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  • 1. Feigin, Valery L.
    et al.
    Nichols, Emma
    Alam, Tahiya
    Bannick, Marlena S.
    Beghi, Ettore
    Blake, Natacha
    Culpepper, William J.
    Dorsey, E. Ray
    Elbaz, Alexis
    Ellenbogen, Richard G.
    Fisher, James L.
    Fitzmaurice, Christina
    Giussani, Giorgia
    Glennie, Linda
    James, Spencer L.
    Johnson, Catherine Owens
    Kassebaum, Nicholas J.
    Logroscino, Giancarlo
    Marin, Benoit
    Mountjoy-Venning, W. Cliff
    Nguyen, Minh
    Ofori-Asenso, Richard
    Patel, Anoop P.
    Piccininni, Marco
    Roth, Gregory A.
    Steiner, Timothy J.
    Stovner, Lars Jacob
    Szoeke, Cassandra E. I.
    Theadom, Alice
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Wallin, Mitchell Taylor
    Wright, Claire
    Zunt, Joseph Raymond
    Abbasi, Nooshin
    Abd-Allah, Foad
    Abdelalim, Ahmed
    Abdollahpour, Ibrahim
    Aboyans, Victor
    Abraha, Haftom Niguse
    Acharya, Dilaram
    Adamu, Abdu A.
    Adebayo, Oladimeji M.
    Adeoye, Abiodun Moshood
    Adsuar, Jose C.
    Afarideh, Mohsen
    Agrawal, Sutapa
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Ahmed, Muktar Beshir
    Aichour, Amani Nidhal
    Aichour, Ibtihel
    Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine
    Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola
    Akseer, Nadia
    Al-Eyadhy, Ayman
    Salman, Rustam Al-Shahi
    Alahdab, Fares
    Alene, Kefyalew Addis
    Aljunid, Syed Mohamed
    Altirkawi, Khalid
    Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
    Anber, Nahla Hamed
    Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.
    Arabloo, Jalal
    Aremu, Olatunde
    Arnlov, Johan
    Asayesh, Hamid
    Asghar, Rana Jawad
    Atalay, Hagos Tasew
    Awasthi, Ashish
    Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina
    Ayuk, Tambe B.
    Badawi, Alaa
    Banach, Maciej
    Banoub, Joseph Adel Mattar
    Barboza, Miguel A.
    Barker-Collo, Suzanne Lyn
    Barnighausen, Till Winfried
    Baune, Bernhard T.
    Bedi, Neeraj
    Behzadifar, Masoud
    Behzadifar, Meysam
    Bejot, Yannick
    Bekele, Bayu Begashaw
    Belachew, Abate Bekele
    Bennett, Derrick A.
    Bensenor, Isabela M.
    Berhane, Adugnaw
    Beuran, Mircea
    Bhattacharyya, Krittika
    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.
    Biadgo, Belete
    Bijani, Ali
    Bililign, Nigus
    Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat
    Blazes, Christopher Kynrint
    Brayne, Carol
    Butt, Zahid A.
    Campos-Nonato, Ismael R.
    Cantu-Brito, Carlos
    Car, Mate
    Cardenas, Rosario
    Carrero, Juan J.
    Carvalho, Felix
    Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.
    Castro, Franz
    Catala-Lopez, Ferran
    Cerin, Ester
    Chaiah, Yazan
    Chang, Jung-Chen
    Chatziralli, Irini
    Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia
    Christensen, Hanne
    Christopher, Devasahayam J.
    Cooper, Cyrus
    Cortesi, Paolo Angelo
    Costa, Vera M.
    Criqui, Michael H.
    Crowe, Christopher Stephen
    Damasceno, Albertino Antonio Moura
    Daryani, Ahmad
    De la Cruz-Gongora, Vanessa
    Pio De la Hoz, Fernando
    De Leo, Diego
    Degefa, Meaza Girma
    Demoz, Gebre Teklemariam
    Deribe, Kebede
    Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda
    Diaz, Daniel
    Dinberu, Mesfin Tadese
    Djalalinia, Shirin
    Doku, David Teye
    Dubey, Manisha
    Dubljanin, Eleonora
    Duken, Eyasu Ejeta
    Edvardsson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    El-Khatib, Ziad
    Endres, Matthias
    Endries, Aman Yesuf
    Eskandarieh, Sharareh
    Esteghamati, Alireza
    Esteghamati, Sadaf
    Farhadi, Farzaneh
    Faro, Andre
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein
    Fatima, Batool
    Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad
    Fernandes, Eduarda
    Feyissa, Garumma Tolu
    Filip, Irina
    Fischer, Florian
    Fukumoto, Takeshi
    Ganji, Morsaleh
    Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho
    Garcia-Gordillo, Miguel A.
    Gebre, Abadi Kahsu
    Gebremichael, Teklu Gebrehiwo
    Gelaw, Belayneh K.
    Geleijnse, Johanna M.
    Geremew, Demeke
    Gezae, Kebede Embaye
    Ghasemi-Kasman, Maryam
    Gidey, Mahari Y.
    Gill, Paramjit Singh
    Gill, Tiffany K.
    Gnedovskaya, Elena V.
    Goulart, Alessandra C.
    Grada, Ayman
    Grosso, Giuseppe
    Guo, Yuming
    Gupta, Rahul
    Gupta, Rajeev
    Haagsma, Juanita A.
    Hagos, Tekleberhan B.
    Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin
    Haj-Mirzaian, Arya
    Hamadeh, Randah R.
    Hamidi, Samer
    Hankey, Graeme J.
    Hao, Yuantao
    Haro, Josep Maria
    Hassankhani, Hadi
    Hassen, Hamid Yimam
    Havmoeller, Rasmus
    Hay, Simon I.
    Hegazy, Mohamed I.
    Heidari, Behnam
    Henok, Andualem
    Heydarpour, Fatemeh
    Hoang, Chi Linh
    Hole, Michael K.
    Rad, Enayatollah Homaie
    Hosseini, Seyed Mostafa
    Hu, Guoqing
    Igumbor, Ehimario U.
    Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen
    Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi
    Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful
    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo
    Javanbakht, Mehdi
    Jha, Ravi Prakash
    Jobanputra, Yash B.
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy
    Jurisson, Mikk
    Kahsay, Amaha
    Kalani, Rizwan
    Kalkonde, Yogeshwar
    Kamil, Teshome Abegaz
    Kanchan, Tanuj
    Karami, Manoochehr
    Karch, Andre
    Karimi, Narges
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Kassa, Tesfaye Dessale
    Kassa, Zemenu Yohannes
    Kaul, Anil
    Kefale, Adane Teshome
    Keiyoro, Peter Njenga
    Khader, Yousef Saleh
    Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif
    Khalil, Ibrahim A.
    Khan, Ejaz Ahmad
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Khazaie, Habibolah
    Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A.
    Kiirithio, Daniel N.
    Kim, Anthony S.
    Kim, Daniel
    Kim, Young-Eun
    Kim, Yun Jin
    Kisa, Adnan
    Kokubo, Yoshihiro
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Krishnamurthi, Rita V.
    Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
    Bicer, Burcu Kucuk
    Kumar, Manasi
    Lacey, Ben
    Lafranconi, Alessandra
    Lansingh, Van C.
    Latifi, Arman
    Leshargie, Cheru Tesema
    Li, Shanshan
    Liao, Yu
    Linn, Shai
    Lo, Warren David
    Lopez, Jaifred Christian F.
    Lorkowski, Stefan
    Lotufo, Paulo A.
    Lucas, Robyn M.
    Lunevicius, Raimundas
    Mackay, Mark T.
    Mahotra, Narayan Bahadur
    Majdan, Marek
    Majdzadeh, Reza
    Majeed, Azeem
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Malta, Deborah Carvalho
    Manafi, Navid
    Mansournia, Mohammad Ali
    Mantovani, Lorenzo Giovanni
    Marz, Winfried
    Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani Phosa
    Massenburg, Benjamin Ballard
    Mate, Kedar K. V.
    McAlinden, Colm
    McGrath, John J.
    Mehta, Varshil
    Meier, Toni
    Meles, Hagazi Gebre
    Melese, Addisu
    Memiah, Peter T. N.
    Memish, Ziad A.
    Mendoza, Walter
    Mengistu, Desalegn Tadese
    Mengistu, Getnet
    Meretoja, Atte
    Meretoja, Tuomo J.
    Mestrovic, Tomislav
    Miazgowski, Bartosz
    Miazgowski, Tomasz
    Miller, Ted R.
    Mini, G. K.
    Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.
    Moazen, Babak
    Mohajer, Bahram
    Mezerji, Naser Mohammad Gholi
    Mohammadi, Moslem
    Mohammadi-Khanaposhtani, Maryam
    Mohammadibakhsh, Roghayeh
    Mohammadnia-Afrouzi, Mousa
    Mohammed, Shafiu
    Mohebi, Farnam
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    Monasta, Lorenzo
    Mondello, Stefania
    Moodley, Yoshan
    Moosazadeh, Mahmood
    Moradi, Ghobad
    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
    Moradinazar, Mehdi
    Moraga, Paula
    Velasquez, Ilais Moreno
    Morrison, Shane Douglas
    Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam
    Muhammed, Oumer Sada
    Muruet, Walter
    Musa, Kamarul Imran
    Mustafa, Ghulam
    Naderi, Mehdi
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Naheed, Aliya
    Naik, Gurudatta
    Najafi, Farid
    Nangia, Vinay
    Negoi, Ionut
    Negoi, Ruxandra Irina
    Newton, Charles Richard James
    Ngunjiri, Josephine W.
    Nguyen, Cuong Tat
    Nguyen, Long Hoang
    Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini
    Nirayo, Yirga Legesse
    Nixon, Molly R.
    Norrving, Bo
    Noubiap, Jean Jacques
    Shiadeh, Malihe Nourollahpour
    Nyasulu, Peter S.
    Ogbo, Felix Akpojene
    Oh, In-Hwan
    Olagunju, Andrew T.
    Olagunju, Tinuke O.
    Olivares, Pedro R.
    Onwujekwe, Obinna E.
    Oren, Eyal
    Owolabi, Mayowa Ojo
    Mahesh, P. A.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Pan, Wen-Harn
    Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra
    Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai
    Patel, Sangram Kishor
    Pereira, David M.
    Petzold, Max
    Pillay, Julian David
    Piradov, Michael A.
    Polanczyk, Guilherme V.
    Polinder, Suzanne
    Postma, Maarten J.
    Poulton, Richie
    Poustchi, Hossein
    Prakash, Swayam
    Prakash, V.
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Radfar, Amir
    Rafay, Anwar
    Rafiei, Alireza
    Rahim, Fakher
    Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
    Rahman, Mahfuzar
    Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur
    Rahman, Muhammad Aziz
    Rajati, Fatemeh
    Ram, Usha
    Ranta, Anna
    Rawaf, David Laith
    Rawaf, Salman
    Reinig, Nickolas
    Reis, Cesar
    Renzaho, Andre M. N.
    Resnikoff, Serge
    Rezaeian, Shahab
    Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh
    Gonzalez, Carlos Miguel Rios
    Roberts, Nicholas L. S.
    Roever, Leonardo
    Ronfani, Luca
    Roro, Elias Merdassa
    Roshandel, Gholamreza
    Rostami, Ali
    Sabbagh, Parisa
    Sacco, Ralph L.
    Sachdev, Perminder S.
    Saddik, Basema
    Safari, Hosein
    Safari-Faramani, Roya
    Safi, Sare
    Safiri, Saeid
    Sagar, Rajesh
    Sahathevan, Ramesh
    Sahebkar, Amirhossein
    Sahraian, Mohammad Ali
    Salamati, Payman
    Zahabi, Saleh Salehi
    Salimi, Yahya
    Samy, Abdallah M.
    Sanabria, Juan
    Santos, Itamar S.
    Milicevic, Milena M. Santric
    Sarrafzadegan, Nizal
    Sartorius, Benn
    Sarvi, Shahabeddin
    Sathian, Brijesh
    Satpathy, Maheswar
    Sawant, Arundhati R.
    Sawhney, Monika
    Schneider, Ione J. C.
    Schottker, Ben
    Schwebel, David C.
    Seedat, Soraya
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Shabaninejad, Hosein
    Shafieesabet, Azadeh
    Shaikh, Masood Ali
    Shakir, Raad A.
    Shams-Beyranvand, Mehran
    Shamsizadeh, Morteza
    Sharif, Mehdi
    Sharif-Alhoseini, Mahdi
    She, Jun
    Sheikh, Aziz
    Sheth, Kevin N.
    Shigematsu, Mika
    Shiri, Rahman
    Shirkoohi, Reza
    Shiue, Ivy
    Siabani, Soraya
    Siddiqi, Tariq J.
    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
    Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig
    Silberberg, Donald H.
    Silva, Joao Pedro
    Silveira, Dayane Gabriele Alves
    Singh, Jasvinder A.
    Sinha, Dhirendra Narain
    Skiadaresi, Eirini
    Smith, Mari
    Sobaih, Badr Hasan
    Sobhani, Soheila
    Soofi, Moslem
    Soyiri, Ireneous N.
    Sposato, Luciano A.
    Stein, Dan J.
    Stein, Murray B.
    Stokes, Mark A.
    Sufiyan, Mu'awiyyah Babale
    Sykes, Bryan L.
    Sylaja, Pn
    Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael
    Ao, Braden James Te
    Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash
    Temsah, Mohamad-Hani
    Temsah, Omar
    Thakur, Jarnail Singh
    Thrift, Amanda G.
    Topor-Madry, Roman
    Tortajada-Girbes, Miguel
    Tovani-Palone, Marcos Roberto
    Tran, Bach Xuan
    Tran, Khanh Bao
    Truelsen, Thomas Clement
    Tsadik, Afewerki Gebremeskel
    Car, Lorainne Tudor
    Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna
    Ullah, Irfan
    Usman, Muhammad Shariq
    Uthman, Olalekan A.
    Valdez, Pascual R.
    Vasankari, Tommi Juhani
    Vasanthan, Rajagopalan
    Veisani, Yousef
    Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy
    Violante, Francesco S.
    Vlassov, Vasily
    Vosoughi, Kia
    Vu, Giang Thu
    Vujcic, Isidora S.
    Wagnew, Fasil Shiferaw
    Waheed, Yasir
    Wang, Yuan-Pang
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Weiss, Jordan
    Whiteford, Harvey A.
    Wijeratne, Tissa
    Winkler, Andrea Sylvia
    Wiysonge, Charles Shey
    Wolfe, Charles D. A.
    Xu, Gelin
    Yadollahpour, Ali
    Yamada, Tomohide
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Yaseri, Mehdi
    Yatsuya, Hiroshi
    Yimer, Ebrahim M.
    Yip, Paul
    Yisma, Engida
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Yousefifard, Mahmoud
    Yu, Chuanhua
    Zaidi, Zoubida
    Bin Zaman, Sojib
    Zamani, Mohammad
    Zandian, Hamed
    Zare, Zohreh
    Zhang, Yunquan
    Zodpey, Sanjay
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Vos, Theo
    Global, regional, and national burden of neurological disorders, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20162019In: Lancet Neurology, ISSN 1474-4422, E-ISSN 1474-4465, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 459-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Neurological disorders are increasingly recognised as major causes of death and disability worldwide. The aim of this analysis from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 is to provide the most comprehensive and up-to-date estimates of the global, regional, and national burden from neurological disorders.

    Methods: We estimated prevalence, incidence, deaths, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs; the sum of years of life lost [YLLs] and years lived with disability [YLDs]) by age and sex for 15 neurological disorder categories (tetanus, meningitis, encephalitis, stroke, brain and other CNS cancers, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, motor neuron diseases, idiopathic epilepsy, migraine, tension-type headache, and a residual category for other less common neurological disorders) in 195 countries from 1990 to 2016. DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, was the main method of estimation of prevalence and incidence, and the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) was used for mortality estimation. We quantified the contribution of 84 risks and combinations of risk to the disease estimates for the 15 neurological disorder categories using the GBD comparative risk assessment approach.

    Findings: Globally, in 2016, neurological disorders were the leading cause of DALYs (276 million [95% UI 247–308]) and second leading cause of deaths (9·0 million [8·8–9·4]). The absolute number of deaths and DALYs from all neurological disorders combined increased (deaths by 39% [34–44] and DALYs by 15% [9–21]) whereas their age-standardised rates decreased (deaths by 28% [26–30] and DALYs by 27% [24–31]) between 1990 and 2016. The only neurological disorders that had a decrease in rates and absolute numbers of deaths and DALYs were tetanus, meningitis, and encephalitis. The four largest contributors of neurological DALYs were stroke (42·2% [38·6–46·1]), migraine (16·3% [11·7–20·8]), Alzheimer's and other dementias (10·4% [9·0–12·1]), and meningitis (7·9% [6·6–10·4]). For the combined neurological disorders, age-standardised DALY rates were significantly higher in males than in females (male-to-female ratio 1·12 [1·05–1·20]), but migraine, multiple sclerosis, and tension-type headache were more common and caused more burden in females, with male-to-female ratios of less than 0·7. The 84 risks quantified in GBD explain less than 10% of neurological disorder DALY burdens, except stroke, for which 88·8% (86·5–90·9) of DALYs are attributable to risk factors, and to a lesser extent Alzheimer's disease and other dementias (22·3% [11·8–35·1] of DALYs are risk attributable) and idiopathic epilepsy (14·1% [10·8–17·5] of DALYs are risk attributable).

    Interpretation: Globally, the burden of neurological disorders, as measured by the absolute number of DALYs, continues to increase. As populations are growing and ageing, and the prevalence of major disabling neurological disorders steeply increases with age, governments will face increasing demand for treatment, rehabilitation, and support services for neurological disorders. The scarcity of established modifiable risks for most of the neurological burden demonstrates that new knowledge is required to develop effective prevention and treatment strategies.

    Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

  • 2. Nichols, Emma
    et al.
    Szoeke, Cassandra E. I.
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Abbasi, Nooshin
    Abd-Allah, Foad
    Abdela, Jemal
    Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine
    Akinyemi, Rufus O.
    Alahdab, Fares
    Asgedom, Solomon W.
    Awasthi, Ashish
    Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.
    Baune, Bernhard T.
    Bejot, Yannick
    Belachew, Abate B.
    Bennett, Derrick A.
    Bijani, Belete Biadgo Ali
    Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat
    Brayne, Carol
    Carpenter, David O.
    Carvalho, Felix
    Catala-Lopez, Ferran
    Cerin, Ester
    Choi, Jee-Young J.
    Dang, Ahn K.
    Degefa, Meaza G.
    Djalalinia, Shirin
    Dubey, Manisha
    Duken, Eyasu Ejeta
    Edvardsson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. School of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Endres, Matthias
    Eskandarieh, Sharareh
    Faro, Andre
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad
    Fernandes, Eduarda
    Filip, Irina
    Fischer, Florian
    Gebre, Abadi K.
    Geremew, Demeke
    Ghasemi-Kasman, Maryam
    Gnedovskaya, Elena V.
    Gupta, Rajeev
    Hachinski, Vladimir
    Hagos, Tekleberhan B.
    Hamidi, Samer
    Hankey, Graeme J.
    Haro, Josep M.
    Hay, Simon I.
    Irvani, Seyed Sina N.
    Jha, Ravi P.
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Kalani, Rizwan
    Karch, Andre
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Khader, Yousef Saleh
    Khalil, Ibrahim A.
    Khan, Ejaz Ahmad
    Khanna, Tripti
    Khoja, Tawfik A. M.
    Khubchandani, Jagdish
    Kisa, Adnan
    Kissimova-Skarbek, Katarzyna
    Kivimaki, Mika
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Krohn, Kristopher J.
    Logroscino, Giancarlo
    Lorkowski, Stefan
    Majdan, Marek
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Marz, Winfried
    Massano, Joao
    Mengistu, Getnet
    Meretoja, Atte
    Mohammadi, Moslem
    Mohammadi-Khanaposhtani, Maryam
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    Mondello, Stefania
    Moradi, Ghobad
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Naik, Gurudatta
    Nguyen, Long H.
    Nguyen, Trang H.
    Nirayo, Yirga L.
    Nixon, Molly R.
    Ofori-Asenso, Richard
    Ogbo, Felix A.
    Olagunju, Andrew T.
    Owolabi, Mayowa O.
    Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra
    Passos, Valeria M. de Azeredo
    Pereira, David M.
    Pinilla-Monsalve, Gabriel D.
    Piradov, Michael A.
    Pond, Constance D.
    Poustchi, Hossein
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Radfar, Amir
    Reiner, Robert C.
    Robinson, Stephen R.
    Roshandel, Gholamreza
    Rostami, Ali
    Russ, Tom C.
    Sachdev, Perminder S.
    Safari, Hosein
    Safiri, Saeid
    Sahathevan, Ramesh
    Salimi, Yahya
    Satpathy, Maheswar
    Sawhney, Monika
    Saylan, Mete
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Shafieesabet, Azadeh
    Shaikh, Masood A.
    Sahraian, Mohammad A.
    Shigematsu, Mika
    Shiri, Rahman
    Shiue, Ivy
    Silva, Joao P.
    Smith, Mari
    Sobhani, Soheila
    Stein, Dan J.
    Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael
    Tovani-Palone, Marcos R.
    Tran, Bach X.
    Tran, Tung T.
    Tsegay, Amanuel T.
    Ullah, Irfan
    Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy
    Vlassov, Vasily
    Wang, Yuan-Pang
    Weiss, Jordan
    Westerman, Ronny
    Wijeratne, Tissa
    Wyper, Grant M. A.
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Yimer, Ebrahim M.
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Yousefifard, Mahmoud
    Zaidi, Zoubida
    Zare, Zohreh
    Feigin, Valery L.
    Vos, Theo
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Global, regional, and national burden of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20162019In: Lancet Neurology, ISSN 1474-4422, E-ISSN 1474-4465, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 88-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The number of individuals living with dementia is increasing, negatively affecting families, communities, and health-care systems around the world. A successful response to these challenges requires an accurate understanding of the dementia disease burden. We aimed to present the first detailed analysis of the global prevalence, mortality, and overall burden of dementia as captured by the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study 2016, and highlight the most important messages for clinicians and neurologists.

    Methods: GBD 2016 obtained data on dementia from vital registration systems, published scientific literature and surveys, and data from health-service encounters on deaths, excess mortality, prevalence, and incidence from 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016, through systematic review and additional data-seeking efforts. To correct for differences in cause of death coding across time and locations, we modelled mortality due to dementia using prevalence data and estimates of excess mortality derived from countries that were most likely to code deaths to dementia relative to prevalence. Data were analysed by standardised methods to estimate deaths, prevalence, years of life lost (YLLs), years of life lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs; computed as the sum of YLLs and YLDs), and the fractions of these metrics that were attributable to four risk factors that met GBD criteria for assessment (high body-mass index [BMI], high fasting plasma glucose, smoking, and a diet high in sugarsweetened beverages).

    Findings: In 2016, the global number of individuals who lived with dementia was 43.8 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 3 7. 8-51.0), increased from 20.2 million (17. 4-23 5) in 1990. This increase of 117% (95% UI 114-121) contrasted with a minor increase in age-standardised prevalence of 1.7% (1.0-2.4), from 701 cases (95% UI 602-815) per 100 000 population in 1990 to 712 cases (614-828) per 100 000 population in 2016. More women than men had dementia in 2016 (27.0 million, 95% UI 23 .3-31. 4, vs 16.8 million, 14.4-19.6), and dementia was the fifth leading cause of death globally, accounting for 2.4 million (95% UI 2.1-2.8) deaths. Overall, 28.8 million (95% UI 24. 5-34. 0) DALYs were attributed to dementia; 6.4 million (95% UI 3 .4-10. 5) of these could be attributed to the modifiable GBD risk factors of high BMI, high fasting plasma glucose, smoking, and a high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages.

    Interpretation: The global number of people living with dementia more than doubled from 1990 to 2016, mainly due to increases in population ageing and growth. Although differences in coding for causes of death and the heterogeneity in case-ascertainment methods constitute major challenges to the estimation of the burden of dementia, future analyses should improve on the methods for the correction of these biases. Until breakthroughs are made in prevention or curative treatment, dementia will constitute an increasing challenge to health-care systems worldwide.

  • 3.
    Satizabal, Claudia L.
    et al.
    UT Hlth San Antonio, Glenn Biggs Inst Alzheimers & Neurodegenerat Dis, San Antonio, TX 78229 USA;UT Hlth San Antonio, Dept Populat Hlth Sci, San Antonio, TX 78229 USA;Framingham Heart Dis Epidemiol Study, Framingham, MA 01702 USA;Boston Univ, Sch Med, Dept Neurol, Boston, MA 02118 USA.
    Adams, Hieab H. H.
    Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands;Erasmus MC, Dept Radiol & Nucl Med, Rotterdam, Netherlands;Erasmus MC, Dept Clin Genet, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Hibar, Derrek P.
    Univ Southern Calif, Keck Sch Med, USC Mark & Mary Stevens Neuroimaging & Informat I, Imaging Genet Ctr, Los Angeles, CA USA.
    White, Charles C.
    Broad Inst, Cell Circuits Program, Cambridge, MA USA;Columbia Univ, Dept Neurol, Med Ctr, Ctr Translat & Computat Neuroimmunol, New York, NY USA.
    Knol, Maria J.
    Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Stein, Jason L.
    Univ Southern Calif, Keck Sch Med, USC Mark & Mary Stevens Neuroimaging & Informat I, Imaging Genet Ctr, Los Angeles, CA USA;Univ N Carolina, Dept Genet, Chapel Hill, NC 27515 USA;Univ N Carolina, UNC Neurosci Ctr, Chapel Hill, NC 27515 USA.
    Scholz, Markus
    Univ Leipzig, Inst Med Informat Stat & Epidemiol, Leipzig, Germany;Univ Leipzig, LIFE Leipzig Res Ctr Civilizat Dis, Leipzig, Germany.
    Sargurupremraj, Muralidharan
    Univ Bordeaux, Bordeaux Populat Hlth Res Ctr, Team Vintage, INSERM,UMR 1219, Bordeaux, France.
    Jahanshad, Neda
    Univ Southern Calif, Keck Sch Med, USC Mark & Mary Stevens Neuroimaging & Informat I, Imaging Genet Ctr, Los Angeles, CA USA.
    Roshchupkin, Gennady, V
    Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands;Erasmus MC, Dept Radiol & Nucl Med, Rotterdam, Netherlands;Erasmus MC, Dept Med Informat, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Smith, Albert, V
    Univ Michigan, Dept Biostat, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA;Univ Iceland, Fac Med, Reykjavik, Iceland;Iceland Heart Assoc, Kopavogur, Iceland.
    Bis, Joshua C.
    Univ Washington, Dept Med, Cardiovasc Hlth Res Unit, Seattle, WA USA.
    Jian, Xueqiu
    Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr Houston, Brown Fdn Inst Mol Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Luciano, Michelle
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Dept Psychol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Hofer, Edith
    Med Univ Graz, Dept Neurol, Clin Div Neurogeriatr, Graz, Austria;Med Univ Graz, Inst Med Informat Stat & Documentat, Graz, Austria.
    Teumer, Alexander
    Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Community Med, Greifswald, Germany.
    van der Lee, Sven J.
    Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Yang, Jingyun
    Rush Univ, Med Ctr, Rush Alzheimers Dis Ctr, Chicago, IL 60612 USA;Rush Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Neurol Sci, Chicago, IL 60612 USA.
    Yanek, Lisa R.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, GeneSTAR Res Program, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA.
    Lee, Tom, V
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurol, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Li, Shuo
    Boston Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Hu, Yanhui
    Harvard Med Sch, Dept Genet, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Koh, Jia Yu
    Singapore Natl Eye Ctr, Singapore Eye Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore.
    Eicher, John D.
    NHLBI, Div Intramural Res, Populat Sci Branch, Framingham, MA USA.
    Desrivieres, Sylvane
    Kings Coll London, MRC SGDP Ctr, Inst Psychiat Psychol & Neurosci, London, England.
    Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Cognit Neurosci, Med Ctr, Nijmegen, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Human Genet, Med Ctr, Nijmegen, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Psychiat, Med Ctr, Nijmegen, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Chauhan, Ganesh
    Univ Bordeaux, Bordeaux Populat Hlth Res Ctr, Team Vintage, INSERM,UMR 1219, Bordeaux, France;Indian Inst Sci, Ctr Brain Res, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.
    Athanasiu, Lavinia
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Div Mental Hlth & Addict, CoE NORMENT, Oslo, Norway;Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Med, CoE NORMENT, Oslo, Norway.
    Rentera, Miguel E.
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Dept Genet & Computat Biol, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Kim, Sungeun
    Indiana Univ Sch Med, Ctr Computat Biol & Bioinformat, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA;Indiana Univ Sch Med, Ctr Neuroimaging Radiol & Imaging Sci, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA;Indiana Univ Sch Med, Indiana Alzheimer Dis Ctr, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA.
    Hoehn, David
    Max Planck Inst Psychiat, Munich, Germany.
    Armstrong, Nicola J.
    Murdoch Univ, Math & Stat, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Chen, Qiang
    Lieber Inst Brain Dev, Baltimore, MD USA.
    Holmes, Avram J.
    Yale Univ, Dept Psychol, New Haven, CT USA;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Boston, MA 02114 USA.
    den Braber, Anouk
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands;Vrije Univ, Netherlands Twin Register, Amsterdam, Netherlands;Amsterdam Neurosci, Amsterdam, Netherlands;Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Neurol, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam Neurosci,Alzheimer Ctr Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Kloszewska, Iwona
    Med Univ Lodz, Lodz, Poland.
    Andersson, Micael
    Umea Univ, Dept Integrat Med Biol, Umea, Sweden;Umea Univ, Umea Ctr Funct Brain Imaging UFBI, Umea, Sweden.
    Espeseth, Thomas
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Div Mental Hlth & Addict, CoE NORMENT, Oslo, Norway;Univ Oslo, Dept Psychol, Oslo, Norway.
    Grimm, Oliver
    Heidelberg Univ, Med Fac Mannheim, Cent Inst Mental Hlth, Mannheim, Germany.
    Abramovic, Lucija
    Univ Utrecht, Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, UMC Brain Ctr, Dept Psychiat, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Alhusaini, Saud
    Royal Coll Surgeons Ireland, Dublin, Ireland;Yale Sch Med, Dept Neurol, New Haven, CT USA.
    Milaneschi, Yuri
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Psychiat, Amsterdam Neurosci, Med Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Papmeyer, Martina
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Edinburgh Hosp, Div Psychiat, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland;Univ Bern, Univ Hosp Psychiat, Translat Res Ctr, Div Syst Neurosci Psychopathol, Bern, Switzerland.
    Axelsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Molecular Medicine. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Ehrlich, Stefan
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Boston, MA 02114 USA;Tech Univ Dresden, Div Psychol & Social Med & Dev Neurosci, Fac Med, Dresden, Germany;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Martinos Ctr Biomed Imaging, Charlestown, MA USA.
    Roiz-Santianez, Roberto
    Univ Cantabria IDIVAL, Univ Hosp Marques de Valdecilla, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, Santander, Spain;Univ Cantabria IDIVAL, Univ Hosp Marques de Valdecilla, Sch Med, Dept Med, Santander, Spain;Ctr Invest Biomed Red Salud Mental, Santander, Spain.
    Kraemer, Bernd
    Heidelberg Univ, Dept Gen Psychiat, Sect Expt Psychopathol & Neuroimaging, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Haberg, Asta K.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Fac Med, Dept Neurosci, Trondheim, Norway;Trondheim Reg & Univ Hosp, St Olavs Hosp, Dept Radiol, Trondheim, Norway.
    Jones, Hannah J.
    Univ Bristol, Ctr Acad Mental Hlth, Bristol Med Sch, Populat Hlth Sci, Bristol, Avon, England;Univ Bristol, Bristol Med Sch, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit, Bristol, Avon, England;Univ Hosp Bristol NHS Fdn Trust, NIHR Bristol Biomed Res Ctr, Bristol, Avon, England;Univ Bristol, Bristol, Avon, England.
    Pike, G. Bruce
    Univ Calgary, Dept Radiol, Calgary, AB, Canada;Univ Calgary, Dept Clin Neurosci, Calgary, AB, Canada.
    Stein, Dan J.
    Univ Cape Town, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, Cape Town, South Africa;South African Med Res Council, Unit Risk & Resilience Mental Disorders, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Stevens, Allison
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Martinos Ctr Biomed Imaging, Charlestown, MA USA.
    Bralten, Janita
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Human Genet, Med Ctr, Nijmegen, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Vernooij, Meike W.
    Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands;Erasmus MC, Dept Radiol & Nucl Med, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Harris, Tamara B.
    NIA, Lab Epidemiol & Populat Sci, Intramural Res Program, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA.
    Filippi, Irina
    Paris Saclay Univ, INSERM, Res Unit Neuroimaging & Psychiat 1000, Gif Sur Yvette, France;Paris Descartes Univ, DIGITEO Labs, Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Witte, A. Veronica
    Max Planck Inst Human Cognit & Brain Sci, Dept Neurol, Leipzig, Germany;Univ Leipzig, Fac Med, CRC Obes Mech 1052, Leipzig, Germany.
    Guadalupe, Tulio
    Int Max Planck Res Sch Language Sci, Nijmegen, Netherlands;Max Planck Inst Psycholinguist, Language & Genet Dept, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Wittfeld, Katharina
    Univ Med Greifswald, Dept Psychiat, Greifswald, Germany;German Ctr Neurodegenerat Dis, Greifswald, Germany.
    Mosley, Thomas H.
    Univ Mississippi, Med Ctr, Dept Med, Jackson, MS 39216 USA.
    Becker, James T.
    Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Psychol, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA;Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Neurol, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA;Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Psychiat, Pittsburgh, PA USA.
    Doan, Nhat Trung
    Hagenaars, Saskia P.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Dept Psychol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Saba, Yasaman
    Med Univ Graz, Gottfried Schatz Res Ctr Cell Signaling Metab & A, Res Unit Genet Epidemiol, Graz, Austria.
    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Amin, Najaf
    Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Hilal, Saima
    Natl Univ Singapore, Dept Pharmacol, Singapore, Singapore;Natl Univ Hlth Syst, Memory Aging & Cognit Ctr, Singapore, Singapore.
    Nho, Kwangsik
    Indiana Univ Sch Med, Ctr Computat Biol & Bioinformat, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA;Indiana Univ Sch Med, Ctr Neuroimaging Radiol & Imaging Sci, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA;Indiana Univ Sch Med, Indiana Alzheimer Dis Ctr, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA.
    Mirza-Schreiber, Nazanin
    Max Planck Inst Psychiat, Munich, Germany;German Res Ctr Environm Hlth, Inst Neurogen, Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Neuherberg, Germany.
    Arfanakis, Konstantinos
    Rush Univ, Med Ctr, Rush Alzheimers Dis Ctr, Chicago, IL 60612 USA;IIT, Dept Biomed Engn, Chicago, IL 60616 USA;Rush Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Diagnost Radiol & Nucl Med, Chicago, IL 60612 USA.
    Becker, Diane M.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, GeneSTAR Res Program, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA.
    Ames, David
    Univ Melbourne, Acad Unit Psychiat Old Age, Melbourne, Vic, Australia;Royal Melbourne Hosp, Natl Ageing Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Goldman, Aaron L.
    Lieber Inst Brain Dev, Baltimore, MD USA.
    Lee, Phil H.
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Boston, MA 02114 USA;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA 02115 USA;Harvard Med Sch, Lurie Ctr Autism, Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Lexington, MA USA;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Psychiat & Neurodev Genet Unit, Ctr Genom Med, Boston, MA 02114 USA;Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Stanley Ctr Psychiat Res, Boston, MA USA.
    Boomsma, Dorret, I
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands;Vrije Univ, Netherlands Twin Register, Amsterdam, Netherlands;Amsterdam Neurosci, Amsterdam, Netherlands;Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Lovestone, Simon
    Univ Oxford, Dept Psychiat, Oxford, England;Kings Coll London, NIHR Dementia Biomed Res Unit, London, England.
    Giddaluru, Sudheer
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, NORMENT, Bergen, Norway;Haukeland Hosp, Ctr Med Genet & Mol Med, Dr Einar Martens Res Grp Biol Psychiat, Bergen, Norway.
    Le Hellard, Stephanie
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, NORMENT, Bergen, Norway;Haukeland Hosp, Ctr Med Genet & Mol Med, Dr Einar Martens Res Grp Biol Psychiat, Bergen, Norway.
    Mattheisen, Manuel
    Aarhus Univ, Ctr Integrated Sequencing, Aarhus, Denmark;Aarhus Univ, Dept Biomed, Aarhus, Denmark;Lundbeck Fdn Initiat Integrat Psychiat Res iPSYCH, Aarhus, Denmark;Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden;Stockholm Cty Council, Stockholm Hlth Care Serv, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bohlken, Marc M.
    Univ Utrecht, Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, UMC Brain Ctr, Dept Psychiat, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Kasperaviciute, Dalia
    UCL Queen Sq Inst Neurol, London, England;Chalfont Ctr Epilepsy, Gerrards Cross, Bucks, England.
    Schmaal, Lianne
    Univ Melbourne, Ctr Youth Mental Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia;Orygen, Natl Ctr Excellence Youth Mental Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Lawrie, Stephen M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Edinburgh Hosp, Div Psychiat, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Agartz, Ingrid
    Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Med, CoE NORMENT, Oslo, Norway;Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden;Diakonhjemmet Hosp, Dept Res & Dev, Oslo, Norway.
    Walton, Esther
    Tech Univ Dresden, Div Psychol & Social Med & Dev Neurosci, Fac Med, Dresden, Germany;Univ Bath, Dept Psychol, Bath, Avon, England.
    Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana
    Ctr Invest Biomed Red Salud Mental, Santander, Spain;Valdecilla Biomed Res Inst IDIVAL, Neuroimaging Unit, Technol Facil, Santander, Spain.
    Davies, Gareth E.
    Avera Inst Human Genet, Sioux Falls, SD USA.
    Shin, Jean
    Univ Toronto, Lospital Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Ipser, Jonathan C.
    Univ Cape Town, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Vinke, Louis N.
    Boston Univ, Ctr Syst Neurosci, Boston, MA 02215 USA.
    Hoogman, Martine
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Human Genet, Med Ctr, Nijmegen, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Jia, Tianye
    Kings Coll London, MRC SGDP Ctr, Inst Psychiat Psychol & Neurosci, London, England.
    Burkhardt, Ralph
    Univ Leipzig, LIFE Leipzig Res Ctr Civilizat Dis, Leipzig, Germany;Univ Hosp Regensburg, Inst Clin Chem & Lab Med, Regensburg, Germany.
    Klein, Marieke
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Human Genet, Med Ctr, Nijmegen, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Crivello, Fabrice
    Univ Bordeaux, Neurodegeneratives Dis Inst, CNRS UMR 5293, Bordeaux, France.
    Janowitz, Deborah
    Univ Med Greifswald, Dept Psychiat, Greifswald, Germany.
    Carmichael, Owen
    Pennington Biomed Res Ctr, 6400 Perkins Rd, Baton Rouge, LA 70808 USA.
    Haukvik, Unn K.
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Div Mental Hlth & Addict, CoE NORMENT, Oslo, Norway;Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Med, Dept Adult Psychiat, Oslo, Norway.
    Aribisala, Benjamin S.
    Univ Edinburgh, Brain Res Imaging Ctr, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland;Lagos State Univ, Dept Comp Sci, Ojo, Nigeria.
    Schmidt, Helena
    Med Univ Graz, Gottfried Schatz Res Ctr Cell Signaling Metab & A, Res Unit Genet Epidemiol, Graz, Austria.
    Strike, Lachlan T.
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Brisbane, Qld, Australia;Univ Queensland, Queensland Brain Inst, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Cheng, Ching-Yu
    Singapore Natl Eye Ctr, Singapore Eye Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore;Duke NUS Med Sch, Ophthalmol & Visual Sci Acad Clin Program Eye ACP, Singapore, Singapore.
    Risacher, Shannon L.
    Indiana Univ Sch Med, Ctr Neuroimaging Radiol & Imaging Sci, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA;Indiana Univ Sch Med, Indiana Alzheimer Dis Ctr, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA.
    Puetz, Benno
    Max Planck Inst Psychiat, Munich, Germany.
    Fleischman, Debra A.
    Rush Univ, Med Ctr, Rush Alzheimers Dis Ctr, Chicago, IL 60612 USA;Rush Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Neurol Sci, Chicago, IL 60612 USA;Rush Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Behav Sci, Chicago, IL 60612 USA.
    Assareh, Amelia A.
    Univ New South Wales, Ctr Hlth Brain Ageing, Sch Psychiat, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Mattay, Venkata S.
    Lieber Inst Brain Dev, Baltimore, MD USA;Johns Hopkins Univ, Sch Med, Dept Neurol, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA;Johns Hopkins Univ, Sch Med, Dept Radiol, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA.
    Buckner, Randy L.
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Boston, MA 02114 USA;Harvard Univ, Dept Psychol, Ctr Brain Sci, 33 Kirkland St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.
    Mecocci, Patrizia
    Univ Perugia, Dept Med, Sect Gerontol & Geriatr, Perugia, Italy.
    Dale, Anders M.
    Univ Calif San Diego, Ctr Multimodal Imaging & Genet, San Diego, CA 92103 USA;Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Cognit Sci, San Diego, CA 92103 USA;Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Neurosci, San Diego, CA 92103 USA;Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Psychiat, San Diego, CA 92103 USA;Univ Calif San Diego, Dept Radiol, San Diego, CA 92103 USA.
    Cichon, Sven
    Univ Basel, Dept Biomed, Div Med Genet, Basel, Switzerland;Univ Bonn, Inst Human Genet, Bonn, Germany;Res Ctr Julich, Inst Neurosci & Med Struct & Funct Org Brain INM, Julich, Germany.
    Boks, Marco P.
    Univ Utrecht, Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, UMC Brain Ctr, Dept Psychiat, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Matarin, Mar
    UCL Queen Sq Inst Neurol, London, England;UCL Inst Neurol, Reta Lila Weston Inst, London, England;UCL Inst Neurol, Dept Mol Neurosci, London, England.
    Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Psychiat, Amsterdam Neurosci, Med Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Calhoun, Vince D.
    Univ New Mexico, Dept ECE, Albuquerque, NM 87131 USA;Mind Res Network, Albuquerque, NM USA;LBERI, Albuquerque, NM USA;Georgia State Univ, Triinst Ctr Translat Res Neuroimaging & Data Sci, Atlanta, GA 30303 USA.
    Chakravarty, M. Mallar
    Douglas Mental Hlth Univ Inst, Cerebral Imaging Ctr, Montreal, PQ, Canada;McGill Univ, Dept Psychiat, Montreal, PQ, Canada;McGill Univ, Dept Biol & Biomed Engn, Montreal, PQ, Canada.
    Marquand, Andre F.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Ctr Cognit Neuroimaging, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Macare, Christine
    Kings Coll London, MRC SGDP Ctr, Inst Psychiat Psychol & Neurosci, London, England.
    Masouleh, Shahrzad Kharabian
    Max Planck Inst Human Cognit & Brain Sci, Dept Neurol, Leipzig, Germany;Res Ctr Julich, Inst Neurosci & Med Brain & Behav INM 7, Julich, Germany.
    Oosterlaan, Jaap
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Clin Neuropsychol Sect, Amsterdam, Netherlands;Univ Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam Reprod & Dev, Emma Neurosci Grp,Dept Pediat,Emma Childrens Hosp, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Amouyel, Philippe
    Univ Lille, RID AGE Risk Factors & Mol Determinants Aging Rel, LabEx DISTALZ U1167, Lille, France;Inserm U1167, Lille, France;Ctr Hosp Univ Lille, Lille, France;Inst Pasteur, Lille, France.
    Hegenscheid, Katrin
    Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Diagnost Radiol & Neuroradiol, Greifswald, Germany.
    Rotter, Jerome, I
    Harbor UCLA Med Ctr, Inst Translat Genom & Populat Sci, Los Angeles Biomed Res Inst & Pediat, Torrance, CA 90509 USA.
    Schork, Andrew J.
    Mental Hlth Ctr Sct Hans, Inst Biol Psychiat, Roskilde, Denmark;Translat Genom Res Inst, Neurogen Div, Phoenix, AZ USA.
    Liewald, David C. M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Dept Psychol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    de Zubicaray, Greig, I
    Queensland Univ Technol, Fac Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia;Queensland Univ Technol, Inst Hlth & Biomed Innovat, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Wong, Tien Yin
    Singapore Natl Eye Ctr, Singapore Eye Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore;Duke NUS Med Sch, Acad Med Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore.
    Shen, Li
    Univ Penn, Dept Biostat Epidemiol & Informat, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA.
    Saemann, Philipp G.
    Max Planck Inst Psychiat, Munich, Germany.
    Brodaty, Henry
    Univ New South Wales, Ctr Hlth Brain Ageing, Sch Psychiat, Sydney, NSW, Australia;UNSW, Dementia Ctr Res Collaborat, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Roffman, Joshua L.
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Boston, MA 02114 USA.
    de Geus, Eco J. C.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands;Vrije Univ, Netherlands Twin Register, Amsterdam, Netherlands;Amsterdam Neurosci, Amsterdam, Netherlands;Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Tsolaki, Magda
    Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, Ahepa Univ Hosp, Dept Neurol 1, Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Erk, Susanne
    Freie Univ Berliepartment Psychiat & Psychotherap, Div Mind & Brain Res D, Berlin, Germany;Charite Univ Med Berlin, Berlin, Germany;Humboldt Univ, Berlin, Germany;Berlin Inst Hlth, Berlin, Germany.
    van Eijk, Kristel R.
    UMC Utrecht, Human Neurogenet Unit, Brain Ctr Rudolf Magnus, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.
    Royal Coll Surgeons Ireland, Dept Mol & Cellular Therapeut, Dublin, Ireland.
    van der Wee, Nic J. A.
    Leiden Univ, Dept Psychiat, Med Ctr, Leiden, Netherlands;Leiden Univ, Leiden Inst Brain & Cognit, Med Ctr, Leiden, Netherlands.
    McIntosh, Andrew M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Dept Psychol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland;Univ Edinburgh, Royal Edinburgh Hosp, Div Psychiat, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Gollub, Randy L.
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Boston, MA 02114 USA;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Martinos Ctr Biomed Imaging, Charlestown, MA USA;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Bulayeva, Kazima B.
    Dagestan State Univ, Dept Evolut & Genet, Makhachkala, Russia.
    Bernard, Manon
    Univ Toronto, Lospital Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Richards, Jennifer S.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Cognit Neurosci, Med Ctr, Nijmegen, Netherlands;Indian Inst Sci, Ctr Brain Res, Bangalore, Karnataka, India;Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Psychiat, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Himali, Jayandra J.
    Framingham Heart Dis Epidemiol Study, Framingham, MA 01702 USA;Boston Univ, Sch Med, Dept Neurol, Boston, MA 02118 USA;Boston Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Loeffler, Markus
    Univ Leipzig, Inst Med Informat Stat & Epidemiol, Leipzig, Germany;Univ Leipzig, LIFE Leipzig Res Ctr Civilizat Dis, Leipzig, Germany.
    Rommelse, Nanda
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Psychiat, Med Ctr, Nijmegen, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands;Karakter Child & Adolescent Psychiat Univ Ctr, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Hoffmann, Wolfgang
    German Ctr Neurodegenerat Dis, Greifswald, Germany;Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Community Med, Sect Epidemiol Hlth Care & Community Hlth, Greifswald, Germany.
    Westlye, Lars T.
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Div Mental Hlth & Addict, CoE NORMENT, Oslo, Norway;Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Med, CoE NORMENT, Oslo, Norway.
    Hernandez, Maria C. Valdes
    Univ Edinburgh, Brain Res Imaging Ctr, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland;Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Clin Brain Sci, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Hansell, Narelle K.
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Brisbane, Qld, Australia;Univ Queensland, Queensland Brain Inst, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    van Erp, Theo G. M.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Psychiat & Human Behav, Clin Translat Neurosci Lab, Irvine, CA 92717 USA;Univ Calif Irvine, Ctr Neurobiol Learning & Memory, Irvine, CA 92717 USA.
    Wolf, Christiane
    Univ Wurzburg, Dept Psychiat Psychosomat & Psychotherapy, Wurzburg, Germany.
    Kwok, John B. J.
    Univ Sydney, Brain & Mind Ctr, Sydney, NSW, Australia;Neurosci Res Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia;Univ New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Vellas, Bruno
    Univ Toulouse, Dept Internal Med, INSERM U1027, Toulouse, France;Univ Toulouse, Dept Geriatr Med, INSERM U1027, Toulouse, France.
    Heinz, Andreas
    Charite Univ Med Berlin, Dept Psychiat & Psychotherapy, Berlin, Germany.
    Loohuis, Loes M. Olde
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Ctr Neurobehav Genet, Los Angeles, CA USA.
    Delanty, Norman
    Royal Coll Surgeons Ireland, Dublin, Ireland;Beaumont Hosp, Neurol Div, Dublin, Ireland.
    Ho, Beng-Choon
    Univ Iowa, Dept Psychiat, Carver Coll Med, Iowa City, IA 52242 USA.
    Ching, Christopher R. K.
    Univ Southern Calif, Keck Sch Med, USC Mark & Mary Stevens Neuroimaging & Informat I, Imaging Genet Ctr, Los Angeles, CA USA;UCLA, Sch Med, Interdept Neurosci Grad Program, Los Angeles, CA USA.
    Shumskaya, Elena
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Human Genet, Med Ctr, Nijmegen, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Ctr Cognit Neuroimaging, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Singh, Baljeet
    Univ Calif Davis, Dept Neurol, Imaging Dementia & Aging Lab, Davis, CA 95616 USA.
    Hofman, Albert
    Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands;Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, Boston, MA USA.
    van der Meer, Dennis
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Div Mental Hlth & Addict, CoE NORMENT, Oslo, Norway;Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Med, CoE NORMENT, Oslo, Norway;Maastricht Univ, Fac Hlth Med & Life Sci, Sch Mental Hlth & Neurosci, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Homuth, Georg
    Univ Med Greifswald, Interfac Inst Genet & Funct Genom, Greifswald, Germany.
    Psaty, Bruce M.
    Univ Washington, Dept Med, Cardiovasc Hlth Res Unit, Seattle, WA USA;Kaiser Permanent Washington Hlth Res Inst, Seattle, WA USA;Univ Washington, Dept Epidemiol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Univ Washington, Dept Hlth Serv, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Bastin, Mark E.
    Univ Edinburgh, Brain Res Imaging Ctr, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland;Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Clin Brain Sci, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Montgomery, Grant W.
    Univ Queensland, Inst Mol Biosci, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Foroud, Tatiana M.
    Indiana Univ Sch Med, Indiana Alzheimer Dis Ctr, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA;Indiana Univ Sch Med, Med & Mol Genet, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA.
    Reppermund, Simone
    Univ New South Wales, Ctr Hlth Brain Ageing, Sch Psychiat, Sydney, NSW, Australia;UNSW Med, Dept Dev Disabil Neuropsychiat, Sch Psychiat, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Hottenga, Jouke-Jan
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands;Vrije Univ, Netherlands Twin Register, Amsterdam, Netherlands;Amsterdam Neurosci, Amsterdam, Netherlands;Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Simmons, Andrew
    Kings Coll London, Biomed Res Unit Dementia, London, England;Kings Coll London, Inst Psychiat, Dept Neuroimaging, London, England;Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Clin Geriatr, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas
    Heidelberg Univ, Med Fac Mannheim, Cent Inst Mental Hlth, Mannheim, Germany.
    Cahn, Wiepke
    Univ Utrecht, Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, UMC Brain Ctr, Dept Psychiat, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Whelan, Christopher D.
    Univ Southern Calif, Keck Sch Med, USC Mark & Mary Stevens Neuroimaging & Informat I, Imaging Genet Ctr, Los Angeles, CA USA;Royal Coll Surgeons Ireland, Dublin, Ireland.
    van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Human Genet, Med Ctr, Nijmegen, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Yang, Qiong
    Boston Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Hosten, Norbert
    Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Diagnost Radiol & Neuroradiol, Greifswald, Germany.
    Green, Robert C.
    Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA 02115 USA;Brigham & Womens Hosp, Dept Med, Div Genet, 75 Francis St, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Thalamuthu, Anbupalam
    Univ New South Wales, Ctr Hlth Brain Ageing, Sch Psychiat, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Mohnke, Sebastian
    Freie Univ Berliepartment Psychiat & Psychotherap, Div Mind & Brain Res D, Berlin, Germany;Charite Univ Med Berlin, Berlin, Germany;Humboldt Univ, Berlin, Germany;Berlin Inst Hlth, Berlin, Germany.
    Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff
    Univ Utrecht, Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, UMC Brain Ctr, Dept Psychiat, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Lin, Honghuang
    Framingham Heart Dis Epidemiol Study, Framingham, MA 01702 USA;Boston Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, Sect Computat Biomed, Boston, MA 02118 USA.
    Jack, Clifford R., Jr.
    Mayo Clin, Dept Radiol, Rochester, MN USA.
    Schofield, Peter R.
    Neurosci Res Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia;UNSW, Sch Med Sci, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Muehleisen, Thomas W.
    Res Ctr Julich, Inst Neurosci & Med Struct & Funct Org Brain INM, Julich, Germany;Univ Basel, Dept Biomed, Basel, Switzerland;Heinrich Heine Univ Dusseldorf, Cecile & Oskar Vogt Inst Brain Res, Dusseldorf, Germany.
    Maillard, Pauline
    Univ Calif Davis, Dept Neurol, Imaging Dementia & Aging Lab, Davis, CA 95616 USA.
    Potkin, Steven G.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Psychiat & Human Behav, Irvine, CA 92717 USA.
    Wen, Wei
    Univ New South Wales, Ctr Hlth Brain Ageing, Sch Psychiat, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Fletcher, Evan
    Univ Calif Davis, Dept Neurol, Imaging Dementia & Aging Lab, Davis, CA 95616 USA.
    Toga, Arthur W.
    Univ Southern Calif, Keck Sch Med, USC Mark & Mary Stevens Neuroimaging & Informat I, Lab Neuro Imaging, Los Angeles, CA USA.
    Gruber, Oliver
    Heidelberg Univ, Dept Gen Psychiat, Sect Expt Psychopathol & Neuroimaging, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Huentelman, Matthew
    Translat Genom Res Inst, Neurogen Div, Phoenix, AZ USA.
    Smith, George Davey
    Univ Bristol, Bristol Med Sch, MRC Integrat Epidemiol Unit, Bristol, Avon, England.
    Launer, Lenore J.
    NIA, Lab Epidemiol & Populat Sci, Intramural Res Program, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umea Univ, Dept Integrat Med Biol, Umea, Sweden;Umea Univ, Umea Ctr Funct Brain Imaging UFBI, Umea, Sweden;Umea Univ, Radiat Sci, Umea, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Erik G.
    Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Med, CoE NORMENT, Oslo, Norway;Karolinska Inst, Ctr Psychiat Res, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto
    Univ Cantabria IDIVAL, Univ Hosp Marques de Valdecilla, Sch Med, Dept Med, Santander, Spain;Ctr Invest Biomed Red Salud Mental, Santander, Spain.
    Koen, Nastassja
    Univ Cape Town, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, Cape Town, South Africa;South African Med Res Council, Unit Risk & Resilience Mental Disorders, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Greve, Douglas N.
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Martinos Ctr Biomed Imaging, Charlestown, MA USA;Harvard Med Sch, Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Radiol, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Uitterlinden, Andre G.
    Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands;Erasmus MC, Dept Internal Med, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Weinberger, Daniel R.
    Lieber Inst Brain Dev, Baltimore, MD USA;Johns Hopkins Univ, Sch Med, Dept Neurol, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA;Johns Hopkins Univ, Sch Med, Dept Neurosci, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA;Johns Hopkins Univ, Inst Genet Med, Sch Med, Baltimore, MD USA;Johns Hopkins Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA.
    Steen, Vidar M.
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, NORMENT, Bergen, Norway;Haukeland Hosp, Ctr Med Genet & Mol Med, Dr Einar Martens Res Grp Biol Psychiat, Bergen, Norway.
    Fedko, Iryna O.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands;Vrije Univ, Netherlands Twin Register, Amsterdam, Netherlands;Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Groenewold, Nynke A.
    Univ Cape Town, Dept Psychiat & Mental Hlth, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Niessen, Wiro J.
    Erasmus MC, Dept Radiol & Nucl Med, Rotterdam, Netherlands;Erasmus MC, Dept Med Informat, Rotterdam, Netherlands;Delft Univ Technol, Fac Appl Sci, Imaging Phys, Delft, Netherlands.
    Toro, Roberto
    Inst Pasteur, Paris, France.
    Tzourio, Christophe
    CHU Bordeaux, Dept Neurol, Bordeaux, France.
    Longstreth, William T., Jr.
    Univ Washington, Dept Epidemiol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Univ Washington, Dept Neurol, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Ikram, M. Kamran
    Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands;Erasmus MC, Dept Neurol, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Smoller, Jordan W.
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Boston, MA 02114 USA;Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA 02115 USA;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Psychiat & Neurodev Genet Unit, Ctr Genom Med, Boston, MA 02114 USA;Broad Inst MIT & Harvard, Stanley Ctr Psychiat Res, Boston, MA USA.
    van Tol, Marie-Jose
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Cognit Neurosci Ctr, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Sussmann, Jessika E.
    Univ Edinburgh, Royal Edinburgh Hosp, Div Psychiat, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Paus, Tomas
    Holland Bloorview Kids Rehabil Hosp, Bloorview Res Inst, Toronto, ON, Canada;Univ Toronto, Dept Psychol, Toronto, ON, Canada;Univ Toronto, Dept Psychiat, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Lemaitre, Herve
    Paris Saclay Univ, INSERM, Res Unit Neuroimaging & Psychiat 1000, Gif Sur Yvette, France;Paris Descartes Univ, DIGITEO Labs, Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Schroeter, Matthias L.
    Univ Leipzig, LIFE Leipzig Res Ctr Civilizat Dis, Leipzig, Germany;Max Planck Inst Human Cognit & Brain Sci, Dept Neurol, Leipzig, Germany;Univ Clin Leipzig, Clin Cognit Neurol, Leipzig, Germany.
    Mazoyer, Bernard
    Univ Bordeaux, Neurodegeneratives Dis Inst, CNRS UMR 5293, Bordeaux, France.
    Andreassen, Ole A.
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Div Mental Hlth & Addict, CoE NORMENT, Oslo, Norway;Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Med, CoE NORMENT, Oslo, Norway.
    Holsboer, Florian
    Max Planck Inst Psychiat, Munich, Germany;HMNC Brain Hlth, Munich, Germany.
    Depondt, Chantal
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Dept Neurol, Hop Erasme, Brussels, Belgium.
    Veltman, Dick J.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Psychiat, Amsterdam Neurosci, Med Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Turner, Jessica A.
    Mind Res Network, Albuquerque, NM USA;LBERI, Albuquerque, NM USA;Georgia State Univ, Triinst Ctr Translat Res Neuroimaging & Data Sci, Atlanta, GA 30303 USA;Georgia State Univ, Dept Psychol, Univ Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30303 USA.
    Pausova, Zdenka
    Univ Toronto, Lospital Sick Children, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Schumann, Gunter
    Kings Coll London, MRC SGDP Ctr, Inst Psychiat Psychol & Neurosci, London, England.
    van Rooij, Daan
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Cognit Neurosci, Med Ctr, Nijmegen, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands;Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Psychiat, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Djurovic, Srdjan
    Univ Bergen, Dept Clin Sci, NORMENT, Bergen, Norway;Oslo Univ Hosp, Dept Med Genet, Oslo, Norway.
    Deary, Ian J.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Dept Psychol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    McMahon, Katie L.
    Queensland Univ Technol, Fac Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia;Queensland Univ Technol, Inst Hlth & Biomed Innovat, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram
    Max Planck Inst Psychiat, Munich, Germany;Munich Cluster Syst Neurol SyNergy, Munich, Germany;Univ Liverpool, Inst Translat Med, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.
    Brouwer, Rachel M.
    Univ Utrecht, Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, UMC Brain Ctr, Dept Psychiat, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Soininen, Hilkka
    Univ Eastern Finland, Inst Clin Med Neurol, Kuopio, Finland;Kuopio Univ Hosp, Neuroctr Neurol, Kuopio, Finland.
    Pandolfo, Massimo
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Dept Neurol, Hop Erasme, Brussels, Belgium.
    Wassink, Thomas H.
    Univ Iowa, Dept Psychiat, Carver Coll Med, Iowa City, IA 52242 USA.
    Cheung, Joshua W.
    Univ Southern Calif, Keck Sch Med, USC Mark & Mary Stevens Neuroimaging & Informat I, Imaging Genet Ctr, Los Angeles, CA USA.
    Wolfers, Thomas
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Human Genet, Med Ctr, Nijmegen, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Martinot, Jean-Luc
    Paris Saclay Univ, INSERM, Res Unit Neuroimaging & Psychiat 1000, Gif Sur Yvette, France;Paris Descartes Univ, DIGITEO Labs, Gif Sur Yvette, France.
    Zwiers, Marcel P.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Ctr Cognit Neuroimaging, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Nauck, Matthias
    Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Clin Chem & Lab Med, Greifswald, Germany;German Ctr Cardiovasc Res, Partner Site Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.
    Melle, Ingrid
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Div Mental Hlth & Addict, CoE NORMENT, Oslo, Norway;Univ Oslo, Inst Clin Med, CoE NORMENT, Oslo, Norway.
    Martin, Nicholas G.
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Kanai, Ryota
    Araya, Dept Neuroinformat, Tokyo, Japan;UCL, Inst Cognit Neurosci, London, England;Univ Sussex, Sch Psychol, Brighton, E Sussex, England.
    Westman, Eric
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kahn, Rene S.
    Univ Utrecht, Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, UMC Brain Ctr, Dept Psychiat, Utrecht, Netherlands;Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, Dept Psychiat, New York, NY 10029 USA.
    Sisodiya, Sanjay M.
    UCL Queen Sq Inst Neurol, London, England;Chalfont Ctr Epilepsy, Gerrards Cross, Bucks, England.
    White, Tonya
    Erasmus MC, Dept Radiol & Nucl Med, Rotterdam, Netherlands;Erasmus MC Sophia Childrens Hosp, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat Psychol, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Saremi, Arvin
    Univ Southern Calif, Keck Sch Med, USC Mark & Mary Stevens Neuroimaging & Informat I, Imaging Genet Ctr, Los Angeles, CA USA.
    van Bokhoven, Hans
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Human Genet, Med Ctr, Nijmegen, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Brunner, Han G.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Human Genet, Med Ctr, Nijmegen, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands;Maastricht Univ, Dept Clin Genet, Med Ctr, Maastricht, Netherlands;GROW Sch Oncol & Dev Biol, Maastricht, Netherlands.
    Voelzke, Henry
    Univ Med Greifswald, Inst Community Med, Greifswald, Germany;German Ctr Cardiovasc Res, Partner Site Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.
    Wright, Margaret J.
    Univ Queensland, Queensland Brain Inst, Brisbane, Qld, Australia;Univ Queensland, Ctr Adv Imaging, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    van't Ent, Dennis
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Biol Psychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands;Vrije Univ, Netherlands Twin Register, Amsterdam, Netherlands;Amsterdam Neurosci, Amsterdam, Netherlands;Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Noethen, Markus M.
    Univ Bonn, Inst Human Genet, Bonn, Germany;Univ Bonn, Life & Brain Ctr, Dept Genom, Bonn, Germany.
    Ophoff, Roel A.
    Univ Calif Los Angeles, Ctr Neurobehav Genet, Los Angeles, CA USA;Erasmus MC, Dept Psychiat, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Buitelaar, Jan K.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Cognit Neurosci, Med Ctr, Nijmegen, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands;Karakter Child & Adolescent Psychiat Univ Ctr, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Fernandez, Guilln
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Cognit Neurosci, Med Ctr, Nijmegen, Netherlands;Indian Inst Sci, Ctr Brain Res, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.
    Sachdev, Perminder S.
    Univ New South Wales, Ctr Hlth Brain Ageing, Sch Psychiat, Sydney, NSW, Australia;Prince Wales Hosp, Neuropsychiat Inst, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Rietschel, Marcella
    Heidelberg Univ, Med Fac Mannheim, Cent Inst Mental Hlth, Mannheim, Germany.
    van Haren, Neeltje E. M.
    Univ Utrecht, Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, UMC Brain Ctr, Dept Psychiat, Utrecht, Netherlands;Erasmus MC Sophia Childrens Hosp, Dept Child & Adolescent Psychiat Psychol, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Fisher, Simon E.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands;Max Planck Inst Psycholinguist, Language & Genet Dept, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Beiser, Alexa S.
    Framingham Heart Dis Epidemiol Study, Framingham, MA 01702 USA;Boston Univ, Sch Med, Dept Neurol, Boston, MA 02118 USA;Boston Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Francks, Clyde
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands;Max Planck Inst Psycholinguist, Language & Genet Dept, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Saykin, Andrew J.
    Indiana Univ Sch Med, Ctr Neuroimaging Radiol & Imaging Sci, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA;Indiana Univ Sch Med, Indiana Alzheimer Dis Ctr, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA;Indiana Univ Sch Med, Med & Mol Genet, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA.
    Mather, Karen A.
    Univ New South Wales, Ctr Hlth Brain Ageing, Sch Psychiat, Sydney, NSW, Australia;Neurosci Res Australia, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina
    Charite Univ Med Berlin, Dept Psychiat & Psychotherapy, Berlin, Germany.
    Hartman, Catharina A.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Psychiat, Groningen, Netherlands.
    DeStefano, Anita L.
    Framingham Heart Dis Epidemiol Study, Framingham, MA 01702 USA;Boston Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Heslenfeld, Dirk J.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Dept Psychol, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Weiner, Michael W.
    Univ Calif San Francisco, Ctr Imaging Neurodegenerat Dis, San Francisco VA Med Ctr, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA;Univ Calif San Francisco, Dept Radiol & Biomed Imaging, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA.
    Walter, Henrik
    Freie Univ Berliepartment Psychiat & Psychotherap, Div Mind & Brain Res D, Berlin, Germany;Charite Univ Med Berlin, Berlin, Germany;Humboldt Univ, Berlin, Germany;Berlin Inst Hlth, Berlin, Germany.
    Hoekstra, Pieter J.
    Univ Groningen, Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Psychiat, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Nyquist, Paul A.
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, GeneSTAR Res Program, Baltimore, MD 21205 USA.
    Franke, Barbara
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Human Genet, Med Ctr, Nijmegen, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Dept Psychiat, Med Ctr, Nijmegen, Netherlands;Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Donders Inst Brain Cognit & Behav, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Bennett, David A.
    Rush Univ, Med Ctr, Rush Alzheimers Dis Ctr, Chicago, IL 60612 USA;Rush Univ, Med Ctr, Dept Neurol Sci, Chicago, IL 60612 USA.
    Grabe, Hans J.
    Univ Med Greifswald, Dept Psychiat, Greifswald, Germany;German Ctr Neurodegenerat Dis, Greifswald, Germany.
    Johnson, Andrew D.
    NHLBI, Div Intramural Res, Populat Sci Branch, Framingham, MA USA.
    Chen, Christopher
    Natl Univ Singapore, Dept Pharmacol, Singapore, Singapore;Natl Univ Hlth Syst, Memory Aging & Cognit Ctr, Singapore, Singapore.
    van Duijn, Cornelia M.
    Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands;Leiden Univ, Leiden Acad Ctr Drug Res, Leiden, Netherlands.
    Lopez, Oscar L.
    Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Neurol, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 USA;Univ Pittsburgh, Dept Psychiat, Pittsburgh, PA USA.
    Fornage, Myriam
    Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr Houston, Brown Fdn Inst Mol Med, Houston, TX 77030 USA;Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr Houston, Human Genet Ctr, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Wardlaw, Joanna M.
    Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Cognit Ageing & Cognit Epidemiol, Dept Psychol, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland;Univ Edinburgh, Ctr Clin Brain Sci, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland;Univ Edinburgh, UK Dementia Res Inst, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Schmidt, Reinhold
    Med Univ Graz, Dept Neurol, Clin Div Neurogeriatr, Graz, Austria.
    DeCarli, Charles
    Univ Calif Davis, Ctr Neurosci, Dept Neurol, Sacramento, CA 95817 USA.
    De Jager, Philip L.
    Broad Inst, Cell Circuits Program, Cambridge, MA USA;Columbia Univ, Dept Neurol, Med Ctr, Ctr Translat & Computat Neuroimmunol, New York, NY USA.
    Villringer, Arno
    Max Planck Inst Human Cognit & Brain Sci, Dept Neurol, Leipzig, Germany;Univ Leipzig, Fac Med, CRC Obes Mech 1052, Leipzig, Germany.
    Debette, Stephanie
    Boston Univ, Sch Med, Dept Neurol, Boston, MA 02118 USA;Univ Bordeaux, Bordeaux Populat Hlth Res Ctr, Team Vintage, INSERM,UMR 1219, Bordeaux, France;CHU Bordeaux, Dept Neurol, Bordeaux, France.
    Gudnason, Vilmundur
    Univ Iceland, Fac Med, Reykjavik, Iceland;Iceland Heart Assoc, Kopavogur, Iceland.
    Medland, Sarah E.
    QIMR Berghofer Med Res Inst, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.
    Shulman, Joshua M.
    Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurol, Houston, TX 77030 USA;Baylor Coll Med, Dept Neurosci, Houston, TX 77030 USA;Baylor Coll Med, Dept Mol & Human Genet, Houston, TX 77030 USA;Texas Childrens Hosp, Jan & Dan Duncan Neurol Res Inst, Houston, TX 77030 USA.
    Thompson, Paul M.
    Univ Southern Calif, Keck Sch Med, USC Mark & Mary Stevens Neuroimaging & Informat I, Imaging Genet Ctr, Los Angeles, CA USA.
    Seshadri, Sudha
    Framingham Heart Dis Epidemiol Study, Framingham, MA 01702 USA;Boston Univ, Sch Med, Dept Neurol, Boston, MA 02118 USA.
    Ikram, M. Arfan
    Erasmus MC, Dept Epidemiol, Rotterdam, Netherlands;Erasmus MC, Dept Radiol & Nucl Med, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Genetic architecture of subcortical brain structures in 38,851 individuals2019In: Nature Genetics, ISSN 1061-4036, E-ISSN 1546-1718, Vol. 51, no 11, p. 1624-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subcortical brain structures are integral to motion, consciousness, emotions and learning. We identified common genetic variation related to the volumes of the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, brainstem, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen and thalamus, using genome-wide association analyses in almost 40,000 individuals from CHARGE, ENIGMA and UK Biobank. We show that variability in subcortical volumes is heritable, and identify 48 significantly associated loci (40 novel at the time of analysis). Annotation of these loci by utilizing gene expression, methylation and neuropathological data identified 199 genes putatively implicated in neurodevelopment, synaptic signaling, axonal transport, apoptosis, inflammation/infection and susceptibility to neurological disorders. This set of genes is significantly enriched for Drosophila orthologs associated with neurodevelopmental phenotypes, suggesting evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. Our findings uncover novel biology and potential drug targets underlying brain development and disease.

  • 4. Satizabal, Claudia L.
    et al.
    Adams, Hieab H. H.
    Hibar, Derrek P.
    White, Charles C.
    Knol, Maria J.
    Stein, Jason L.
    Scholz, Markus
    Sargurupremraj, Muralidharan
    Jahanshad, Neda
    Roshchupkin, Gennady, V
    Smith, Albert, V
    Bis, Joshua C.
    Jian, Xueqiu
    Luciano, Michelle
    Hofer, Edith
    Teumer, Alexander
    van der Lee, Sven J.
    Yang, Jingyun
    Yanek, Lisa R.
    Lee, Tom, V
    Li, Shuo
    Hu, Yanhui
    Koh, Jia Yu
    Eicher, John D.
    Desrivieres, Sylvane
    Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro
    Chauhan, Ganesh
    Athanasiu, Lavinia
    Rentera, Miguel E.
    Kim, Sungeun
    Hoehn, David
    Armstrong, Nicola J.
    Chen, Qiang
    Holmes, Avram J.
    den Braber, Anouk
    Kloszewska, Iwona
    Andersson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Espeseth, Thomas
    Grimm, Oliver
    Abramovic, Lucija
    Alhusaini, Saud
    Milaneschi, Yuri
    Papmeyer, Martina
    Axelsson, Tomas
    Ehrlich, Stefan
    Roiz-Santianez, Roberto
    Kraemer, Bernd
    Håberg, Asta K.
    Jones, Hannah J.
    Pike, G. Bruce
    Stein, Dan J.
    Stevens, Allison
    Bralten, Janita
    Vernooij, Meike W.
    Harris, Tamara B.
    Filippi, Irina
    Witte, A. Veronica
    Guadalupe, Tulio
    Wittfeld, Katharina
    Mosley, Thomas H.
    Becker, James T.
    Doan, Nhat Trung
    Hagenaars, Saskia P.
    Saba, Yasaman
    Cuellar-Partida, Gabriel
    Amin, Najaf
    Hilal, Saima
    Nho, Kwangsik
    Mirza-Schreiber, Nazanin
    Arfanakis, Konstantinos
    Becker, Diane M.
    Ames, David
    Goldman, Aaron L.
    Lee, Phil H.
    Boomsma, Dorret, I
    Lovestone, Simon
    Giddaluru, Sudheer
    Le Hellard, Stephanie
    Mattheisen, Manuel
    Bohlken, Marc M.
    Kasperaviciute, Dalia
    Schmaal, Lianne
    Lawrie, Stephen M.
    Agartz, Ingrid
    Walton, Esther
    Tordesillas-Gutierrez, Diana
    Davies, Gareth E.
    Shin, Jean
    Ipser, Jonathan C.
    Vinke, Louis N.
    Hoogman, Martine
    Jia, Tianye
    Burkhardt, Ralph
    Klein, Marieke
    Crivello, Fabrice
    Janowitz, Deborah
    Carmichael, Owen
    Haukvik, Unn K.
    Aribisala, Benjamin S.
    Schmidt, Helena
    Strike, Lachlan T.
    Cheng, Ching-Yu
    Risacher, Shannon L.
    Puetz, Benno
    Fleischman, Debra A.
    Assareh, Amelia A.
    Mattay, Venkata S.
    Buckner, Randy L.
    Mecocci, Patrizia
    Dale, Anders M.
    Cichon, Sven
    Boks, Marco P.
    Matarin, Mar
    Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.
    Calhoun, Vince D.
    Chakravarty, M. Mallar
    Marquand, Andre F.
    Macare, Christine
    Masouleh, Shahrzad Kharabian
    Oosterlaan, Jaap
    Amouyel, Philippe
    Hegenscheid, Katrin
    Rotter, Jerome, I
    Schork, Andrew J.
    Liewald, David C. M.
    de Zubicaray, Greig, I
    Wong, Tien Yin
    Shen, Li
    Saemann, Philipp G.
    Brodaty, Henry
    Roffman, Joshua L.
    de Geus, Eco J. C.
    Tsolaki, Magda
    Erk, Susanne
    van Eijk, Kristel R.
    Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.
    van der Wee, Nic J. A.
    McIntosh, Andrew M.
    Gollub, Randy L.
    Bulayeva, Kazima B.
    Bernard, Manon
    Richards, Jennifer S.
    Himali, Jayandra J.
    Loeffler, Markus
    Rommelse, Nanda
    Hoffmann, Wolfgang
    Westlye, Lars T.
    Hernandez, Maria C. Valdes
    Hansell, Narelle K.
    van Erp, Theo G. M.
    Wolf, Christiane
    Kwok, John B. J.
    Vellas, Bruno
    Heinz, Andreas
    Loohuis, Loes M. Olde
    Delanty, Norman
    Ho, Beng-Choon
    Ching, Christopher R. K.
    Shumskaya, Elena
    Singh, Baljeet
    Hofman, Albert
    van der Meer, Dennis
    Homuth, Georg
    Psaty, Bruce M.
    Bastin, Mark E.
    Montgomery, Grant W.
    Foroud, Tatiana M.
    Reppermund, Simone
    Hottenga, Jouke-Jan
    Simmons, Andrew
    Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas
    Cahn, Wiepke
    Whelan, Christopher D.
    van Donkelaar, Marjolein M. J.
    Yang, Qiong
    Hosten, Norbert
    Green, Robert C.
    Thalamuthu, Anbupalam
    Mohnke, Sebastian
    Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff
    Lin, Honghuang
    Jack, Clifford R., Jr.
    Schofield, Peter R.
    Muehleisen, Thomas W.
    Maillard, Pauline
    Potkin, Steven G.
    Wen, Wei
    Fletcher, Evan
    Toga, Arthur W.
    Gruber, Oliver
    Huentelman, Matthew
    Smith, George Davey
    Launer, Lenore J.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Jönsson, Erik G.
    Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto
    Koen, Nastassja
    Greve, Douglas N.
    Uitterlinden, Andre G.
    Weinberger, Daniel R.
    Steen, Vidar M.
    Fedko, Iryna O.
    Groenewold, Nynke A.
    Niessen, Wiro J.
    Toro, Roberto
    Tzourio, Christophe
    Longstreth, William T., Jr.
    Ikram, M. Kamran
    Smoller, Jordan W.
    van Tol, Marie-Jose
    Sussmann, Jessika E.
    Paus, Tomas
    Lemaitre, Herve
    Schroeter, Matthias L.
    Mazoyer, Bernard
    Andreassen, Ole A.
    Holsboer, Florian
    Depondt, Chantal
    Veltman, Dick J.
    Turner, Jessica A.
    Pausova, Zdenka
    Schumann, Gunter
    van Rooij, Daan
    Djurovic, Srdjan
    Deary, Ian J.
    McMahon, Katie L.
    Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram
    Brouwer, Rachel M.
    Soininen, Hilkka
    Pandolfo, Massimo
    Wassink, Thomas H.
    Cheung, Joshua W.
    Wolfers, Thomas
    Martinot, Jean-Luc
    Zwiers, Marcel P.
    Nauck, Matthias
    Melle, Ingrid
    Martin, Nicholas G.
    Kanai, Ryota
    Westman, Eric
    Kahn, Rene S.
    Sisodiya, Sanjay M.
    White, Tonya
    Saremi, Arvin
    van Bokhoven, Hans
    Brunner, Han G.
    Voelzke, Henry
    Wright, Margaret J.
    van't Ent, Dennis
    Noethen, Markus M.
    Ophoff, Roel A.
    Buitelaar, Jan K.
    Fernandez, Guilln
    Sachdev, Perminder S.
    Rietschel, Marcella
    van Haren, Neeltje E. M.
    Fisher, Simon E.
    Beiser, Alexa S.
    Francks, Clyde
    Saykin, Andrew J.
    Mather, Karen A.
    Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina
    Hartman, Catharina A.
    DeStefano, Anita L.
    Heslenfeld, Dirk J.
    Weiner, Michael W.
    Walter, Henrik
    Hoekstra, Pieter J.
    Nyquist, Paul A.
    Franke, Barbara
    Bennett, David A.
    Grabe, Hans J.
    Johnson, Andrew D.
    Chen, Christopher
    van Duijn, Cornelia M.
    Lopez, Oscar L.
    Fornage, Myriam
    Wardlaw, Joanna M.
    Schmidt, Reinhold
    DeCarli, Charles
    De Jager, Philip L.
    Villringer, Arno
    Debette, Stephanie
    Gudnason, Vilmundur
    Medland, Sarah E.
    Shulman, Joshua M.
    Thompson, Paul M.
    Seshadri, Sudha
    Ikram, M. Arfan
    Genetic architecture of subcortical brain structures in 38,851 individuals2019In: Nature Genetics, ISSN 1061-4036, E-ISSN 1546-1718, Vol. 51, no 11, p. 1624-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Subcortical brain structures are integral to motion, consciousness, emotions and learning. We identified common genetic variation related to the volumes of the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, brainstem, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen and thalamus, using genome-wide association analyses in almost 40,000 individuals from CHARGE, ENIGMA and UK Biobank. We show that variability in subcortical volumes is heritable, and identify 48 significantly associated loci (40 novel at the time of analysis). Annotation of these loci by utilizing gene expression, methylation and neuropathological data identified 199 genes putatively implicated in neurodevelopment, synaptic signaling, axonal transport, apoptosis, inflammation/infection and susceptibility to neurological disorders. This set of genes is significantly enriched for Drosophila orthologs associated with neurodevelopmental phenotypes, suggesting evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. Our findings uncover novel biology and potential drug targets underlying brain development and disease.

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