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  • 1.
    Mollén, Christopher
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Choi, Junil
    POSTECH, South Korea.
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Heath, Robert W.
    University of Texas at Austin, USA.
    Achievable Uplink Rates for Massive MIMO with Coarse Quantization2017In: 2017 IEEE InternationalConference on Acoustics, Speech,and Signal Processing Proceedings, 2017, p. 6488-6492Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high hardware complexity of a massive MIMO base station, which requires hundreds of radio chains, makes it challenging to build commercially.  One way to reduce the hardware complexity and power consumption of the receiver is to lower the resolution of the analog-to-digital converters (ADCs).  We derive an achievable rate for a massive MIMO system with arbitrary quantization and use this rate to show that ADCs with as low as 3 bits can be used without significant performance loss at spectral efficiencies around 3.5 bpcu per user, also under interference from stronger transmitters and with some imperfections in the automatic gain control.

  • 2.
    Mollén, Christopher
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Choi, Junil
    Department of Electrical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, South Korea.
    Larsson, Erik G.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Heath, Robert W.
    Wireless Networking and Communications Group, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA.
    Uplink Performance of Wideband Massive MIMO With One-Bit ADCs2017In: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 87-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) stand for a significant part of the total power consumption in a massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) base station. One-bit ADCs are one way to reduce power consumption. This paper presents an analysis of the spectral efficiency of single-carrier and orthogonal-frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM) transmission in massive MIMO systems that use one-bit ADCs. A closed-form achievable rate, i.e., a lower bound on capacity, is derived for a wideband system with a large number of channel taps that employ low-complexity linear channel estimation and symbol detection. Quantization results in two types of error in the symbol detection. The circularly symmetric error becomes Gaussian in massive MIMO and vanishes as the number of antennas grows. The amplitude distortion, which severely degrades the performance of OFDM, is caused by variations between symbol durations in received interference energy. As the number of channel taps grows, the amplitude distortion vanishes and OFDM has the same performance as single-carrier transmission. A main conclusion of this paper is that wideband massive MIMO systems work well with one-bit ADCs.

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