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  • 1. Afshin, Ashkan
    et al.
    Sur, Patrick John
    Fay, Kairsten A.
    Cornaby, Leslie
    Ferrara, Giannina
    Salama, Joseph S.
    Mullany, Erin C.
    Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Abebe, Zegeye
    Afarideh, Mohsen
    Aggarwal, Anju
    Agrawal, Sutapa
    Akinyemiju, Tomi
    Alahdab, Fares
    Bacha, Umar
    Bachman, Victoria F.
    Badali, Hamid
    Badawi, Alaa
    Bensenor, Isabela M.
    Bernabe, Eduardo
    Biryukov, Stan H.
    Biadgilign, Sibhatu Kassa K.
    Cahill, Leah E.
    Carrero, Juan J.
    Cercy, Kelly M.
    Dandona, Lalit
    Dandona, Rakhi
    Dang, Anh Kim
    Degefa, Meaza Girma
    Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed
    Esteghamati, Alireza
    Esteghamati, Sadaf
    Fanzo, Jessica
    Farinha, Carla Sofia E. Sa
    Farvid, Maryam S.
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Feigin, Valery L.
    Fernandes, Joao C.
    Flor, Luisa Sorio
    Foigt, Nataliya A.
    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.
    Ganji, Morsaleh
    Geleijnse, Johanna M.
    Gillum, Richard F.
    Goulart, Alessandra C.
    Grosso, Giuseppe
    Guessous, Idris
    Hamidi, Samer
    Hankey, Graeme J.
    Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai
    Hassen, Hamid Yimam
    Hay, Simon I.
    Hoang, Chi Linh
    Horino, Masako
    Islami, Farhad
    Jackson, Maria D.
    James, Spencer L.
    Johansson, Lars
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Khader, Yousef Saleh
    Khalil, Ibrahim A.
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Kimokoti, Ruth W.
    Kokubo, Yoshihiro
    Kumar, G. Anil
    Lallukka, Tea
    Lopez, Alan D.
    Lorkowski, Stefan
    Lotufo, Paulo A.
    Lozano, Rafael
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Marz, Winfried
    Meier, Toni
    Melaku, Yohannes A.
    Mendoza, Walter
    Mensink, Gert B. M.
    Micha, Renata
    Miller, Ted R.
    Mirarefin, Mojde
    Mohan, Viswanathan
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    Mozaffarian, Dariush
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Nguyen, Cuong Tat
    Nixon, Molly R.
    Ong, Kanyin L.
    Pereira, David M.
    Poustchi, Hossein
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Rai, Rajesh Kumar
    Razo-Garcia, Christian
    Rehm, Colin D.
    Rivera, Juan A.
    Rodriguez-Ramirez, Sonia
    Roshandel, Gholamreza
    Roth, Gregory A.
    Sanabria, Juan
    Sanchez-Pimienta, Tania G.
    Sartorius, Benn
    Schmidhuber, Josef
    Schutte, Aletta Elisabeth
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Shin, Min-Jeong
    Sorensen, Reed J. D.
    Springmann, Marco
    Szponar, Lucjan
    Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.
    Thrift, Amanda G.
    Touvier, Mathilde
    Tran, Bach Xuan
    Tyrovolas, Stefanos
    Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna
    Ullah, Irfan
    Uthman, Olalekan A.
    Vaezghasemi, Masoud
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Vasankari, Tommi Juhani
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Vos, Theo
    Vu, Giang Thu
    Vu, Linh Gia
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Werdecker, Andrea
    Wijeratne, Tissa
    Willett, Walter C.
    Wu, Jason H.
    Xu, Gelin
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Yu, Chuanhua
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20172019In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 393, no 10184, p. 1958-1972Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Suboptimal diet is an important preventable risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs); however, its impact on the burden of NCDs has not been systematically evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate the consumption of major foods and nutrients across 195 countries and to quantify the impact of their suboptimal intake on NCD mortality and morbidity.

    Methods: By use of a comparative risk assessment approach, we estimated the proportion of disease-specific burden attributable to each dietary risk factor (also referred to as population attributable fraction) among adults aged 25 years or older. The main inputs to this analysis included the intake of each dietary factor, the effect size of the dietary factor on disease endpoint, and the level of intake associated with the lowest risk of mortality. Then, by use of diseasespecific population attributable fractions, mortality, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), we calculated the number of deaths and DALYs attributable to diet for each disease outcome.

    Findings: In 2017, 11 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 10-12) deaths and 255 million (234-274) DALYs were attributable to dietary risk factors. High intake of sodium (3 million [1-5] deaths and 70 million [34-118] DALYs), low intake of whole grains (3 million [2-4] deaths and 82 million [59-109] DALYs), and low intake of fruits (2 million [1-4] deaths and 65 million [41-92] DALYs) were the leading dietary risk factors for deaths and DALYs globally and in many countries. Dietary data were from mixed sources and were not available for all countries, increasing the statistical uncertainty of our estimates.

    Interpretation: This study provides a comprehensive picture of the potential impact of suboptimal diet on NCD mortality and morbidity, highlighting the need for improving diet across nations. Our findings will inform implementation of evidence-based dietary interventions and provide a platform for evaluation of their impact on human health annually.

  • 2. Feigin, Valery L.
    et al.
    Nichols, Emma
    Alam, Tahiya
    Bannick, Marlena S.
    Beghi, Ettore
    Blake, Natacha
    Culpepper, William J.
    Dorsey, E. Ray
    Elbaz, Alexis
    Ellenbogen, Richard G.
    Fisher, James L.
    Fitzmaurice, Christina
    Giussani, Giorgia
    Glennie, Linda
    James, Spencer L.
    Johnson, Catherine Owens
    Kassebaum, Nicholas J.
    Logroscino, Giancarlo
    Marin, Benoit
    Mountjoy-Venning, W. Cliff
    Nguyen, Minh
    Ofori-Asenso, Richard
    Patel, Anoop P.
    Piccininni, Marco
    Roth, Gregory A.
    Steiner, Timothy J.
    Stovner, Lars Jacob
    Szoeke, Cassandra E. I.
    Theadom, Alice
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Wallin, Mitchell Taylor
    Wright, Claire
    Zunt, Joseph Raymond
    Abbasi, Nooshin
    Abd-Allah, Foad
    Abdelalim, Ahmed
    Abdollahpour, Ibrahim
    Aboyans, Victor
    Abraha, Haftom Niguse
    Acharya, Dilaram
    Adamu, Abdu A.
    Adebayo, Oladimeji M.
    Adeoye, Abiodun Moshood
    Adsuar, Jose C.
    Afarideh, Mohsen
    Agrawal, Sutapa
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Ahmed, Muktar Beshir
    Aichour, Amani Nidhal
    Aichour, Ibtihel
    Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine
    Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola
    Akseer, Nadia
    Al-Eyadhy, Ayman
    Salman, Rustam Al-Shahi
    Alahdab, Fares
    Alene, Kefyalew Addis
    Aljunid, Syed Mohamed
    Altirkawi, Khalid
    Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
    Anber, Nahla Hamed
    Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.
    Arabloo, Jalal
    Aremu, Olatunde
    Arnlov, Johan
    Asayesh, Hamid
    Asghar, Rana Jawad
    Atalay, Hagos Tasew
    Awasthi, Ashish
    Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina
    Ayuk, Tambe B.
    Badawi, Alaa
    Banach, Maciej
    Banoub, Joseph Adel Mattar
    Barboza, Miguel A.
    Barker-Collo, Suzanne Lyn
    Barnighausen, Till Winfried
    Baune, Bernhard T.
    Bedi, Neeraj
    Behzadifar, Masoud
    Behzadifar, Meysam
    Bejot, Yannick
    Bekele, Bayu Begashaw
    Belachew, Abate Bekele
    Bennett, Derrick A.
    Bensenor, Isabela M.
    Berhane, Adugnaw
    Beuran, Mircea
    Bhattacharyya, Krittika
    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.
    Biadgo, Belete
    Bijani, Ali
    Bililign, Nigus
    Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat
    Blazes, Christopher Kynrint
    Brayne, Carol
    Butt, Zahid A.
    Campos-Nonato, Ismael R.
    Cantu-Brito, Carlos
    Car, Mate
    Cardenas, Rosario
    Carrero, Juan J.
    Carvalho, Felix
    Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.
    Castro, Franz
    Catala-Lopez, Ferran
    Cerin, Ester
    Chaiah, Yazan
    Chang, Jung-Chen
    Chatziralli, Irini
    Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia
    Christensen, Hanne
    Christopher, Devasahayam J.
    Cooper, Cyrus
    Cortesi, Paolo Angelo
    Costa, Vera M.
    Criqui, Michael H.
    Crowe, Christopher Stephen
    Damasceno, Albertino Antonio Moura
    Daryani, Ahmad
    De la Cruz-Gongora, Vanessa
    Pio De la Hoz, Fernando
    De Leo, Diego
    Degefa, Meaza Girma
    Demoz, Gebre Teklemariam
    Deribe, Kebede
    Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda
    Diaz, Daniel
    Dinberu, Mesfin Tadese
    Djalalinia, Shirin
    Doku, David Teye
    Dubey, Manisha
    Dubljanin, Eleonora
    Duken, Eyasu Ejeta
    Edvardsson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    El-Khatib, Ziad
    Endres, Matthias
    Endries, Aman Yesuf
    Eskandarieh, Sharareh
    Esteghamati, Alireza
    Esteghamati, Sadaf
    Farhadi, Farzaneh
    Faro, Andre
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein
    Fatima, Batool
    Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad
    Fernandes, Eduarda
    Feyissa, Garumma Tolu
    Filip, Irina
    Fischer, Florian
    Fukumoto, Takeshi
    Ganji, Morsaleh
    Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho
    Garcia-Gordillo, Miguel A.
    Gebre, Abadi Kahsu
    Gebremichael, Teklu Gebrehiwo
    Gelaw, Belayneh K.
    Geleijnse, Johanna M.
    Geremew, Demeke
    Gezae, Kebede Embaye
    Ghasemi-Kasman, Maryam
    Gidey, Mahari Y.
    Gill, Paramjit Singh
    Gill, Tiffany K.
    Gnedovskaya, Elena V.
    Goulart, Alessandra C.
    Grada, Ayman
    Grosso, Giuseppe
    Guo, Yuming
    Gupta, Rahul
    Gupta, Rajeev
    Haagsma, Juanita A.
    Hagos, Tekleberhan B.
    Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin
    Haj-Mirzaian, Arya
    Hamadeh, Randah R.
    Hamidi, Samer
    Hankey, Graeme J.
    Hao, Yuantao
    Haro, Josep Maria
    Hassankhani, Hadi
    Hassen, Hamid Yimam
    Havmoeller, Rasmus
    Hay, Simon I.
    Hegazy, Mohamed I.
    Heidari, Behnam
    Henok, Andualem
    Heydarpour, Fatemeh
    Hoang, Chi Linh
    Hole, Michael K.
    Rad, Enayatollah Homaie
    Hosseini, Seyed Mostafa
    Hu, Guoqing
    Igumbor, Ehimario U.
    Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen
    Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi
    Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful
    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo
    Javanbakht, Mehdi
    Jha, Ravi Prakash
    Jobanputra, Yash B.
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy
    Jurisson, Mikk
    Kahsay, Amaha
    Kalani, Rizwan
    Kalkonde, Yogeshwar
    Kamil, Teshome Abegaz
    Kanchan, Tanuj
    Karami, Manoochehr
    Karch, Andre
    Karimi, Narges
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Kassa, Tesfaye Dessale
    Kassa, Zemenu Yohannes
    Kaul, Anil
    Kefale, Adane Teshome
    Keiyoro, Peter Njenga
    Khader, Yousef Saleh
    Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif
    Khalil, Ibrahim A.
    Khan, Ejaz Ahmad
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Khazaie, Habibolah
    Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A.
    Kiirithio, Daniel N.
    Kim, Anthony S.
    Kim, Daniel
    Kim, Young-Eun
    Kim, Yun Jin
    Kisa, Adnan
    Kokubo, Yoshihiro
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Krishnamurthi, Rita V.
    Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
    Bicer, Burcu Kucuk
    Kumar, Manasi
    Lacey, Ben
    Lafranconi, Alessandra
    Lansingh, Van C.
    Latifi, Arman
    Leshargie, Cheru Tesema
    Li, Shanshan
    Liao, Yu
    Linn, Shai
    Lo, Warren David
    Lopez, Jaifred Christian F.
    Lorkowski, Stefan
    Lotufo, Paulo A.
    Lucas, Robyn M.
    Lunevicius, Raimundas
    Mackay, Mark T.
    Mahotra, Narayan Bahadur
    Majdan, Marek
    Majdzadeh, Reza
    Majeed, Azeem
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Malta, Deborah Carvalho
    Manafi, Navid
    Mansournia, Mohammad Ali
    Mantovani, Lorenzo Giovanni
    Marz, Winfried
    Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani Phosa
    Massenburg, Benjamin Ballard
    Mate, Kedar K. V.
    McAlinden, Colm
    McGrath, John J.
    Mehta, Varshil
    Meier, Toni
    Meles, Hagazi Gebre
    Melese, Addisu
    Memiah, Peter T. N.
    Memish, Ziad A.
    Mendoza, Walter
    Mengistu, Desalegn Tadese
    Mengistu, Getnet
    Meretoja, Atte
    Meretoja, Tuomo J.
    Mestrovic, Tomislav
    Miazgowski, Bartosz
    Miazgowski, Tomasz
    Miller, Ted R.
    Mini, G. K.
    Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.
    Moazen, Babak
    Mohajer, Bahram
    Mezerji, Naser Mohammad Gholi
    Mohammadi, Moslem
    Mohammadi-Khanaposhtani, Maryam
    Mohammadibakhsh, Roghayeh
    Mohammadnia-Afrouzi, Mousa
    Mohammed, Shafiu
    Mohebi, Farnam
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    Monasta, Lorenzo
    Mondello, Stefania
    Moodley, Yoshan
    Moosazadeh, Mahmood
    Moradi, Ghobad
    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
    Moradinazar, Mehdi
    Moraga, Paula
    Velasquez, Ilais Moreno
    Morrison, Shane Douglas
    Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam
    Muhammed, Oumer Sada
    Muruet, Walter
    Musa, Kamarul Imran
    Mustafa, Ghulam
    Naderi, Mehdi
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Naheed, Aliya
    Naik, Gurudatta
    Najafi, Farid
    Nangia, Vinay
    Negoi, Ionut
    Negoi, Ruxandra Irina
    Newton, Charles Richard James
    Ngunjiri, Josephine W.
    Nguyen, Cuong Tat
    Nguyen, Long Hoang
    Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini
    Nirayo, Yirga Legesse
    Nixon, Molly R.
    Norrving, Bo
    Noubiap, Jean Jacques
    Shiadeh, Malihe Nourollahpour
    Nyasulu, Peter S.
    Ogbo, Felix Akpojene
    Oh, In-Hwan
    Olagunju, Andrew T.
    Olagunju, Tinuke O.
    Olivares, Pedro R.
    Onwujekwe, Obinna E.
    Oren, Eyal
    Owolabi, Mayowa Ojo
    Mahesh, P. A.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Pan, Wen-Harn
    Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra
    Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai
    Patel, Sangram Kishor
    Pereira, David M.
    Petzold, Max
    Pillay, Julian David
    Piradov, Michael A.
    Polanczyk, Guilherme V.
    Polinder, Suzanne
    Postma, Maarten J.
    Poulton, Richie
    Poustchi, Hossein
    Prakash, Swayam
    Prakash, V.
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Radfar, Amir
    Rafay, Anwar
    Rafiei, Alireza
    Rahim, Fakher
    Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
    Rahman, Mahfuzar
    Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur
    Rahman, Muhammad Aziz
    Rajati, Fatemeh
    Ram, Usha
    Ranta, Anna
    Rawaf, David Laith
    Rawaf, Salman
    Reinig, Nickolas
    Reis, Cesar
    Renzaho, Andre M. N.
    Resnikoff, Serge
    Rezaeian, Shahab
    Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh
    Gonzalez, Carlos Miguel Rios
    Roberts, Nicholas L. S.
    Roever, Leonardo
    Ronfani, Luca
    Roro, Elias Merdassa
    Roshandel, Gholamreza
    Rostami, Ali
    Sabbagh, Parisa
    Sacco, Ralph L.
    Sachdev, Perminder S.
    Saddik, Basema
    Safari, Hosein
    Safari-Faramani, Roya
    Safi, Sare
    Safiri, Saeid
    Sagar, Rajesh
    Sahathevan, Ramesh
    Sahebkar, Amirhossein
    Sahraian, Mohammad Ali
    Salamati, Payman
    Zahabi, Saleh Salehi
    Salimi, Yahya
    Samy, Abdallah M.
    Sanabria, Juan
    Santos, Itamar S.
    Milicevic, Milena M. Santric
    Sarrafzadegan, Nizal
    Sartorius, Benn
    Sarvi, Shahabeddin
    Sathian, Brijesh
    Satpathy, Maheswar
    Sawant, Arundhati R.
    Sawhney, Monika
    Schneider, Ione J. C.
    Schottker, Ben
    Schwebel, David C.
    Seedat, Soraya
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Shabaninejad, Hosein
    Shafieesabet, Azadeh
    Shaikh, Masood Ali
    Shakir, Raad A.
    Shams-Beyranvand, Mehran
    Shamsizadeh, Morteza
    Sharif, Mehdi
    Sharif-Alhoseini, Mahdi
    She, Jun
    Sheikh, Aziz
    Sheth, Kevin N.
    Shigematsu, Mika
    Shiri, Rahman
    Shirkoohi, Reza
    Shiue, Ivy
    Siabani, Soraya
    Siddiqi, Tariq J.
    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
    Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig
    Silberberg, Donald H.
    Silva, Joao Pedro
    Silveira, Dayane Gabriele Alves
    Singh, Jasvinder A.
    Sinha, Dhirendra Narain
    Skiadaresi, Eirini
    Smith, Mari
    Sobaih, Badr Hasan
    Sobhani, Soheila
    Soofi, Moslem
    Soyiri, Ireneous N.
    Sposato, Luciano A.
    Stein, Dan J.
    Stein, Murray B.
    Stokes, Mark A.
    Sufiyan, Mu'awiyyah Babale
    Sykes, Bryan L.
    Sylaja, Pn
    Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael
    Ao, Braden James Te
    Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash
    Temsah, Mohamad-Hani
    Temsah, Omar
    Thakur, Jarnail Singh
    Thrift, Amanda G.
    Topor-Madry, Roman
    Tortajada-Girbes, Miguel
    Tovani-Palone, Marcos Roberto
    Tran, Bach Xuan
    Tran, Khanh Bao
    Truelsen, Thomas Clement
    Tsadik, Afewerki Gebremeskel
    Car, Lorainne Tudor
    Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna
    Ullah, Irfan
    Usman, Muhammad Shariq
    Uthman, Olalekan A.
    Valdez, Pascual R.
    Vasankari, Tommi Juhani
    Vasanthan, Rajagopalan
    Veisani, Yousef
    Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy
    Violante, Francesco S.
    Vlassov, Vasily
    Vosoughi, Kia
    Vu, Giang Thu
    Vujcic, Isidora S.
    Wagnew, Fasil Shiferaw
    Waheed, Yasir
    Wang, Yuan-Pang
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Weiss, Jordan
    Whiteford, Harvey A.
    Wijeratne, Tissa
    Winkler, Andrea Sylvia
    Wiysonge, Charles Shey
    Wolfe, Charles D. A.
    Xu, Gelin
    Yadollahpour, Ali
    Yamada, Tomohide
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Yaseri, Mehdi
    Yatsuya, Hiroshi
    Yimer, Ebrahim M.
    Yip, Paul
    Yisma, Engida
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Yousefifard, Mahmoud
    Yu, Chuanhua
    Zaidi, Zoubida
    Bin Zaman, Sojib
    Zamani, Mohammad
    Zandian, Hamed
    Zare, Zohreh
    Zhang, Yunquan
    Zodpey, Sanjay
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Vos, Theo
    Global, regional, and national burden of neurological disorders, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20162019In: Lancet Neurology, ISSN 1474-4422, E-ISSN 1474-4465, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 459-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Neurological disorders are increasingly recognised as major causes of death and disability worldwide. The aim of this analysis from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 is to provide the most comprehensive and up-to-date estimates of the global, regional, and national burden from neurological disorders.

    Methods: We estimated prevalence, incidence, deaths, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs; the sum of years of life lost [YLLs] and years lived with disability [YLDs]) by age and sex for 15 neurological disorder categories (tetanus, meningitis, encephalitis, stroke, brain and other CNS cancers, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, motor neuron diseases, idiopathic epilepsy, migraine, tension-type headache, and a residual category for other less common neurological disorders) in 195 countries from 1990 to 2016. DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, was the main method of estimation of prevalence and incidence, and the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) was used for mortality estimation. We quantified the contribution of 84 risks and combinations of risk to the disease estimates for the 15 neurological disorder categories using the GBD comparative risk assessment approach.

    Findings: Globally, in 2016, neurological disorders were the leading cause of DALYs (276 million [95% UI 247–308]) and second leading cause of deaths (9·0 million [8·8–9·4]). The absolute number of deaths and DALYs from all neurological disorders combined increased (deaths by 39% [34–44] and DALYs by 15% [9–21]) whereas their age-standardised rates decreased (deaths by 28% [26–30] and DALYs by 27% [24–31]) between 1990 and 2016. The only neurological disorders that had a decrease in rates and absolute numbers of deaths and DALYs were tetanus, meningitis, and encephalitis. The four largest contributors of neurological DALYs were stroke (42·2% [38·6–46·1]), migraine (16·3% [11·7–20·8]), Alzheimer's and other dementias (10·4% [9·0–12·1]), and meningitis (7·9% [6·6–10·4]). For the combined neurological disorders, age-standardised DALY rates were significantly higher in males than in females (male-to-female ratio 1·12 [1·05–1·20]), but migraine, multiple sclerosis, and tension-type headache were more common and caused more burden in females, with male-to-female ratios of less than 0·7. The 84 risks quantified in GBD explain less than 10% of neurological disorder DALY burdens, except stroke, for which 88·8% (86·5–90·9) of DALYs are attributable to risk factors, and to a lesser extent Alzheimer's disease and other dementias (22·3% [11·8–35·1] of DALYs are risk attributable) and idiopathic epilepsy (14·1% [10·8–17·5] of DALYs are risk attributable).

    Interpretation: Globally, the burden of neurological disorders, as measured by the absolute number of DALYs, continues to increase. As populations are growing and ageing, and the prevalence of major disabling neurological disorders steeply increases with age, governments will face increasing demand for treatment, rehabilitation, and support services for neurological disorders. The scarcity of established modifiable risks for most of the neurological burden demonstrates that new knowledge is required to develop effective prevention and treatment strategies.

    Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

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