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  • 1. Calzetti, D.
    et al.
    Wilson, G. W.
    Draine, B. T.
    Roussel, H.
    Johnson, K. E.
    Heyer, M. H.
    Wall, W. F.
    Grasha, K.
    Battisti, A.
    Andrews, J. E.
    Kirkpatrick, A.
    González, D. Rosa
    Vega, O.
    Puschnig, Johannes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Yun, M.
    Östlin, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Evans, A. S.
    Tang, Y.
    Lowenthal, J.
    Sánchez-Arguelles, D.
    Spatially Resolved Dust, Gas, and Star Formation in the Dwarf Magellanic Irregular NGC 44492018In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 852, no 2, article id 106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the relation between gas and star formation in subgalactic regions, similar to 360. pc to similar to 1.5. kpc in size, within the nearby starburst dwarf NGC 4449, in order to separate the underlying relation from the effects of sampling at varying spatial scales. Dust and gas mass surface densities are derived by combining new observations at 1.1. mm, obtained with the AzTEC instrument on the Large Millimeter Telescope, with archival infrared images in the range 8-500 mu m from the Spitzer Space Telescope and the Herschel Space Observatory. We extend the dynamic range of our millimeter (and dust) maps at the faint end, using a correlation between the far-infrared/millimeter colors F(70)/F(1100) (and F(160)/F(1100)) and the mid-infrared color F(8)/F(24) that we establish for the first time for this and other galaxies. Supplementing our data with maps of the extinction-corrected star formation rate (SFR) surface density, we measure both the SFR-molecular gas and the SFR-total. gas relations in NGC 4449. We find that the SFR-molecular. gas relation is described by a power law with an exponent that decreases from similar to 1.5 to similar to 1.2 for increasing region size, while the exponent of the SFR-total. gas relation remains constant with a value of similar to 1.5 independent of region size. We attribute the molecular law behavior to the increasingly better sampling of the molecular cloud mass function at larger region sizes; conversely, the total gas law behavior likely results from the balance between the atomic and molecular gas phases achieved in regions of active star formation. Our results indicate a nonlinear relation between SFR and gas surface density in NGC 4449, similar to what is observed for galaxy samples.

  • 2. Cook, D. O.
    et al.
    Lee, J. C.
    Adamo, Angela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Kim, H.
    Chandar, R.
    Whitmore, B. C.
    Mok, A.
    Ryon, J. E.
    Dale, D. A.
    Calzetti, D.
    Andrews, J. E.
    Aloisi, A.
    Ashworth, G.
    Bright, S. N.
    Brown, T. M.
    Christian, C.
    Cignoni, M.
    Clayton, G. C.
    da Silva, R.
    de Mink, S. E.
    Dobbs, C. L.
    Elmegreen, B. G.
    Elmegreen, D. M.
    Evans, A. S.
    Fumagalli, M.
    Gallagher, J. S.
    Gouliermis, D. A.
    Grasha, K.
    Grebel, E. K.
    Herrero, A.
    Hunter, D. A.
    Jensen, E. I.
    Johnson, K. E.
    Kahre, L.
    Kennicutt, R. C.
    Krumholz, M. R.
    Lee, N. J.
    Lennon, D.
    Linden, S.
    Martin, C.
    Messa, Matteo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Nair, P.
    Nota, A.
    Östlin, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Parziale, R. C.
    Pellerin, A.
    Regan, M. W.
    Sabbi, E.
    Sacchi, E.
    Schaerer, D.
    Schiminovich, D.
    Shabani, F.
    Slane, F. A.
    Small, J.
    Smith, C. L.
    Smith, L. J.
    Taibi, S.
    Thilker, D. A.
    de la Torre, I. C.
    Tosi, M.
    Turner, J. A.
    Ubeda, L.
    Van Dyk, S. D.
    Walterbos, R. A. M.
    Wofford, A.
    Star cluster catalogues for the LEGUS dwarf galaxies2019In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 484, no 4, p. 4897-4919Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the star cluster catalogues for 17 dwarf and irregular galaxies in the HST Treasury Program 'Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey' (LEGUS). Cluster identification and photometry in this sub-sample are similar to that of the entire LEGUS sample, but special methods were developed to provide robust catalogues with accurate fluxes due to low cluster statistics. The colours and ages are largely consistent for two widely used aperture corrections, but a significant fraction of the clusters are more compact than the average training cluster. However, the ensemble luminosity, mass, and age distributions are consistent suggesting that the systematics between the two methods are less than the random errors. When compared with the clusters from previous dwarf galaxy samples, we find that the LEGUS catalogues are more complete and provide more accurate total fluxes. Combining all clusters into a composite dwarf galaxy, we find that the luminosity and mass functions can be described by a power law with the canonical index of -2 independent of age and global SFR binning. The age distribution declines as a power law, with an index of approximate to -0.80 +/- 0.15, independent of cluster mass and global SFR binning. This decline of clusters is dominated by cluster disruption since the combined star formation histories and integrated-light SFRs are both approximately constant over the last few hundred Myr. Finally, we find little evidence for an upper-mass cut-off (< 2 sigma) in the composite cluster mass function, and can rule out a truncation mass below approximate to 10(4.5)M(circle dot) but cannot rule out the existence of a truncation at higher masses.

  • 3. Grasha, K.
    et al.
    Calzetti, D.
    Adamo, Angela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Kennicutt, R. C.
    Elmegreen, B. G.
    Messa, Matteo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Dale, D. A.
    Fedorenko, K.
    Mahadevan, S.
    Grebel, E. K.
    Fumagalli, M.
    Kim, H.
    Dobbs, C. L.
    Gouliermis, D. A.
    Ashworth, G.
    Gallagher, J. S.
    Smith, L. J.
    Tosi, M.
    Whitmore, B. C.
    Schinnerer, E.
    Colombo, D.
    Hughes, A.
    Leroy, A. K.
    Meidt, S. E.
    The spatial relation between young star clusters and molecular clouds in M51 with LEGUS2019In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 483, no 4, p. 4707-4723Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a study correlating the spatial locations of young star clusters with those of molecular clouds in NGC 5194, in order to investigate the time-scale over which clusters separate from their birth clouds. The star cluster catalogues are from the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) and the molecular clouds from the Plateau de Bure Interefrometer Arcsecond Whirpool Survey (PAWS). We find that younger star clusters are spatially closer to molecular clouds than older star clusters. The median age for clusters associated with clouds is 4 Myr, whereas it is 50 Myr for clusters that are sufficiently separated from a molecular cloud to be considered unassociated. After similar to 6 Myr, the majority of the star clusters lose association with their molecular gas. Younger star clusters are also preferentially located in stellar spiral arms where they are hierarchically distributed in kpc-size regions for 50-100 Myr before dispersing. The youngest star clusters are more strongly clustered, yielding a two-point correlation function with alpha = -0.28 +/- 0.04, than the giant molecular cloud (GMCs) (alpha = -0.09 +/- 0.03) within the same PAWS field. However, the clustering strength of the most massive GMCs, supposedly the progenitors of the young clusters for a star formation efficiency of a few percent, is comparable (alpha = -0.35 +/- 0.05) to that of the clusters. We find a galactocentric dependence for the coherence of star formation, in which clusters located in the inner region of the galaxy reside in smaller star-forming complexes and display more homogeneous distributions than clusters further from the centre. This result suggests a correlation between the survival of a cluster complex and its environment.

  • 4. Hannon, Stephen
    et al.
    Lee, Janice C.
    Whitmore, B. C.
    Chandar, R.
    Adamo, Angela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Mobasher, B.
    Aloisi, A.
    Calzetti, D.
    Cignoni, M.
    Cook, D. O.
    Dale, D.
    Deger, S.
    Della Bruna, Lorenza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Elmegreen, D. M.
    Gouliermis, D. A.
    Grasha, K.
    Grebel, E. K.
    Herrero, A.
    Hunter, D. A.
    Johnson, K. E.
    Kennicutt, R.
    Kim, H.
    Sacchi, E.
    Smith, L.
    Thilker, D.
    Turner, J.
    Walterbos, R. A. M.
    Wofford, A.
    H α morphologies of star clusters: a LEGUS study of H II region evolution time-scales and stochasticity in low-mass clusters2019In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 490, no 4, p. 4648-4665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The morphology of H II regions around young star clusters provides insight into the time-scales and physical processes that clear a cluster's natal gas. We study similar to 700 young clusters (<= 10 Myr) in three nearby spiral galaxies (NGC 7793, NGC 4395, and NGC 1313) using Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging from LEGUS (Legacy ExtraGalactic Ultraviolet Survey). Clusters are classified by their H alpha morphology (concentrated, partially exposed, no-emission) and whether they have neighbouring clusters (which could affect the clearing time-scales). Through visual inspection of the HST images, and analysis of ages, reddenings, and stellar masses from spectral energy distributions fitting, together with the (U - B), (V - I) colours, we find (1) the median ages indicate a progression from concentrated (similar to 3Myr), to partially exposed (similar to 4Myr), to no H alpha emission (>5Myr), consistent with the expected temporal evolution of H II regions and previous results. However, (2) similarities in the age distributions for clusters with concentrated and partially exposed H alpha morphologies imply a short time-scale for gas clearing (less than or similar to 1 Myr). Also, (3) our cluster sample's median mass is similar to 1000 M-circle dot, and a significant fraction (similar to 20 per cent) contain one or more bright red sources (presumably supergiants), which can mimic reddening effects. Finally, (4) the median E(B - V) values for clusters with concentrated H alpha and those without H alpha emission appear to be more similar than expected (similar to 0.18 versus similar to 0.14, respectively), but when accounting for stochastic effects, clusters without H alpha emission are less reddened. To mitigate stochastic effects, we experiment with synthesizing more massive clusters by stacking fluxes of clusters within each H alpha morphological class. Composite isolated clusters also reveal a colour and age progression for H alpha morphological classes, consistent with analysis of the individual clusters.

  • 5. Hunter, Deidre A.
    et al.
    Gallardo, Samavarti
    Zhang, Hong-Xin
    Adamo, Angela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Cook, David O.
    Oh, Se-Heon
    Elmegreen, Bruce G.
    Kim, Hwihyun
    Kahre, Lauren
    Ubeda, Leonardo
    Bright, Stacey N.
    Ryon, Jenna E.
    Fumagalli, Michele
    Sacchi, Elena
    Kennicutt, R. C.
    Tosi, Monica
    Dale, Daniel A.
    Cignoni, Michele
    Messa, Matteo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Grebel, Eva K.
    Gouliermis, Dimitrios A.
    Sabbi, Elena
    Grasha, Kathryn
    Gallagher, John S.
    Calzetti, Daniela
    Lee, Janice C.
    A Study of Two Dwarf Irregular Galaxies with Asymmetrical Star Formation Distributions2018In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 855, no 1, article id 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two dwarf irregular galaxies, DDO 187 and NGC 3738, exhibit a striking pattern of star formation: intense star formation is taking place in a large region occupying roughly half of the inner part of the optical galaxy. We use data on the H I distribution and kinematics and stellar images and colors to examine the properties of the environment in the high star formation rate (HSF) halves of the galaxies in comparison with the low star formation rate halves. We find that the pressure and gas density are higher on the HSF sides by 30%-70%. In addition we find in both galaxies that the H I velocity fields exhibit significant deviations from ordered rotation and there are large regions of high-velocity dispersion and multiple velocity components in the gas beyond the inner regions of the galaxies. The conditions in the HSF regions are likely the result of large-scale external processes affecting the internal environment of the galaxies and enabling the current star formation there.

  • 6. Rousseau-Nepton, L.
    et al.
    Martin, R. P.
    Robert, C.
    Drissen, L.
    Amram, P.
    Prunet, S.
    Martin, T.
    Moumen, I.
    Adamo, Angela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Alarie, A.
    Barmby, P.
    Boselli, A.
    Bresolin, F.
    Bureau, M.
    Chemin, L.
    Fernandes, R. C.
    Combes, F.
    Crowder, C.
    Della Bruna, Lorenza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Duarte Puertas, S.
    Egusa, F.
    Epinat, B.
    Ksoll, V. F.
    Girard, M.
    Gómez Llanos, V.
    Gouliermis, D.
    Grasha, K.
    Higgs, C.
    Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.
    Ho, I. -T.
    Iglesias-Páramo, J.
    Joncas, G.
    Kam, Z. S.
    Karera, P.
    Kennicutt, R. C.
    Klessen, R. S.
    Lianou, S.
    Liu, L.
    Liu, Q.
    Luiz de Amorim, A.
    Lyman, J. D.
    Martel, H.
    Mazzilli-Ciraulo, B.
    McLeod, A. F.
    Melchior, A-L.
    Millan, I.
    Mollá, M.
    Momose, R.
    Morisset, C.
    Pan, H. -A.
    Pati, A. K.
    Pellerin, A.
    Pellegrini, E.
    Pérez, I.
    Petric, A.
    Plana, H.
    Rahner, D.
    Ruiz Lara, T.
    Sánchez-Menguiano, L.
    Spekkens, K.
    Stasińska, G.
    Takamiya, M.
    Vale Asari, N.
    Vílchez, J. M.
    SIGNALS: I. Survey description2019In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 489, no 4, p. 5530-5546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SIGNALS, the Star formation, Ionized Gas, and Nebular Abundances Legacy Survey, is a large observing programme designed to investigate massive star formation and HII regions in a sample of local extended galaxies. The programme will use the imaging Fourier transform spectrograph SITELLE at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. Over 355 h (54.7 nights) have been allocated beginning in fall 2018 for eight consecutive semesters. Once completed, SIGNALS will provide a statistically reliable laboratory to investigate massive star formation, including over 50 000 resolved HII regions: the largest, most complete, and homogeneous data base of spectroscopically and spatially resolved extragalactic HII regions ever assembled. For each field observed, three datacubes covering the spectral bands of the filters SN1 (363386 nm), SN2 (482-513 nm), and SN3 (647-685 nm) are gathered. The spectral resolution selected for each spectral band is 1000, 1000, and 5000, respectively. As defined, the project sample will facilitate the study of small-scale nebular physics and many other phenomena linked to star formation at a mean spatial resolution of similar to 20 pc. This survey also has considerable legacy value for additional topics, including planetary nebulae, diffuse ionized gas, and supernova remnants. The purpose of this paper is to present a general outlook of the survey, notably the observing strategy, galaxy sample, and science requirements.

  • 7. Shabani, F.
    et al.
    Grebel, E. K.
    Pasquali, A.
    D'Onghia, E.
    Gallagher, J. S.
    Adamo, Angela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Messa, Matteo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Elmegreen, B. G.
    Dobbs, C.
    Gouliermis, D. A.
    Calzetti, D.
    Grasha, K.
    Elmegreen, D. M.
    Cignoni, M.
    Dale, D. A.
    Aloisi, A.
    Smith, L. J.
    Tosi, M.
    Thilker, D. A.
    Lee, J. C.
    Sabbi, E.
    Kim, H.
    Pellerin, A.
    Search for star cluster age gradients across spiral arms of three LEGUS disc galaxies2018In: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, ISSN 0035-8711, E-ISSN 1365-2966, Vol. 478, no 3, p. 3590-3604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main theories for explaining the formation of spiral arms in galaxies is the stationary density wave theory. This theory predicts the existence of an age gradient across the arms. We use the stellar cluster catalogues of the galaxies NGC 1566, M51a, and NGC 628 from the Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) program. In order to test for the possible existence of an age sequence across the spiral arms, we quantified the azimuthal offset between star clusters of different ages in our target galaxies. We found that NGC 1566, a grand-design spiral galaxy with bisymmetric arms and a strong bar, shows a significant age gradient across the spiral arms that appear to be consistent with the prediction of the stationary density wave theory. In contrast, M51a with its two well-defined spiral arms and a weaker bar does not show an age gradient across the arms. In addition, a comparison with non-LEGUS star cluster catalogues for M51a yields similar results. We believe that the spiral structure of M51a is not the result of a stationary density wave with a fixed pattern speed. Instead, tidal interactions could be the dominant mechanism for the formation of spiral arms. We also found no offset in the azimuthal distribution of star clusters with different ages across the weak spiral arms of NGC 628.

  • 8. Turner, J. A.
    et al.
    Dale, D. A.
    Adamo, Angela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Calzetti, D.
    Grasha, K.
    Grebel, E. K.
    Johnson, K. E.
    Lee, J. C.
    Smith, L. J.
    Yoon, I.
    An ALMA/HST Study of Millimeter Dust Emission and Star Clusters2019In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 884, no 2, article id 112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results from a joint ALMA/HST study of the nearby spiral galaxy NGC.628. We combine the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Legacy ExtraGalactic UV Survey (LEGUS) database of over 1000 stellar clusters in NGC.628 with ALMA Cycle 4 mm/submillimeter observations of the cold dust continuum that span similar to 15.kpc(2) including the nuclear region and western portions of the galaxy's disk. The resolution-1 ''.1 or approximately 50 pc at the distance of NGC.628-allows us to constrain the spatial variations in the slope of the millimeter dust continuum as a function of the ages and masses of the nearby stellar clusters. Our results indicate an excess of dust emission in the millimeter, assuming a typical cold dust model for a normal star-forming galaxy, but little correlation of the dust continuum slope with stellar cluster age or mass. For the depth and spatial coverage of these observations, we cannot substantiate the millimeter/submillimeter excess arising from the processing of dust grains by the local interstellar radiation field. We detect a bright unknown source in NGC.628 in ALMA bands 4 and 7 with no counterparts at other wavelengths from ancillary data. We speculate this is possibly a dust-obscured supernova.

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