spelplatser och sammanhang fanns att spela på och med vilka? Den bild som börjar växa fram kring denna spelman visar bland annat att det inte bara är Uppland som levererar musik till Stockholm – musikaliska influenser reser även i motsatt riktning. Brukspatronerna vid Hargs bruk vistas, med familj, i huvudstaden under vinterhalvåret där de njuter av musikaliska salonger såväl som stadens operaföreställningar. De återvänder till bruket under vår- och sommarmånaderna där fester och middagar med sällskapsdanser erbjuder traktens spelmän att spela. Vid dessa begivenheter verkar spelmännen utvidga sin repertoar med brukspatronens nyheter hämtade från stadens societetsliv. Fram växer en bild av ett givande och tagande, inte bara mellan stad och land utan även musikgenres emellan.

  • 32.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music Education. susanna.leijonhufvud@smi.se.
    Mazurkor till Harg och folkmusik till Skansen2023Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 33.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Musical cyborg – the human–non-human offspring within music streaming2016In: Musikliv i snabb förändring – hur förändras forskningen?, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The musical cyborg is the hybrid life form between the musicking human and smart algorithms that inhabits streaming services of music. The neologism derives from Donna Haraway’s cyborg but instead of accounting for technological elements built into the human body the musical cyborg is a hybrid between software code in the shape of algorithms and the human autonomic nervous system which regulates emotions, moods, heartbeats, breathing, and body temperature.

    Music streaming services offers a plethora of available music. The amount of musical content is no longer at stake; rather it is the selection of that content aligned with a constant need to find “new” music within the plethora. Therefore, by necessity music needs to be tailored for us in one way or the other. Music streaming companies such as Spotify has since its launch into the Internet focused on these particular issues making social suggestions from peers, the ability “to follow” peers within the Spotify community, recommended playlists etc. as different entrances toward selection and suggestions of music. As a Spotify user it is possible to select or ignore recommendations with a simple screen touch. So far the user have been active on a rather high cognitive level in making decisions like this. However this is about to change.

    Quite recently Spotify launched its ‘running app’ an application on the smart phone that can detect the tempo of running and use that input to tweak the tempo of a certain piece of music, which in turn is used by the runner to enforce the running. The whole arrangement shows a looped activity where it is rather difficult to identify and isolate a prompt to the course of events. We know from earlier research within musicology and adjacent research areas that humans uses music for all sorts of purposes for diverse activities like leisure, focus or even therapy. If we add to that the emerging development of Internet of Things (IoT) which conveniently emerges in our everyday life and embraces us like the tempo detectors in our smart phones, the pulse meters on our wrists, smart fabrics detecting body temperature, smart car seats reading pressure points of our backs, screens reading our facial expressions and so on, we are facing a new dawn where the physical input to the digital systems are almost automatic even though the input stems from the human herself.

    Whilst studying Spotify as a case example of a music streaming service and combining this with a screening of the inventions of ICT I have come to this conclusion that music can serve as a role model for how the cyborg can bring us closer to humanity than ever before. The modern negotiation represented by Marx, Adorno, and Benjamin where man shall differ himself from he machine. The mission of the humanities, which where music belongs to, have been to offer an alternative to a technological reproduction, affording emancipation and refinement for the human being. I suggest a different reading of contemporary technology in the realm of digitalisation. The originating digital cyborg can actually offer a deepened understanding of what it means to be human and discover our human potential, not in contrast to the machine but on the contrary on behalf of being cyborg in an intertwined relationship between humans and non-humans (i.e. the machine). The musical cyborg is not the end of the modern project where humans cease into the belonging to the machine, instead the cyborg constitute a new beginning post the modern. As it need the human input in order to operate and act. This is an act of Action – the beginning of something new – a musical advent – to quote Hannah Arendt’s biblical words “for unto us a child is born” – I suggest that that child is to be a Musical Cyborg.    

     

     

     

  • 34.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music and dance.
    Researching Music Streaming by Using Liquid Sources2019In: Musikforskning idag 2019: Program och abstrakt, Svenska samfundet för musikforskning , 2019, p. 30-30Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Music streaming has colonised the market of recorded music. Recordings of music are transformed from traditional physical artefacts into numerous digital formats, which consequently implies different affordances of how the sound of the music may be mediated. Such digital formats keep evolving which means that how a particular recording sound is a rather undefinable matter over time. Also, cloud storage is replacing traditional archives of recorded music. This entails that sources can be swapped with new versions or taken out of the collections leaving little or no traces behind that it was there before. This digital milieu does, by these features, offer new challenges for research. This paper will present experiences and insights from the method used in my dissertation Liquid Streaming – the Spotify Way To Music where the affordances of musicking brought about by streamed music with the case example of Spotify was explored. For this purpose, digital sources like the Spotify program and sources found on the Internet were used as empirical grounds. The presentation will focus on issues concerning those two major roots by problematizing and conclude how it is possible to use agile software, like the Spotify streaming service program, as well as the Internet as sources of research. One major conclusion from this work is that liquid sources need to be saved as copies and followed longitudinally. My research also showed that sources changed content over time, updated, disappeared, change its resolution e.g. quality. In retrospect, it is clear how digital sources such as programs and sources on the Internet need to be problematized as sources for research in order to bring about trustworthiness to the research.

  • 35.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Stockholms Musikpedagogiska Institution.
    Sammusicerande på distans med Avancerad medieteknik2019In: Vad är livemusik idag och vart är den på väg?  : Perspektiv från forskning och musikbransch. , 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hösten 2019 har ett projekt startat upp där Stockholms Musikpedagogiska Institut (SMI) har anslutit sig till arbetet med avancerad medieteknik, genom sammanslutningen NCDP, som verktyg vid sammusicerande över långa distanser. Susanna kommer att presentera deltagande aktörer i detta projekt; upphovsmännen Mats Erixon och Mårten Frojdo och NCDPs etablering i norden. Därefter presenteras även initiativtagaren Ian Plaude, rektor på SMI, som har knutit tekniken till SMI som första musikpedagogiska institution. Tanken med projektet är att lärare och elever vid SMI skall vara med och utveckla teknikens musikpedagogiska utmaningar för ett sammusicerande där tekniken smälter in och försvinner i det musikaliska sammanhanget. Tanken är här att Sveriges kommuner skulle kunna investera i tekniken för att på så sätt kunna erbjuda elever en musikutbildning även på geografiska orter där lärarkompetens saknas. De frågeställningar som fokuseras ur ett musikpedagogiskt perspektiv är:

    -      Vilka är de tekniska utmaningarna för att tekniken ska smälta in i ett musikaliskt sammusicerande?

    -      Vilka ekonomiska och praktiska möjligheter och begränsningar finns för att tekniken ska kunna verka för ett ökat musicerande även för individer utanför de större städerna?

  • 36.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music Education. Luleå Tekniska universitet.
    Spotify som ”public service”2020In: Explorativ bildning i strömmande medier: Spotify som ett case / [ed] Cecilia Ferm Almqvist, Susanna Leijonhufvud & Niclas Ekberg, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2020, 1, p. 57-78Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Symbolic Mobility: movements of identities through music in a digitalized context2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will present an outline of how an empirical investigation of the concept of symbolic mobility with a focus on the two phenomena music and identity. ‘Mobility’ is the core concept of the contemporary paradigm “The Mobile Turn” where transportation of people, goods and ideas are researched. However, since the establishment of the Internet, mobility is no longer purely a question of the real world. A social community is for instance no longer limited to a physical place, it is also augmented into a virtual space where individuals can be born, connect, travel and interact. Within this virtual world the phenomenon of music is a widespread inhabitant. Music is there to be experienced but music is also being used instrumental by individuals in a symbolic way. Music can be manifested in the form of a musical playlist, a collection of sonic samples that fits certain occasions or it may express identity. This latter feature seems to be of great importance. One example of this significance is how the final candidates of the American presidency in 2012 present themselves partly to the voters through musical playlists. Their identity is then represented as a musical identity. The playlists may not only manifest representations of identity, it may also play a part in communication as they are shared in digital communities. Playlists, cultural tracks, are in this study regarded as text, can be considered as symbols where the phenomenon of music and identity is intertwined with each other. The presentation will, after a brief introduction to the field of mobility, suggest a way to empirical investigate what significance or what meaning music play when symbolic identities are constructed.

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    Symbolic mobility
  • 38.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sångupplevelse - en klingade bekräftelse på min existens i världen: en fenomenologisk undersökning ur första-person-perspektiv2011Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis treats the phenomenon of Singing Experience. Its purpose is to reveal the content that constitutes the phenomenon of singing from the singers’ point of view. Singing should be understood as a unique vocal expression carried by tones in a form that is sonorous, alive and fluid. The singing is in the context of singing with others. In order to perform a study that aims to reveal content within a phenomenon, the study uses a phenomenological approach from a first-person perspective, which is also my own perspective as the singer as well as the researcher. The interest in the field has arisen from the experience of singing with people who do not seem to notice that they sing out of tune. This has led to the thoughts that the phenomenon of singing includes different contents for different people in different situations. The phenomenological methods provide cogitations to stretch the particular situated momentary experience into the sphere of the possible experience. In the thesis the result of this eidetic study is described with its general essence a “musical vocal confirmation of my existence in the world” as well as a description of the constitution of the phenomenon of singing. The description of the phenomenon is a description of the essences of the lived-body, as well as the immanence of emotion and cogito. The description also includes the surrounding world, which harbours the dimension of the real as well as inter-subjective transcendence concerning time and space, humanity, music and the divine. All of the essences have shown to be essential essences of the experience of singing. This, however, is dependent on how the phenomenon of existence is regarded: to exist in a wide or a narrow sense, including or excluding the transcendent aspects of the phenomenon of singing.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 39.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    The Musical Cyborg: An Offspring between Music Consumers and Smart Algorithms2015In: Nordic Musicological Congress, August 11-14 2015 in Aalborg. / [ed] Mark Grimshaw and Peder Kaj Pedersen, Aalborg, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently we have the opportunity to get involved in digital distribution of music. This digital consumption of music implies numerous implications for the consumer i.e. the music listener as well as the music producers. This presentation will highlight one of the major findings of my PhD-project that aims to cover these issues using the industry darling Spotify as a lens, the advent of a musical cyborg.

             Spotify offers streamed music, which briefly means that the music can be accessed rather than owned. In digital setting attached to this access model the consumer is no longer a passive receptor of a product. Instead the consumers are an inevitably part of the musical assortment range and even participate in the development of the Spotify product. The consumer could even be regarded as a co-creator of the musical piece given the opportunities that digital contexts offer.

             The product of Spotify is regarded as a market place, a polis. This market place is explored due to its actors, where, when and how it can be accessed, what type of goods are offered at the market place; musical pieces, systematic archive system, play lists, personal suggestions of new music, social dimensions of shared musical experiences and so on. The flow and exchange of currency is also investigated, as identity of the user becomes a currency for free usage of musical services. The polis, is also investigated in regard to an agora where social and negotiating aspects of a musical product takes place e.g. the sharing and recommending of music. These actions by the digital music consumer suggests the advent of a musical cyborg, a human digital life form manifested in the usage of smart algorithms used for intelligent recommendation of music is based on data that the user puts into the digital system. Hence, digital music consumption is undoubtedly pushing musical humans towards musical cyborgs as digital presence in physical life is twisted towards physical presence in digital life. 

  • 40.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Kungl. Musikhögskolan, Stockholm,Sweden.
    When the first-person perspective is my perspective: An introspective study of the experience of singing2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first-person perspective is most central within phenomenology (Husserl 1913/2004). Dan Zahavi highlights the importance and hence the significance of this perspective by introducing it at the very beginning of his presentation of phenomenology as such (Zahavi 2007). When Husserl, the originator of modern phenomenology, uses this first-person perspective throughout his phenomenological investigations it is his perspective (Husserl 1900/2000). Even though the usage of ones own perspective as the first-person perspective is so common within the writings of phenomenological philosophers (who also claims that they are constructing rigorous science) it is still not commonly used as a perspective in our field of research within music education.  

    In the PhD thesis by Torill Vist, ‘musical experiences’ was studied from a first-person perspective (Vist 2009). Prior to the thesis she used herself in a called self-interview. Her own experiences from being the first-person formed the base for her interviews with her informants as first-persons. In Self interview – Relevance in Research? Vist presents many interesting experiences from being this first-person (Vist 2006). In her thesis she declares how the insights from that prior study affected the PhD-study in a most profound way (Vist 2009).

    In this paper presentation I will present benefits and challenges of using my perspective as the first-person perspective within my PhD-study of ‘the experience of singing with others from the singer’s point of view’. The presentation will not focus on the questions of why I choose to put my self as the first-person, but rather how I have done this and my experiences connected to that. Nor is it a presentation of how to transform subjectivity into objectivity or, to use a phenomenological vocabulary, a transcendent knowledge valid for others. My presentation will focus upon the experience, difficulties and advantages, of being the first-person in ones own research, which opens up for questions regarding relevance and trustworthiness within research in music education.

     

  • 41.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    Kungl. Musikhögskolan, stockholm, Sverige.
    Är du tondöv om du inte kan sjunga rent?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 42.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music, media and Theatre.
    Allan, Jon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Affordances of Musical Sound: Listening to the Spotify Streaming Service2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of musical Bildung, a study was performed to assess how different aspects of education and experience may influence the affordance from music listening in a typical streaming service such as Spotify. This was done by investigating whether subjects’ backgrounds affect preferences and/or choice of wording in motivations when comparing versions of different tunes. The versions that were compared were selected for typical differences that may occur in a streaming context full of choices, e.g. different masters or user settings. Five different tunes were compared in a classic A/B test. A survey, related to the A/B test, captured three aspects of perceived differences: preference, musical affection and audio quality. Questions were also added to capture a range of background factors that were assumed to affect these aspects, e.g. listening habits, earlier musical education and/or socialisation. Earlier research has shown that similar tests were performed with people of convenience, e.g. sound or computer engineers, predominantly males 25–45 years of age. They have thus not accounted for the results from psychoacoustic studies which have stated that preferences may differ on behalf of demographic factors such as gender and age. In the study at hand, the common selection of participants was challenged by performing a strategic selection of participants. This included professional musicians, students within music education, professional sound engineers, students in sound engineering and people without any explicit education within the expertise areas accounted for above. The number of participants was N=60 of mixed gender and of varying ages from 13 years and up. The presentation will show several statistically significant results. 

  • 43.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music and dance.
    Allan, Jon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    The Sound of Streamed Music2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    …the majority of consumers seem to be unaware of this, or of the audio quality

    they’re missing out on! They spend endless hours experiencing audio at sub-

    128kbps bit rates, at the mercy of whoever uploaded the material, without

    knowing what it should sound like, without realising how bad it sounds, and

    unaware of the artefacts they’re hearing that shouldn’t be there.

    The quote stems from a journalist writing in the music recording magazine of Sound on Sounds

    and highlights issues concerning on-line music and the affordance such music brings for the

    listeners. Currently, music may be accessed via real-time streaming, accessed in complex

    conglomerates side by side with other types of content via computers, mobile phones, tablets,

    televisions, car stereos and soon to be accessed via new technology housed by the Internet of

    Things (IoT). Up until now, the technology of streaming has focused on access, robustness,

    interoperability between devices and extensive additional service augmenting the realm of

    musicking. Issues of the musical sound qualities and how aspects of sound quality interplay with

    the affordance of listening have more or less been neglected in favour of accessibility. From what

    we have learned from scholars accounting for digital formats and bit reduction as well as

    compression of dynamics in sound, there are some aspects concerning this field that is missing

    and as it seems neglected for the masses of music consumption.

    The development of smart technology orbiting music has just recently returned to issues of high

    fidelity and home stereo equipment. This development could be interpreted as a renaissance for

    the affordance of music listening. However, the quality of sound, which embeds the music, is

    not solely depending on the recording, the mix or the mastering engineers. It also depends on

    the adaptation of sound streams for the final playback device. In addition to these traditional

    delimiting nodes of sound quality, streamed music is constituted by numerous things and aspects

    such as broadband access, broadband capability, the robustness of the broadband system, the

    digital format and the velocity of transmission.

    This presentation, which is a part of a larger research project focusing the streaming company of

    Spotify as an actor of musical Bildung, will outline a suggestion for a designed method where

    different categories of participators will be selected to research the affordance of sound qualities

    of streamed music. Affordance of listening should be understood as the nexus between sound

    engineering and music cognition bridged by music education. The research should focus

    traditional aspects of perception and cognition but also socialisation that constitutes taste and

    preferences, and finally educational aspects as conceptualisation, learning and awareness. Four

    main themes are emphasised in this presentation; (i) developing methods to describe and measure

    sensation quantities when it comes to describing sound quality and the affordance of perceptual

    coding, (ii) selecting various types of listeners regarding age, gender, music educational

    background when studying stimulus quantities of streamed music, (iii) using the listeners preferred

    music to complement music from a control sample of tunes, and (iv) attributes used to

    communicate quality of sound and music within various communities.

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    fulltext
  • 44.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    et al.
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music Education.
    Backmna Bister, Anna
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music Education.
    Persson, Mikael
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music Education.
    Falthin, Annika
    Royal College of Music in Stockholm, Department of Music Education.
    Vad är praktiknära forskning?2021In: A Prima Vista: Möjligheter och utmaningar med praktiknära forskningsprojekt i musikpedagogik / [ed] Anna Backmna Bister & Mikael Persson, Stockholm: Kungl. Musikhögskolan , 2021, 1, p. 17-30Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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    fulltext
  • 45.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    et al.
    Örebro Universitet, Musikhögskolan.
    Ferm, Cecilia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music and dance.
    Music as Art – Art as Being – Being as Music: A philosophical investigation of how Music Education can embrace the Work of Art based on Heidegger’s thinking2015In: Philosophy of Music Education Challenged: Heideggerian Inspirations: Music, Education and Personal Development / [ed] Frederik Pio, Øivind Varkøy, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2015, p. 113-128Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Martin Heidegger claims that a Work of Art contains an intrinsic power to open the space of Being. If a Work of Art can be a musical Work of Art, then music possesses the power to strike us and hence throw us into Being. The chapter communicates an investigation of the philosophical thinking in Heidegger’s book The Origin of the Work of Art and what consequences that thinking could generate for music educational practice. The chapter presents an examination of Heidegger’s thinking in relation to the new Swedish syllabus for the subject music. To structure the philosophical investigation two lines were drawn; one investigating Art as an opener to Being and the other line investigating the inescapable nexus of how the Artist makes the Work of Art simultaneously as the Work of Art makes the Artist. The results show that there is an overrepresentation of phenomena connected to what Heidegger refers to as Earth and an underrepresentation of what he refers to as World. According to Heidegger, the phenomenon of art will not reveal itself unless both Earth and World are present, connected to each other through strife; a state of tension where Being comes forth. Being, in the Heideggerian sense, has the power to change history and hence constitute history on both a collective and an individual level. Although not explicitly stated in the music syllabus, our results suggest that there are possibilities for art as Being to be expressed in the subject of music.

  • 46.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Ferm Thorgersen, Cecilia
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Luleå, Sweden.
    Music as Art – Art as Being – Being as Music: A Philosophical Investigation into How Music Education Can Embrace a Work of Art Based on Heidegger’s Thinking2015In: Philosophy of music education challenged: Heideggerian Inspirations. Music, education and personal development / [ed] Frederik Pio & Øivind Varkøy, New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2015, p. 113-128Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Martin Heidegger claims that a Work of Art contains an intrinsic power to open the space of Being. If a Work of Art can be a musical Work of Art, then music possesses the power to strike us and hence throw us into Being. The chapter communicates an investigation of the philosophical thinking in Heidegger’s book The Origin of the Work of Art and what consequences that thinking could generate for music educational practice. The chapter presents an examination of Heidegger’s thinking in relation to the new Swedish syllabus for the subject music. To structure the philosophical investigation two lines were drawn; one investigating Art as an opener to Being and the other line investigating the inescapable nexus of how the Artist makes the Work of Art simultaneously as the Work of Art makes the Artist. The results show that there is an overrepresentation of phenomena connected to what Heidegger refers to as Earth and an underrepresentation of what he refers to as World. According to Heidegger, the phenomenon of art will not reveal itself unless both Earth and World are present, connected to each other throughstrife; a state of tension where Being comes forth. Being, in the Heideggerian sense, has the power to change history and hence constitute history on both a collective and an individual level. Although not explicitly stated in the music syllabus, our results suggest that there are possibilities for art as Being to be expressed in the subject of music.

  • 47.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    et al.
    Kungliga Musikhögskolan, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ferm Thorgersen, Cecilia
    Institutionen Musikhögskolan Ingesund, Karlstads universitet, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Music as Art – Art as Being – Being as Music: A philosophical investigation of how Music Education can embrace the Work of Art based on Heidegger’s thinking2011In: RIME: The 7th International Conference for Research in Music Education, Graduate School of Education, University of Exeter, April 12-16th, 2011 / [ed] Sarah Hennesy, Exeter: School of LIfelong Learning , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presentation will communicate an investigation of the philosophical thinking in Heidegger’s book The Origin of the Work of Art and what consequences that thinking generates for music educational practice. As Heidegger tries to capture truth within the concept of Art he passes through his thinking of the essences of Art as well as his constant thinking about Being. To be able to understand, draw parallels and exemplify Heidegger’s thinking, we choose to relate the investigation of those issues to the Swedish national syllabuses for the subject Music. For educators within an artistic domain, the reasoning is highly interesting to investigate further. The paper will focus and discuss Art, the way Heidegger describes it, as it can exist within music and further music education. Heidegger’s examples of art in painting, architecture, poetry, and musical composition is extended with examples within music educational practise. How can we relate to Music as Art with the same distinctions as Heidegger presents to us, by looking upon Art as a Thing as well as a Tool but also as an as an opener to the World (Welt) and in that sense, Art as the Making of History.The paper will present a way of understanding The Origin of the Work of Art and its connections to music educational practice. This will lead us to the question of how educators can or should be aware of the origin of the artist, the origin of the work of art and most crucial the origin of art itself when teaching. Heidegger’s thinking also provides an interesting line of reasoning about the relations between artist, listener and the work of art. A crucial battery of questions, that evokes from Heidegger’s thinking, is how school and educators can position themselves as being an unquestionable part of the origin of the Artist as well as the origin of the Work of Art within Music Education.

  • 48.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Ferm Thorgersen, Cecilia
    Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Luleå, Sweden.
    The Music Teacher in the Nexus of Art Origin2015In: / [ed] Werner Jank & Cecilia Ferm Thorgersen, Frankfurt, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Music, Theatre and Art.
    Ferm Thorgersen, Cecilia
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Luleå, Sweden.
    Zandén, Olle
    Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Music and Art, Linnéniversitetet, Växjö, Sweden.
    Rolle, Christian
    Hochschule für Musik Saar (HFM), University of Music, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Lehmann-Wermser, Andreas
    Institut für Musikwissenschaft und Musikpädagogik, Universität Bremen, Bremen, Germany.
    Leistungsbewertung im kompetenzorientierten Musikunterricht Videobasierte Unterstützungssysteme zur Bewertung musikpraktischer Leistungen: Anregungen aus Schweden2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Leijonhufvud, Susanna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music and dance.
    Gullberg, Anna-Karin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music and dance.
    Researching Transformative Technology and its Affordance for Students within Higher Music Education2019In: Musikforskning idag 2019: Program och abstrakt, Svenska samfundet för musikforskning , 2019, p. 31-31Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the autumn 2018 a research project concerning Transformative Technology (TT) for the increase of wellbeing and the reduction of mental dissonance has been launched at the School of Music in Piteå. Seed money has enabled a pilot project where students within higher music education can use different types of TT. This poster will show the different types of TT used in the pilot project and some preliminary result from the user experiences. The technology in use are (i) the Heart Rate Variability (HRV) sensors and Heart Math application, (ii) the Muse headband and meditation app, (iii) the Soma Mat and Breathing Light developed at SICS and KTH, as well as the (iv) ARK-crystal developed at the Torus Tech lab. The purpose of the pilot study is to investigate how students respond to different kinds of sensors and actuators used in this TT and most importantly how the students find the technology transformable in regard to amplifying their well-being, empowering and refining their aesthetic resonance and diminishing stress and anxiety blocking them in their musical performance and development.

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    fulltext
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