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  • 1.
    Brunner, Fabian J.
    et al.
    Univ Heart & Vasc Ctr Hamburg, Dept Cardiol, D-20246 Hamburg, Germany.
    Waldeyer, Christoph
    Univ Heart & Vasc Ctr Hamburg, Dept Cardiol, D-20246 Hamburg, Germany.
    Ojeda, Francisco
    Univ Heart & Vasc Ctr Hamburg, Dept Cardiol, D-20246 Hamburg, Germany.
    Salomaa, Veikko
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kee, Frank
    Queens Univ Belfast, Ctr Publ Hlth, Belfast, Antrim, North Ireland.
    Sans, Susana
    Catalan Dept Hlth, Barcelona, Spain.
    Thorand, Barbara
    German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Inst Epidemiol, Neuherberg, Germany.
    Giampaoli, Simona
    Natl Inst Hlth ISS, Dept Cardiovasc Endocrine Metab Dis & Ageing, Rome, Italy.
    Brambilla, Paolo
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Dept Med & Surg, Milan, Italy.
    Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh
    Univ Dundee, Cardiovasc Epidemiol Unit, Inst Cardiovasc Res, Dundee, Scotland.
    Moitry, Marie
    Univ Hosp Strasbourg, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, Strasbourg, France.
    Iacoviello, Licia
    IRCCS Neuromed, Dept Epidemiol & Prevent, Pozzilli, Italy;Univ Insubria, Dept Med & Surg, Res Ctr Epidemiol & Prevent Med, Varese, Italy.
    Veronesi, Giovanni
    Univ Insubria, Dept Med & Surg, Res Ctr Epidemiol & Prevent Med, Varese, Italy.
    Grassi, Guido
    Univ Milano Bicocca, Med Clin, Dept Med & Surg, Milan, Italy.
    Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.
    Univ Tromso, Univ Tromso Arctic, Dept Clin Med, Tromso, Norway;Univ Hosp North Norway, Dept Neurol & Neurophysiol, Tromso, Norway.
    Soderberg, Stefan
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Umea, Sweden;Umea Univ, Ctr Heart, Umea, Sweden.
    Linneberg, Allan
    Bispebjerg & Frederiksberg Hosp, Ctr Clin Res & Prevent, Copenhagen, Denmark;Univ Copenhagen, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Dept Clin Med, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Brenner, Hermann
    German Canc Res Ctr, Div Clin Epidemiol & Aging Res, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Amouyel, Philippe
    Univ Lille, Risk Factors & Mol Determinants Aging Dis, Lille, France;INSERM, Lille, France;CHU Lille, Lille, France;Inst Pasteur, Lille, France.
    Ferrieres, Jean
    Toulouse Univ, Sch Med, Toulouse, France.
    Tamosiunas, Abdonas
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Inst Cardiol, Kaunas, Lithuania.
    Nikitin, Yuriy P.
    Russian Acad Sci, Siberian Branch, Inst Cytol & Genet, Res Inst Internal & Prevent Med,Branch Fed Res Ct, Novosibirsk, Russia.
    Drygas, Wojciech
    Natl Inst Cardiol, Dept Epidemiol Cardiovasc Dis Prevent & Hlth Prom, Warsaw, Poland.
    Melander, Olle
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Malmo, Sweden.
    Joeckel, Karl-Heinz
    Univ Hosp Essen, Inst Med Informat Biometry & Epidemiol, Essen, Germany.
    Leistner, David M.
    Charite Berlin Univ Med, Dept Cardiol, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany;German Ctr Cardiovasc Res, Partner Site Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Shaw, Jonathan E.
    Baker Heart & Diabet Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.
    Harokopio Univ, Sch Hlth Sci & Educ, Dept Nutr & Dietet, Athens, Greece.
    Simons, Leon A.
    Univ New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia;St Vincents Hosp, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Kavousi, Maryam
    Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Erasmus Med Ctr, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Vasan, Ramachandran S.
    Boston Univ, Framingham, MA USA;NHLBI, Framingham Study, Framingham, MA USA.
    Dullaart, Robin P. F.
    Univ Groningen, Dept Endocrinol, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Wannamethee, S. Goya
    UCL, Dept Primary Care & Populat Hlth, London, England.
    Risérus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Shea, Steven
    Columbia Univ, Dept Med, New York, NY USA;Columbia Univ, Dept Epidemiol, New York, NY USA.
    de Lemos, James A.
    Univ Texas Southwestern Med Ctr Dallas, Div Cardiol, Dallas, TX 75390 USA.
    Omland, Torbjorn
    Akershus Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Div Med, Lorenskog, Norway;Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Med, Ctr Heart Failure Res, Oslo, Norway.
    Kuulasmaa, Kari
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland.
    Landmesser, Ulf
    Charite Berlin Univ Med, Dept Cardiol, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany;German Ctr Cardiovasc Res, Partner Site Berlin, Berlin, Germany;Berlin Inst Hlth, Berlin, Germany.
    Blankenberg, Stefan
    Univ Heart & Vasc Ctr Hamburg, Dept Cardiol, D-20246 Hamburg, Germany;German Ctr Cardiovasc Res, Partner Site Hamburg Kiel Lubeck, Hamburg, Germany.
    Zeller, T.
    Lackner, K.
    Wild, P.
    Peters, A.
    Meisinger, C.
    Voelzke, H.
    Doerr, M.
    Nauck, M.
    Schoettker, B.
    Lorenz, T.
    Makarova, N.
    Schmidt, B.
    Klotsche, J.
    Koenig, W.
    Kontto, J.
    Mannisto, S.
    Jaaskelainen, T.
    Niiranen, T.
    Jousilahti, P.
    Metspalu, A.
    Alver, M.
    Donfrancesco, C.
    Signorini, S. G.
    Gianfagna, F.
    Costanzo, S.
    Woodward, M.
    Dobson, A.
    Giles, G.
    Hodge, A.
    Magliano, D. J.
    Wilsgaard, T.
    Lyngbakken, M. N.
    Hveem, K.
    Eliasson, M.
    Engstrom, G.
    Ingelsson, M.
    Jorgensen, T.
    Twerenbold, R.
    Dallongeville, J.
    Malyutina, S.
    Pajak, A.
    Bobak, M.
    Whincup, P.
    Pitsavos, C.
    Benjamin, E. J.
    Bakker, S. J. L.
    Ikram, M. K.
    Application of non-HDL cholesterol for population-based cardiovascular risk stratification: results from the Multinational Cardiovascular Risk Consortium2019In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 394, no 10215, p. 2173-2183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background The relevance of blood lipid concentrations to long-term incidence of cardiovascular disease and the relevance of lipid-lowering therapy for cardiovascular disease outcomes is unclear. We investigated the cardiovascular disease risk associated with the full spectrum of bloodstream non-HDL cholesterol concentrations. We also created an easy-to-use tool to estimate the long-term probabilities for a cardiovascular disease event associated with non-HDL cholesterol and modelled its risk reduction by lipid-lowering treatment. Methods In this risk-evaluation and risk-modelling study, we used Multinational Cardiovascular Risk Consortium data from 19 countries across Europe, Australia, and North America. Individuals without prevalent cardiovascular disease at baseline and with robust available data on cardiovascular disease outcomes were included. The primary composite endpoint of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease was defined as the occurrence of the coronary heart disease event or ischaemic stroke. Sex-specific multivariable analyses were computed using non-HDL cholesterol categories according to the European guideline thresholds, adjusted for age, sex, cohort, and classical modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. In a derivation and validation design, we created a tool to estimate the probabilities of a cardiovascular disease event by the age of 75 years, dependent on age, sex, and risk factors, and the associated modelled risk reduction, assuming a 50% reduction of non-HDL cholesterol. Findings Of the 524 444 individuals in the 44 cohorts in the Consortium database, we identified 398 846 individuals belonging to 38 cohorts (184 055 [48.7%] women; median age 51.0 years [IQR 40.7-59.7]). 199 415 individuals were included in the derivation cohort (91 786 [48.4%] women) and 199 431 (92 269 [49.1%] women) in the validation cohort. During a maximum follow-up of 43.6 years (median 13.5 years, IQR 7.0-20.1), 54 542 cardiovascular endpoints occurred. Incidence curve analyses showed progressively higher 30-year cardiovascular disease eventrates for increasing non-HDL cholesterol categories (from 7.7% for non-HDL cholesterol <2.6 mmol/L to 33.7% for >= 5.7 mmol/L in women and from 12.8% to 43.6% in men; p<0.0001). Multivariable adjusted Cox models with non-HDL cholesterol lower than 2.6 mmol/L as reference showed an increase in the association between non-HDL cholesterol concentration and cardiovascular disease for both sexes (from hazard ratio 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.3 for nonHDL cholesterol 2.6 to <3.7 mmol/L to 1.9, 1.6-2.2 for >= 5.7 mmol/L in women and from 1.1, 1.0-1.3 to 2.3, 2.0-2.5 in men). The derived tool allowed the estimation of cardiovascular disease event probabilities specific for non-HDL cholesterol with high comparability between the derivation and validation cohorts as reflected by smooth calibration curves analyses and a root mean square error lower than 1% for the estimated probabilities of cardiovascular disease. A 50% reduction of non-HDL cholesterol concentrations was associated with reduced risk of a cardiovascular disease event by the age of 75 years, and this risk reduction was greater the earlier cholesterol concentrations were reduced. Interpretation Non-HDL cholesterol concentrations in blood are strongly associated with long-term risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We provide a simple tool for individual long-term risk assessment and the potential benefit of early lipid-lowering intervention. These data could be useful for physician-patient communication about primary prevention strategies.

  • 2. Brunner, Fabian J.
    et al.
    Waldeyer, Christoph
    Ojeda, Francisco
    Salomaa, Veikko
    Kee, Frank
    Sans, Susana
    Thorand, Barbara
    Giampaoli, Simona
    Brambilla, Paolo
    Tunstall-Pedoe, Hugh
    Moitry, Marie
    Iacoviello, Licia
    Veronesi, Giovanni
    Grassi, Guido
    Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Linneberg, Allan
    Brenner, Hermann
    Amouyel, Philippe
    Ferrieres, Jean
    Tamosiunas, Abdonas
    Nikitin, Yuriy P.
    Drygas, Wojciech
    Melander, Olle
    Jöckel, Karl-Heinz
    Leistner, David M.
    Shaw, Jonathan E.
    Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.
    Simons, Leon A.
    Kavousi, Maryam
    Vasan, Ramachandran S.
    Dullaart, Robin P. F.
    Wannamethee, S. Goya
    Riserus, Ulf
    Shea, Steven
    de Lemos, James A.
    Omland, Torbjorn
    Kuulasmaa, Kari
    Landmesser, Ulf
    Blankenberg, Stefan
    Zeller, T.
    Lackner, K.
    Wild, P.
    Peters, A.
    Meisinger, C.
    Voelzke, H.
    Doerr, M.
    Nauck, M.
    Schoettker, B.
    Lorenz, T.
    Makarova, N.
    Schmidt, B.
    Klotsche, J.
    Koenig, W.
    Kontto, J.
    Mannisto, S.
    Jaaskelainen, T.
    Niiranen, T.
    Jousilahti, P.
    Metspalu, A.
    Alver, M.
    Donfrancesco, C.
    Signorini, S. G.
    Gianfagna, F.
    Costanzo, S.
    Woodward, M.
    Dobson, A.
    Giles, G.
    Hodge, A.
    Magliano, D. J.
    Wilsgaard, T.
    Lyngbakken, M. N.
    Hveem, K.
    Eliasson, M.
    Engstrom, G.
    Ingelsson, M.
    Jorgensen, T.
    Twerenbold, R.
    Dallongeville, J.
    Malyutina, S.
    Pajak, A.
    Bobak, M.
    Whincup, P.
    Pitsavos, C.
    Benjamin, E. J.
    Bakker, S. J. L.
    Ikram, M. K.
    Application of non-HDL cholesterol for population-based cardiovascular risk stratification: results from the Multinational Cardiovascular Risk Consortium2019In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 394, no 10215, p. 2173-2183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The relevance of blood lipid concentrations to long-term incidence of cardiovascular disease and the relevance of lipid-lowering therapy for cardiovascular disease outcomes is unclear. We investigated the cardiovascular disease risk associated with the full spectrum of bloodstream non-HDL cholesterol concentrations. We also created an easy-to-use tool to estimate the long-term probabilities for a cardiovascular disease event associated with non-HDL cholesterol and modelled its risk reduction by lipid-lowering treatment.

    Methods: In this risk-evaluation and risk-modelling study, we used Multinational Cardiovascular Risk Consortium data from 19 countries across Europe, Australia, and North America. Individuals without prevalent cardiovascular disease at baseline and with robust available data on cardiovascular disease outcomes were included. The primary composite endpoint of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease was defined as the occurrence of the coronary heart disease event or ischaemic stroke. Sex-specific multivariable analyses were computed using non-HDL cholesterol categories according to the European guideline thresholds, adjusted for age, sex, cohort, and classical modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. In a derivation and validation design, we created a tool to estimate the probabilities of a cardiovascular disease event by the age of 75 years, dependent on age, sex, and risk factors, and the associated modelled risk reduction, assuming a 50% reduction of non-HDL cholesterol.

    Findings: Of the 524 444 individuals in the 44 cohorts in the Consortium database, we identified 398 846 individuals belonging to 38 cohorts (184 055 [48·7%] women; median age 51·0 years [IQR 40·7–59·7]). 199 415 individuals were included in the derivation cohort (91 786 [48·4%] women) and 199 431 (92 269 [49·1%] women) in the validation cohort. During a maximum follow-up of 43·6 years (median 13·5 years, IQR 7·0–20·1), 54 542 cardiovascular endpoints occurred. Incidence curve analyses showed progressively higher 30-year cardiovascular disease event-rates for increasing non-HDL cholesterol categories (from 7·7% for non-HDL cholesterol <2·6 mmol/L to 33·7% for ≥5·7 mmol/L in women and from 12·8% to 43·6% in men; p<0·0001). Multivariable adjusted Cox models with non-HDL cholesterol lower than 2·6 mmol/L as reference showed an increase in the association between non-HDL cholesterol concentration and cardiovascular disease for both sexes (from hazard ratio 1·1, 95% CI 1·0–1·3 for non-HDL cholesterol 2·6 to <3·7 mmol/L to 1·9, 1·6–2·2 for ≥5·7 mmol/L in women and from 1·1, 1·0–1·3 to 2·3, 2·0–2·5 in men). The derived tool allowed the estimation of cardiovascular disease event probabilities specific for non-HDL cholesterol with high comparability between the derivation and validation cohorts as reflected by smooth calibration curves analyses and a root mean square error lower than 1% for the estimated probabilities of cardiovascular disease. A 50% reduction of non-HDL cholesterol concentrations was associated with reduced risk of a cardiovascular disease event by the age of 75 years, and this risk reduction was greater the earlier cholesterol concentrations were reduced.

    Interpretation: Non-HDL cholesterol concentrations in blood are strongly associated with long-term risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. We provide a simple tool for individual long-term risk assessment and the potential benefit of early lipid-lowering intervention. These data could be useful for physician–patient communication about primary prevention strategies.

  • 3. Ding, Ming
    et al.
    Huang, Tao
    Bergholdt, Helle K. M.
    Nordestgaard, Borge G.
    Ellervik, Christina
    Qi, Lu
    Frazier-Wood, Alexis C.
    Aslibekyan, Stella
    North, Kari E.
    Voortman, Trudy
    Graff, Mariaelisa
    Smith, Caren E.
    Lai, Chao-Qiang
    Varbo, Anette
    Lemaitre, Rozenn N.
    de Jonge, Ester A. L.
    Fumeron, Frederic
    Corella, Dolores
    Wang, Carol A.
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Overvad, Kim
    Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.
    Feitosa, Mary F.
    Wojczynski, Mary K.
    Kahonen, Mika
    Ahmad, Shafqat
    Renström, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research. Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Psaty, Bruce M.
    Siscovick, David S.
    Barroso, Ines
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research.
    Hernandez, Dena
    Ferrucci, Luigi
    Bandinelli, Stefania
    Linneberg, Allan
    Sandholt, Camilla Helene
    Pedersen, Oluf
    Hansen, Torben
    Schulz, Christina-Alexandra
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Orho-Melander, Marju
    Chen, Tzu-An
    Rotter, Jerome I.
    Allison, Mathew A.
    Rich, Stephen S.
    Sorli, Jose V.
    Coltell, Oscar
    Pennell, Craig E.
    Eastwood, Peter R.
    Hofman, Albert
    Uitterlinden, Andre G.
    Zillikens, MCarola
    van Rooij, Frank J. A.
    Chu, Audrey Y.
    Rose, Lynda M.
    Ridker, Paul M.
    Viikari, Jorma
    Raitakari, Olli
    Lehtimaki, Terho
    Mikkila, Vera
    Willett, Walter C.
    Wang, Yujie
    Tucker, Katherine L.
    Ordovas, Jose M.
    Kilpelainen, Tuomas O.
    Province, Michael A.
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Arnett, Donna K.
    Tanaka, Toshiko
    Toft, Ulla
    Ericso, Ulrika
    Franco, Oscar H.
    Mozaffarian, Dariush
    Hu, Frank B.
    Chasman, Daniel I.
    Dairy consumption, systolic blood pressure, and risk of hypertension: Mendelian randomization study2017In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 356, article id j1000Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE To examine whether previous observed inverse associations of dairy intake with systolic blood pressure and risk of hypertension were causal. DESIGN Mendelian randomization study using the single nucleotide polymorphism rs4988235 related to lactase persistence as an instrumental variable. SETTING CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) Consortium. PARTICIPANTS Data from 22 studies with 171 213 participants, and an additional 10 published prospective studies with 26 119 participants included in the observational analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The instrumental variable estimation was conducted using the ratio of coefficients approach. Using metaanalysis, an additional eight published randomized clinical trials on the association of dairy consumption with systolic blood pressure were summarized. RESULTS Compared with the CC genotype (CC is associated with complete lactase deficiency), the CT/TT genotype (TT is associated with lactose persistence, and CT is associated with certain lactase deficiency) of LCT-13910 (lactase persistence gene) rs4988235 was associated with higher dairy consumption (0.23 (about 55 g/day), 95% confidence interval 0.17 to 0.29) serving/day; P<0.001) and was not associated with systolic blood pressure (0.31, 95% confidence interval -0.05 to 0.68 mm Hg; P=0.09) or risk of hypertension (odds ratio 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.97 to 1.05; P=0.27). Using LCT-13910 rs4988235 as the instrumental variable, genetically determined dairy consumption was not associated with systolic blood pressure (beta=1.35, 95% confidence interval -0.28 to 2.97 mm Hg for each serving/day) or risk of hypertension (odds ratio 1.04, 0.88 to 1.24). Moreover, meta-analysis of the published clinical trials showed that higher dairy intake has no significant effect on change in systolic blood pressure for interventions over one month to 12 months (intervention compared with control groups: beta=-0.21, 95% confidence interval -0.98 to 0.57 mm Hg). In observational analysis, each serving/day increase in dairy consumption was associated with -0.11 (95% confidence interval -0.20 to -0.02 mm Hg; P=0.02) lower systolic blood pressure but not risk of hypertension (odds ratio 0.98, 0.97 to 1.00; P=0.11). CONCLUSION The weak inverse association between dairy intake and systolic blood pressure in observational studies was not supported by a comprehensive instrumental variable analysis and systematic review of existing clinical trials.

  • 4. Justice, Anne E.
    et al.
    Karaderi, Tugce
    Highland, Heather M.
    Young, Kristin L.
    Graff, Mariaelisa
    Lu, Yingchang
    Turcot, Valerie
    Auer, Paul L.
    Fine, Rebecca S.
    Guo, Xiuqing
    Schurmann, Claudia
    Lempradl, Adelheid
    Marouli, Eirini
    Mahajan, Anubha
    Winkler, Thomas W.
    Locke, Adam E.
    Medina-Gomez, Carolina
    Esko, Tonu
    Vedantam, Sailaja
    Giri, Ayush
    Lo, Ken Sin
    Alfred, Tamuno
    Mudgal, Poorva
    Ng, Maggie C. Y.
    Heard-Costa, Nancy L.
    Feitosa, Mary F.
    Manning, Alisa K.
    Willems, Sara M.
    Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh
    Abecasis, Goncalo
    Alam, Dewan S.
    Allison, Matthew
    Amouyel, Philippe
    Arzumanyanm, Zorayr
    Balkau, Beverley
    Bastarache, Lisa
    Bergmann, Sven
    Bielak, Lawrence F.
    Blueher, Matthias
    Boehnke, Michael
    Boeing, Heiner
    Boerwinkle, Eric
    Boeger, Carsten A.
    Bork-Jensen, Jette
    Bottinger, Erwin P.
    Bowden, Donald W.
    Brandslund, Ivan
    Broer, Linda
    Burt, Amber A.
    Butterworth, Adam S.
    Caulfield, Markj
    Cesana, Giancarlo
    Chambers, John C.
    Chasman, Daniel, I
    Chen, Yii-Der Ida
    Chowdhury, Rajiv
    Christensen, Cramer
    Chu, Audreyy
    Collins, Francis S.
    Cook, James P.
    Cox, Amanda J.
    Crosslin, David S.
    Danesh, John
    de Bakker, Paul I. W.
    de Denus, Simon
    de Mutsert, Renee
    Dedoussis, George
    Demerath, Ellen W.
    Dennis, Joe G.
    Denny, Josh C.
    Di Angelantonio, Emanuele
    Doerr, Marcus
    Drenos, Fotios
    Dube, Marie-Pierre
    Dunning, Alison M.
    Easton, Douglas F.
    Elliott, Paul
    Evangelou, Evangelos
    Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni
    Feng, Shuang
    Ferrannini, Ele
    Ferrieres, Jean
    Florez, Jose C.
    Fornage, Myriam
    Fox, Caroline S.
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine. Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University, Malmo, Sweden; Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
    Friedrich, Nele
    Gan, Wei
    Gandin, Ilaria
    Gasparini, Paolo
    Giedraitis, Vilmantas
    Girotto, Giorgia
    Gorski, Mathias
    Grallert, Harald
    Grarup, Niels
    Groves, Megan L.
    Gustafsson, Stefan
    Haessler, Jeff
    Hansen, Torben
    Hattersley, Andrew T.
    Hayward, Caroline
    Heid, Iris M.
    Holmen, Oddgeir L.
    Hovingh, G. Kees
    Howson, Joanna M. M.
    Hu, Yao
    Hung, Yi-Jen
    Hveem, Kristian
    Ikram, M. Arfan
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Jackson, Anne U.
    Jarvik, Gail P.
    Jia, Yucheng
    Jorgensen, Torben
    Jousilahti, Pekka
    Justesen, Johanne M.
    Kahali, Bratati
    Karaleftheri, Maria
    Kardia, Sharon L. R.
    Karpe, Fredrik
    Kee, Frank
    Kitajima, Hidetoshi
    Komulainen, Pirjo
    Kooner, Jaspal S.
    Kovacs, Peter
    Kraemer, Bernhard K.
    Kuulasmaa, Kari
    Kuusisto, Johanna
    Laakso, Markku
    Lakka, Timo A.
    Lamparter, David
    La Nge, Leslie A.
    Langenberg, Claudia
    Larson, Eric B.
    Lee, Nanette R.
    Lee, Wen-Jane
    Lehtimaeki, Terho
    Lewis, Cora E.
    Li, Huaixing
    Li, Jin
    RuifangLi-Gao,
    Lin, Li-An
    Lin, Xu
    Lind, Lars
    Lindstroem, Jaana
    Linneberg, Allan
    Liu, Ching-Ti
    Liu, Dajiang J.
    Luan, Jian'an
    Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka
    MacGregor, Stuart
    Magi, Reedik
    Mannisto, Satu
    Marenne, Gaelle
    Marten, Jonathan
    Mascal, Nicholas G. D.
    McCarthy, Mark, I
    Meidtner, Karina
    Mihailov, Evelin
    Moilanen, Leena
    Moitry, Marie
    Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.
    Morgan, Anna
    Morris, Andrew P.
    Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina
    Munroe, Patricia B.
    Narisu, Narisu
    Nelson, Christopher P.
    Neville, Matt
    Ntalla, Ioanna
    Owen, Katharine R.
    Pedersen, Oluf
    Peloso, Gina M.
    Pennell, Craig E.
    Perola, Markus
    James, A.
    Perry, John R. B.
    Pers, Tune H.
    Ewing, Ailith
    Polasek, Ozren
    Rasheed, Asif
    Raulerson, Chelsea K.
    Rauramaa, Rainer
    Reilly, Dermot F.
    Reiner, Alex P.
    Ridker, Paul M.
    Rivas, Manuel A.
    Robertson, Neil R.
    Robino, Antonietta
    Rudan, Igor
    Ruth, Katherine S.
    Saleheen, Danish
    Salomaa, Veikko
    Samani, Nilesh J.
    Schreiner, Pamela J.
    Schulze, Matthias B.
    Scott, Robert A.
    Segura-Lepe, Marcelo
    Sim, Xueling
    Slater, Andrew J.
    Small, Kerrin S.
    Smith, Blair H.
    Smith, Jennifer A.
    Southam, Lorraine
    Spector, Timothy D.
    Speliotes, Elizabeth K.
    Stefansson, Kari
    Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur
    Stirrups, Kathleen E.
    Strauch, Konstantin
    Stringham, Heather M.
    Stumvoll, Michael
    Sun, Liang
    Surendran, Praveen
    Swart, Karin M. A.
    Tardif, Jean-Claude
    Taylor, Kent D.
    Teumer, Alexander
    Thompson, Deborah J.
    Thorleifsson, Gudmar
    Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur
    Thuesen, Betina H.
    Toenjes, Anke
    Torres, Mina
    Tsafantakis, Emmanouil
    Tuomilehto, Jaakko
    Uitterlinden, Andre G.
    Uusitupa, Matti
    van Duijn, Cornelia M.
    Vanhala, Mauno
    Varma, Rohit
    Vermeulen, Sita H.
    Vestergaard, Henrik
    Vitart, Veronique
    Vogt, Thomas F.
    Vuckovic, Dragana
    Wagenknecht, Lynne E.
    Walker, Mark
    Wallentin, Lars
    Wang, Feijie
    Wang, Carol A.
    Wang, Shuai
    Wareham, N. Icholas J.
    Warren, Helen R.
    Waterworth, Dawn M.
    Wessel, Jennifer
    White, Harvey D.
    Willer, Cristen J.
    Wilson, James G.
    Wood, Andrew R.
    Wu, Ying
    Yaghootkar, Hanieh
    Yao, Jie
    Verges-Armstrong, Laura M.
    Young, Robin
    Zeggini, Eleftheria
    Zhan, Xiaowei
    Zhang, Weihua
    Zhao, Jing Hua
    Zhao, Wei
    Zheng, He
    Zhou, Wei
    Zillikens, M. Carola
    Rivadeneira, Fernando
    Borecki, Ingrid B.
    Pospisilik, J. Andrew
    Deloukas, Panos
    Frayling, Timothy M.
    Lettre, Guillaume
    Mohlke, Karen L.
    Rotter, Jerome, I
    Kutalik, Zoltan
    Hirschhorn, Joel N.
    Cupples, L. Adrienne
    Loos, Ruth J. F.
    North, Kari E.
    Lindgren, Cecilia M.
    O'Connell, Jeffrey R.
    Raitakari, Olli T.
    Lange, Leslie A.
    Uitterlinden, Andr G.
    Grove, Megan L.
    Masca, Nicholas G. D.
    Luan, Jianan
    Wareham, Nicholas J.
    Esko, Tnu
    De Bakker, Paul Iw
    Caulfield, Mark J.
    Mller-Nurasyid, Martina
    Protein-coding variants implicate novel genes related to lipid homeostasis contributing to body-fat distribution2019In: Nature Genetics, ISSN 1061-4036, E-ISSN 1546-1718, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 452-469Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Body-fat distribution is a risk factor for adverse cardiovascular health consequences. We analyzed the association of body-fat distribution, assessed by waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for body mass index, with 228,985 predicted coding and splice site variants available on exome arrays in up to 344,369 individuals from five major ancestries (discovery) and 132,177 European-ancestry individuals (validation). We identified 15 common (minor allele frequency, MAF >= 5%) and nine low-frequency or rare (MAF < 5%) coding novel variants. Pathway/gene set enrichment analyses identified lipid particle, adiponectin, abnormal white adipose tissue physiology and bone development and morphology as important contributors to fat distribution, while cross-trait associations highlight cardiometabolic traits. In functional follow-up analyses, specifically in Drosophila RNAi-knockdowns, we observed a significant increase in the total body triglyceride levels for two genes (DNAH10 and PLXND1). We implicate novel genes in fat distribution, stressing the importance of interrogating low-frequency and protein-coding variants.

  • 5. Magnussen, Christina
    et al.
    Niiranen, Teemu J.
    Ojeda, Francisco M.
    Gianfagna, Francesco
    Blankenberg, Stefan
    Vartiainen, Erkki
    Sans, Susana
    Pasterkamp, Gerard
    Hughes, Maria
    Costanzo, Simona
    Donati, Maria Benedetta
    Jousilahti, Pekka
    Linneberg, Allan
    Palosaari, Tarja
    de Gaetano, Giovanni
    Bobak, Martin
    den Ruijter, Hester M.
    Jorgensen, Torben
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Kuulasmaa, Kari
    Zeller, Tanja
    Lacoviello, Licia
    Salomaa, Veikko
    Schnabel, Renate B.
    Sex-Specific Epidemiology of Heart Failure Risk and Mortality in Europe Results From the BiomarCaRE Consortium2019In: JACC. Heart failure, ISSN 2213-1779, E-ISSN 2213-1787, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 204-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES This study investigates differences between women and men in heart failure (HF) risk and mortality. BACKGROUND Sex differences in HF epidemiology are insufficiently understood. METHODS In 78,657 individuals (median 49.5 years of age; age range 24.1 to 98.7 years; 51.7% women) from community-based European studies (FINRISK, DanMONICA, Moli-sani, Northern Sweden) of the BiomarCaRE (Biomarker for Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in Europe) consortium, the association between incident HF and mortality, the relationship of cardiovascular risk factors, prevalent cardiovascular diseases, biomarkers (C-reactive protein [CRP]; N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide [NT-proBNP]) with incident HF, and their attributable risks were tested in women vs. men. RESULTS Over a median follow-up of 12.7 years, fewer HF cases were observed in women (n = 2,399 [5.9%]) than in men (n = 2,771 [7.3%]). HF incidence increased markedly after 60 years of age, initially with a more rapid increase in men, whereas incidence in women exceeded that of men after 85 years of age. HF onset substantially increased mortality risk in both sexes. Multivariable-adjusted Cox models showed the following sex differences for the association with incident HF: systolic blood pressure hazard ratio (HR) according to SD in women of 1.09 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05 to 1.14) versus HR of 1.19 (95% CI: 1.14 to 1.24) in men; heart rate HR of 0.98 (95% CI: 0.93 to 1.03) in women versus HR of 1.09 (95% CI: 1.04 to 1.13) in men; CRP HR of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.00 to 1.20) in women versus HR of 1.32 (95% CI: 1.24 to 1.41) in men; and NT-proBNP HR of 1.54 (95% CI: 1.37 to 1.74) in women versus HR of 1.89 (95% CI: 1.75 to 2.05) in men. Population-attributable risk of all risk factors combined was 59.0% in women and 62.9% in men. CONCLUSIONS Women had a lower risk for HF than men. Sex differences were seen for systolic blood pressure, heart rate, CRP, and NT-proBNP, with a lower HF risk in women. 

  • 6.
    Mahajan, Anubha
    et al.
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Ctr Human Genet, Nuffield Dept Med, Oxford, England;Univ Oxford, Oxford Ctr Diabet Endocrinol & Metab, Radcliffe Dept Med, Oxford, England.
    Taliun, Daniel
    Univ Michigan, Dept Biostat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA;Univ Michigan, Ctr Stat Genet, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.
    Thurner, Matthias
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Ctr Human Genet, Nuffield Dept Med, Oxford, England;Univ Oxford, Oxford Ctr Diabet Endocrinol & Metab, Radcliffe Dept Med, Oxford, England.
    Robertson, Neil R.
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Ctr Human Genet, Nuffield Dept Med, Oxford, England;Univ Oxford, Oxford Ctr Diabet Endocrinol & Metab, Radcliffe Dept Med, Oxford, England.
    Torres, Jason M.
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Ctr Human Genet, Nuffield Dept Med, Oxford, England.
    Rayner, N. William
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Ctr Human Genet, Nuffield Dept Med, Oxford, England;Univ Oxford, Oxford Ctr Diabet Endocrinol & Metab, Radcliffe Dept Med, Oxford, England;Wellcome Trust Sanger Inst, Dept Human Genet, Hinxton, England.
    Payne, Anthony J.
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Ctr Human Genet, Nuffield Dept Med, Oxford, England.
    Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur
    Amgen Inc, deCODE Genet, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Scott, Robert A.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Metab Sci, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge, England.
    Grarup, Niels
    Univ Copenhagen, Novo Nordisk Fdn, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Ctr Basic Metab Res, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Cook, James P.
    Univ Liverpool, Dept Biostat, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.
    Schmidt, Ellen M.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Biostat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA;Univ Michigan, Ctr Stat Genet, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.
    Wuttke, Matthias
    Univ Freiburg, Fac Med, Inst Genet Epidemiol, Dept Biometry Epidemiol & Med Bioinformat, Freiburg, Germany;Univ Freiburg, Med Ctr, Freiburg, Germany.
    Sarnowski, Chloe
    Boston Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA USA.
    Magill, Reedik
    Univ Tartu, Estonian Genome Ctr, Inst Genom, Tartu, Estonia.
    Nano, Jana
    Erasmus Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Med Ctr, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Gieger, Christian
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Inst Epidemiol, Res Unit Mol Epidemiol, Neuherberg, Germany;German Ctr Diabet Res DZD, Neuherberg, Germany.
    Trompet, Stella
    Leiden Univ, Dept Internal Med, Sect Gerontol & Geriatr, Med Ctr, Leiden, Netherlands;Leiden Univ, Dept Cardiol, Med Ctr, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Lecoeur, Cecile
    Lille Univ, Lille Pasteur Inst, CNRS, UMR8199, Lille, France.
    Preuss, Michael H.
    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Charles Bronfman Inst Personalized Med, New York, NY 10029 USA.
    Prins, Bram Peter
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Inst, Dept Human Genet, Hinxton, England.
    Guo, Xiuqing
    Harbor UCLA Med Ctr, Inst Translat Genom & Populat Sci, Dept Pediat, LABioMed, Torrance, CA 90509 USA.
    Bielak, Lawrence F.
    Univ Michigan, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.
    Below, Jennifer E.
    Vanderbilt Univ, Med Ctr, Vanderbilt Genet Inst, Nashville, TN USA.
    Bowden, Donald W.
    Wake Forest Sch Med, Ctr Genom & Personalized Med Res, Winston Salem, NC USA;Wake Forest Sch Med, Ctr Diabet Res, Winston Salem, NC USA;Wake Forest Sch Med, Dept Biochem, Winston Salem, NC USA.
    Chambers, John Campbell
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England;London North West Healthcare NHS Trust, Dept Cardiol, Ealing Hosp, Harrow, Middx, England;Imperial Coll London, Imperial Coll Healthcare NHS Trust, London, England;Nanyang Technol Univ, Lee Kong Chian Sch Med, Singapore, Singapore;Imperial Coll London, MRC PHE Ctr Environm & Hlth, London, England.
    Kim, Young Jin
    Korea Natl Inst Hlth, Ctr Genome Sci, Div Genome Res, Chungcheongbuk Do, South Korea.
    Ng, Maggie C. Y.
    Wake Forest Sch Med, Ctr Genom & Personalized Med Res, Winston Salem, NC USA;Wake Forest Sch Med, Ctr Diabet Res, Winston Salem, NC USA;Wake Forest Sch Med, Dept Biochem, Winston Salem, NC USA.
    Petty, Lauren E.
    Vanderbilt Univ, Med Ctr, Vanderbilt Genet Inst, Nashville, TN USA.
    Sim, Xueling
    Natl Univ Singapore, Saw Swee Hock Sch Publ Hlth, Singapore, Singapore.
    Zhang, Weihua
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England;London North West Healthcare NHS Trust, Dept Cardiol, Ealing Hosp, Harrow, Middx, England.
    Bennett, Amanda J.
    Univ Oxford, Oxford Ctr Diabet Endocrinol & Metab, Radcliffe Dept Med, Oxford, England.
    Bork-Jensen, Jette
    Univ Copenhagen, Novo Nordisk Fdn, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Ctr Basic Metab Res, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Brummett, Chad M.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Anesthesiol, Med Sch, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.
    Canouil, Mickael
    Lille Univ, Lille Pasteur Inst, CNRS, UMR8199, Lille, France.
    Kardt, Kai-Uwe Ec
    Charite Univ Med Berlin, Dept Nephrol & Med Intens Care, Berlin, Germany;Charite Univ Med Berlin, German Chron Kidney Dis Study, Berlin, Germany.
    Fischer, Krista
    Univ Tartu, Estonian Genome Ctr, Inst Genom, Tartu, Estonia.
    Kardia, Sharon L. R.
    Univ Michigan, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.
    Kronenberg, Florian
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Dept Med Genet Mol & Clin Pharmacol, Div Genet Epidemiol, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Lall, Kristi
    Univ Tartu, Estonian Genome Ctr, Inst Genom, Tartu, Estonia;Univ Tartu, Inst Math & Stat, Tartu, Estonia.
    Liu, Ching-Ti
    Boston Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA USA.
    Locke, Adam E.
    Washington Univ, Sch Med, McDonnell Genome Inst, St Louis, MO USA;Washington Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, Div Genom & Bioinformat, St Louis, MO 63110 USA.
    Luan, Jian'an
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Metab Sci, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge, England.
    Ntalla, Loanna
    Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, William Harvey Res Inst, London, England.
    Nylander, Vibe
    Univ Oxford, Oxford Ctr Diabet Endocrinol & Metab, Radcliffe Dept Med, Oxford, England.
    Schoenherr, Sebastian
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Dept Med Genet Mol & Clin Pharmacol, Div Genet Epidemiol, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Schurmann, Claudia
    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Charles Bronfman Inst Personalized Med, New York, NY 10029 USA.
    Yengo, Loic
    Lille Univ, Lille Pasteur Inst, CNRS, UMR8199, Lille, France.
    Bottinger, Erwin P.
    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Charles Bronfman Inst Personalized Med, New York, NY 10029 USA.
    Brandslund, Ivan
    Univ Southern Denmark, Inst Reg Hlth Res, Odense, Denmark;Vejle Hosp, Dept Clin Biochem, Vejle, Denmark.
    Christensen, Cramer
    Lillebaelt Hosp Vejle, Med Dept, Vejle, Denmark.
    Dedoussis, George
    Harokopio Univ Athens, Dept Nutr & Dietet, Athens, Greece.
    Florez, Jose C.
    Harvard Med Sch, Dept Med, Boston, MA USA;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Diabet Res Ctr, Dept Med, Diabet Unit, Boston, MA USA;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Ctr Genom Med, Boston, MA 02114 USA;Broad Inst, Programs Metab & Med & Populat Genet, Cambridge, MA USA.
    Ford, Ian
    Univ Glasgow, Robertson Ctr Biostat, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    France, Oscar H.
    Erasmus Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Med Ctr, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Frayling, Timothy M.
    Univ Exeter, Med Sch, Genet Complex Traits, Exeter, Devon, England.
    Giedraitis, Vilmantas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Hackinger, Sophie
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Inst, Dept Human Genet, Hinxton, England.
    Hattersley, Andrew T.
    Univ Exeter, Med Sch, Exeter, Devon, England.
    Herder, Christian
    German Ctr Diabet Res DZD, Neuherberg, Germany;Heinrich Heine Univ Dusseldorf, German Diabet Ctr, Inst Clin Diabetol, Leibniz Ctr Diabet Res, Dusseldorf, Germany.
    Ikram, M. Arfan
    Erasmus Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Med Ctr, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Ingelsson, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Jorgensen, Marit E.
    Steno Diabet Ctr Copenhagen, Gentofte, Denmark;Southern Denmark Univ, Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Jorgensen, Torben
    Res Ctr Prevent & Hlth, Glostrup, Capital Region, Denmark;Univ Copenhagen, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Copenhagen, Denmark;Aalborg Univ, Fac Med, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Kriebel, Jennifer
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Inst Epidemiol, Res Unit Mol Epidemiol, Neuherberg, Germany;German Ctr Diabet Res DZD, Neuherberg, Germany.
    Kuusisto, Johanna
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Clin Med, Internal Med, Kuopio, Finland;Kuopio Univ Hosp, Kuopio, Finland.
    Ligthart, Symen
    Erasmus Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Med Ctr, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Lindgren, Cecilia M.
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Ctr Human Genet, Nuffield Dept Med, Oxford, England;Broad Inst, Program Med & Populat Genet, Cambridge, MA USA;Univ Oxford, Li Ka Shing Ctr Hlth Informat & Discovery, Big Data Inst, Oxford, England.
    Linneberg, Allan
    Res Ctr Prevent & Hlth, Glostrup, Capital Region, Denmark;Bispebjerg & Frederiksberg Hosp, Ctr Clin Res & Prevent, Frederiksberg, Denmark;Univ Copenhagen, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Dept Clin Med, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Lyssenko, Valeriya
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Diabet & Endocrinol, Diabet Ctr, Malmo, Sweden;Univ Bergen, KG Jebsen Ctr Diabet Res, Dept Clin Sci, Bergen, Norway.
    Mamakou, Vasiliki
    Univ Athens, Dromokaiteio Psychiat Hosp, Athens, Greece.
    Meitinger, Thomas
    Tech Univ Munich, Inst Human Genet, Munich, Germany;German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Inst Human Genet, Neuherberg, Germany;DZHK German Ctr Cardiovasc Res, Munich Heart Alliance Partner Site, Munich, Germany.
    Mohlke, Karen L.
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Genet, Chapel Hill, NC USA.
    Morris, Andrew D.
    Ninewells Hosp & Med Sch, Clin Res Ctr, Ctr Mol Med, Dundee, Scotland;Univ Edinburgh, Usher Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Nadkarni, Girish
    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Dept Med, Div Nephrol, New York, NY 10029 USA.
    Pankow, James S.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Publ Hlth, Div Epidemiol & Community Hlth, Minneapolis, MN USA.
    Peters, Annette
    German Ctr Diabet Res DZD, Neuherberg, Germany;DZHK German Ctr Cardiovasc Res, Munich Heart Alliance Partner Site, Munich, Germany;German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Inst Epidemiol, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Neuherberg, Germany.
    Sattar, Naveed
    Univ Glasgow, Inst Cardiovasc & Med Sci, Glasgow, Lanark, Scotland.
    Stancakova, Alena
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Clin Med, Internal Med, Kuopio, Finland;Kuopio Univ Hosp, Kuopio, Finland.
    Strauch, Konstantin
    German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Inst Genet Epidemiol, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Neuherberg, Germany;Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Inst Med Informat Biometry & Epidemiol, Munich, Germany.
    Taylor, Kent D.
    Harbor UCLA Med Ctr, Inst Translat Genom & Populat Sci, Dept Pediat, LABioMed, Torrance, CA 90509 USA.
    Thorand, Barbara
    German Ctr Diabet Res DZD, Neuherberg, Germany;German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Inst Epidemiol, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Neuherberg, Germany.
    Thorleifsson, Gudmar
    Amgen Inc, deCODE Genet, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur
    Amgen Inc, deCODE Genet, Reykjavik, Iceland;Univ Iceland, Fac Med, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Tuomilehto, Jaakko
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Dept Hlth, Helsinki, Finland;Dasman Diabet Inst, Kuwait, Kuwait;Danube Univ Krems, Dept Neurosci & Prevent Med, Krems, Austria;King Abdulaziz Univ, Diabet Res Grp, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Witte, Daniel R.
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Aarhus, Denmark;Danish Diabet Acad, Odense, Denmark.
    Dupuis, Josee
    Boston Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA USA;NHLBI, Framingham Heart Stud, Framingham, MA USA.
    Peyser, Patricia A.
    Univ Michigan, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.
    Zeggini, Eleftheria
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Inst, Dept Human Genet, Hinxton, England.
    Loos, Ruth J. F.
    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Charles Bronfman Inst Personalized Med, New York, NY 10029 USA;Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Mindich Child Hlth & Dev Inst, New York, NY 10029 USA.
    Froguel, Philippe
    Lille Univ, Lille Pasteur Inst, CNRS, UMR8199, Lille, France;Imperial Coll London, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Genom Common Dis, London, England.
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Stanford Univ, Dept Med, Sch Med, Div Cardiovasc Med, Stanford, CA USA.
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Epidemiology.
    Groop, Leif
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Diabet & Endocrinol, Diabet Ctr, Malmo, Sweden;Univ Helsinki, FIMM, Helsinki, Finland.
    Laakso, Markku
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Clin Med, Internal Med, Kuopio, Finland;Kuopio Univ Hosp, Kuopio, Finland.
    Collins, Francis S.
    NHGRI, Genome Technol Branch, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA.
    Jukema, J. Wouter
    Leiden Univ, Dept Cardiol, Med Ctr, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Palmer, Colin N. A.
    Univ Dundee, Ninewells Hosp & Med Sch, Pat Macpherson Ctr Pharmacogenet & Pharmacogen, Dundee, Scotland.
    Grallert, Harald
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Inst Epidemiol, Res Unit Mol Epidemiol, Neuherberg, Germany;German Ctr Diabet Res DZD, Neuherberg, Germany;Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Clin Cooparat Grp Type Diabet 2, Munich, Germany;Tech Univ, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Clin Cooparat Grp, Nutrigen & Type Diabet 2, Munich, Germany.
    Metspalu, Andres
    Univ Tartu, Estonian Genome Ctr, Inst Genom, Tartu, Estonia.
    Dehghan, Abbas
    Erasmus Univ, Dept Epidemiol, Med Ctr, Rotterdam, Netherlands;Imperial Coll London, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England;Imperial Coll London, MRC PHE Ctr Environm & Hlth, London, England.
    Koettgen, Anna
    Univ Freiburg, Fac Med, Inst Genet Epidemiol, Dept Biometry Epidemiol & Med Bioinformat, Freiburg, Germany;Univ Freiburg, Med Ctr, Freiburg, Germany.
    Abecasis, Goncalo R.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Biostat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA;Univ Michigan, Ctr Stat Genet, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.
    Meigs, James B.
    Harvard Med Sch, Dept Med, Boston, MA USA;Broad Inst, Programs Metab & Med & Populat Genet, Cambridge, MA USA;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Div Gen Internal Med, Boston, MA 02114 USA.
    Rotter, Jerome, I
    Harbor UCLA Med Ctr, Inst Translat Genom & Populat Sci, Dept Pediat, LABioMed, Torrance, CA 90509 USA;Harbor UCLA Med Ctr, Inst Translat Genom & Populat Sci, Dept Med, LABioMed, Torrance, CA 90509 USA.
    Marchini, Jonathan
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Ctr Human Genet, Nuffield Dept Med, Oxford, England;Univ Oxford, Dept Stat, Oxford, England.
    Pedersen, Oluf
    Univ Copenhagen, Novo Nordisk Fdn, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Ctr Basic Metab Res, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Hansen, Torben
    Univ Copenhagen, Novo Nordisk Fdn, Fac Hlth & Med Sci, Ctr Basic Metab Res, Copenhagen, Denmark;Univ Southern Denmark, Fac Hlth Sci, Odense, Denmark.
    Langenberg, Claudia
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Metab Sci, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge, England.
    Wareham, Nicholas J.
    Univ Cambridge, Inst Metab Sci, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge, England.
    Stefansson, Kari
    Amgen Inc, deCODE Genet, Reykjavik, Iceland;Univ Iceland, Fac Med, Reykjavik, Iceland.
    Gloyn, Anna L.
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Ctr Human Genet, Nuffield Dept Med, Oxford, England;Univ Oxford, Oxford Ctr Diabet Endocrinol & Metab, Radcliffe Dept Med, Oxford, England;Oxford Univ Hosp Trust, Oxford NIHR Biomed Res Ctr, Oxford, England.
    Morris, Andrew P.
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Ctr Human Genet, Nuffield Dept Med, Oxford, England;Univ Liverpool, Dept Biostat, Liverpool, Merseyside, England;Univ Tartu, Estonian Genome Ctr, Inst Genom, Tartu, Estonia.
    Boehnke, Michael
    Univ Michigan, Dept Biostat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA;Univ Michigan, Ctr Stat Genet, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.
    McCarthy, Mark, I
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Ctr Human Genet, Nuffield Dept Med, Oxford, England;Univ Oxford, Oxford Ctr Diabet Endocrinol & Metab, Radcliffe Dept Med, Oxford, England;Oxford Univ Hosp Trust, Oxford NIHR Biomed Res Ctr, Oxford, England.
    Fine-mapping type 2 diabetes loci to single-variant resolution using high-density imputation and islet-specific epigenome maps2018In: Nature Genetics, ISSN 1061-4036, E-ISSN 1546-1718, Vol. 50, no 11, p. 1505-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We expanded GWAS discovery for type 2 diabetes (T2D) by combining data from 898,130 European-descent individuals (9% cases), after imputation to high-density reference panels. With these data, we (i) extend the inventory of T2D-risk variants (243 loci,135 newly implicated in T2D predisposition, comprising 403 distinct association signals); (ii) enrich discovery of lower-frequency risk alleles (80 index variants with minor allele frequency <5%,14 with estimated allelic odds ratio >2); (iii) substantially improve fine-mapping of causal variants (at 51 signals, one variant accounted for >80% posterior probability of association (PPA)); (iv) extend fine-mapping through integration of tissue-specific epigenomic information (islet regulatory annotations extend the number of variants with PPA >80% to 73); (v) highlight validated therapeutic targets (18 genes with associations attributable to coding variants); and (vi) demonstrate enhanced potential for clinical translation (genome-wide chip heritability explains 18% of T2D risk; individuals in the extremes of a T2D polygenic risk score differ more than ninefold in prevalence).

  • 7.
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    Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, William Harvey Res Inst, London EC1M 6BQ, England..
    Graff, Mariaelisa
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Epidemiol, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA..
    Medina-Gomez, Carolina
    Erasmus Sch Ctr, Dept Epidemiol, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus Sch Ctr, Dept Internal Med, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Lo, Ken Sin
    Montreal Heart Inst, Montreal, PQ H1T 1C8, Canada..
    Wood, Andrew R.
    Univ Exeter, Sch Med, Genet Complex Traits, Exeter EX2 5DW, Devon, England..
    Kjaer, Troels R.
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Mol Biol & Genet, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark..
    Fine, Rebecca S.
    Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Dept Genet, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Boston Childrens Hosp, Div Endocrinol, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Boston Childrens Hosp, Ctr Basic & Translat Obes Res, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Lu, Yingchang
    Vanderbilt Univ, Sch Med, Vanderbilt Ingram Canc Ctr, Div Epidemiol,Dept Med,Vanderbilt Epidemiol Ctr, Nashville, TN 37203 USA.;Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Charles Bronfman Inst Personalized Med, New York, NY 10029 USA.;Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Genet Obes & Related Metab Traits Program, New York, NY 10069 USA..
    Schurmann, Claudia
    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Charles Bronfman Inst Personalized Med, New York, NY 10029 USA.;Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Genet Obes & Related Metab Traits Program, New York, NY 10069 USA..
    Highland, Heather M.
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Epidemiol, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA.;Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr Houston, Univ Texas Grad Sch Biomed Sci Houston, Univ Texas Sch Publ Hlth, Ctr Human Genet, Houston, TX 77030 USA..
    Rueger, Sina
    Univ Lausanne Hosp, Inst Social & Prevent Med, CH-1010 Lausanne, Switzerland.;Swiss Inst Bioinformat, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Thorleifsson, Gudmar
    deCODE Genet Amgen Inc, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Justice, Anne E.
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Epidemiol, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA..
    Lamparter, David
    Swiss Inst Bioinformat, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.;Univ Lausanne, Dept Comp Biol, CH-1011 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Stirrups, Kathleen E.
    Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, William Harvey Res Inst, London EC1M 6BQ, England.;Univ Cambridge, Dept Hematol, Cambridge CB2 0PT, England..
    Turcot, Valerie
    Montreal Heart Inst, Montreal, PQ H1T 1C8, Canada..
    Young, Kristin L.
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Epidemiol, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA..
    Winkler, Thomas W.
    Univ Regensburg, Dept Genet Epidemiol, D-93051 Regensburg, Germany..
    Esko, Tonu
    Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA.;Boston Childrens Hosp, Div Endocrinol, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Boston Childrens Hosp, Ctr Basic & Translat Obes Res, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Univ Tartu, Estonian Genome Ctr, EE-51010 Tartu, Estonia..
    Karaderi, Tugce
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford OX3 7BN, England..
    Locke, Adam E.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Biostat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Michigan, Ctr Stat Genet, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Washington Univ, Sch Med, McDonnell Genome Inst, St Louis, MO 63108 USA..
    Masca, Nicholas G. D.
    Univ Leicester, Glenfield Hosp, Dept Cardiovasc Sci, Leicester LE3 9QP, Leics, England.;Glenfield Hosp, NIHR Leicester Cardiovasc Biomed Res Unit, Leicester LE3 9QP, Leics, England..
    Ng, Maggie C. Y.
    Wake Forest Sch Med, Ctr Diabet Res, Winston Salem, NC 27157 USA.;Wake Forest Sch Med, Ctr Genom & Personalized Med Res, Winston Salem, NC 27157 USA..
    Mudgal, Poorva
    Wake Forest Sch Med, Ctr Diabet Res, Winston Salem, NC 27157 USA..
    Rivas, Manuel A.
    Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA.;Nuffield Dept Clin Med, Oxford OX3 7BN, England..
    Vedantam, Sailaja
    Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Dept Genet, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Boston Childrens Hosp, Div Endocrinol, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Boston Childrens Hosp, Ctr Basic & Translat Obes Res, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Mahajan, Anubha
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford OX3 7BN, England..
    Guo, Xiuqing
    LABioMed Harbor UCLA Med Ctr, Inst Translat Genom & Populat Sci, Torrance, CA 90502 USA..
    Abecasis, Goncalo
    Univ Michigan, Dept Biostat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Michigan, Ctr Stat Genet, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
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    Netherland Comprehens Canc Org, NL-3501 DB Utrecht, Netherlands.;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, NL-6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands..
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    Univ N Carolina, Dept Nutr, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 USA..
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    Ctr Control Chron Dis, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh..
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    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen German Res Ctr Environm, Inst Genet Epidemiol, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany..
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    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Novo Nordisk Fdn Ctr Basic Metab Res, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Allison, Matthew
    Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Family Med & Publ Hlth, La Jolla, CA 92093 USA..
    Amouyel, Philippe
    INSERM, U1167, F-59019 Lille, France.;Inst Pasteur, U1167, F-59019 Lille, France.;Univ Lille, U1167, RID AGE Risk Factors & Mol Determinants Aging Rel, F-59019 Lille, France..
    Appel, Emil V.
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Novo Nordisk Fdn Ctr Basic Metab Res, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Arveiler, Dominique
    Univ Strasbourg, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, F-67085 Strasbourg, France.;Univ Hosp Strasbourg, Dept Publ Hlth, F-67081 Strasbourg, France..
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    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Dept Cardiol, Div Heart & Lungs, Utrecht, Netherlands.;ICIN Netherland Heart Inst, Durrer Ctr Cardiogenet Res, Utrecht, Netherlands.;UCL, Fac Populat Hlth Sci, Inst Cardiovasc Sci, London, England..
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    Univ Wisconsin, Zilber Sch Publ Hlth, Milwaukee, WI 53201 USA..
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    INSERM, Ctr Rech Epidemiol & Sante Populat CESP, U1018, Villejuif, France..
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    Univ Hosp Regensburg, Dept Nephrol, D-93042 Regensburg, Germany..
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    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Rigshosp, Dept Cardiol, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
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    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Herlev & Gentofte Hosp, Dept Clin Biochem, DK-2730 Herlev, Denmark.;Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark..
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    Swiss Inst Bioinformat, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.;Univ Lausanne, Dept Comp Biol, CH-1011 Lausanne, Switzerland..
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    Univ Michigan, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
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    Univ Leipzig, Dept Med, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany..
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    German Inst Human Nutr Potsdam Rehbruecke DIfE, Dept Epidemiol, D-14558 Nuthetal, Germany..
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    Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr Houston, Sch Publ Hlth, Ctr Human Genet, Houston, TX 77030 USA.;Baylor Coll Med, Human Genome Sequencing Ctr, Houston, TX 77030 USA..
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    Univ Hosp Regensburg, Dept Nephrol, D-93042 Regensburg, Germany..
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    NHGRI, Med Genom & Metabol Genet Branch, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
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    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Novo Nordisk Fdn Ctr Basic Metab Res, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
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    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Julius Ctr Hlth Sci & Primary Care, Utrecht, Netherlands..
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    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Charles Bronfman Inst Personalized Med, New York, NY 10029 USA..
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    Wake Forest Sch Med, Ctr Diabet Res, Winston Salem, NC 27157 USA.;Wake Forest Sch Med, Ctr Genom & Personalized Med Res, Winston Salem, NC 27157 USA.;Wake Forest Sch Med, Dept Biochem, Winston Salem, NC 27157 USA..
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    Lillebaelt Hosp, Dept Clin Biochem, DK-7100 Vejle, Denmark.;Univ Southern Denmark, Inst Reg Hlth Res, DK-5000 Odense, Denmark..
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    Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat Psychol & Neurosci, MRC Social Genet & Dev Psychiat Ctr, London SE5 8AF, England.;NIHR Biomed Res Ctr Mental Hlth Maudsley, London SE5 8AF, England..
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    Marshfield Clin Res Fdn, Marshfield, WI 54449 USA..
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    Erasmus Sch Ctr, Dept Internal Med, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands..
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    Univ Washington, Dept Med, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
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    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, MRC BHF Cardiovasc Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England.;Univ Cambridge, NIHR Blood & Transplant Res Unit Donor Hlth Genom, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England..
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    Sigfried & Janet Weis Ctr Res, Danville, PA 17822 USA..
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    Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, William Harvey Res Inst, London EC1M 6BQ, England.;Queen Mary Univ, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, NIHR Barts Cardiovasc Res Unit, London EC1M 6BQ, England..
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    London North West Healthcare NHS Trust, Ealing Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Middlesex UB1 3HW, England.;Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London W2 1PG, England.;Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Healthcare NHS Trust, London W12 0HS, England..
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    Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA.;Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Genet, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Brigham & Womens & Harvard Med Sch, Div Prevent Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
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    LABioMed Harbor UCLA Med Ctr, Inst Translat Genom & Populat Sci, Torrance, CA 90502 USA..
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    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, MRC BHF Cardiovasc Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England..
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    Lillebaelt Hosp, Dept Med, DK-7100 Vejle, Denmark..
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    Brigham & Womens & Harvard Med Sch, Div Prevent Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;NHLBI, Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA 01702 USA..
    Cocca, Massimiliano
    Univ Trieste, Dept Med Surg & Hlth Sci, I-34100 Trieste, Italy..
    Collins, Francis S.
    NHGRI, Med Genom & Metabol Genet Branch, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
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    Univ Liverpool, Dept Biostat, Liverpool L69 3GL, Merseyside, England..
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    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Dept Psychol, 7 George Sq, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Galbany, Jordi Corominas
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, Dept Human Genet, NL-6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands..
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    Wake Forest Sch Med, Ctr Diabet Res, Winston Salem, NC 27157 USA.;Wake Forest Sch Med, Ctr Genom & Personalized Med Res, Winston Salem, NC 27157 USA.;Griffith Univ, Menzies Hlth Inst Queensland, Southport, Qld, Australia..
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    Univ Queensland, Diamantina Inst, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia.;QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Brisbane, Qld 4006, Australia..
    Danesh, John
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, MRC BHF Cardiovasc Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England.;Univ Cambridge, NIHR Blood & Transplant Res Unit Donor Hlth Genom, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England.;Wellcome Trust Sanger Inst, Wellcome Genome Campus, Cambridge CB10 1SA, England.;Univ Cambridge, Dept Med, Cambridge Escellence, British Heart Fdn, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, England..
    Davies, Gail
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Dept Psychol, 7 George Sq, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    de Bakker, Paul I. W.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Julius Ctr Hlth Sci & Primary Care, Utrecht, Netherlands.;Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Ctr Mol Med, Dept Genet, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands..
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    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Dept Vasc Surg, Div Surg Specialties, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands..
    de Denus, Simon
    Montreal Heart Inst, Montreal, PQ H1T 1C8, Canada.;Univ Montreal, Fac Pharm, Montreal, PQ H3T 1J4, Canada..
    de Groot, Mark C. H.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Div Lab & Pharm, Dept Clin Chem & Haematol, NL-3508 GA Utrecht, Netherlands.;Univ Utrecht, Div Pharmacoepidemiol & Clin Pharmacol, Utrecht Inst Pharmaceut Sci, NL-3508 TB Utrecht, Netherlands..
    de Mutsert, Renee
    Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Clin Epidemiol, NL-2300 RC Leiden, Netherlands..
    Deary, Ian J.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Dept Psychol, 7 George Sq, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Dedoussis, George
    Harokopio Univ, Sch Hlth Sci & Educ, Dept Nutr & Dietet, Athens 17671, Greece..
    Demerath, Ellen W.
    Univ Minnesota, Sch Publ Hlth, Div Epidemiol & Community Hlth, Minneapolis, MN 55454 USA..
    den Hollander, Anneke I.
    Radbound Univ Med Ctr, Dept Ophthalmol, NL-6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Dennis, Joe G.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Ctr Canc Genet Epidemiol, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England..
    Di Angelantonio, Emanuele
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, MRC BHF Cardiovasc Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England.;Univ Cambridge, NIHR Blood & Transplant Res Unit Donor Hlth Genom, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England..
    Drenos, Fotios
    UCL, Inst Cardiovasc Sci, London WC1E 6JF, England.;Univ Bristol, Sch Social & Community Med, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit, Bristol BS8 2BN, Avon, England..
    Du, Mengmeng
    Fred Hutchinson Canc Res Ctr, Div Publ Hlth Sci, Seattle, WA 98109 USA.;Mem Sloan Kettering Canc Ctr, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, New York, NY 10017 USA..
    Dunning, Alison M.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Oncol, Ctr Canc Genet Epidemiol, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England.;Univ Helsinki, Inst Mol Med Finland FIMM, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Easton, Douglas F.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Ctr Canc Genet Epidemiol, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England.;Univ Cambridge, Dept Oncol, Ctr Canc Genet Epidemiol, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England..
    Ebeling, Tapani
    Oulu Univ Hosp, Dept Med, Oulu 90029, Finland.;Univ Oulu, Res Unit Internal Med, FI-90014 Oulu, Finland..
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    Vanderbilt Univ, Vanderbilt Genet Inst, Inst Med & Publ Hlth, Dept Med,Div Epidemiol, Nashville, TN 37203 USA..
    Ellinor, Patrick T.
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Boston, MA 02114 USA.;Broad Inst, Med & Populat Genet Program, Cambridge, MA 02141 USA..
    Elliott, Paul
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Sch Publ Hlth, MRC PHE Ctr Environm & Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London W2 1PG, England..
    Evangelou, Evangelos
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London W2 1PG, England.;Univ Ioannina, Sch Med, Dept Hyg & Epidemiol, GR-45110 Ioannina, Greece..
    Farmaki, Aliki-Eleni
    Harokopio Univ, Sch Hlth Sci & Educ, Dept Nutr & Dietet, Athens 17671, Greece..
    Faul, Jessica D.
    Univ Michigan, Inst Social Res, Survey Res Ctr, Ann Arbor, MI 48104 USA..
    Feitosa, Mary F.
    Washington Univ, Sch Med, Dept Genet, Div Stat Genom, St Louis, MO 63108 USA..
    Feng, Shuang
    Univ Michigan, Ctr Stat Genet, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Ferrannini, Ele
    CNR Inst Clin Physiol, Pisa, Italy.;Univ Pisa, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Pisa, Italy..
    Ferrario, Marco M.
    Univ Insubria, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Res Ctr Epidemiol & Prevent Med, I-21100 Varese, Italy..
    Ferrieres, Jean
    Toulouse Univ, Sch Med, F-31059 Toulouse, France..
    Florez, Jose C.
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Boston, MA 02114 USA.;Broad Inst, Med & Populat Genet Program, Cambridge, MA 02141 USA.;Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Ford, Ian
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Lanark, Scotland..
    Fornage, Myriam
    Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr Houston, Inst Mol Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA..
    Franks, Paul W.
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Genet & Mol Epidemiol Unit, SE-20502 Malmo, Sweden.;Harvard Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Nutr, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Umea Univ, Med Unit, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, S-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.;Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Rigshosp, Dept Clin Biochem, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
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    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, NL-6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Gan, Wei
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford OX3 7BN, England..
    Gandin, Ilaria
    Univ Trieste, Dept Med Sci, I-34137 Trieste, Italy..
    Gasparini, Paolo
    Univ Trieste, Dept Med Sci, I-34137 Trieste, Italy.;Sidra Med & Res Ctr, Div Expt Genet, Doha 26999, Qatar..
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    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Geriatrics.
    Giri, Ayush
    Vanderbilt Univ, Vanderbilt Genet Inst, Inst Med & Publ Hlth, Dept Med,Div Epidemiol, Nashville, TN 37203 USA..
    Girotto, Giorgia
    Univ Trieste, Dept Med Sci, I-34137 Trieste, Italy.;Sidra Med & Res Ctr, Div Expt Genet, Doha 26999, Qatar..
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    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Brisbane, Qld 4006, Australia..
    Gordon-Larsen, Penny
    Univ N Carolina, Caroline Populat Ctr, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA.;Univ N Carolina, Dept Nutr, Gillings Sch Global Publ Hlth, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA..
    Gorski, Mathias
    Univ Regensburg, Dept Genet Epidemiol, D-93051 Regensburg, Germany.;Univ Hosp Regensburg, Dept Nephrol, D-93042 Regensburg, Germany.;Univ Leipzig, IFB Adipos Dis, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany..
    Grarup, Niels
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Novo Nordisk Fdn Ctr Basic Metab Res, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Grove, Megan L.
    Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr Houston, Sch Publ Hlth, Ctr Human Genet, Houston, TX 77030 USA..
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    Univ Iceland, Fac Med, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.;Icelandic Heart Assoc, IS-201 Kopavogur, Iceland..
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    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology.
    Hansen, Torben
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Novo Nordisk Fdn Ctr Basic Metab Res, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Harris, Kathleen Mullan
    Univ N Carolina, Caroline Populat Ctr, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA.;Univ N Carolina, Dept Sociol, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA..
    Harris, Tamara B.
    NIA, Lab Epidemiol & Populat Sci, Intramural Res Program, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Hattersley, Andrew T.
    Univ Exeter, Univ Exeter Med Sch, Exeter EX2 5DW, Devon, England..
    Hayward, Caroline
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Genet & Mol Med, MRCHGU, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Midlothian, Scotland..
    He, Liang
    Duke Univ, Social Sci Res Inst, Biodemog Aging Res Unit, Durham, NC 27708 USA.;Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Heid, Iris M.
    Univ Regensburg, Dept Genet Epidemiol, D-93051 Regensburg, Germany.;Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen German Res Ctr Environm, Inst Genet Epidemiol, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany..
    Heikkila, Kauko
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Inst Mol Med Finland FIMM, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Helgeland, Oyvind
    Haukeland Hosp, Dept Pediat, N-5021 Bergen, Norway.;Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, KG Jebson Ctr Diabet Res, N-5020 Bergen, Norway..
    Hernesniemi, Jussi
    Tampere Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Ctr Heart, FI-33521 Tampere, Finland.;Fimlab Labs, Dept Clin Chem, Tampere 33520, Finland.;Univ Tampere, Sch Med, Dept Clin Chem, Tampere 33014, Finland..
    Hewitt, Alex W.
    Univ Melbourne, Royal Victorian Eye & Ear Hosp, Ctr Eye Res Australia, Melbourne, Vic 3002, Australia.;Univ Western Australia, Lions Eye Inst, Ctr Ophthalmol & Vis Sci, Perth, WA 6009, Australia.;Univ Tasmania, Menzies Res Inst Tasmania, Hobart, Tas 7000, Australia..
    Hocking, Lynne J.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Genom & Expt Med, Generat Scotland, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Aberdeen, Div Appl Med, Musculoskeletal Res Programme, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, Scotland..
    Hollensted, Mette
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Novo Nordisk Fdn Ctr Basic Metab Res, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Holmen, Oddgeir L.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, NTNU, Dept Publ Hlth, KG Jebsen Ctr Genet Epidemiol, N-7600 Trondheim, Norway..
    Hovingh, G. Kees
    AMC, Dept Vasc Med, NL-1105 AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Howson, Joanna M. M.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, MRC BHF Cardiovasc Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England..
    Hoyng, Carel B.
    Radbound Univ Med Ctr, Dept Ophthalmol, NL-6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Huang, Paul L.
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Boston, MA 02114 USA..
    Hveem, Kristian
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Publ Hlth & Gen Practice, HUNT Res Ctr, N-7600 Levanger, Norway..
    Ikram, M. Arfan
    Erasmus Sch Ctr, Dept Epidemiol, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus Sch Ctr, Dept Neurol, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus Sch Ctr, Dept Radiol, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular epidemiology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Jackson, Anne U.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Biostat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Michigan, Ctr Stat Genet, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Jansson, Jan-Hakan
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, SE-90185 Umea, Sweden.;Res Unit Skelleftea, SE-93141 Skelleftea, Sweden..
    Jarvik, Gail P.
    Univ Washington, Dept Med, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Washington, Dept Genom Sci, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Jensen, Gorm B.
    Frederiksberg Univ Hosp, Copenhagen City Heart Study, DK-2000 Frederiksberg, Denmark..
    Jhun, Min A.
    Univ Michigan, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Jia, Yucheng
    LABioMed Harbor UCLA Med Ctr, Inst Translat Genom & Populat Sci, Torrance, CA 90502 USA..
    Jiang, Xuejuan
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Keck Sch Med, Dept Prevent Med, Los Angeles, CA 90089 USA.;Univ Southern Calif, Keck Sch Med, Dept Ophthalmol, USC Roski Eye Inst, Los Angeles, CA 90089 USA..
    Johansson, Stefan
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, KG Jebson Ctr Diabet Res, N-5020 Bergen, Norway.;Haukeland Hosp, Ctr Med Genet & Mol Med, N-5021 Bergen, Norway..
    Jorgensen, Marit E.
    Univ Southern Denmark, Natl Inst Publ Hlth, DK-1353 Copenhagen, Denmark.;Steno Diabet Ctr, DK-2820 Gentofte, Denmark..
    Jorgensen, Torben
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.;Aalborg Hosp, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark.;Capital Reg Denmark, Res Ctr Prevent & Hlth, DK-2600 Glostrup, Denmark..
    Jousilahti, Pekka
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland..
    Jukema, J. Wouter
    Leiden Univ Med Ctr, Dept Cardiol, NL-2333 Leiden, Netherlands.;Interuniv Cardiol Inst Netherlands, NL-2333 Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Kahali, Bratati
    Univ Michigan, Dept Computat Med & Bioinformat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Michigan, Dept Internal Med, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Michigan, Div Gastroenterol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Kahn, Rene S.
    Ctr Med Univ Utrecht, Brain Ctr Rudolf Magnus, Dept Psychiat, NL-3584 CG Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Kahonen, Mika
    Univ Tampere, Sch Med, Dept Clin Physiol, Tampere 33014, Finland..
    Kamstrup, Pia R.
    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Herlev & Gentofte Hosp, Dept Clin Biochem, DK-2730 Herlev, Denmark..
    Kanoni, Stavroula
    Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, William Harvey Res Inst, London EC1M 6BQ, England..
    Kaprio, Jaakko
    Univ Helsinki, Dept Publ Hlth, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Inst Mol Med Finland FIMM, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland..
    Karaleftheri, Maria
    Echinos Med Ctr, Echinos, Greece..
    Kardia, Sharon L. R.
    Univ Michigan, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Karpe, Fredrik
    Univ Oxford, Radcliffe Dept Med, Oxford Ctr Diabetes Endocrinol & Metab, Oxford OX3 7LE, England.;Oxford Univ Hosp Trust, Oxford NIHR Biomed Res Ctr, Oxford OX3 7LE, England..
    Kee, Frank
    Queens Univ Belfast, UKCRC Ctr Excellence Publ Hlth Res, Belfast BT12 6BJ, Antrim, North Ireland..
    Keeman, Renske
    Netherlands Canc Inst, Antoni van Leewenhoek Hosp, NL-1066 CX Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Kiemeney, Lambertus A.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, NL-6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Kitajima, Hidetoshi
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford OX3 7BN, England..
    Kluivers, Kirsten B.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, NL-6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Kocher, Thomas
    Univ Med Greifswald, Dept Restorat Dent Periodontol & Endodontol, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany..
    Komulainen, Pirjo
    Kuopio Res Inst Exercise Med, Fdn Res Hlth Exercise & Nutr, Kuopio 70100, Finland..
    Kontto, Jukka
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland..
    Kooner, Jaspal S.
    London North West Healthcare NHS Trust, Ealing Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Middlesex UB1 3HW, England.;Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Healthcare NHS Trust, London W12 0HS, England.;Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Natl Heart & Lung Inst, Hammersmith Hosp Campus, London W12 0NN, England..
    Kooperberg, Charles
    Fred Hutchinson Canc Res Ctr, Div Publ Hlth Sci, Seattle, WA 98109 USA..
    Kovacs, Peter
    Univ Leipzig, IFB Adipos Dis, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany..
    Kriebel, Jennifer
    German Ctr Diabet Res, D-85764 Munich, Germany.;Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen German Res Ctr Environm, Inst Epidemiol 2, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.;Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen German Res Ctr Environm, Res Unit Mol Epidemiol, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany..
    Kuivaniemi, Helena
    Sigfried & Janet Weis Ctr Res, Danville, PA 17822 USA.;Univ Stellenbosch, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Biomed Sci, Dept Psychiat, ZA-7505 Tygerberg, Western Cape, South Africa.;Univ Stellenbosch, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Biomed Sci, Div Mol Biol & Human Genet, ZA-7505 Tygerberg, Western Cape, South Africa..
    Kury, Sebastien
    CHU Nantes, Serv Genet Med, F-44093 Nantes, France..
    Kuusisto, Johanna
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Clin Med, Internal Med, Kuopio 70210, Finland.;Kuopio Univ Hosp, SF-70210 Kuopio, Finland..
    La Bianca, Martina
    Inst Maternal & Child Hlth IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, I-34137 Trieste, Italy..
    Laakso, Markku
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Clin Med, Internal Med, Kuopio 70210, Finland.;Kuopio Univ Hosp, SF-70210 Kuopio, Finland..
    Lakka, Timo A.
    Kuopio Res Inst Exercise Med, Fdn Res Hlth Exercise & Nutr, Kuopio 70100, Finland.;Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Biomed & Physiol, Kuopio 70210, Finland..
    Lange, Ethan M.
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Genet, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA..
    Lange, Leslie A.
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Genet, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA..
    Langefeld, Carl D.
    Wake Forest Sch Med, Dept Biostat Sci, Winston Salem, NC 27157 USA.;Wake Forest Sch Med, Ctr Publ Hlth Genom, Winston Salem, NC 27157 USA..
    Langenberg, Claudia
    Univ Cambridge, Sch Clin Med, Inst Metab Sci, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, England..
    Larson, Eric B.
    Univ Washington, Dept Med, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Grp Hlth Res Inst, Seattle, WA 98101 USA.;Univ Washington, Dept Hlth Serv, Seattle, WA 98101 USA..
    Lee, I-Te
    Taichung Vet Gen Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Div Endocrinol & Metab, Taichung 407, Taiwan.;Natl Yang Ming Univ, Sch Med, Taipei 112, Taiwan.;Chung Shan Med Univ, Sch Med, Taichung 402, Taiwan..
    Lehtimaki, Terho
    Fimlab Labs, Dept Clin Chem, Tampere 33520, Finland.;Univ Tampere, Sch Med, Dept Clin Chem, Tampere 33014, Finland..
    Lewis, Cora E.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Div Prevent Med, Birmingham, AL 35205 USA..
    Li, Huaixing
    Chinese Acad Sci, Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Inst Biol Sci, Inst Nutr Sci,Key Lab Nutr & Metab, Shanghai 200031, Peoples R China..
    Li, Jin
    Stanford Univ, Sch Med, Div Cardiovasc Med, Dept Med, Palo Alto, CA 94305 USA..
    Li-Gao, Ruifang
    Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Clin Epidemiol, NL-2300 RC Leiden, Netherlands..
    Lin, Honghuang
    Boston Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, Boston, MA 02118 USA..
    Lin, Li-An
    Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr Houston, Inst Mol Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA..
    Lin, Xu
    Chinese Acad Sci, Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Inst Biol Sci, Inst Nutr Sci,Key Lab Nutr & Metab, Shanghai 200031, Peoples R China..
    Lind, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology.
    Lindstrom, Jaana
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland..
    Linneberg, Allan
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Nutr, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 USA.;Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.;Capital Reg Denmark, Res Ctr Prevent & Hlth, DK-2600 Glostrup, Denmark.;Rigshosp, Dept Expt Med, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Liu, Yeheng
    LABioMed Harbor UCLA Med Ctr, Inst Translat Genom & Populat Sci, Torrance, CA 90502 USA..
    Liu, Yongmei
    Wake Forest Sch Med, Div Publ Hlth Sci, Winston Salem, NC 27157 USA..
    Lophatananon, Artitaya
    Warsaw Acad Med & Hosp, Div Hlth Sci, Coventry CV4 7AL, W Midlands, England..
    Luan, Jian'an
    Univ Cambridge, Sch Clin Med, Inst Metab Sci, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, England..
    Lubitz, Steven A.
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Boston, MA 02114 USA.;Broad Inst, Med & Populat Genet Program, Cambridge, MA 02141 USA..
    Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka
    Fimlab Labs, Dept Clin Chem, Tampere 33520, Finland.;Univ Tampere, Sch Med, Dept Clin Chem, Tampere 33014, Finland..
    Mackey, David A.
    Univ Western Australia, Lions Eye Inst, Ctr Ophthalmol & Vis Sci, Perth, WA 6009, Australia..
    Madden, Pamela A. F.
    Washington Univ, Dept Psychiat, St Louis, MO 63110 USA..
    Manning, Alisa K.
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Boston, MA 02114 USA.;Broad Inst, Med & Populat Genet Program, Cambridge, MA 02141 USA.;Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Kuopio Res Inst Exercise Med, Fdn Res Hlth Exercise & Nutr, Kuopio 70100, Finland..
    Mannisto, Satu
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland..
    Marenne, Gaelle
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Inst, Wellcome Genome Campus, Cambridge CB10 1SA, England..
    Marten, Jonathan
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Genet & Mol Med, MRCHGU, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Martin, Nicholas G.
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Brisbane, Qld 4006, Australia..
    Mazul, Angela L.
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Epidemiol, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA..
    Meidtner, Karina
    German Ctr Diabet Res, D-85764 Munich, Germany.;German Inst Human Nutr Potsdam Rehbruecke DIfE, Dept Mol Epidemiol, D-14558 Nuthetal, Germany..
    Metspalu, Andres
    Univ Tartu, Estonian Genome Ctr, EE-51010 Tartu, Estonia..
    Mitchell, Paul
    Univ Sydney, Ctr Vis Res, Westmead Millennium Inst Med Res, Sydney, NSW 2022, Australia.;Univ Sydney, Dept Ophthalmol, Sydney, NSW 2022, Australia..
    Mohlke, Karen L.
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Genet, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA..
    Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O.
    Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Clin Epidemiol, NL-2300 RC Leiden, Netherlands.;Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, NL-2300 RC Leiden, Netherlands..
    Morgan, Anna
    Univ Trieste, Dept Med Sci, I-34137 Trieste, Italy..
    Morris, Andrew D.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Ushar Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Morris, Andrew P.
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford OX3 7BN, England.;Univ Liverpool, Dept Biostat, Liverpool L69 3GL, Merseyside, England..
    Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen German Res Ctr Environm, Inst Genet Epidemiol, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany.;Univ Munich, Dept Med 1, D-81377 Munich, Germany.;DZHK German Ctr Cardiovasc Res, Partner Site Munich Heart Alliance, D-80802 Munich, Germany..
    Munroe, Patricia B.
    Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, William Harvey Res Inst, London EC1M 6BQ, England.;Queen Mary Univ, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, NIHR Barts Cardiovasc Res Unit, London EC1M 6BQ, England..
    Nalls, Mike A.
    NIA, Neurogenet Lab, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Nauck, Matthias
    DZHK German Ctr Cardiovasc Res, Partner Site Greifswald, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany.;Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Clin Chem, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany.;Univ Med Greifswald, Lab Med, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany..
    Nelson, Christopher P.
    Univ Leicester, Glenfield Hosp, Dept Cardiovasc Sci, Leicester LE3 9QP, Leics, England.;Glenfield Hosp, NIHR Leicester Cardiovasc Biomed Res Unit, Leicester LE3 9QP, Leics, England..
    Neville, Matt
    Univ Oxford, Radcliffe Dept Med, Oxford Ctr Diabetes Endocrinol & Metab, Oxford OX3 7LE, England.;Oxford Univ Hosp Trust, Oxford NIHR Biomed Res Ctr, Oxford OX3 7LE, England..
    Nielsen, Sune F.
    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Herlev & Gentofte Hosp, Dept Clin Biochem, DK-2730 Herlev, Denmark.;Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Nikus, Kjell
    Univ Tampere, Tampere Univ Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Ctr Heart, Tampere 33521, Finland.;Univ Tampere, Sch Med, Tampere 33521, Finland..
    Njolstad, Pal R.
    Haukeland Hosp, Dept Pediat, N-5021 Bergen, Norway.;Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, KG Jebson Ctr Diabet Res, N-5020 Bergen, Norway..
    Nordestgaard, Borge G.
    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Herlev & Gentofte Hosp, Dept Clin Biochem, DK-2730 Herlev, Denmark.;Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Ntalla, Ioanna
    Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, William Harvey Res Inst, London EC1M 6BQ, England..
    O'Connel, Jeffrey R.
    Univ Maryland, Sch Med, Dept Med, Program Personalized Med, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA..
    Oksa, Heikki
    Tampere Univ Hosp, Dept Med, Tampere 33521, Finland..
    Loohuis, Loes M. Olde
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Ctr Neurobehav Genet, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Ophoff, Roel A.
    Ctr Med Univ Utrecht, Brain Ctr Rudolf Magnus, Dept Psychiat, NL-3584 CG Utrecht, Netherlands.;Univ Calif Los Angeles, Ctr Neurobehav Genet, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA..
    Owen, Katharine R.
    Univ Oxford, Radcliffe Dept Med, Oxford Ctr Diabetes Endocrinol & Metab, Oxford OX3 7LE, England.;Oxford Univ Hosp Trust, Oxford NIHR Biomed Res Ctr, Oxford OX3 7LE, England..
    Packard, Chris J.
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Lanark, Scotland..
    Padmanabhan, Sandosh
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Lanark, Scotland..
    Palmer, Colin N. A.
    Ninewells Hosp & Med Sch, Med Res Inst, Pat Macpherson Ctr Pharmacogenet & Pharmacogenom, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland..
    Pasterkamp, Gerard
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Div Labs & Pharm, Lab Clin Chem & Hematol, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Patel, Aniruddh P.
    Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Boston, MA 02114 USA..
    Pattie, Alison
    Univ Edinburgh, Dept Psychol, 7 George Sq, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Pedersen, Oluf
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Novo Nordisk Fdn Ctr Basic Metab Res, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Peissig, Peggy L.
    Marshfield Clin Res Fdn, Marshfield, WI 54449 USA..
    Peloso, Gina M.
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Boston, MA 02114 USA.;Broad Inst, Med & Populat Genet Program, Cambridge, MA 02141 USA..
    Pennell, Craig E.
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Womens & Infants Hlth, Perth, WA 6009, Australia..
    Perola, Markus
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Inst Mol Med FIMM, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Helsinki, Diabet & Obes Res Program, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland.;Univ Tartu, Estonian Genome Ctr, EE-51010 Tartu, Estonia..
    Perry, James A.
    Univ Maryland, Sch Med, Dept Med, Program Personalized Med, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA..
    Perry, John R. B.
    Univ Cambridge, Sch Clin Med, Inst Metab Sci, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, England..
    Person, Thomas N.
    Marshfield Clin Res Fdn, Marshfield, WI 54449 USA..
    Pirie, Ailith
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Oncol, Ctr Canc Genet Epidemiol, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England..
    Polasek, Ozren
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Ushar Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Split, Sch Med, Split 21000, Croatia..
    Posthuma, Danielle
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Complex Trait Genet, Ctr Neurogenom & Cognit Res, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Dept Clin Genet, Neurosci Campus Amsterdam, NL-1081 HV Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Raitakari, Olli T.
    Turku Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Physiol & Nucl Med, Turku 20521, Finland.;Univ Turku, Res Ctr Appl & Prevent Cardiovasc Med, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland..
    Rasheed, Asif
    Ctr Noncommunicable Dis, Karachi, Pakistan..
    Rauramaa, Rainer
    Kuopio Res Inst Exercise Med, Fdn Res Hlth Exercise & Nutr, Kuopio 70100, Finland.;Kuopio Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Physiol & Nucl Med, SF-70210 Kuopio, Finland..
    Reilly, Dermot F.
    MRL Merck & Co Inc, Genet & Pharmacogenom, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Reiner, Alex P.
    Fred Hutchinson Canc Res Ctr, Div Publ Hlth Sci, Seattle, WA 98109 USA.;Univ Washington, Dept Epidemiol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Renstrom, Frida
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Genet & Mol Epidemiol Unit, SE-20502 Malmo, Sweden.;Umea Univ, Dept Biobank Res, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Ridker, Paul M.
    Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Brigham & Womens & Harvard Med Sch, Div Prevent Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Brigham & Womens Hosp, Div Cardiovasc Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Rioux, John D.
    Montreal Heart Inst, Montreal, PQ H1T 1C8, Canada.;Univ Montreal, Fac Med, Dept Med, Montreal, PQ H3T 1J4, Canada..
    Robertson, Neil
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford OX3 7BN, England.;Univ Oxford, Radcliffe Dept Med, Oxford Ctr Diabetes Endocrinol & Metab, Oxford OX3 7LE, England..
    Robino, Antonietta
    Inst Maternal & Child Hlth IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, I-34137 Trieste, Italy..
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, SE-90185 Umea, Sweden.;Umea Univ, Unit Family Med, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, S-90185 Umea, Sweden..
    Rudan, Igor
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Global Hlth Res, Ushar Inst Populat Hlth Sci & Informat, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Ruth, Katherine S.
    Univ Exeter, Sch Med, Genet Complex Traits, Exeter EX2 5DW, Devon, England..
    Saleheen, Danish
    Ctr Noncommunicable Dis, Karachi, Pakistan.;Univ Penn, Perelman Sch Med, Dept Biostat & Epidemiol, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Salomaa, Veikko
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland..
    Samani, Nilesh J.
    Univ Leicester, Glenfield Hosp, Dept Cardiovasc Sci, Leicester LE3 9QP, Leics, England.;Glenfield Hosp, NIHR Leicester Cardiovasc Biomed Res Unit, Leicester LE3 9QP, Leics, England..
    Sandow, Kevin
    LABioMed Harbor UCLA Med Ctr, Inst Translat Genom & Populat Sci, Torrance, CA 90502 USA..
    Sapkota, Yadav
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Brisbane, Qld 4006, Australia..
    Sattar, Naveed
    Univ Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Lanark, Scotland..
    Schmidt, Marjanka K.
    Netherlands Canc Inst, Antoni van Leewenhoek Hosp, NL-1066 CX Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Schreiner, Pamela J.
    Univ Minnesota, Div Epidemiol & Community Hlth, Minneapolis, MN 55454 USA..
    Schulze, Matthias B.
    German Ctr Diabet Res, D-85764 Munich, Germany.;German Inst Human Nutr Potsdam Rehbruecke DIfE, Dept Mol Epidemiol, D-14558 Nuthetal, Germany..
    Scott, Robert A.
    Univ Cambridge, Sch Clin Med, Inst Metab Sci, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, England..
    Segura-Lepe, Marcelo P.
    Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London W2 1PG, England..
    Shah, Svati
    Duke Univ, Durham, NC 27703 USA..
    Sim, Xueling
    Univ Michigan, Dept Biostat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Michigan, Ctr Stat Genet, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Natl Univ Singapore, Natl Univ Hlth Syst, Saw Swee Hock Sch Publ Hlth, Singapore, Singapore..
    Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Boston, MA 02114 USA.;Univ Cambridge, Dept Haematol, Cambridge CB2 0PT, England.;AMC, Dept Vasc Med, NL-1105 AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Small, Kerrin S.
    Kings Coll London, Dept Twin Res & Genet Epidemiol, London SE1 7EH, England..
    Smith, Albert Vernon
    Univ Iceland, Fac Med, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.;Icelandic Heart Assoc, IS-201 Kopavogur, Iceland..
    Smith, Jennifer A.
    Univ Michigan, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Southam, Lorraine
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford OX3 7BN, England.;Wellcome Trust Sanger Inst, Wellcome Genome Campus, Cambridge CB10 1SA, England..
    Spector, Timothy D.
    Kings Coll London, Dept Twin Res & Genet Epidemiol, London SE1 7EH, England..
    Speliotes, Elizabeth K.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Computat Med & Bioinformat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Michigan, Dept Internal Med, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Michigan, Div Gastroenterol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Starr, John M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Midlothian, Scotland.;Univ Edinburgh, Alzheimer Scotland Dementia Res Ctr, Edinburgh EH8 9JZ, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur
    deCODE Genet Amgen Inc, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Stringham, Heather M.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Biostat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Michigan, Ctr Stat Genet, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Stumvoll, Michael
    Univ Leipzig, IFB Adipos Dis, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany.;Univ Leipzig, Dept Med, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany..
    Surendran, Praveen
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, MRC BHF Cardiovasc Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England..
    't Hart, Leen M.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, NL-1007 MB Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Mol & Cell Biol, NL-2333 ZC Leiden, Netherlands.;Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Mol Epidemiol, NL-2333 ZC Leiden, Netherlands..
    Tansey, Katherine E.
    Cardiff Univ, Coll Biomed & Life Sci, Cardiff CF14 4EP, S Glam, Wales.;Univ Bristol, Dept Social & Community Med, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit, Bristol BS8 2BN, Avon, England..
    Tardif, Jean-Claude
    Montreal Heart Inst, Montreal, PQ H1T 1C8, Canada.;Univ Montreal, Fac Med, Dept Med, Montreal, PQ H3T 1J4, Canada..
    Taylor, Kent D.
    LABioMed Harbor UCLA Med Ctr, Inst Translat Genom & Populat Sci, Torrance, CA 90502 USA..
    Teumer, Alexander
    Boston Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, Boston, MA 02118 USA.;Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Community Med, D-17475 Greifswald, Germany..
    Thompson, Deborah J.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Ctr Canc Genet Epidemiol, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England..
    Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur
    deCODE Genet Amgen Inc, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.;Univ Iceland, Fac Med, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Thuesen, Betina H.
    Capital Reg Denmark, Res Ctr Prevent & Hlth, DK-2600 Glostrup, Denmark..
    Toenjes, Anke
    Univ Leipzig, Dept Womens & Child Hlth, Ctr Pediat Res, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany..
    Tromp, Gerard
    Sigfried & Janet Weis Ctr Res, Danville, PA 17822 USA.;Univ Stellenbosch, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Dept Biomed Sci, Div Human Genet & Mol Biol, ZA-7505 Tygerberg, Western Cape, South Africa..
    Trompet, Stella
    Leiden Univ Med Ctr, Dept Cardiol, NL-2333 Leiden, Netherlands.;Leiden Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Gerontol & Geriatr, NL-2333 Leiden, Netherlands..
    Tsafantakis, Emmanouil
    Anogia Med Ctr, Anogia, Greece..
    Tuomilehto, Jaakko
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, FI-00271 Helsinki, Finland.;Danube Univ Krems, Ctr Vasc Prevent, A-3500 Krems, Austria.;Dasman Diabet Inst, Dasman 15462, Kuwait.;King Abdulaziz Univ, Diabet Res Grp, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia..
    Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.;Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Rigshosp, Dept Clin Biochem, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Tyrer, Jonathan P.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Oncol, Ctr Canc Genet Epidemiol, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England..
    Uher, Rudolf
    Dalhousie Univ, Dept Psychiat, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada..
    Uitterlinden, Andre G.
    Erasmus Sch Ctr, Dept Epidemiol, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus Sch Ctr, Dept Internal Med, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Ulivi, Sheila
    Inst Maternal & Child Hlth IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, I-34137 Trieste, Italy..
    van der Laan, Sander W.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Div Heart & Lungs, Lab Expt Cardiol, NL-3584 CX Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Van Der Leij, Andries R.
    Univ Amsterdam, Dept Brain & Cognit, NL-1018 WS Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    van Duijn, Cornelia M.
    Erasmus Sch Ctr, Dept Epidemiol, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    van Schoor, Natasja M.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, NL-1007 MB Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    van Setten, Jessica
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Dept Cardiol, Div Heart & Lungs, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Varbo, Anette
    Copenhagen Univ Hosp, Herlev & Gentofte Hosp, Dept Clin Biochem, DK-2730 Herlev, Denmark.;Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Varga, Tibor V.
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci, Genet & Mol Epidemiol Unit, SE-20502 Malmo, Sweden..
    Varma, Rohit
    Univ Southern Calif, Keck Sch Med, Dept Ophthalmol, USC Roski Eye Inst, Los Angeles, CA 90089 USA..
    Edwards, Digna R. Velez
    Vanderbilt Univ, Vanderbilt Genet Inst, Inst Med & Publ Hlth, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Nashville, TN 37203 USA..
    Vermeulen, Sita H.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Med Ctr, NL-6500 HB Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Vestergaard, Henrik
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Novo Nordisk Fdn Ctr Basic Metab Res, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Vitart, Veronique
    Univ Edinburgh, Inst Genet & Mol Med, MRCHGU, Edinburgh EH4 2XU, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Vogt, Thomas F.
    MRL Merck Co Inc, Cardiometab Dis, Kenilworth, NJ 07033 USA..
    Vozzi, Diego
    Sidra Med & Res Ctr, Div Expt Genet, Doha 26999, Qatar..
    Walker, Mark
    Newcastle Univ, Sch Med, Inst Cellular Med, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE2 4HH, Tyne & Wear, England..
    Wang, Feijie
    Chinese Acad Sci, Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Inst Biol Sci, Inst Nutr Sci,Key Lab Nutr & Metab, Shanghai 200031, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Carol A.
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Womens & Infants Hlth, Perth, WA 6009, Australia..
    Wang, Shuai
    Boston Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA 02118 USA..
    Wang, Yiqin
    Chinese Acad Sci, Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Inst Biol Sci, Inst Nutr Sci,Key Lab Nutr & Metab, Shanghai 200031, Peoples R China..
    Wareham, Nicholas J.
    Univ Cambridge, Sch Clin Med, Inst Metab Sci, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, England..
    Warren, Helen R.
    Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, William Harvey Res Inst, London EC1M 6BQ, England.;Queen Mary Univ, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, NIHR Barts Cardiovasc Res Unit, London EC1M 6BQ, England..
    Wessel, Jennifer
    Indiana Univ, Fairbanks Sch Publ Hlth, Diabet Translat Res Ctr, Dept Epidemiol & Med, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA.;Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA..
    Willems, Sara M.
    Univ Cambridge, Sch Clin Med, Inst Metab Sci, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, England..
    Wilson, James G.
    Univ Mississippi, Med Ctr, Dept Physiol & Biophys, Jackson, MS 39216 USA..
    Witte, Daniel R.
    Danish Diabet Acad, DK-5000 Odense, Denmark.;Aarhus Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark..
    Woods, Michael O.
    Mem Univ Newfoundland, Fac Med, Discipline Genet, St John, NF A1B 3V6, Canada..
    Wu, Ying
    Univ N Carolina, Dept Genet, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA..
    Yaghootkar, Hanieh
    Univ Exeter, Sch Med, Genet Complex Traits, Exeter EX2 5DW, Devon, England..
    Yao, Jie
    LABioMed Harbor UCLA Med Ctr, Inst Translat Genom & Populat Sci, Torrance, CA 90502 USA..
    Yao, Pang
    Chinese Acad Sci, Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Inst Biol Sci, Inst Nutr Sci,Key Lab Nutr & Metab, Shanghai 200031, Peoples R China..
    Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M.
    Univ Maryland, Sch Med, Dept Med, Program Personalized Med, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA.;GlaxoSmithKlein, King Of Prussia, PA 19406 USA..
    Young, Robin
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, MRC BHF Cardiovasc Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge CB1 8RN, England.;Univ Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, Lanark, Scotland..
    Zeggini, Eleftheria
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Inst, Wellcome Genome Campus, Cambridge CB10 1SA, England..
    Zhan, Xiaowei
    Univ Texas Southwestern Med Ctr Dallas, Quantitat Biomed Res Ctr, Ctr Genet Host Def, Dept Clin Sci, Dallas, TX 75390 USA..
    Zhang, Weihua
    London North West Healthcare NHS Trust, Ealing Hosp, Dept Cardiol, Middlesex UB1 3HW, England.;Univ London Imperial Coll Sci Technol & Med, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London W2 1PG, England..
    Zhao, Jing Hua
    Univ Cambridge, Sch Clin Med, Inst Metab Sci, MRC Epidemiol Unit, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, England..
    Zhao, Wei
    Univ Michigan, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Penn, Perelman Sch Med, Dept Biostat & Epidemiol, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Zheng, He
    Chinese Acad Sci, Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Shanghai Inst Biol Sci, Inst Nutr Sci,Key Lab Nutr & Metab, Shanghai 200031, Peoples R China..
    Zhou, Wei
    Univ Michigan, Dept Computat Med & Bioinformat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Michigan, Dept Internal Med, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Rotter, Jerome I.
    LABioMed Harbor UCLA Med Ctr, Inst Translat Genom & Populat Sci, Torrance, CA 90502 USA..
    Boehnke, Michael
    Univ Michigan, Dept Biostat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Michigan, Ctr Stat Genet, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Kathiresan, Sekar
    Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Boston, MA 02114 USA..
    McCarthy, Mark I.
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford OX3 7BN, England.;Univ Oxford, Radcliffe Dept Med, Oxford Ctr Diabetes Endocrinol & Metab, Oxford OX3 7LE, England.;Oxford Univ Hosp Trust, Oxford NIHR Biomed Res Ctr, Oxford OX3 7LE, England..
    Willer, Cristen J.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Computat Med & Bioinformat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Michigan, Dept Internal Med, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.;Univ Michigan, Dept Human Genet, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA..
    Stefansson, Kari
    deCODE Genet Amgen Inc, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland.;Univ Iceland, Fac Med, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Borecki, Ingrid B.
    Washington Univ, Sch Med, Dept Genet, Div Stat Genom, St Louis, MO 63108 USA..
    Liu, Dajiang J.
    Penn State Univ, Coll Med, Inst Personalized Med, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Hershey, PA 17033 USA..
    North, Kari E.
    Dept Epidemiol, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA.;Carolina Ctr Genome Sci, Chapel Hill, NC 27514 USA..
    Heard-Costa, Nancy L.
    NHLBI, Framingham Heart Study, Framingham, MA 01702 USA.;Boston Univ, Sch Med, Dept Neurol, Boston, MA 02118 USA..
    Pers, Tune H.
    Univ Copenhagen, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Novo Nordisk Fdn Ctr Basic Metab Res, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.;Statens Serum Inst, Dept Epidemiol Res, DK-2200 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Lindgren, Cecilia M.
    Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Human Genet, Oxford OX3 7BN, England.;Univ Oxford, Big Data Inst, Li Ka Shing Ctr Hlth Informat & Discovery, Oxford OX3 7BN, England..
    Oxvig, Claus
    Aarhus Univ, Dept Mol Biol & Genet, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark..
    Kutalik, Zoltan
    Univ Lausanne Hosp, Inst Social & Prevent Med, CH-1010 Lausanne, Switzerland.;Swiss Inst Bioinformat, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Rivadeneira, Fernando
    Erasmus Sch Ctr, Dept Epidemiol, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Erasmus Sch Ctr, Dept Internal Med, NL-3015 GE Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Loos, Ruth J. F.
    Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Charles Bronfman Inst Personalized Med, New York, NY 10029 USA.;Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Genet Obes & Related Metab Traits Program, New York, NY 10069 USA.;Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Mindich Child Hlth & Dev Inst, New York, NY 10069 USA..
    Frayling, Timothy M.
    Univ Exeter, Sch Med, Genet Complex Traits, Exeter EX2 5DW, Devon, England..
    Hirschhorn, Joel N.
    Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Cambridge, MA 02142 USA.;Boston Childrens Hosp, Div Endocrinol, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Boston Childrens Hosp, Ctr Basic & Translat Obes Res, Boston, MA 02115 USA.;Harvard Med Sch, Dept Pediat & Genet, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Deloukas, Panos
    Queen Mary Univ London, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, William Harvey Res Inst, London EC1M 6BQ, England.;King Abdulaziz Univ, Princess Al Jawhara Al Brahim Ctr Excellence Res, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia..
    Lettre, Guillaume
    Montreal Heart Inst, Montreal, PQ H1T 1C8, Canada.;Univ Montreal, Fac Med, Dept Med, Montreal, PQ H3T 1J4, Canada..
    Rare and low-frequency coding variants alter human adult height2017In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 542, no 7640, p. 186-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Height is a highly heritable, classic polygenic trait with approximately 700 common associated variants identified through genome-wide association studies so far. Here, we report 83 height-associated coding variants with lower minor-allele frequencies (in the range of 0.1-4.8%) and effects of up to 2 centimetres per allele (such as those in IHH, STC2, AR and CRISPLD2), greater than ten times the average effect of common variants. In functional follow-up studies, rare height increasing alleles of STC2 (giving an increase of 1-2 centimetres per allele) compromised proteolytic inhibition of PAPP-A and increased cleavage of IGFBP-4 in vitro, resulting in higher bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors. These 83 height-associated variants overlap genes that are mutated in monogenic growth disorders and highlight new biological candidates (such as ADAMTS3, IL11RA and NOX4) and pathways (such as proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan synthesis) involved in growth. Our results demonstrate that sufficiently large sample sizes can uncover rare and low-frequency variants of moderate-to-large effect associated with polygenic human phenotypes, and that these variants implicate relevant genes and pathways.

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