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  • 1. Bentham, James
    et al.
    Di Cesare, Mariachiara
    Stevens, Gretchen A.
    Zhou, Bin
    Bixby, Honor
    Cowan, Melanie
    Fortunato, Lea
    Bennett, James E.
    Danaei, Goodarz
    Hajifathalian, Kaveh
    Lu, Yuan
    Riley, Leanne M.
    Laxmaiah, Avula
    Kontis, Vasilis
    Paciorek, Christopher J.
    Riboli, Elio
    Ezzati, Majid
    Abdeen, Ziad A.
    Hamid, Zargar Abdul
    Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.
    Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin
    Adams, Robert
    Aekplakorn, Wichai
    Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.
    Agyemang, Charles
    Ahmadvand, Alireza
    Ahrens, Wolfgang
    Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M.
    Al-Othman, Amani Rashed
    Al Raddadi, Rajaa
    Ali, Mohamed M.
    Alkerwi, Ala'a
    Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar
    Aly, Eman
    Amouyel, Philippe
    Amuzu, Antoinette
    Andersen, Lars Bo
    Anderssen, Sigmund A.
    Anjana, Ranjit Mohan
    Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer
    Ariansen, Inger
    Aris, Tahir
    Arlappa, Nimmathota
    Arveiler, Dominique
    Assah, Felix K.
    Avdicova, Maria
    Azizi, Fereidoun
    Babu, Bontha V.
    Bahijri, Suhad
    Balakrishna, Nagalla
    Bandosz, Piotr
    Banegas, Jose R.
    Barbagallo, Carlo M.
    Barcelo, Alberto
    Barkat, Amina
    Barros, Mauro V.
    Bata, Iqbal
    Batieha, Anwar M.
    Batista, Rosangela L.
    Baur, Louise A.
    Beaglehole, Robert
    Ben Romdhane, Habiba
    Benet, Mikhail
    Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio
    Bernotine, Gailute
    Bettiol, Heloisa
    Bhagyalaxmi, Aroor
    Bharadwaj, Sumit
    Bhargava, Santosh K.
    Bhatti, Zaid
    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.
    Bi, Hongsheng
    Bi, Yufang
    Bjerregaard, Peter
    Bjertness, Espen
    Bjertness, Marius B.
    Bjorkelund, Cecilia
    Blokstra, Anneke
    Bo, Simona
    Bobak, Martin
    Boddy, Lynne M.
    Boehm, Bernhard O.
    Boeing, Heiner
    Boissonnet, Carlos P.
    Bongard, Vanina
    Bovet, Pascal
    Braeckman, Lutgart
    Bragt, Marjolijn C. E.
    Brajkovich, Imperia
    Branca, Francesco
    Breckenkamp, Juergen
    Brenner, Hermann
    Brewster, Lizzy M.
    Brian, Garry R.
    Bruno, Graziella
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as)
    Bugge, Anna
    Burns, Con
    Cabrera de Leon, Antonio
    Cacciottolo, Joseph
    Cama, Tilema
    Cameron, Christine
    Camolas, Jose
    Can, Gunay
    Candido, Ana Paula C.
    Capuano, Vincenzo
    Cardoso, Viviane C.
    Carlsson, Axel C.
    Carvalho, Maria J.
    Casanueva, Felipe F.
    Casas, Juan-Pablo
    Caserta, Carmelo A.
    Chamukuttan, Snehalatha
    Chan, Angelique W.
    Chan, Queenie
    Chaturvedi, Himanshu K.
    Chaturvedi, Nishi
    Chen, Chien-Jen
    Chen, Fangfang
    Chen, Huashuai
    Chen, Shuohua
    Chen, Zhengming
    Cheng, Ching-Yu
    Chetrit, Angela
    Chiolero, Arnaud
    Chiou, Shu-Ti
    Chirita-Emandi, Adela
    Cho, Belong
    Cho, Yumi
    Christensen, Kaare
    Chudek, Jerzy
    Cifkova, Renata
    Claessens, Frank
    Clays, Els
    Concin, Hans
    Cooper, Cyrus
    Cooper, Rachel
    Coppinger, Tara C.
    Costanzo, Simona
    Cottel, Dominique
    Cowell, Chris
    Craig, Cora L.
    Crujeiras, Ana B.
    D'Arrigo, Graziella
    d'Orsi, Eleonora
    Dallongeville, Jean
    Damasceno, Albertino
    Damsgaard, Camilla T.
    Dankner, Rachel
    Dauchet, Luc
    De Backer, Guy
    De Bacque, Dirk
    de Gaetano, Giovanni
    De Hanauw, Stefaan
    De Smedt, Delphine
    Deepa, Mohan
    Deev, Alexander D.
    Dehghan, Abbas
    Delisle, Helene
    Delpeuch, Francis
    Deschamps, Valerie
    Dhana, Klodian
    Di Castelnuovo, Augusto F.
    Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal Soares
    Diaz, Alejandro
    Djalalinia, Shirin
    Do, Ha T. P.
    Dobson, Annette J.
    Donfrancesco, Chiara
    Donoso, Silvana P.
    Doering, Angela
    Doua, Kouamelan
    Drygas, Wojciech
    Dzerve, Vilnis
    Egbagbe, Eruke E.
    Eggertsen, Robert
    Ekelund, Ulf
    El Ati, Jalila
    Elliott, Paul
    Engle-Stone, Reina
    Erasmus, Rajiv T.
    Erem, Cihangir
    Eriksen, Loise
    Escobedo-de la Pena, Jorge
    Evans, Alun
    Faeh, David
    Fall, Caroline H.
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Felix-Redondo, Francisco J.
    Ferguson, Trevor S.
    Fernandez-Berges, Daniel
    Ferrante, Daniel
    Ferrari, Marika
    Ferreccio, Catterina
    Ferrieres, Jean
    Finn, Joseph D.
    Fischer, Krista
    Monterubio Flores, Eric
    Foeger, Bernhard
    Foo, Leng Huat
    Forslund, Ann-Sofie
    Forsner, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Högskolan Dalarna.
    Fortmann, Stephen P.
    Francis, Heba M.
    Francis, Damian K.
    do Carmo Franco, Maria
    Franco, Oscar H.
    Frontera, Guillermo
    Fuchs, Flavio D.
    Fuchs, Sandra C.
    Fujita, Yuki
    Furusawa, Takuro
    Gaciong, Zbigniew
    Gafencu, Mihai
    Gareta, Dickman
    Garnett, Sarah P.
    Gaspoz, Jean-Michel
    Gasull, Magda
    Gates, Louise
    Geleijnse, Johanna M.
    Ghasemian, Anoosheh
    Giampaoli, Simona
    Gianfagna, Francesco
    Giovannelli, Jonathan
    Giwercman, Aleksander
    Goldsmith, Rebecca A.
    Goncalves, Helen
    Gonzalez Gross, Marcela
    Gonzalez Rivas, Juan P.
    Bonet Gorbea, Mariano
    Gottrand, Frederic
    Graff-Iversen, Sidsel
    Grafnetter, Dusan
    Grajda, Aneta
    Grammatikopoulou, Maria G.
    Gregor, Ronald D.
    Grodzicki, Tomasz
    Grontved, Anders
    Gruden, Grabriella
    Grujic, Vera
    Gu, Dongfeng
    Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela
    Guan, Ong Peng
    Gudnason, Vilmundur
    Guerrero, Ramiro
    Guessous, Idris
    Guimaraes, Andre L.
    Gulliford, Martin C.
    Gunnlaugsdottir, Johanna
    Gunter, Marc
    Guo, Xiuhua
    Guo, Yin
    Gupta, Prakash C.
    Gureje, Oye
    Gurzkowska, Beata
    Gutierrez, Laura
    Gutzwiller, Felix
    Halkjaer, Jytte
    Hambleton, Ian R.
    Hardy, Rebecca
    Kumar, Rachakulla Hari
    Hata, Jun
    Hayes, Alison J.
    He, Jiang
    Hendriks, Marleen Ekisabeth
    Hernandez Cadena, Leticia
    Herrala, Sauli
    Heshmat, Ramin
    Hihtaniemi, Ilpo Tapani
    Ho, Sai Yin
    Ho, Suzanne C.
    Hobbs, Michael
    Hofman, Albert
    Hormiga, Claudi M.
    Horta, Bernardo L.
    Houti, Leila
    Howitt, Christina
    Htay, Thein Thein
    Htet, Aung Soe
    Htike, Maung Maung Than
    Hu, Yonghua
    Husseini, Abdullatif
    Huu, Chinh Nguyen
    Huybrechts, Inge
    Hwalla, Nahla
    Iacoviello, Licia
    Iannone, Anna G.
    Ibrahim, Mohsen M.
    Ikeda, Nayu
    Ikram, M. Arfan
    Irazola, Vilma E.
    Islam, Muhammad
    Ivkovic, Vanja
    Iwasaki, Masanori
    Jackson, Rod T.
    Jacobs, Jeremy M.
    Jafar, Tazeen
    Jamil, Kazi M.
    Jamrozik, Konrad
    Janszky, Imre
    Jasienska, Grazyna
    Jelakovic, Bojan
    Jiang, Chao Qiang
    Joffres, Michel
    Johansson, Mattias
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Jorgensen, Torben
    Joshi, Pradeep
    Juolevi, Anne
    Jurak, Gregor
    Juresa, Vesno
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Kafatos, Anthony
    Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra
    Kapantais, Efthymios
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Katz, Joanne
    Kaur, Prabhdeep
    Kavousi, Maryam
    Keil, Ulrich
    Boker, Lital Keinan
    Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka
    Kelishadi, Roya
    Kemper, Han C. G.
    Kengne, Andre P.
    Kersting, Mathilde
    Key, Timothy
    Khader, Yousef Saleh
    Khalili, Davood
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Khaw, Kay-Tee H.
    Khouw, Ilse M. S. L.
    Kiechl, Stefan
    Killewo, Japhet
    Kim, Jeongseon
    Klimont, Jeannette
    Klumbiene, Jurate
    Koirala, Bhawesh
    Kolle, Elin
    Kolsteren, Patrick
    Korrovits, Paul
    Koskinen, Seppo
    Kouda, Katsuyasu
    Koziel, Slawomir
    Kratzer, Wolfgang
    Krokstad, Steinar
    Kromhout, Daan
    Kruger, Herculina S.
    Kubinova, Ruzena
    Kujala, Urho M.
    Kula, Krzysztof
    Kulaga, Zbigniew
    Kumar, R. Krishna
    Kurjata, Pawel
    Kusuma, Yadlapalli S.
    Kuulasmaa, Kari
    Kyobutungi, Catherine
    Laamiri, Fatima Zahra
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    Lachat, Carl
    Laid, Youcef
    Lam, Tai Hing
    Landrove, Orlando
    Lanska, Vera
    Lappas, Georg
    Larijani, Bagher
    Laugsand, Lars E.
    Bao, Khanh Le Nguyen
    Le, Tuyen D
    Leclercq, Catherine
    Lee, Jeannette
    Lee, Jeonghee
    Lehtimaki, Terho
    Lekhraj, Rampal
    Leon-Munoz, Luz M.
    Li, Yanping
    Lilly, Christa L.
    Lim, Wei-Yen
    Fernanda Lima-Costa, M.
    Lin, Hsien-Ho
    Lin, Xu
    Linneberg, Allan
    Lissner, Lauren
    Litwin, Mieczyslaw
    Liu, Jing
    Lorbeer, Roberto
    Lotufo, Paulo A.
    Eugenio Lozano, Jose
    Luksiene, Dalia
    Lundqvist, Annamari
    Lunet, Nuno
    Ma, Guansheng
    Ma, Jun
    Machado-Coelho, George L. L.
    Machi, Suka
    Maggi, Stefania
    Magliano, Dianna J.
    Maire, Bernard
    Makdisse, Marcia
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Malhotra, Rahul
    Rao, Kodavanti Mallikharjuna
    Malyutina, Sofia
    Manios, Yannis
    Mann, Jim I.
    Manzato, Enzo
    Margozzini, Paula
    Markey, Oonagh
    Marques-Vidal, Pedro
    Marrugat, Jaume
    Martin-Prevel, Yves
    Martorell, Reynaldo
    Masoodi, Shariq R.
    Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.
    Matsha, Tandi E.
    Mazur, Artur
    Mbanya, Jean Claude N.
    McFarlane, Shelly R.
    McGarvey, Stephen T.
    McKee, Martin
    McLachlan, Stela
    McLean, Rachael M.
    McNulty, Breige A.
    Yusof, Safiah Md
    Mediene-Benchekor, Sounnia
    Meirhaeghe, Aline
    Meisinger, Christa
    Menezes, Ana Maria B.
    Mensink, Gert B. M.
    Meshram, Indrapal I.
    Metspalu, Andres
    Mi, Jie
    Michaelsen, Kim F.
    Mikkel, Kairit
    Miller, Jody C.
    Francisco Miquel, Juan
    Jaime Miranda, J.
    Misigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta
    Mohamed, Mostafa K.
    Mohammad, Kazem
    Mohammadifard, Noushin
    Mohan, Viswanathan
    Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd
    Molbo, Drude
    Moller, Niels C.
    Molnar, Denes
    Mondo, Charles K.
    Monterrubio, Eric A.
    Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel K.
    Moreira, Leila B.
    Morejon, Alain
    Moreno, Luis A.
    Morgan, Karen
    Mortensen, Erik Lykke
    Moschonis, George
    Mossakowska, Malgorzata
    Mostafa, Aya
    Mota, Jorge
    Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeel
    Motta, Jorge
    Mu, Thet Thet
    Muiesan, Maria Lorenza
    Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina
    Murphy, Neil
    Mursu, Jaakko
    Murtagh, Elaine M.
    Musa, Kamarul Imran
    Musil, Vera
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Nakamura, Harunobu
    Namesna, Jana
    Nang, Ei Ei K.
    Nangia, Vinay B.
    Nankap, Martin
    Narake, Sameer
    Maria Navarrete-Munoz, Eva
    Neal, William A.
    Nenko, Ilona
    Neovius, Martin
    Nervi, Flavio
    Neuhauser, Hannelore K.
    Nguyen, Nguyen D.
    Nguyen, Quang Ngoc
    Nieto-Martinez, Ramfis E.
    Ning, Guang
    Ninomiya, Toshiharu
    Nishtar, Sania
    Noale, Marianna
    Norat, Teresa
    Noto, Davide
    Al Nsour, Mohannad
    O'Reilly, Dermot
    Oh, Kyungwon
    Olayan, Iman H.
    Anselmo Olinto, Maria Teresa
    Oltarzewski, Maciej
    Omar, Mohd A.
    Onat, Altan
    Ordunez, Pedro
    Ortiz, Ana P.
    Osler, Merete
    Osmond, Clive
    Ostojic, Sergej M.
    Otero, Johanna A.
    Overvad, Kim
    Owusu-Dabo, Ellis
    Paccaud, Fred Michel
    Padez, Cristina
    Pahomova, Elena
    Pajak, Andrzej
    Palli, Domenico
    Palloni, Alberto
    Palmieri, Luigi
    Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra
    Panza, Francesco
    Parnell, Winsome R.
    Parsaeian, Mahboubeh
    Pecin, Ivan
    Pednekar, Mangesh S.
    Peeters, Petra H.
    Peixoto, Sergio Viana
    Peltonen, Markku
    Pereira, Alexandre C.
    Perez, Cynthia M.
    Peters, Annette
    Petkeviciene, Janina
    Peykari, Niloofar
    Pham, Son Thai
    Pigeot, Iris
    Pikhart, Hynek
    Pilav, Aida
    Pilotto, Lorenza
    Pistelli, Francesco
    Pitakaka, Freda
    Piwonska, Aleksandra
    Plans-Rubio, Pedro
    Poh, Bee Koon
    Porta, Miquel
    Portegies, Marileen L. P.
    Poulimeneas, Dimitrios
    Pradeepa, Rajendra
    Prashant, Mathur
    Price, Jacqueline F.
    Puiu, Maria
    Punab, Margus
    Qasrawi, Radwan F.
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Bao, Tran Quoc
    Radic, Ivana
    Radisauskas, Ricardas
    Rahman, Mahmudur
    Raitakari, Olli
    Raj, Manu
    Rao, Sudha Ramachandra
    Ramachandran, Ambady
    Ramke, Jacqueline
    Ramos, Rafel
    Rampal, Sanjay
    Rasmussen, Finn
    Redon, Josep
    Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M.
    Ribeiro, Robespierre
    Rigo, Fernando
    de Wit, Tobias F. Rinke
    Ritti-Dias, Raphael M.
    Rivera, Juan A.
    Robinson, Sian M.
    Robitaille, Cynthia
    Rodri-guez-Artalejo, Fernando
    del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez, Maria
    Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura A.
    Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba
    Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa
    Romaguera, Dora
    Ronkainen, Kimmo
    Rosengren, Annika
    Rouse, Ian
    Rubinstein, Adolfo
    Ruhli, Frank J.
    Rui, Ornelas
    Sandra Ruiz-Betancourt, Blanca
    Horimoto, Andrea R. V. Russo
    Rutkowski, Marcin
    Sabanayagam, Charumathi
    Sachdev, Harshpal S.
    Saidi, Olfa
    Salanave, Benoit
    Salazar Martinez, Eduardo
    Salomaa, Veikko
    Salonen, Jukka T.
    Salvetti, Massimo
    Sanchez-Abanto, Jose
    Sandjaja,
    Sans, Susana
    Santos, Diana A.
    Santos, Osvaldo
    dos Santos, Renata Nunes
    Santos, Rute
    Saramies, Jouko L.
    Sardinha, Luis B.
    Sarrafzadegan, Nizal
    Saum, Kai-Uwe
    Savva, Savvas C.
    Scazufca, Marcia
    Rosario, Angelika Schaffrath
    Schargrodsky, Herman
    Schienkiewitz, Anja
    Schmidt, Ida Maria
    Schneider, Ione J.
    Schultsz, Constance
    Schutte, Aletta E.
    Sein, Aye Aye
    Sen, Abhijit
    Senbanjo, Idowu O.
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Shalnova, Svetlana A.
    Sharma, Sanjib K.
    Shaw, Jonathan E.
    Shibuya, Kenji
    Shin, Dong Wook
    Shin, Youchan
    Shiri, Rahman
    Siantar, Rosalynn
    Sibai, Abla M.
    Silva, Antonio M.
    Santos Silva, Diego Augusto
    Simon, Mary
    Simons, Judith
    Simons, Leon A.
    Sjostrom, Michael
    Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta
    Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw
    Smeeth, Liam
    Smith, Margaret C.
    Snijder, Marieke B.
    So, Hung-Kwan
    Sobngwi, Eugene
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology.
    Soekatri, Moesijanti Y. E.
    Solfrizzi, Vincenzo
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Song, Yi
    Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.
    Soric, Maroje
    Jerome, Charles Sossa
    Soumare, Aicha
    Staessen, Jan A.
    Starc, Gregor
    Stathopoulou, Maria G.
    Staub, Kaspar
    Stavreski, Bill
    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein
    Stehle, Peter
    Stein, Aryeh D.
    Stergiou, George S.
    Stessman, Jochanan
    Stieber, Jutta
    Stoeckl, Doris
    Stocks, Tanja
    Stokwiszewski, Jakub
    Stratton, Gareth
    Stronks, Karien
    Strufaldi, Maria Wany
    Sun, Chien-An
    Sundstroem, Johan
    Sung, Yn-Tz
    Sunyer, Jordi
    Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul
    Swinburn, Boyd A.
    Sy, Rody G.
    Szponar, Lucjan
    Tai, E. Shyong
    Tammesoo, Mari-Liis
    Tamosiunas, Abdonas
    Tang, Line
    Tang, Xun
    Tanser, Frank
    Tao, Yong
    Tarawneh, Mohammed Rasoul
    Tarp, Jakob
    Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina B.
    Taylor, Anne
    Tchibindat, Felicite
    Theobald, Holger
    Thijs, Lutgarde
    Thuesen, Betina H.
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Tolonen, Hanna K.
    Tolstrup, Janne S.
    Topbas, Murat
    Topor-Madry, Roman
    Torrent, Maties
    Toselli, Stefania
    Traissac, Pierre
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Trinh, Oanh T. H.
    Trivedi, Atul
    Tshepo, Lechaba
    Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.
    Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka
    Tuomilehto, Jaakko
    Turley, Maria L.
    Tynelius, Per
    Tzotzas, Themistoklis
    Tzourio, Christophe
    Ueda, Peter
    Ukoli, Flora A. M.
    Ulmer, Hanno
    Unal, Belgin
    Uusitalo, Hannu M. T.
    Valdivia, Gonzalo
    Vale, Susana
    Valvi, Damaskini
    van der Schouw, Yvonne T.
    Van Herck, Koen
    Minh, Hoang Van
    van Rossem, Lenie
    van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.
    Vanderschueren, Dirk
    Vanuzzo, Diego
    Vatten, Lars
    Vega, Tomas
    Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo
    Veronesi, Giovanni
    Verschuren, W. M. Monique
    Verstraeten, Roosmarijn
    Victora, Cesar G.
    Viegi, Giovanni
    Viet, Lucie
    Viikari-Juntura, Eira
    Vineis, Paolo
    Vioque, Jesus
    Virtanen, Jyrki K.
    Visvikis-Siest, Sophie
    Viswanathan, Bharathi
    Vollenweider, Peter
    Voutilainen, Sari
    Vrdoljak, Ana
    Vrijheid, Martine
    Wade, Alisha N.
    Wagner, Aline
    Walton, Janette
    Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon Wan
    Wang, Ming-Dong
    Wang, Qian
    Wang, Ya Xing
    Wannamethee, S. Goya
    Wareham, Nicholas
    Weerasekera, Deepa
    Whincup, Peter H.
    Widhalm, Kurt
    Widyahening, Indah S.
    Wiecek, Andrzej
    Wijga, Alet H.
    Wilks, Rainford J.
    Willeit, Johann
    Wilsgaard, Tom
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    Wong, Jyh Eiin
    Wong, Tien Yin
    Woo, Jean
    Woodward, Mark
    Wu, Frederick C.
    Wu, Jianfeng
    Wu, Shou Ling
    Xu, Haiquan
    Xu, Liang
    Yamborisut, Uruwan
    Yan, Weili
    Yang, Xiaoguang
    Yardim, Nazan
    Ye, Xingwang
    Yiallouros, Panayiotis K.
    Yoshihara, Akihiro
    You, Qi Sheng
    Younger-Coleman, Novie O.
    Yusoff, Ahmad F.
    Zainuddin, Ahmad A.
    Zambon, Sabina
    Zdrojewski, Tomasz
    Zeng, Yi
    Zhao, Dong
    Zhao, Wenhua
    Zheng, Yingfeng
    Zhou, Maigeng
    Zhu, Dan
    Zimmermann, Esther
    Cisneros, Julio Zuniga
    A century of trends in adult human height2016In: eLIFE, E-ISSN 2050-084X, Vol. 5, article id e13410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.522.7) and 16.5 cm (13.319.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.

  • 2. Feigin, Valery L.
    et al.
    Nichols, Emma
    Alam, Tahiya
    Bannick, Marlena S.
    Beghi, Ettore
    Blake, Natacha
    Culpepper, William J.
    Dorsey, E. Ray
    Elbaz, Alexis
    Ellenbogen, Richard G.
    Fisher, James L.
    Fitzmaurice, Christina
    Giussani, Giorgia
    Glennie, Linda
    James, Spencer L.
    Johnson, Catherine Owens
    Kassebaum, Nicholas J.
    Logroscino, Giancarlo
    Marin, Benoit
    Mountjoy-Venning, W. Cliff
    Nguyen, Minh
    Ofori-Asenso, Richard
    Patel, Anoop P.
    Piccininni, Marco
    Roth, Gregory A.
    Steiner, Timothy J.
    Stovner, Lars Jacob
    Szoeke, Cassandra E. I.
    Theadom, Alice
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Wallin, Mitchell Taylor
    Wright, Claire
    Zunt, Joseph Raymond
    Abbasi, Nooshin
    Abd-Allah, Foad
    Abdelalim, Ahmed
    Abdollahpour, Ibrahim
    Aboyans, Victor
    Abraha, Haftom Niguse
    Acharya, Dilaram
    Adamu, Abdu A.
    Adebayo, Oladimeji M.
    Adeoye, Abiodun Moshood
    Adsuar, Jose C.
    Afarideh, Mohsen
    Agrawal, Sutapa
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Ahmed, Muktar Beshir
    Aichour, Amani Nidhal
    Aichour, Ibtihel
    Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine
    Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola
    Akseer, Nadia
    Al-Eyadhy, Ayman
    Salman, Rustam Al-Shahi
    Alahdab, Fares
    Alene, Kefyalew Addis
    Aljunid, Syed Mohamed
    Altirkawi, Khalid
    Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
    Anber, Nahla Hamed
    Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.
    Arabloo, Jalal
    Aremu, Olatunde
    Arnlov, Johan
    Asayesh, Hamid
    Asghar, Rana Jawad
    Atalay, Hagos Tasew
    Awasthi, Ashish
    Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina
    Ayuk, Tambe B.
    Badawi, Alaa
    Banach, Maciej
    Banoub, Joseph Adel Mattar
    Barboza, Miguel A.
    Barker-Collo, Suzanne Lyn
    Barnighausen, Till Winfried
    Baune, Bernhard T.
    Bedi, Neeraj
    Behzadifar, Masoud
    Behzadifar, Meysam
    Bejot, Yannick
    Bekele, Bayu Begashaw
    Belachew, Abate Bekele
    Bennett, Derrick A.
    Bensenor, Isabela M.
    Berhane, Adugnaw
    Beuran, Mircea
    Bhattacharyya, Krittika
    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.
    Biadgo, Belete
    Bijani, Ali
    Bililign, Nigus
    Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat
    Blazes, Christopher Kynrint
    Brayne, Carol
    Butt, Zahid A.
    Campos-Nonato, Ismael R.
    Cantu-Brito, Carlos
    Car, Mate
    Cardenas, Rosario
    Carrero, Juan J.
    Carvalho, Felix
    Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.
    Castro, Franz
    Catala-Lopez, Ferran
    Cerin, Ester
    Chaiah, Yazan
    Chang, Jung-Chen
    Chatziralli, Irini
    Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia
    Christensen, Hanne
    Christopher, Devasahayam J.
    Cooper, Cyrus
    Cortesi, Paolo Angelo
    Costa, Vera M.
    Criqui, Michael H.
    Crowe, Christopher Stephen
    Damasceno, Albertino Antonio Moura
    Daryani, Ahmad
    De la Cruz-Gongora, Vanessa
    Pio De la Hoz, Fernando
    De Leo, Diego
    Degefa, Meaza Girma
    Demoz, Gebre Teklemariam
    Deribe, Kebede
    Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda
    Diaz, Daniel
    Dinberu, Mesfin Tadese
    Djalalinia, Shirin
    Doku, David Teye
    Dubey, Manisha
    Dubljanin, Eleonora
    Duken, Eyasu Ejeta
    Edvardsson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    El-Khatib, Ziad
    Endres, Matthias
    Endries, Aman Yesuf
    Eskandarieh, Sharareh
    Esteghamati, Alireza
    Esteghamati, Sadaf
    Farhadi, Farzaneh
    Faro, Andre
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Farzaei, Mohammad Hosein
    Fatima, Batool
    Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad
    Fernandes, Eduarda
    Feyissa, Garumma Tolu
    Filip, Irina
    Fischer, Florian
    Fukumoto, Takeshi
    Ganji, Morsaleh
    Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho
    Garcia-Gordillo, Miguel A.
    Gebre, Abadi Kahsu
    Gebremichael, Teklu Gebrehiwo
    Gelaw, Belayneh K.
    Geleijnse, Johanna M.
    Geremew, Demeke
    Gezae, Kebede Embaye
    Ghasemi-Kasman, Maryam
    Gidey, Mahari Y.
    Gill, Paramjit Singh
    Gill, Tiffany K.
    Gnedovskaya, Elena V.
    Goulart, Alessandra C.
    Grada, Ayman
    Grosso, Giuseppe
    Guo, Yuming
    Gupta, Rahul
    Gupta, Rajeev
    Haagsma, Juanita A.
    Hagos, Tekleberhan B.
    Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin
    Haj-Mirzaian, Arya
    Hamadeh, Randah R.
    Hamidi, Samer
    Hankey, Graeme J.
    Hao, Yuantao
    Haro, Josep Maria
    Hassankhani, Hadi
    Hassen, Hamid Yimam
    Havmoeller, Rasmus
    Hay, Simon I.
    Hegazy, Mohamed I.
    Heidari, Behnam
    Henok, Andualem
    Heydarpour, Fatemeh
    Hoang, Chi Linh
    Hole, Michael K.
    Rad, Enayatollah Homaie
    Hosseini, Seyed Mostafa
    Hu, Guoqing
    Igumbor, Ehimario U.
    Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen
    Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi
    Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful
    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo
    Javanbakht, Mehdi
    Jha, Ravi Prakash
    Jobanputra, Yash B.
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy
    Jurisson, Mikk
    Kahsay, Amaha
    Kalani, Rizwan
    Kalkonde, Yogeshwar
    Kamil, Teshome Abegaz
    Kanchan, Tanuj
    Karami, Manoochehr
    Karch, Andre
    Karimi, Narges
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Kassa, Tesfaye Dessale
    Kassa, Zemenu Yohannes
    Kaul, Anil
    Kefale, Adane Teshome
    Keiyoro, Peter Njenga
    Khader, Yousef Saleh
    Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif
    Khalil, Ibrahim A.
    Khan, Ejaz Ahmad
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Khazaie, Habibolah
    Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A.
    Kiirithio, Daniel N.
    Kim, Anthony S.
    Kim, Daniel
    Kim, Young-Eun
    Kim, Yun Jin
    Kisa, Adnan
    Kokubo, Yoshihiro
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Krishnamurthi, Rita V.
    Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
    Bicer, Burcu Kucuk
    Kumar, Manasi
    Lacey, Ben
    Lafranconi, Alessandra
    Lansingh, Van C.
    Latifi, Arman
    Leshargie, Cheru Tesema
    Li, Shanshan
    Liao, Yu
    Linn, Shai
    Lo, Warren David
    Lopez, Jaifred Christian F.
    Lorkowski, Stefan
    Lotufo, Paulo A.
    Lucas, Robyn M.
    Lunevicius, Raimundas
    Mackay, Mark T.
    Mahotra, Narayan Bahadur
    Majdan, Marek
    Majdzadeh, Reza
    Majeed, Azeem
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Malta, Deborah Carvalho
    Manafi, Navid
    Mansournia, Mohammad Ali
    Mantovani, Lorenzo Giovanni
    Marz, Winfried
    Mashamba-Thompson, Tivani Phosa
    Massenburg, Benjamin Ballard
    Mate, Kedar K. V.
    McAlinden, Colm
    McGrath, John J.
    Mehta, Varshil
    Meier, Toni
    Meles, Hagazi Gebre
    Melese, Addisu
    Memiah, Peter T. N.
    Memish, Ziad A.
    Mendoza, Walter
    Mengistu, Desalegn Tadese
    Mengistu, Getnet
    Meretoja, Atte
    Meretoja, Tuomo J.
    Mestrovic, Tomislav
    Miazgowski, Bartosz
    Miazgowski, Tomasz
    Miller, Ted R.
    Mini, G. K.
    Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.
    Moazen, Babak
    Mohajer, Bahram
    Mezerji, Naser Mohammad Gholi
    Mohammadi, Moslem
    Mohammadi-Khanaposhtani, Maryam
    Mohammadibakhsh, Roghayeh
    Mohammadnia-Afrouzi, Mousa
    Mohammed, Shafiu
    Mohebi, Farnam
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    Monasta, Lorenzo
    Mondello, Stefania
    Moodley, Yoshan
    Moosazadeh, Mahmood
    Moradi, Ghobad
    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
    Moradinazar, Mehdi
    Moraga, Paula
    Velasquez, Ilais Moreno
    Morrison, Shane Douglas
    Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam
    Muhammed, Oumer Sada
    Muruet, Walter
    Musa, Kamarul Imran
    Mustafa, Ghulam
    Naderi, Mehdi
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Naheed, Aliya
    Naik, Gurudatta
    Najafi, Farid
    Nangia, Vinay
    Negoi, Ionut
    Negoi, Ruxandra Irina
    Newton, Charles Richard James
    Ngunjiri, Josephine W.
    Nguyen, Cuong Tat
    Nguyen, Long Hoang
    Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini
    Nirayo, Yirga Legesse
    Nixon, Molly R.
    Norrving, Bo
    Noubiap, Jean Jacques
    Shiadeh, Malihe Nourollahpour
    Nyasulu, Peter S.
    Ogbo, Felix Akpojene
    Oh, In-Hwan
    Olagunju, Andrew T.
    Olagunju, Tinuke O.
    Olivares, Pedro R.
    Onwujekwe, Obinna E.
    Oren, Eyal
    Owolabi, Mayowa Ojo
    Mahesh, P. A.
    Pakpour, Amir H.
    Pan, Wen-Harn
    Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra
    Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai
    Patel, Sangram Kishor
    Pereira, David M.
    Petzold, Max
    Pillay, Julian David
    Piradov, Michael A.
    Polanczyk, Guilherme V.
    Polinder, Suzanne
    Postma, Maarten J.
    Poulton, Richie
    Poustchi, Hossein
    Prakash, Swayam
    Prakash, V.
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Radfar, Amir
    Rafay, Anwar
    Rafiei, Alireza
    Rahim, Fakher
    Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
    Rahman, Mahfuzar
    Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur
    Rahman, Muhammad Aziz
    Rajati, Fatemeh
    Ram, Usha
    Ranta, Anna
    Rawaf, David Laith
    Rawaf, Salman
    Reinig, Nickolas
    Reis, Cesar
    Renzaho, Andre M. N.
    Resnikoff, Serge
    Rezaeian, Shahab
    Rezai, Mohammad Sadegh
    Gonzalez, Carlos Miguel Rios
    Roberts, Nicholas L. S.
    Roever, Leonardo
    Ronfani, Luca
    Roro, Elias Merdassa
    Roshandel, Gholamreza
    Rostami, Ali
    Sabbagh, Parisa
    Sacco, Ralph L.
    Sachdev, Perminder S.
    Saddik, Basema
    Safari, Hosein
    Safari-Faramani, Roya
    Safi, Sare
    Safiri, Saeid
    Sagar, Rajesh
    Sahathevan, Ramesh
    Sahebkar, Amirhossein
    Sahraian, Mohammad Ali
    Salamati, Payman
    Zahabi, Saleh Salehi
    Salimi, Yahya
    Samy, Abdallah M.
    Sanabria, Juan
    Santos, Itamar S.
    Milicevic, Milena M. Santric
    Sarrafzadegan, Nizal
    Sartorius, Benn
    Sarvi, Shahabeddin
    Sathian, Brijesh
    Satpathy, Maheswar
    Sawant, Arundhati R.
    Sawhney, Monika
    Schneider, Ione J. C.
    Schottker, Ben
    Schwebel, David C.
    Seedat, Soraya
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Shabaninejad, Hosein
    Shafieesabet, Azadeh
    Shaikh, Masood Ali
    Shakir, Raad A.
    Shams-Beyranvand, Mehran
    Shamsizadeh, Morteza
    Sharif, Mehdi
    Sharif-Alhoseini, Mahdi
    She, Jun
    Sheikh, Aziz
    Sheth, Kevin N.
    Shigematsu, Mika
    Shiri, Rahman
    Shirkoohi, Reza
    Shiue, Ivy
    Siabani, Soraya
    Siddiqi, Tariq J.
    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
    Sigurvinsdottir, Rannveig
    Silberberg, Donald H.
    Silva, Joao Pedro
    Silveira, Dayane Gabriele Alves
    Singh, Jasvinder A.
    Sinha, Dhirendra Narain
    Skiadaresi, Eirini
    Smith, Mari
    Sobaih, Badr Hasan
    Sobhani, Soheila
    Soofi, Moslem
    Soyiri, Ireneous N.
    Sposato, Luciano A.
    Stein, Dan J.
    Stein, Murray B.
    Stokes, Mark A.
    Sufiyan, Mu'awiyyah Babale
    Sykes, Bryan L.
    Sylaja, Pn
    Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael
    Ao, Braden James Te
    Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash
    Temsah, Mohamad-Hani
    Temsah, Omar
    Thakur, Jarnail Singh
    Thrift, Amanda G.
    Topor-Madry, Roman
    Tortajada-Girbes, Miguel
    Tovani-Palone, Marcos Roberto
    Tran, Bach Xuan
    Tran, Khanh Bao
    Truelsen, Thomas Clement
    Tsadik, Afewerki Gebremeskel
    Car, Lorainne Tudor
    Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna
    Ullah, Irfan
    Usman, Muhammad Shariq
    Uthman, Olalekan A.
    Valdez, Pascual R.
    Vasankari, Tommi Juhani
    Vasanthan, Rajagopalan
    Veisani, Yousef
    Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy
    Violante, Francesco S.
    Vlassov, Vasily
    Vosoughi, Kia
    Vu, Giang Thu
    Vujcic, Isidora S.
    Wagnew, Fasil Shiferaw
    Waheed, Yasir
    Wang, Yuan-Pang
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Weiss, Jordan
    Whiteford, Harvey A.
    Wijeratne, Tissa
    Winkler, Andrea Sylvia
    Wiysonge, Charles Shey
    Wolfe, Charles D. A.
    Xu, Gelin
    Yadollahpour, Ali
    Yamada, Tomohide
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Yaseri, Mehdi
    Yatsuya, Hiroshi
    Yimer, Ebrahim M.
    Yip, Paul
    Yisma, Engida
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Yousefifard, Mahmoud
    Yu, Chuanhua
    Zaidi, Zoubida
    Bin Zaman, Sojib
    Zamani, Mohammad
    Zandian, Hamed
    Zare, Zohreh
    Zhang, Yunquan
    Zodpey, Sanjay
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Vos, Theo
    Global, regional, and national burden of neurological disorders, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20162019In: Lancet Neurology, ISSN 1474-4422, E-ISSN 1474-4465, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 459-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Neurological disorders are increasingly recognised as major causes of death and disability worldwide. The aim of this analysis from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2016 is to provide the most comprehensive and up-to-date estimates of the global, regional, and national burden from neurological disorders.

    Methods: We estimated prevalence, incidence, deaths, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs; the sum of years of life lost [YLLs] and years lived with disability [YLDs]) by age and sex for 15 neurological disorder categories (tetanus, meningitis, encephalitis, stroke, brain and other CNS cancers, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, motor neuron diseases, idiopathic epilepsy, migraine, tension-type headache, and a residual category for other less common neurological disorders) in 195 countries from 1990 to 2016. DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, was the main method of estimation of prevalence and incidence, and the Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) was used for mortality estimation. We quantified the contribution of 84 risks and combinations of risk to the disease estimates for the 15 neurological disorder categories using the GBD comparative risk assessment approach.

    Findings: Globally, in 2016, neurological disorders were the leading cause of DALYs (276 million [95% UI 247–308]) and second leading cause of deaths (9·0 million [8·8–9·4]). The absolute number of deaths and DALYs from all neurological disorders combined increased (deaths by 39% [34–44] and DALYs by 15% [9–21]) whereas their age-standardised rates decreased (deaths by 28% [26–30] and DALYs by 27% [24–31]) between 1990 and 2016. The only neurological disorders that had a decrease in rates and absolute numbers of deaths and DALYs were tetanus, meningitis, and encephalitis. The four largest contributors of neurological DALYs were stroke (42·2% [38·6–46·1]), migraine (16·3% [11·7–20·8]), Alzheimer's and other dementias (10·4% [9·0–12·1]), and meningitis (7·9% [6·6–10·4]). For the combined neurological disorders, age-standardised DALY rates were significantly higher in males than in females (male-to-female ratio 1·12 [1·05–1·20]), but migraine, multiple sclerosis, and tension-type headache were more common and caused more burden in females, with male-to-female ratios of less than 0·7. The 84 risks quantified in GBD explain less than 10% of neurological disorder DALY burdens, except stroke, for which 88·8% (86·5–90·9) of DALYs are attributable to risk factors, and to a lesser extent Alzheimer's disease and other dementias (22·3% [11·8–35·1] of DALYs are risk attributable) and idiopathic epilepsy (14·1% [10·8–17·5] of DALYs are risk attributable).

    Interpretation: Globally, the burden of neurological disorders, as measured by the absolute number of DALYs, continues to increase. As populations are growing and ageing, and the prevalence of major disabling neurological disorders steeply increases with age, governments will face increasing demand for treatment, rehabilitation, and support services for neurological disorders. The scarcity of established modifiable risks for most of the neurological burden demonstrates that new knowledge is required to develop effective prevention and treatment strategies.

    Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

  • 3.
    Häggström, Christel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery. Umea Univ, Dept Biobank Res, S-90185 Umea, Sweden;Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Nutr Res, Umea, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Håkan
    Umea Univ, Dept Radiat Sci, Umea, Sweden.
    Björge, Tone
    Univ Bergen, Dept Global Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Bergen, Norway;Canc Registry Norway, Oslo, Norway.
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Ulm Univ, Inst Epidemiol & Med Biometry, Ulm, Germany;Agcy Prevent & Social Med, Vorarlberg Canc Registry, Bregenz, Aks, Austria.
    Manjer, Jonas
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Surg, Malmo, Sweden.
    Ulmer, Hanno
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Med Stat Informat & Hlth Econ, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Drake, Isabel
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Malmo, Lund, Sweden.
    Ghaderi, Sara
    Univ Bergen, Dept Global Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Bergen, Norway.
    Lang, Alois
    Agcy Prevent & Social Med, Vorarlberg Canc Registry, Bregenz, Aks, Austria.
    Engeland, Anders
    Univ Bergen, Dept Global Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Bergen, Norway;Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Bergen, Norway.
    Stattin, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
    Stocks, Tanja
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Lund, Sweden.
    Linear age-course effects on the associations between body mass index, triglycerides, and female breast and male liver cancer risk: An internal replication study of 800,000 individuals2020In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 146, no 1, p. 58-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Apart from the consistently observed differential association between obesity and breast cancer risk by menopausal status, the associations between obesity and other metabolic imbalances with risks of cancers have not been systematically investigated across the age-course. We created two random 50-50% cohorts from six European cohorts comprising 813,927 individuals. In the "discovery cohort", we used Cox regression with attained age as time-scale and tested interactions between body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, plasma glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol, and attained age in relation to cancer risk. Results with a p-value below 0.05 were additionally tested in the "replication cohort" where a replicated result was considered evidence of a linear interaction with attained age. These findings were investigated by flexible parametric survival models for any age-plateaus in their shape of associations with cancer risk across age. Consistent with other studies, BMI was negatively related to breast cancer risk (n cases = 11,723) among younger (premenopausal) women. However, the association remained negative for several years after menopause and, although gradually weakening over age, the association became positive only at 62 years of age. This linear and positive age-interaction was also found for triglycerides and breast cancer, and for BMI and triglycerides in relation to liver cancer among men (n cases = 444). These findings are unlikely to be due to chance owing to the replication. The linear age-interactions in breast cancer may suggest an influence by other age-related factors than menopause; however, further investigation of age-related effect modifiers in both breast and liver cancer is needed.

  • 4.
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    et al.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
    Iran Univ Med Sci, Dept Community Med, Gastrointestinal & Liver Dis Res Ctr GILDRC, Preventat Med & Publ Hlth Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    El Bcheraoui, Charbel
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Khalil, Ibrahim
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Charara, Raghid
    Amer Univ Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.
    Afshin, Ashkan
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Wang, Haidong
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Collison, Michael
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Krohn, Kristopher J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Chew, Adrienne
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Daoud, Farah
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Blosser, Christopher D.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Cornaby, Leslie
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Foreman, Kyle J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Kassebaum, Nicholas J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Seattle Childrens Hosp, Dept Anesthesiol & Pain Med, Seattle, WA USA.
    Kemmer, Laura
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Kutz, Michael
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Liu, Patrick
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Zipkin, Ben
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Arnlov, Johan
    Karolinska Inst, Div Family Med & Primary Care, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Stockholm, Sweden;Dalarna Univ, Sch Hlth & Social Studies, Falun, Sweden.
    Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Oromia, Ethiopia.
    Ahmadi, Alireza
    Kermanshah Univ Med Sci, Kermanshah, Iran.
    Ahmadieh, Hamid
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Ophthalm Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran;Labbafinejad Med Ctr, Dept Ophthalmol, Tehran, Iran.
    Ahmed, Muktar Beshir
    Jimma Univ, Coll Hlth Sci, Dept Epidemiol, Oromiya, Ethiopia.
    Al-Aly, Ziyad
    Washington Univ, St Louis, MO USA.
    Alam, Khurshid
    Univ Melbourne, Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Parkville, Vic, Australia;Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia;Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Alasfoor, Deena
    Minist Hlth, Muscat, Oman.
    Ali, Raghib
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England.
    Alizadeh-Navaei, Reza
    Mazandaran Univ Med Sci ences, Gastrointestinal Canc Res Ctr, Sari, Mazandaran, Iran.
    Alkaabi, Juma M.
    Coll Med & Hlth Sci UAEU, ALAIN UAE, Abu Zaby, U Arab Emirates.
    Alkerwi, Ala'a
    LIH, Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
    Al-Raddadi, Rajaa
    Joint Program Family & Community Med, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
    Altirkawi, Khalid A.
    King Saud Univ, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
    Univ Cartagena, Cartagena De Indias, Colombia.
    Amini, Erfan
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Urooncol Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Res Inst, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Anber, Nahla
    Mansoura Univ, Mansoura, Egypt.
    Anwari, Palwasha
    Asgedom, Solomon Weldegebreal
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia.
    Atey, Tesfay Mehari
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia.
    Avila-Burgos, Leticia
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.
    Awasthi, Ashish
    Sanjay Gandhi Postgrad Inst Med Sci, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.
    Azzopardi, Peter
    Univ Melbourne, Dept Paediat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia;Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia;South Australian Hlth & Med Res Inst, Wardliparingga Aboriginal Res Unit, Adelaide, SA, Australia;Burnet Inst, Ctr Int Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.
    Baernighausen, Till
    Harvard Univ, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Global Hlth & Populat, Boston, MA 02115 USA;Africa Hlth Res Inst, Mtubatuba, Kwazulu Natal, South Africa;Heidelberg Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Bacha, Umar
    Univ Management & Technol, Sch Hlth Sci, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
    Barac, Aleksandra
    Univ Belgrade, Fac Med, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad
    Charles R Drew Univ Med & Sci, Coll Med, 1621 E 120th St, Los Angeles, CA 90059 USA;Univ Calif Los Angeles, David Geffen Sch Med, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.
    Drew, Charles R.
    Geffen, David
    Bedi, Neeraj
    Coll Publ Hlth & Trop Med, Jazan, Saudi Arabia.
    Berhe, Derbew Fikadu
    Mekelle Univ, Sch Pharm, Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia.
    Beyene, Addisu Shunu
    Haramaya Univ, Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Harar, Oromia, Ethiopia.
    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.
    Aga Khan Univ, Ctr Excellence Women & Child Hlth, Karachi, Pakistan;Hosp Sick Children, Ctr Global Child Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada.
    Bikbov, Boris
    Haramaya Univ, Ctr Excellence Women & Child Hlth, Harar, Oromia, Ethiopia.
    Birhanu, Mulugeta M.
    Univ Groningen, UMCG, Groningen, Netherlands;Mekelle Univ, Mekelle 03, Ayder, Ethiopia.
    Butt, Zahid A.
    Al Shifa Trust Eye Hosp, Rawalpindi, Punjab, Pakistan.
    Cahuana-Hurtado, Lucero
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.
    Carpenter, David O.
    SUNY Albany, Albany, NY USA.
    Carrero, Juan Jesus
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Choi, Jee-Young Jasmine J.
    Seoul Natl Univ Hosp, Seoul, South Korea;Seoul Natl Univ, Med Lib, Seoul, South Korea.
    Danawi, Hadi
    Walden Univ, Minneapolis, MN USA.
    Dharmaratne, Samath D.
    Univ Peradeniya, Dept Community Med, Fac Med, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
    Ding, Eric L.
    Harvard Univ, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Djalalinia, Shirin
    Minist Hlth & Med Educ Tehran, Undersecretary Res & Technol, Tehran, Iran.
    Doyle, Kerrie E.
    RMIT Univ, Bundoora, Vic, Australia;Australian Natl Univ, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Ebrahimi, Hedyeh
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Shariati Hosp, Liver & Pancreaticobiliary Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Endries, Aman Yesuf
    Arba Minch Univ, Arba Minch, Arba Minch, Snnpr, Ethiopia.
    Esteghamati, Alireza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Farvid, Maryam S.
    Harvard Univ, Dept Nutr, Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA 02115 USA;Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Mongan Inst Hlth Policy, Harvard MGH Ctr Genom Vulnerable Populat & Hlth D, Boston, MA 02114 USA.
    Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc NVS, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Feyissa, Tesfaye Regassa
    Wollega Univ, Nekemte, Oromia, Ethiopia.
    Fischer, Florian
    Univ Bielefeld, Bielefeld, North Rhine Wes, Germany.
    Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Oromia, Ethiopia.
    Gona, Philimon N.
    Univ Massachusetts, Boston, MA 02125 USA.
    Gopalani, Sameer Vali
    Govern Federated States Micronesia, Dept Hlth & Social Affairs, Palikir, Pohnpei, Micronesia.
    Gyawali, Bishal
    Aarhus Univ, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Hafezi-Nejad, Nima
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi
    Arabian Gulf Univ, Manama, Bahrain.
    Hamidi, Samer
    Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart Univ, Dubai, U Arab Emirates.
    Horino, Masako
    Bur Child Family Community Wellness, Nevada Div Publ & Behav Hlth, Carson City, NV USA.
    Hsairi, Mohamed
    Salah Azaiz Inst, Dept Epidemiol, Tunis, Tunisia.
    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.
    Univ Kragujevac Kragujevac, Cent Serbia Sumadija, Fac Med Sci, Kragujevac, Serbia;Univ Washington, IHME, Ctr Hlth Trends & Forecasts, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Jimenez-Corona, Aida
    Inst Ophthalmol Condede Valencia, Dept Ocular Epidemiol & Visual Hlth, Mexico City, DF, Mexico;Minist Hlth, Gen Directorate Epidemiol, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.
    John, Denny
    Int Ctr Res Women, Delhi, India.
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Heidelberg Univ, Med Fac Mannheim, Dept Ophthalmol, Mannheim, Germany.
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Hematol Oncol & Stem Cell Transplantat Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Tehran, Iran.
    Kengne, Andre Pascal
    South African Med Res Council, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa;Univ Cape Town, Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa.
    Ketema, Ezra Belay
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia.
    Khader, Yousef Saleh
    Jordan Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Community Med Publ Hlth & Family Med, Irbid, Jordan.
    Khan, Ejaz Ahmad
    Hlth Serv Acad, Islamabad, Punjab, Pakistan.
    Kim, Daniel
    Northeastern Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Boston, MA 02115 USA.
    Kim, Yun Jin
    Southern Univ Coll, Fac Chinese Med, Skudai, Malaysia.
    Kinfu, Yohannes
    Univ Canberra, Ctr Res & Action Publ Hlth, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Kissimova-Skarbek, Katarzyna A.
    Jagiellonian Univ Med Coll, Krakow, Poland.
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Parc Sanitari St Joan de Deu CIBERSAM, Res & Dev Unit, Barcelona, Spain.
    Larson, Heidi J.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, London, England.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Li, Yongmei
    San Francisco VA Med Ctr, San Francisco, CA USA.
    Lotufo, Paulo A.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Lunevicius, Raimundas
    Aintree Univ Hosp Natl Hlth Serv Fdn Trust, Liverpool, Merseyside, England;Univ Liverpool, Sch Med, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.
    Majeed, Azeem
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Primary Care & Publ Hlth, London, England.
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.
    Malta, Deborah Carvalho
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.
    Mazidi, Mohsen
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Genet & Dev Biol, Key State Lab Mol Dev Biol, Beijing, Peoples R China.
    Memish, Ziad A.
    Saudi Minist Hlth, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia;Alfaisal Univ, Coll Med, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Mendoza, Walter
    United Nations Populat Fund, Lima, Peru.
    Mengistie, Mubarek Abera
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Oromia, Ethiopia.
    Mensah, George A.
    NHLBI, Ctr Translat Res & Implementat Sci, NIH, Bethesda, MD USA.
    Mezgebe, Haftay Berhane
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia.
    Miller, Ted R.
    Pacific Inst Res & Evaluat, Calverton, MD USA;Curtin Univ, Ctr Populat Hlth, Perth, WA, Australia.
    Mohammed, Muktar Sano Kedir
    Mizan Tepi Univ, Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia.
    Mohammed, Shafiu
    Heidelberg Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Heidelberg, Germany;Ahmadu Bello Univ, Hlth Syst & Policy Res Unit, Zaria, Kaduna, Nigeria.
    Mueller, Ulrich O.
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Wiesbaden, Germany.
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Ulm Univ, Ulm, Germany.
    Nguyen, Cuong Tat
    Nguyen, Quyen Le
    Nong, Vuong Minh
    Noubiap, Jean Jacques N.
    Univ Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa;Med Diagnost Ctr, Yaounde, Cameroon.
    Ogbo, Felix Akpojene
    Western Sydney Univ, Ctr Hlth Res, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
    Ortiz, Alberto
    IIS Fdn Jimenez Diaz UAM, Madrid, Spain.
    Ota, Erika
    St Lukes Int Univ, Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan.
    Patel, Tejas
    Mt Sinai Hlth Syst, New York, NY USA.
    Pearson-Stuttard, Jonathan
    Imperial Coll London, London, England.
    Perico, Norberto
    IRCCS Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Bergamo, Italy.
    Petzold, Max
    Univ Gothenburg, Hlth Metr Unit, Gothenburg, Sweden;Univ Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Pishgar, Farhad
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Urooncol Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Pourmalek, Farshad
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Alborz Univ Med Sci, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Karaj, Iran.
    Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Sina Trauma & Surg Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Rai, Rajesh Kumar
    Soc Hlth & Demog Surveillance, Suri, W Bengal, India.
    Rana, Saleem M.
    Contech Sch Publ Hlth, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan;Contech Int Hlth Consultants, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.
    Rawaf, David Laith
    Imperial Coll London, WHO Collaborating Ctr, London, England;North Hampshire Hosp, Basingstroke, England;Univ Coll London Hosp, London, England.
    Rawaf, Salman
    Imperial Coll London, London, England.
    Remuzzi, Giuseppe
    IRCCS Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Bergamo, Italy;Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale, Papa Giovanni23, Bergamo, Italy;Univ Milan, Dept Biomed & Clin Sci L Sacco, Milan, Italy.
    Renzaho, Andre M. N. N.
    Univ Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751, Australia.
    Rezaei, Satar
    Kermanshah Univ Med Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Kermanshah, Iran.
    Roshandel, Gholamreza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran;Golestan Univ Med Sci, Golestan Res Ctr Gastroenterol & Hepatol, Gorgan, Iran.
    Bacher, Dietrich Rothen
    Ulm Univ, Inst Epidemiol & Med Biometry, Ulm, Germany.
    Safdarian, Mahdi
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Sina Trauma & Surg Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran;Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Ophthalm Epidemiol Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Safi, Sare
    Safiri, Saeid
    Maragheh Univ Med Sci, Sch Nursing & Midwifery, Dept Publ Hlth, Managerial Epidemiol Res Ctr, Maragheh, Iran.
    Sahraian, Mohammad Ali
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Res Ctr, Inst Neurosci, Tehran, Iran.
    Salamati, Payman
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Sina Trauma & Surg Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Samy, Abdallah M.
    Ain Shams Univ, Cairo, Egypt.
    Sanabria, Juan Ramon
    Marshall Univ, J Edwards Sch Med, Huntington, WV USA;Case Western Reserve Univ, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA.
    Dolores Sanchez-Nino, Maria
    IIS Fdn Jimenez Diaz, Madrid, Spain.
    Milicevic, Milena M. Santric
    Univ Belgrade, Inst Social Med, Fac Med, Belgrade, Serbia;Univ Belgrade, Ctr Sch Publ Hlth & Hlth Management, Fac Med, Belgrade, Serbia.
    Sartorius, Benn
    Univ KwaZulu Natal, Sch Nursing & Publ Hlth, Publ Hlth Med, Durban, South Africa;SAMRC, UKZN Gastrointestinal Canc Res Ctr, Durban, South Africa.
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.
    Shaikh, Masood Ali
    Santos Silva, Diego Augusto
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil.
    Alves Silveira, Dayane Gabriele
    Brasilia Univ, Brasilia, DF, Brazil.
    Sobaih, Badr H. A.
    King Saud Univ, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Abdulkader, Rizwan Suliankatchi
    Minist Hlth, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael
    Univ Valencia, Incliva Hlth Res Inst, Dept Med, Valencia, Spain;CIBERSAM, Valencia, Spain.
    Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash
    Iran Univ Med Sci, Prevent Med & Publ Hlth Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.
    Temsah, Mohamad-Hani
    King Saud Univ, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia;King Faisal Specialist Hosp & Res Ctr, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Topor-Madry, Roman
    Jagiellonian Univ Med Coll, Inst Publ Hlth, Fac Hlth Sci, Krakow, Poland;Wroclaw Med Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Tran, Bach Xuan
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Baltimore, MD USA;Hanoi Med Univ, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Ukwaja, Kingsley Nnanna
    Fed Teaching Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Abakaliki, Ebonyi State, Nigeria.
    Uthman, Olalekan A.
    Univ Warwick, Warwick Med Sch, Coventry, W Midlands, England.
    van Boven, Job F. M.
    Univ Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.
    Wakayo, Tolassa
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Oromia, Ethiopia.
    Werdecker, Andrea
    German Natl Cohort, Fed Inst Populat Res, Competence Ctr Mortal Follow Up, Wiesbaden, Germany.
    Workicho, Abdulhalik
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Oromia, Ethiopia;Univ Ghent, Ghent, Belgium.
    Yaghoubi, Mohsen
    Univ Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Northwestern Univ, Dept Prevent Med, Chicago, IL 60611 USA.
    Yaseri, Mehdi
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Ophthalm Epidemiol Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Kyoto Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Kyoto, Japan.
    Younis, Mustafa Z.
    Jackson State Univ, Jackson, MS USA.
    Zhang, Anthony Lin
    RMIT Univ, Sch Hlth & Biomed Sci, Bundoora, Vic, Australia.
    Jumaan, Aisha O.
    Vos, Theo
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Hay, Simon I.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA;Univ Oxford, Oxford Big Data Inst, LiKa Shing Ctr Hlth Informat & Discovery, Oxford, England.
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Univ Washington, Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.
    Diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: findings from the Global Burden of Disease 2015 study2018In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 63, p. 177-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used findings from the Global Burden of Disease 2015 study to update our previous publication on the burden of diabetes and chronic kidney disease due to diabetes (CKD-DM) during 1990-2015. We extracted GBD 2015 estimates for prevalence, mortality, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) of diabetes (including burden of low vision due to diabetes, neuropathy, and amputations and CKD-DM for 22 countries of the EMR from the GBD visualization tools. In 2015, 135,230 (95% UI 123,034-148,184) individuals died from diabetes and 16,470 (95% UI 13,977-18,961) from CKD-DM, 216 and 179% increases, respectively, compared to 1990. The total number of people with diabetes was 42.3 million (95% UI 38.6-46.4 million) in 2015. DALY rates of diabetes in 2015 were significantly higher than the expected rates based on Socio-demographic Index (SDI). Our study showed a large and increasing burden of diabetes in the region. There is an urgency in dealing with diabetes and its consequences, and these efforts should be at the forefront of health prevention and promotion.

  • 5. Nichols, Emma
    et al.
    Szoeke, Cassandra E. I.
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Abbasi, Nooshin
    Abd-Allah, Foad
    Abdela, Jemal
    Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine
    Akinyemi, Rufus O.
    Alahdab, Fares
    Asgedom, Solomon W.
    Awasthi, Ashish
    Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.
    Baune, Bernhard T.
    Bejot, Yannick
    Belachew, Abate B.
    Bennett, Derrick A.
    Bijani, Belete Biadgo Ali
    Bin Sayeed, Muhammad Shahdaat
    Brayne, Carol
    Carpenter, David O.
    Carvalho, Felix
    Catala-Lopez, Ferran
    Cerin, Ester
    Choi, Jee-Young J.
    Dang, Ahn K.
    Degefa, Meaza G.
    Djalalinia, Shirin
    Dubey, Manisha
    Duken, Eyasu Ejeta
    Edvardsson, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. School of Nursing and Midwifery, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
    Endres, Matthias
    Eskandarieh, Sharareh
    Faro, Andre
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad
    Fernandes, Eduarda
    Filip, Irina
    Fischer, Florian
    Gebre, Abadi K.
    Geremew, Demeke
    Ghasemi-Kasman, Maryam
    Gnedovskaya, Elena V.
    Gupta, Rajeev
    Hachinski, Vladimir
    Hagos, Tekleberhan B.
    Hamidi, Samer
    Hankey, Graeme J.
    Haro, Josep M.
    Hay, Simon I.
    Irvani, Seyed Sina N.
    Jha, Ravi P.
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Kalani, Rizwan
    Karch, Andre
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Khader, Yousef Saleh
    Khalil, Ibrahim A.
    Khan, Ejaz Ahmad
    Khanna, Tripti
    Khoja, Tawfik A. M.
    Khubchandani, Jagdish
    Kisa, Adnan
    Kissimova-Skarbek, Katarzyna
    Kivimaki, Mika
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Krohn, Kristopher J.
    Logroscino, Giancarlo
    Lorkowski, Stefan
    Majdan, Marek
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Marz, Winfried
    Massano, Joao
    Mengistu, Getnet
    Meretoja, Atte
    Mohammadi, Moslem
    Mohammadi-Khanaposhtani, Maryam
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    Mondello, Stefania
    Moradi, Ghobad
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Naik, Gurudatta
    Nguyen, Long H.
    Nguyen, Trang H.
    Nirayo, Yirga L.
    Nixon, Molly R.
    Ofori-Asenso, Richard
    Ogbo, Felix A.
    Olagunju, Andrew T.
    Owolabi, Mayowa O.
    Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra
    Passos, Valeria M. de Azeredo
    Pereira, David M.
    Pinilla-Monsalve, Gabriel D.
    Piradov, Michael A.
    Pond, Constance D.
    Poustchi, Hossein
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Radfar, Amir
    Reiner, Robert C.
    Robinson, Stephen R.
    Roshandel, Gholamreza
    Rostami, Ali
    Russ, Tom C.
    Sachdev, Perminder S.
    Safari, Hosein
    Safiri, Saeid
    Sahathevan, Ramesh
    Salimi, Yahya
    Satpathy, Maheswar
    Sawhney, Monika
    Saylan, Mete
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Shafieesabet, Azadeh
    Shaikh, Masood A.
    Sahraian, Mohammad A.
    Shigematsu, Mika
    Shiri, Rahman
    Shiue, Ivy
    Silva, Joao P.
    Smith, Mari
    Sobhani, Soheila
    Stein, Dan J.
    Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael
    Tovani-Palone, Marcos R.
    Tran, Bach X.
    Tran, Tung T.
    Tsegay, Amanuel T.
    Ullah, Irfan
    Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy
    Vlassov, Vasily
    Wang, Yuan-Pang
    Weiss, Jordan
    Westerman, Ronny
    Wijeratne, Tissa
    Wyper, Grant M. A.
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Yimer, Ebrahim M.
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Yousefifard, Mahmoud
    Zaidi, Zoubida
    Zare, Zohreh
    Feigin, Valery L.
    Vos, Theo
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Global, regional, and national burden of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20162019In: Lancet Neurology, ISSN 1474-4422, E-ISSN 1474-4465, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 88-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The number of individuals living with dementia is increasing, negatively affecting families, communities, and health-care systems around the world. A successful response to these challenges requires an accurate understanding of the dementia disease burden. We aimed to present the first detailed analysis of the global prevalence, mortality, and overall burden of dementia as captured by the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors (GBD) Study 2016, and highlight the most important messages for clinicians and neurologists.

    Methods: GBD 2016 obtained data on dementia from vital registration systems, published scientific literature and surveys, and data from health-service encounters on deaths, excess mortality, prevalence, and incidence from 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016, through systematic review and additional data-seeking efforts. To correct for differences in cause of death coding across time and locations, we modelled mortality due to dementia using prevalence data and estimates of excess mortality derived from countries that were most likely to code deaths to dementia relative to prevalence. Data were analysed by standardised methods to estimate deaths, prevalence, years of life lost (YLLs), years of life lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs; computed as the sum of YLLs and YLDs), and the fractions of these metrics that were attributable to four risk factors that met GBD criteria for assessment (high body-mass index [BMI], high fasting plasma glucose, smoking, and a diet high in sugarsweetened beverages).

    Findings: In 2016, the global number of individuals who lived with dementia was 43.8 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 3 7. 8-51.0), increased from 20.2 million (17. 4-23 5) in 1990. This increase of 117% (95% UI 114-121) contrasted with a minor increase in age-standardised prevalence of 1.7% (1.0-2.4), from 701 cases (95% UI 602-815) per 100 000 population in 1990 to 712 cases (614-828) per 100 000 population in 2016. More women than men had dementia in 2016 (27.0 million, 95% UI 23 .3-31. 4, vs 16.8 million, 14.4-19.6), and dementia was the fifth leading cause of death globally, accounting for 2.4 million (95% UI 2.1-2.8) deaths. Overall, 28.8 million (95% UI 24. 5-34. 0) DALYs were attributed to dementia; 6.4 million (95% UI 3 .4-10. 5) of these could be attributed to the modifiable GBD risk factors of high BMI, high fasting plasma glucose, smoking, and a high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages.

    Interpretation: The global number of people living with dementia more than doubled from 1990 to 2016, mainly due to increases in population ageing and growth. Although differences in coding for causes of death and the heterogeneity in case-ascertainment methods constitute major challenges to the estimation of the burden of dementia, future analyses should improve on the methods for the correction of these biases. Until breakthroughs are made in prevention or curative treatment, dementia will constitute an increasing challenge to health-care systems worldwide.

  • 6. Raaschou-Nielsen, O.
    et al.
    Beelen, R.
    Wang, M.
    Hoek, G.
    Andersen, Z. J.
    Hoffmann, B.
    Stafoggia, M.
    Samoli, E.
    Weinmayr, G.
    Dimakopoulou, K.
    Nieuwenhuijsen, M.
    Xun, W. W.
    Fischer, P.
    Eriksen, K. T.
    Sorensen, M.
    Tjonneland, A.
    Ricceri, F.
    De Hoogh, K.
    Key, T.
    Eeftens, M.
    Peeters, P. H.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B.
    Meliefste, K.
    Oftedal, B.
    Schwarze, P. E.
    Nafstad, P.
    Galassi, C.
    Migliore, E.
    Ranzi, A.
    Cesaroni, G.
    Badaloni, C.
    Forastiere, F.
    Penell, J.
    De Faire, U.
    Korek, M.
    Pedersen, N.
    Ostenson, C. -G.
    Pershagen, G.
    Fratiglioni, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Concin, H.
    Nagel, G.
    Jaensch, A.
    Ineichen, A.
    Naccarati, A.
    Katsoulis, M.
    Trichpoulou, A.
    Keuken, M.
    Jedynska, A.
    Kooter, I. M.
    Kukkonen, J.
    Brunekreef, B.
    Sokhi, R. S.
    Katsouyanni, K.
    Vineis, P.
    Particulate matter air pollution components and risk for lung cancer2016In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 87, p. 66-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Particulate matter (PM) air pollution is a human lung carcinogen; however, the components responsible have not been identified. We assessed the associations between PM components and lung cancer incidence. Methods: We used data from 14 cohort studies in eight European countries. We geocoded baseline addresses and assessed air pollution with land-use regression models for eight elements (Cu, Fe, K, Ni, S, Si, V and Zn) in size fractions of PM2.5 and PM10. We used Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and random effect models for meta-analysis. Results: The 245,782 cohort members contributed 3,229,220 person-years at risk. During follow-up (mean, 13.1 years), 1878 incident cases of lung cancer were diagnosed. In the meta-analyses, elevated hazard ratios (HRs) for lung cancer were associated with all elements except V; none was statistically significant In analyses restricted to participants who did not change residence during follow-up, statistically significant associations were found for PM2.5 Cu (HR, 125; 95% Cl, 1.01-1.53 per 5 ng/m(3)), PM10 Zn (1.28; 1.02-1.59 per 20 ng/m3), PMio S (1.58; 1.03-2.44 per 200 ng/m(3)), PM10 Ni (1.59; 1.12-2.26 per 2 ng/m(3)) and PM10K (1.17; 1.02-1.33 per 100 ng/m(3)). In two-pollutant models, associations between PMio and PM2.5 and lung cancer were largely explained by PM2.5 S. Conclusions: This study indicates that the association between PM in air pollution and lung cancer can be attributed to various PM components and sources. PM containing S and Ni might be particularly important.

  • 7.
    Teleka, Stanley
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Malmo, Lund, Sweden.
    Häggström, Christel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Endocrine Surgery. Umea Univ, Dept Biobank Res, Umea, Sweden;Umea Univ, Dept Publ Hlth & Clin Med, Nutr Res, Umea, Sweden.
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Univ Ulm, Inst Epidemiol & Med Biometry, Ulm, Germany;Vorarlberg Canc Registry, Agcy Prevent & Social Med, Bregenz, Aks, Austria.
    Bjorge, Tone
    Univ Bergen, Dept Global Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Bergen, Norway;Canc Registry Norway, Oslo, Norway.
    Manjer, Jonas
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Surg, Malmo, Sweden.
    Ulmer, Hanno
    Innsbruck Med Univ, Dept Med Stat Informat & Hlth Econ, Innsbruck, Austria.
    Liedberg, Fredrik
    Lund Univ, Inst Translat Med, Div Urol Res, Malmo, Sweden.
    Ghaderi, Sara
    Univ Bergen, Dept Global Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Bergen, Norway.
    Lang, Alois
    Vorarlberg Canc Registry, Agcy Prevent & Social Med, Bregenz, Aks, Austria.
    Jonsson, Hakan
    Umea Univ, Dept Radiat Sci, Umea, Sweden.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Urol, Linkoping, Sweden;Linkoping Univ, IKE, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Orho-Melander, Marju
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Malmo, Lund, Sweden.
    Tretli, Steinar
    Canc Registry Norway, Oslo, Norway.
    Stattin, Pär
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Urology.
    Stocks, Tanja
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Malmo, Lund, Sweden.
    Risk of bladder cancer by disease severity in relation to metabolic factors and smoking: A prospective pooled cohort study of 800,000 men and women2018In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 143, no 12, p. 3071-3082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies on metabolic factors and bladder cancer (BC) risk have shown inconsistent results and have commonly not investigated associations separately by sex, smoking, and tumor invasiveness. Among 811,633 participants in six European cohorts, we investigated sex-specific associations between body mass index (BMI), mid-blood pressure (BP, [systolic + diastolic]/2), plasma glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and risk of BC overall, non-muscle invasive BC (NMIBC) and muscle invasive BC (MIBC). Among men, we additionally assessed additive interactions between metabolic factors and smoking on BC risk. During follow-up, 2,983 men and 754 women were diagnosed with BC. Among men, triglycerides and BP were positively associated with BC risk overall (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation [SD]: 1.17 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.27] and 1.09 [1.02-1.17], respectively), and among women, BMI was inversely associated with risk (HR: 0.90 [0.82-0.99]). The associations for BMI and BP differed between men and women (p(interaction) <= 0.005). Among men, BMI, cholesterol and triglycerides were positively associated with risk for NMIBC (HRs: 1.09 [95% CI 1.01-1.18], 1.14 [1.02-1.25], and 1.30 [1.12-1.48] respectively), and BP was positively associated with MIBC (HR: 1.23 [1.02-1.49]). Among women, glucose was positively associated with MIBC (HR: 1.99 [1.04-3.81]). Apart from cholesterol, HRs for metabolic factors did not significantly differ between MIBC and NMIBC, and there were no interactions between smoking and metabolic factors on BC. Our study supports an involvement of metabolic aberrations in BC risk. Whilst some associations were significant only in certain sub-groups, there were generally no significant differences in associations by smoking or tumor invasiveness.

  • 8. Teleka, Stanley
    et al.
    Häggström, Christel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Biobank Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Nutritional Research. Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; .
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Bjorge, Tone
    Manjer, Jonas
    Ulmer, Hanno
    Liedberg, Fredrik
    Ghaderi, Sara
    Lang, Alois
    Jonsson, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Jahnson, Staffan
    Orho-Melander, Marju
    Tretli, Steinar
    Stattin, Pär
    Stocks, Tanja
    Risk of bladder cancer by disease severity in relation to metabolic factors and smoking: a prospective pooled cohort study of 800,000 men and women2018In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 143, no 12, p. 3071-3082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies on metabolic factors and bladder cancer (BC) risk have shown inconsistent results and have commonly not investigated associations separately by sex, smoking, and tumor invasiveness. Among 811,633 participants in six European cohorts, we investigated sex‐specific associations between body mass index (BMI), mid‐blood pressure (BP, [systolic + diastolic]/2), plasma glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and risk of BC overall, non‐muscle invasive BC (NMIBC) and muscle invasive BC (MIBC). Among men, we additionally assessed additive interactions between metabolic factors and smoking on BC risk. During follow‐up, 2,983 men and 754 women were diagnosed with BC. Among men, triglycerides and BP were positively associated with BC risk overall (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation [SD]: 1.17 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–1.27] and 1.09 [1.02–1.17], respectively), and among women, BMI was inversely associated with risk (HR: 0.90 [0.82–0.99]). The associations for BMI and BP differed between men and women (pinteraction ≤ 0.005). Among men, BMI, cholesterol and triglycerides were positively associated with risk for NMIBC (HRs: 1.09 [95% CI 1.01–1.18], 1.14 [1.02–1.25], and 1.30 [1.12–1.48] respectively), and BP was positively associated with MIBC (HR: 1.23 [1.02–1.49]). Among women, glucose was positively associated with MIBC (HR: 1.99 [1.04–3.81]). Apart from cholesterol, HRs for metabolic factors did not significantly differ between MIBC and NMIBC, and there were no interactions between smoking and metabolic factors on BC. Our study supports an involvement of metabolic aberrations in BC risk. Whilst some associations were significant only in certain sub‐groups, there were generally no significant differences in associations by smoking or tumor invasiveness.

  • 9. Weinmayr, Gudrun
    et al.
    Pedersen, Marie
    Stafoggia, Massimo
    Andersen, Zorana J.
    Galassi, Claudia
    Munkenast, Jule
    Jaensch, Andrea
    Oftedal, Bente
    Krog, Norun H.
    Aamodt, Geir
    Pyko, Andrei
    Pershagen, Goran
    Korek, Michal
    De Faire, Ulf
    Pedersen, Nancy L.
    Östenson, Claes-Göran
    Rizzuto, Debora
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Sorensen, Mette
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Vermeulen, Roel
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Concin, Hans
    Lang, Alois
    Wang, Meng
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Ricceri, Fulvio
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Ranzi, Andrea
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Forastiere, Francesco
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Beelen, Rob
    Vineis, Paolo
    Kooter, Ingeborg
    Sokhi, Ranjeet
    Brunekreef, Bert
    Hoek, Gerard
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Particulate matter air pollution components and incidence of cancers of the stomach and the upper aerodigestive tract in the European Study of Cohorts of Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)2018In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 120, p. 163-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Previous analysis from the large European multicentre ESCAPE study showed an association of ambient particulate matter < 2.5 mu m (PM2.5) air pollution exposure at residence with the incidence of gastric cancer. It is unclear which components of PM are most relevant for gastric and also upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer and some of them may not be strongly correlated with PM mass. We evaluated the association between long-term exposure to elemental components of PM2.5 and PM10 and gastric and UADT cancer incidence in European adults.

    Methods: Baseline addresses of individuals were geocoded and exposure was assessed by land-use regression models for copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) representing non-tailpipe traffic emissions; sulphur (S) indicating long-range transport; nickel (Ni) and vanadium (V) for mixed oil-burning and industry; silicon (Si) for crustal material and potassium (K) for biomass burning. Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders were used for cohort-specific analyses. Combined estimates were determined with random effects meta-analyses.

    Results: Ten cohorts in six countries contributed data on 227,044 individuals with an average follow-up of 14.9 years with 633 incident cases of gastric cancer and 763 of UADT cancer. The combined hazard ratio (HR) for an increase of 200 ng/m(3) of PM2.5_S was 1.92 (95%-confidence interval (95%-CI) 1.13; 3.27) for gastric cancer, with no indication of heterogeneity between cohorts (I-2= 0%), and 1.63 (95%-CI 0.88; 3.01) for PM2.5_Zn (I-2= 70%). For the other elements in PM2.5 and all elements in PM10 including PM10_S, non-significant HRs between 0.78 and 1.21 with mostly wide CIs were seen. No association was found between any of the elements and UADT cancer. The HR for PM2.5_S and gastric cancer was robust to adjustment for additional factors, including diet, and restriction to study participants with stable addresses over follow-up resulted in slightly higher effect estimates with a decrease in precision. In a two-pollutant model, the effect estimate for total PM2.5 decreased whereas that for PM2.5_S was robust.

    Conclusion: This large multicentre cohort study shows a robust association between gastric cancer and long-term exposure to PM2.5 S but not PM10 S, suggesting that S in PM2.5 or correlated air pollutants may contribute to the risk of gastric cancer.

  • 10.
    Zhou, Bin
    et al.
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England..
    Bentham, James
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England..
    Di Cesare, Mariachiara
    Middlesex Univ, London N17 8HR, England..
    Bixby, Honor
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England..
    Danaei, Goodarz
    Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA..
    Cowan, Melanie J.
    WHO, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Paciorek, Christopher J.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Singh, Gitanjali
    Tufts Univ, Medford, MA USA..
    Hajifathalian, Kaveh
    Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA..
    Bennett, James E.
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England..
    Taddei, Cristina
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England..
    Bilano, Ver
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England..
    Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M.
    Univ Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru..
    Djalalinia, Shirin
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.;Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Shiraz, Iran..
    Khatibzadeh, Shahab
    Brandeis Univ, Waltham, MA 02254 USA..
    Lugero, Charles
    Mulago Hosp, Kampala, Uganda..
    Peykari, Niloofar
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran.;Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Shiraz, Iran..
    Zhang, Wan Zhu
    Mulago Hosp, Kampala, Uganda..
    Lu, Yuan
    Yale Univ, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Stevens, Gretchen A.
    WHO, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Riley, Leanne M.
    WHO, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Bovet, Pascal
    Univ Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.;Univ Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne, Switzerland.;Minist Hlth, Mt Fleuri, Seychelles.;Minist Hlth, Mt Fleuri, Seychelles..
    Elliott, Paul
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England..
    Gu, Dongfeng
    Natl Ctr Cardiovasc Dis, Beijing, Peoples R China.;Natl Ctr Cardiovasc Dis, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Ikeda, Nayu
    Natl Inst Hlth & Nutr, Tokyo, Japan..
    Jackson, Rod T.
    Univ Auckland, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    Joffres, Michel
    Simon Fraser Univ, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada..
    Kengne, Andre Pascal
    South African Med Res Council, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Laatikainen, Tiina
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland..
    Lam, Tai Hing
    Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Laxmaiah, Avula
    Natl Inst Nutr, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India..
    Liu, Jing
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing An Zhen Hosp, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Miranda, J. Jaime
    Univ Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru..
    Mondo, Charles K.
    Mulago Hosp, Kampala, Uganda..
    Neuhauser, Hannelore K.
    Robert Koch Inst, Berlin, Germany..
    Sundström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Smeeth, Liam
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England..
    Soric, Maroje
    Univ Zagreb, Zagreb 41000, Croatia..
    Woodward, Mark
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    Ezzati, Majid
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England..
    Abarca-Gomez, Leandra
    Caja Costarricense Seguro Social, San Jose, Costa Rica..
    Abdeen, Ziad A.
    Al Quds Univ, Jerusalem, Israel..
    Rahim, Hanan Abdul
    Qatar Univ, Doha, Qatar..
    Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.
    Birzeit Univ, Birzeit, Israel..
    Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin
    Inst Mexicano Seguro Social, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Adams, Robert
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Aekplakorn, Wichai
    Mahidol Univ, Salaya, Thailand..
    Afsana, Kaosar
    BRAC, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.
    Inst Nacl Ciencias Med & Nutr Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Agyemang, Charles
    Univ Amsterdam, NL-1012 WX Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Ahmadvand, Alireza
    Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Shiraz, Iran..
    Ahrens, Wolfgang
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epi, Bremen, Germany..
    Al Raddadi, Rajaa
    Minist Hlth, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Al Woyatan, Rihab
    Minist Hlth, Kuwait, Kuwait..
    Ali, Mohamed M.
    WHO, Reg Off Eastern Mediterranean, Cairo, Egypt..
    Alkerwi, Ala'a
    Luxembourg Inst Hlth, Strassen, Luxembourg..
    Aly, Eman
    WHO, Reg Off Eastern Mediterranean, Cairo, Egypt..
    Amouyel, Philippe
    Lille Univ & Hosp, Lille, France..
    Amuzu, Antoinette
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England..
    Andersen, Lars Bo
    Sogn & Fjordane Univ Coll, Forde, Norway..
    Anderssen, Sigmund A.
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway..
    Angquist, Lars
    Bispebjerg Hosp, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Frederiksberg Univ Hosp, Frederiksberg, Denmark..
    Anjana, Ranjit Mohan
    Madras Diabet Res Fdn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Ansong, Daniel
    Komfo Anokye Teaching Hosp, Kumasi, Ghana..
    Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Tunis, Tunisia..
    Araujo, Joana
    Univ Porto, Rua Campo Alegre 823, P-4100 Oporto, Portugal..
    Ariansen, Inger
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway..
    Aris, Tahir
    Minist Hlth Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia..
    Arlappa, Nimmathota
    Natl Inst Nutr, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India..
    Aryal, Krishna
    Nepal Hlth Res Council, Kathmandu, Nepal..
    Arveiler, Dominique
    Strasbourg Univ & Hosp, Strasbourg, France..
    Assah, Felix K.
    Univ Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon..
    Assuncao, Maria Cecilia F.
    Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil..
    Avdicova, Maria
    Reg Author Publ Hlth, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia..
    Azevedo, Ana
    Univ Porto, Sch Med, Rua Campo Alegre 823, P-4100 Oporto, Portugal..
    Azizi, Fereidoun
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Babu, Bontha V.
    Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India..
    Bahijri, Suhad
    King Abdulaziz Univ, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia..
    Balakrishna, Nagalla
    Natl Inst Nutr, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India..
    Bandosz, Piotr
    Med Univ Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland..
    Banegas, Jose R.
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain..
    Barbagallo, Carlo M.
    Univ Palermo, I-90133 Palermo, Italy..
    Barcelo, Alberto
    Pan Amer Hlth Org, Washington, DC USA..
    Barkat, Amina
    Univ Mohammed V Rabat, Rabat, Morocco..
    Barros, Aluisio J. D.
    Barros, Mauro V.
    Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil..
    Bata, Iqbal
    Dalhousie Univ, Halifax, NS B3H 3J5, Canada..
    Batieha, Anwar M.
    Jordan Univ Sci & Technol, Irbid, Jordan..
    Baur, Louise A.
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    Beaglehole, Robert
    Univ Auckland, Auckland 1, New Zealand..
    Ben Romdhane, Habiba
    Univ Tunis El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia..
    Benet, Mikhail
    Univ Med Sci, Havana, Cuba..
    Benson, Lowell S.
    Univ Utah, Sch Med, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
    Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio
    Univ Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru..
    Bernotiene, Gailute
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania..
    Bettiol, Heloisa
    Univ Sao Paulo, BR-05508 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Bhagyalaxmi, Aroor
    BJ Med Coll, Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India..
    Bharadwaj, Sumit
    Chirayu Med Coll, Bhopal, India..
    Bhargava, Santosh K.
    SL Jain Hosp, Delhi, India..
    Bi, Yufang
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Med, Shanghai 200030, Peoples R China..
    Bikbov, Mukharram
    Ufa Eye Res Inst, Ufa, Russia..
    Bjerregaard, Peter
    Univ Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.;Univ Greenland, Nuuk, Greenland..
    Bjertness, Espen
    Univ Oslo, N-0316 Oslo, Norway..
    Bjokelund, Cecilia
    Gothenburg Univ, S-41124 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Blokstra, Anneke
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm, Bilthoven, Netherlands..
    Bo, Simona
    Univ Turin, I-10124 Turin, Italy..
    Bobak, Martin
    UCL, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Boeing, Heiner
    German Inst Human Nutr, Nuthetal, Germany..
    Boggia, Jose G.
    Univ Republica, Montevideo, Uruguay..
    Boissonnet, Carlos P.
    CEMIC, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Bongard, Vanina
    Toulouse Univ, Sch Med, Toulouse, France..
    Braeckman, Lutgart
    Univ Ghent, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Brajkovich, Imperia
    Cent Univ Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela..
    Branca, Francesco
    WHO, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Breckenkamp, Juergen
    Univ Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany..
    Brenner, Hermann
    German Canc Res Ctr, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Brewster, Lizzy M.
    Univ Amsterdam, NL-1012 WX Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Bruno, Graziella
    Univ Turin, I-10124 Turin, Italy..
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B. (as)
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm, Bilthoven, Netherlands..
    Bugge, Anna
    Univ Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark..
    Burns, Con
    Cork Inst Technol, Cork, Ireland..
    Bursztyn, Michael
    Hadassah Hebrew Univ, Med Ctr, Jerusalem, Israel..
    de Leon, Antonio Cabrera
    Univ La Laguna, E-38207 San Cristobal la Laguna, Spain..
    Cameron, Christine
    Canadian Fitness & Lifestyle Res Inst, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Can, Gunay
    Istanbul Univ, Istanbul, Turkey..
    Candido, Ana Paula C.
    Univ Fed Juiz de Fora, Juiz De Fora, Brazil..
    Capuano, Vincenzo
    Cardiol Mercato S Severino, Mercato San Severino, Italy..
    Cardoso, Viviane C.
    Univ Sao Paulo, BR-05508 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Carlsson, Axel C.
    Karolinska Inst, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Carvalho, Maria J.
    Univ Porto, Rua Campo Alegre 823, P-4100 Oporto, Portugal..
    Casanueva, Felipe F.
    Santiago de Compostela Univ, Santiago De Compostela, Spain..
    Casas, Juan-Pablo
    UCL, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Caserta, Carmelo A.
    Assoc Calabrese Epatol, Reggio Di Calabria, Italy..
    Chamukuttan, Snehalatha
    India Diabet Res Fdn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Chan, Angelique W.
    Duke NUS Med Sch, Singapore, Singapore..
    Chan, Queenie
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England..
    Chaturvedi, Himanshu K.
    Natl Inst Med Stat, Delhi, India..
    Chaturvedi, Nishi
    UCL, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Chen, Chien-Jen
    Acad Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Chen, Fangfang
    Capital Inst Pediat, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Chen, Huashuai
    Duke Univ, Durham, NC 27706 USA..
    Chen, Shuohua
    Kailuan Gen Hosp, Tangshan, Peoples R China..
    Chen, Zhengming
    Univ Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, England..
    Cheng, Ching-Yu
    Duke NUS Med Sch, Singapore, Singapore..
    Dekkaki, Imane Cherkaoui
    Univ Mohammed V Rabat, Rabat, Morocco..
    Chetrit, Angela
    Gertner Inst Epidemiol & Hlth Policy Res, Tel Hashomer, Israel..
    Chiolero, Arnaud
    Univ Lausanne Hosp, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Chiou, Shu-Ti
    Minist Hlth & Welf, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Chirita-Emandi, Adela
    Victor Babes Univ Med & Pharm Timisoara, Timisoara, Romania..
    Cho, Belong
    Seoul Natl Univ, Coll Med, Seoul 151, South Korea..
    Cho, Yumi
    Korea Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Cheongju, South Korea..
    Chudek, Jerzy
    Med Univ Silesia, Silesia, Poland..
    Cifkova, Renata
    Charles Univ Prague, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Claessens, Frank
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Leuven, Belgium..
    Clays, Els
    Univ Ghent, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Concin, Hans
    Agcy Prevent & Social Med, Bregenz, Austria..
    Cooper, Cyrus
    Univ Southampton, Southampton SO9 5NH, Hants, England..
    Cooper, Rachel
    UCL, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Coppinger, Tara C.
    Cork Inst Technol, Cork, Ireland..
    Costanzo, Simona
    IRCCS Ist Neurol Mediterraneo Neuromed, Pozzilli, Italy..
    Cottel, Dominique
    Inst Pasteur, Lille, France..
    Cowell, Chris
    Westmead Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Craig, Cora L.
    Canadian Fitness & Lifestyle Res Inst, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Crujeiras, Ana B.
    CIBEROBN, Madrid, Spain..
    Cruz, Juan J.
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain..
    D'Arrigo, Graziella
    CNR, Rome, Italy..
    d'Orsi, Eleonora
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, BR-88040900 Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Dallongeville, Jean
    Inst Pasteur, Lille, France..
    Damasceno, Albertino
    Eduardo Mondlane Univ, Maputo, Mozambique..
    Dankner, Rachel
    Gertner Inst Epidemiol & Hlth Policy Res, Tel Hashomer, Israel..
    Dantoft, Thomas M.
    Res Ctr Prevent & Hlth, Glostrup, Denmark..
    Dauchet, Luc
    Lille Univ & Hosp, Lille, France.;Univ Lausanne Hosp, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    De Backer, Guy
    Univ Ghent, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    de Gaetano, Giovanni
    IRCCS Ist Neurol Mediterraneo Neuromed, Pozzilli, Italy..
    De Henauw, Stefaan
    Univ Ghent, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    De Smedt, Delphine
    Univ Ghent, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Deepa, Mohan
    Madras Diabet Res Fdn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Dehghan, Abbas
    Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA.;Karolinska Inst, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden.;Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands.;Inst Trop Med, Antwerp, Belgium.;Amrita Inst Med Sci, Ernakulam, Kerala, India.;Univ Ctr Occidental Lisandro Alvarado, Lara, Venezuela.;St Vincents Hosp, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia..
    Delisle, Helene
    Univ Montreal, Montreal, PQ H3C 3J7, Canada..
    Deschamps, Valerie
    French Publ Hlth Agcy, St Maurice, France..
    Dhana, Klodian
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Di Castelnuovo, Augusto F.
    IRCCS Ist Neurol Mediterraneo Neuromed, Pozzilli, Italy..
    Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal Soares
    Univ Vale Rio dos Sinos, Sao Leopoldo, RS, Brazil..
    Diaz, Alejandro
    Natl Council Sci & Tech Res, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Dickerson, Ty T.
    Univ Utah, Sch Med, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 USA..
    Do, Ha T. P.
    Natl Inst Nutr, Hanoi, Vietnam..
    Dobson, Annette J.
    Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia..
    Donfrancesco, Chiara
    Ist Super Sanita, Rome, Italy..
    Donoso, Silvana P.
    Univ Cuenca, Cuenca, Ecuador..
    Doering, Angela
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Oberschleissheim, Germany..
    Doua, Kouamelan
    Minist Sante & Lutte Sida, Abidjan Plateau, Cote Ivoire..
    Drygas, Wojciech
    Cardinal Wyszynski Inst Cardiol, Warsaw, Poland..
    Dulskiene, Virginija
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania..
    Dzakula, Aleksandar
    Univ Zagreb, Zagreb 41000, Croatia..
    Dzerve, Vilnis
    Univ Latvia, Riga, Latvia..
    Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta
    Med Univ Lodz, Lodz, Poland..
    Eggertsen, Robert
    Gothenburg Univ, S-41124 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Ekelund, Ulf
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway..
    El Ati, Jalila
    Natl Inst Nutr & Food Technol, Tunis, Tunisia..
    Ellert, Ute
    Robert Koch Inst, Berlin, Germany..
    Elosua, Roberto
    Inst Hosp Invest Med, Barcelona, Spain..
    Erasmus, Rajiv T.
    Univ Stellenbosch, ZA-7600 Stellenbosch, South Africa..
    Erem, Cihangir
    Karadeniz Tech Univ, Trabzon, Turkey..
    Eriksen, Louise
    Univ Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark..
    Escobedo-de la Pena, Jorge
    Inst Mexicano Seguro Social, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Evans, Alun
    Queens Univ Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, Antrim, North Ireland..
    Faeh, David
    Univ Zurich, CH-8006 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Fall, Caroline H.
    Univ Southampton, Southampton SO9 5NH, Hants, England..
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Felix-Redondo, Francisco J.
    Ctr Salud Villanueva Norte, Villanueva De La Serena, Spain..
    Ferguson, Trevor S.
    Univ West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica..
    Fernandez-Berges, Daniel
    Hosp Don Benito Villanueva Serena, Badajoz, Spain..
    Ferrante, Daniel
    Minist Hlth, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Ferrari, Marika
    Council Agr Res & Econ, Arezzo, Italy..
    Ferreccio, Catterina
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Santiago, Chile..
    Ferrieres, Jean
    Toulouse Univ, Sch Med, Toulouse, France..
    Finn, Joseph D.
    Univ Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England..
    Fischer, Krista
    Univ Tartu, Tartu, Estonia..
    Foeger, Bernhard
    Agcy Prevent & Social Med, Bregenz, Austria..
    Foo, Leng Huat
    Univ Sains Malaysia, George Town, Malaysia..
    Forslund, Ann-Sofie
    Umea Univ, S-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Forsner, Maria
    Dalarna Univ, Falun, Sweden..
    Fortmann, Stephen P.
    Stanford Univ, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Fouad, Heba M.
    WHO, Reg Off Eastern Mediterranean, Cairo, Egypt..
    Francis, Damian K.
    Univ West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica..
    Franco, Maria do Carmo
    Univ Fed Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Franco, Oscar H.
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Frontera, Guillermo
    Hosp Univ Son Espases, Palma De Mallorca, Spain..
    Fuchs, Flavio D.
    Hosp Clin Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil..
    Fuchs, Sandra C.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, BR-90046900 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil..
    Fujita, Yuki
    Kindai Univ, Higashiosaka, Osaka, Japan..
    Furusawa, Takuro
    Kyoto Univ, Kyoto 6068501, Japan..
    Gaciong, Zbigniew
    Med Univ Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland..
    Gareta, Dickman
    Univ KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa..
    Garnett, Sarah P.
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    Gaspoz, Jean-Michel
    Univ Hosp Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Gasull, Magda
    CIBER Epidemiol & Salud Publ, Madrid, Spain..
    Gates, Louise
    Australian Bur Stat, Belconnen, ACT, Australia..
    Gavrila, Diana
    Murcia Reg Hlth Council, Murcia, Spain..
    Geleijnse, Johanna M.
    Wageningen Univ, NL-6700 AP Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Ghasemian, Anoosheh
    Wageningen Univ, NL-6700 AP Wageningen, Netherlands.;Endocrinol & Metab Res Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Ghimire, Anup
    BP Koirala Inst Hlth Sci, Dharan, Nepal..
    Giampaoli, Simona
    Ist Super Sanita, Rome, Italy..
    Gianfagna, Francesco
    Univ Insubria, Varese, Italy..
    Giovannelli, Jonathan
    Lille Univ & Hosp, Lille, France..
    Goldsmith, Rebecca A.
    Minist Hlth, Jerusalem, Israel..
    Goncalves, Helen
    Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil..
    Gonzalez Gross, Marcela
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain..
    Gonzalez Rivas, Juan P.
    Andes Clin Cardiometab Studies, Timotes, Venezuela..
    Gottrand, Frederic
    Univ Lille 2, F-59800 Lille, France..
    Graff-Iversen, Sidsel
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway..
    Grafnetter, Dusan
    Inst Clin & Expt Med, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Grajda, Aneta
    Childrens Mem Hlth Inst, Warsaw, Poland..
    Gregor, Ronald D.
    Dalhousie Univ, Halifax, NS B3H 3J5, Canada..
    Grodzicki, Tomasz
    Jagiellonian Univ, Coll Med, PL-31007 Krakow, Poland..
    Grontved, Anders
    Univ Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark..
    Gruden, Grabriella
    Univ Turin, I-10124 Turin, Italy..
    Grujic, Vera
    Univ Novi Sad, Novi Sad 21000, Serbia..
    Guan, Ong Peng
    Singapore Eye Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore..
    Gudnason, Vilmundur
    Univ Iceland, IS-101 Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Guerrero, Ramiro
    Univ Icesi, Cali, Colombia..
    Guessous, Idris
    Univ Hosp Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland..
    Guimaraes, Andre L.
    Univ Estadual Montes Claros, Montes Claros, Brazil..
    Gulliford, Martin C.
    Kings Coll London, London WC2R 2LS, England..
    Gunnlaugsdottir, Johanna
    Iceland Heart Assoc, Kopavogur, Iceland..
    Gunter, Marc
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England..
    Gupta, Prakash C.
    Healis Sekhsaria Inst Publ Hlth, Navi Mumbai, India..
    Gureje, Oye
    Univ Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria..
    Gurzkowska, Beata
    Childrens Mem Hlth Inst, Warsaw, Poland..
    Gutierrez, Laura
    Inst Clin Effectiveness & Hlth Policy, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Gutzwiller, Felix
    Univ Zurich, CH-8006 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Hadaegh, Farzad
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Halkjaer, Jytte
    Danish Canc Soc, Res Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Hambleton, Ian R.
    Univ West Indies, Wanstead, Barbados..
    Hardy, Rebecca
    UCL, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Harikumar, Rachakulla
    Natl Inst Nutr, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India..
    Hata, Jun
    Kyushu Univ, Fukuoka 812, Japan..
    Hayes, Alison J.
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia..
    He, Jiang
    Tulane Univ, New Orleans, LA 70118 USA..
    Hendriks, Marleen Elisabeth
    Acad Med Ctr Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Henriques, Ana
    Univ Porto, Rua Campo Alegre 823, P-4100 Oporto, Portugal..
    Hernandez Cadena, Leticia
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Herqutanto,
    Herrala, Sauli
    Oulu Univ Hosp, Oulu, Finland..
    Heshmat, Ramin
    Chron Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Hihtaniemi, Ilpo Tapani
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England..
    Ho, Sai Yin
    Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Ho, Suzanne C.
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, ```, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Hobbs, Michael
    Univ Western Australia, Nedlands, WA 6009, Australia..
    Hofman, Albert
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Dinc, Gonul Horasan
    Celal Bayar Univ, Manisa, Turkey..
    Hormiga, Claudia M.
    Fdn Oftalmol Santander, Floridablanca, Santander, Spain..
    Horta, Bernardo L.
    Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil..
    Houti, Leila
    Univ Oran 1, Oran, Algeria..
    Howitt, Christina
    Univ West Indies, Wanstead, Barbados..
    Htay, Thein Thein
    Univ Publ Hlth, Yangon, Myanmar..
    Htet, Aung Soe
    Minist Hlth, Naypyitaw, Myanmar..
    Hu, Yonghua
    Peking Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Maria Huerta, Jose
    CIBER Epidemiol & Salud Publ, Madrid, Spain..
    Husseini, Abdullatif S.
    Birzeit Univ, Birzeit, Israel..
    Huybrechts, Inge
    Int Agcy Res Canc, Lyon, France..
    Hwalla, Nahla
    Amer Univ Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Iacoviello, Licia
    IRCCS Ist Neurol Mediterraneo Neuromed, Pozzilli, Italy..
    Iannone, Anna G.
    Cardiol Mercato S Severino, Mercato San Severino, Italy..
    Ibrahim, M. Mohsen
    Cairo Univ, Giza, Egypt..
    Ikram, M. Arfan
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Irazola, Vilma E.
    Inst Clin Effectiveness & Hlth Policy, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Islam, Muhammad
    Aga Khan Univ, Karachi, Pakistan..
    Ivkovic, Vanja
    UHC Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia..
    Iwasaki, Masanori
    Niigata Univ, Niigata, Japan..
    Jacobs, Jeremy M.
    Hadassah Univ, Med Ctr, Jerusalem, Israel..
    Jafar, Tazeen
    Duke NUS Med Sch, Singapore, Singapore..
    Jamrozik, Konrad
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Janszky, Imre
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Trondheim, Norway..
    Jasienska, Grazyna
    Jagiellonian Univ, Coll Med, PL-31007 Krakow, Poland..
    Jelakovic, Bojan
    Univ Zagreb, Sch Med, Zagreb 41000, Croatia..
    Jiang, Chao Qiang
    Guangzhou 12th Hosp, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Johansson, Mattias
    Int Agcy Res Canc, Lyon, France..
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Heidelberg Univ, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Jorgensen, Torben
    Res Ctr Prevent & Hlth, Glostrup, Denmark..
    Joshi, Pradeep
    WHO, Country Off, New Delhi, India..
    Juolevi, Anne
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland..
    Jurak, Gregor
    Univ Ljubljana, Ljubljana 61000, Slovenia..
    Juresa, Vesna
    Univ Zagreb, Zagreb 41000, Croatia..
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    German Canc Res Ctr, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Kafatos, Anthony
    Univ Crete, Iraklion, Greece..
    Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra
    Gertner Inst Epidemiol & Hlth Policy Res, Tel Hashomer, Israel..
    Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi
    Univ Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600, Malaysia..
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Katz, Joanne
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Sch Publ Hlth, Baltimore, MD USA..
    Kauhanen, Jussi
    Univ Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland..
    Kaur, Prabhdeep
    Natl Inst Epidemiol, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Kavousi, Maryam
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Kazakbaeva, Gyulli
    Ufa Eye Res Inst, Ufa, Russia..
    Keil, Ulrich
    Univ Munster, Munster, Germany..
    Boker, Lital Keinan
    Israel Ctr Dis Control, Jerusalem, Israel..
    Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka
    Oulu Univ Hosp, Oulu, Finland..
    Kelishadi, Roya
    Res Inst Primordial Prevent Noncommunicable Dis, Esfahan, Iran..
    Kemper, Han C. G.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam, Med Ctr, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Kersting, Mathilde
    Res Inst Child Nutr, Dortmund, Germany..
    Key, Timothy
    Univ Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, England..
    Khader, Yousef Saleh
    Jordan Univ Sci & Technol, Irbid, Jordan..
    Khalili, Davood
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Seoul Natl Univ, Seoul 151, South Korea..
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Univ Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England..
    Kiechl, Stefan
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Killewo, Japhet
    Muhimbili Univ Hlth & Allied Sci, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Kim, Jeongseon
    Natl Canc Ctr, Goyang Si, South Korea..
    Klumbiene, Jurate
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania..
    Kolle, Elin
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway..
    Kolsteren, Patrick
    Inst Trop Med, Antwerp, Belgium..
    Korrovits, Paul
    Tartu Univ Clin, Tartu, Estonia..
    Koskinen, Seppo
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland..
    Kouda, Katsuyasu
    Kindai Univ, Higashiosaka, Osaka, Japan..
    Koziel, Slawomir
    Polish Acad Sci, Anthropol Unit, Warsaw, Poland..
    Kristensen, Peter Lund
    Univ Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark..
    Krokstad, Steinar
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Trondheim, Norway..
    Kromhout, Daan
    Univ Groningen, NL-9700 AB Groningen, Netherlands..
    Kruger, Herculina S.
    North West Univ, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Kubinova, Ruzena
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Kuciene, Renata
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania..
    Kuh, Diana
    UCL, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Kujala, Urho M.
    Univ Jyvaskyla, SF-40351 Jyvaskyla, Finland..
    Kula, Krzysztof
    Med Univ Lodz, Lodz, Poland..
    Kulaga, Zbigniew
    Childrens Mem Hlth Inst, Warsaw, Poland..
    Kumar, R. Krishna
    Amrita Inst Med Sci, Ernakulam, Kerala, India..
    Kurjata, Pawel
    Cardinal Wyszynski Inst Cardiol, Warsaw, Poland..
    Kusuma, Yadlapalli S.
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India..
    Kuulasmaa, Kari
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland..
    Kyobutungi, Catherine
    African Populat & Hlth Res Ctr, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Lachat, Carl
    Univ Ghent, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Landrove, Orlando
    Minist Salud Publ, Havana, Cuba..
    Lanska, Vera
    Inst Clin & Expt Med, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Lappas, Georg
    Sahlgrens Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Larijani, Bagher
    Endocrinol & Metab Res Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Laugsand, Lars E.
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Trondheim, Norway..
    Bao, Khanh Le Nguyen
    Le, Tuyen D.
    Natl Inst Nutr, Hanoi, Vietnam..
    Leclercq, Catherine
    Food & Agr Org, Rome, Italy..
    Lee, Jeannette
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore, Singapore..
    Lee, Jeonghee
    Natl Canc Ctr, Goyang Si, South Korea..
    Lehtimaki, Terho
    Tampere Univ Hosp, Tampere, Finland..
    Lekhraj, Rampal
    Univ Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Malaysia..
    Leon-Munoz, Luz M.
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain..
    Levitt, Naomi S.
    Univ Cape Town, ZA-7700 Rondebosch, South Africa..
    Li, Yanping
    Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA..
    Lilly, Christa L.
    W Virginia Univ, Morgantown, WV 26506 USA..
    Lim, Wei-Yen
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore, Singapore..
    Fernanda Lima-Costa, M.
    Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Rene Rachou Res Inst, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.;Univ Philippines, Quezon City 1101, Philippines..
    Lin, Hsien-Ho
    Natl Taiwan Univ, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Lin, Xu
    Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Linneberg, Allan
    Res Ctr Prevent & Hlth, Glostrup, Denmark..
    Lissner, Lauren
    Gothenburg Univ, S-41124 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Litwin, Mieczyslaw
    Childrens Mem Hlth Inst, Warsaw, Poland..
    Lorbeer, Roberto
    Univ Med Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany..
    Lotufo, Paulo A.
    Univ Sao Paulo, BR-05508 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Eugenio Lozano, Jose
    Consejeria Sanidad Junta de Castilla & Leon, Valladolid, Spain..
    Luksiene, Dalia
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania..
    Lundqvist, Annamari
    Lunet, Nuno
    Univ Porto, Rua Campo Alegre 823, P-4100 Oporto, Portugal..
    Lytsy, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Ma, Guansheng
    Peking Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Ma, Jun
    Peking Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Machado-Coelho, George L. L.
    Univ Fed Ouro Preto, Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil..
    Machi, Suka
    Jikei Univ, Sch Med, Tokyo, Japan..
    Maggi, Stefania
    CNR, Rome, Italy..
    Magliano, Dianna J.
    Baker IDI Heart & Diabet Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Majer, Marjeta
    Univ Zagreb, Zagreb 41000, Croatia..
    Makdisse, Marcia
    Hosp Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Malhotra, Rahul
    Duke NUS Med Sch, Singapore, Singapore..
    Rao, Kodavanti Mallikharjuna
    Natl Inst Nutr, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India..
    Malyutina, Sofia
    Inst Internal & Prevent Med, Novosibirsk, Russia..
    Manios, Yannis
    Harokopio Univ, Kallithea, Greece..
    Mann, Jim I.
    Univ Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand..
    Manzato, Enzo
    Univ Padua, I-35100 Padua, Italy..
    Margozzini, Paula
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Santiago, Chile..
    Marques-Vidal, Pedro
    Univ Lausanne Hosp, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Marrugat, Jaume
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland.;Inst Hosp Invest Med, Barcelona, Spain..
    Martorell, Reynaldo
    Emory Univ, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA..
    Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Tromso, Norway..
    Matijasevich, Alicia
    Univ Sao Paulo, BR-05508 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Matsha, Tandi E.
    Cape Peninsula Univ Technol, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Mbanya, Jean Claude N.
    Univ Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon..
    Posso, Anselmo J. Mc Donald
    Gorgas Mem Inst Hlth Studies, Panama City, Panama..
    McFarlane, Shelly R.
    Univ West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica..
    McGarvey, Stephen T.
    Brown Univ, Providence, RI 02912 USA..
    McLachlan, Stela
    Univ Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9YL, Midlothian, Scotland..
    McLean, Rachael M.
    Univ Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand..
    McNulty, Breige A.
    Univ Coll Dublin, Dublin, Ireland..
    Khir, Amir Sharifuddin Md
    Penang Med Coll, George Town, Malaysia..
    Mediene-Benchekor, Sounnia
    Univ Oran 1, Oran, Algeria..
    Medzioniene, Jurate
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania..
    Meirhaeghe, Aline
    INSERM, F-75654 Paris 13, France..
    Meisinger, Christa
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Oberschleissheim, Germany..
    Menezes, Ana Maria B.
    Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil..
    Menon, Geetha R.
    Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India..
    Meshram, Indrapal I.
    Natl Inst Nutr, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India..
    Metspalu, Andres
    Univ Tartu, Tartu, Estonia..
    Mi, Jie
    Capital Inst Pediat, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Mikkel, Kairit
    Univ Tartu, Tartu, Estonia..
    Miller, Jody C.
    Univ Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand..
    Francisco Miquel, Juan
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Santiago, Chile..
    Jaime Miranda, J.
    Univ Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru..
    Misigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta
    Univ Zagreb, Zagreb 41000, Croatia..
    Mohamed, Mostafa K.
    Ain Shams Univ, Cairo, Egypt..
    Mohammad, Kazem
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Mohammadifard, Noushin
    Hypertens Res Ctr, Esfahan, Iran..
    Mohan, Viswanathan
    Madras Diabet Res Fdn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd
    Minist Hlth Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia.;Inst Med Res, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.;Minist Hlth, Putrajaya, Malaysia..
    Moller, Niels C.
    Univ Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark..
    Molnar, Denes
    Univ Pecs, Pecs, Hungary..
    Momenan, Amirabbas
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel K.
    Univ Limpopo, Polokwane, South Korea..
    Moreira, Leila B.
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, BR-90046900 Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil..
    Morejon, Alain
    Moreno, Luis A.
    Univ Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza, Spain..
    Morgan, Karen
    RCSI Dublin, Dublin, Ireland..
    Moschonis, George
    Harokopio Univ, Kallithea, Greece..
    Mossakowska, Malgorzata
    Int Inst Mol & Cell Biol, Warsaw, Poland..
    Mostafa, Aya
    Ain Shams Univ, Cairo, Egypt..
    Mota, Jorge
    Univ Porto, Rua Campo Alegre 823, P-4100 Oporto, Portugal..
    Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeel
    Ahvaz Jundishapur Univ Med Sci, Ahwaz, Iran..
    Motta, Jorge
    Gorgas Mem Inst Hlth Studies, Panama City, Panama..
    Muiesan, Maria L.
    Univ Brescia, I-25121 Brescia, Italy..
    Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina
    Murphy, Neil
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England..
    Mursu, Jaakko
    Univ Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland..
    Musil, Vera
    Univ Zagreb, Zagreb 41000, Croatia..
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Univ Ulm, D-89069 Ulm, Germany..
    Naidu, Balkish M.
    Inst Publ Hlth, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia..
    Nakamura, Harunobu
    Kobe Univ, Kobe, Hyogo, Japan..
    Namsna, Jana
    Reg Author Publ Hlth, Banska Bystrica, Slovakia..
    Nang, Ei Ei K.
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore, Singapore..
    Nangia, Vinay B.
    Suraj Eye Inst, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India..
    Narake, Sameer
    Healis Sekhsaria Inst Publ Hlth, Navi Mumbai, India..
    Maria Navarrete-Munoz, Eva
    CIBER Epidemiol & Salud Publ, Madrid, Spain..
    Ndiaye, Ndeye Coumba
    INSERM, F-75654 Paris 13, France..
    Neal, William A.
    W Virginia Univ, Morgantown, WV 26506 USA..
    Nenko, Ilona
    Jagiellonian Univ, Coll Med, PL-31007 Krakow, Poland..
    Nervi, Flavio
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Santiago, Chile..
    Nguyen, Nguyen D.
    Univ Pharm & Med Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam..
    Nguyen, Quang Ngoc
    Nieto-Martinez, Ramfis E.
    Univ Ctr Occidental Lisandro Alvarado, Lara, Venezuela..
    Niiranen, Teemu J.
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland..
    Ning, Guang
    Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Med, Shanghai 200030, Peoples R China..
    Ninomiya, Toshiharu
    Kyushu Univ, Fukuoka 812, Japan..
    Nishtar, Sania
    Heartfile, Islamabad, Pakistan..
    Noale, Marianna
    CNR, Rome, Italy..
    Noboa, Oscar A.
    Univ Republica, Montevideo, Uruguay..
    Noorbala, Ahmad Ali
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Norat, Teresa
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England..
    Noto, Davide
    Univ Palermo, I-90133 Palermo, Italy..
    Al Nsour, Mohannad
    Eastern Mediterranean Publ Hlth Network, Amman, Jordan..
    O'Reilly, Dermot
    Queens Univ Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, Antrim, North Ireland..
    Oh, Kyungwon
    Korea Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Cheongju, South Korea..
    Olinto, Maria Teresa A.
    Univ Vale Rio dos Sinos, Sao Leopoldo, RS, Brazil..
    Oliveira, Isabel O.
    Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil..
    Omar, Mohd Azahadi
    Minist Hlth Malaysia, Putrajaya, Malaysia..
    Onat, Altan
    Istanbul Univ, Istanbul, Turkey..
    Ordunez, Pedro
    Pan Amer Hlth Org, Washington, DC USA..
    Osmond, Clive
    Ostojic, Sergej M.
    Univ Novi Sad, Novi Sad 21000, Serbia..
    Otero, Johanna A.
    Fdn Oftalmol Santander, Floridablanca, Santander, Spain..
    Overvad, Kim
    Aarhus Univ, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark..
    Owusu-Dabo, Ellis
    Kwame Nkrumah Univ Sci & Technol, Kumasi, Ghana..
    Paccaud, Fred Michel
    Inst Social & Prevent Med, Bern, Switzerland..
    Padez, Cristina
    Univ Coimbra, P-3000 Coimbra, Portugal..
    Pahomova, Elena
    Univ Latvia, Riga, Latvia..
    Pajak, Andrzej
    Jagiellonian Univ, Coll Med, PL-31007 Krakow, Poland..
    Palli, Domenico
    Canc Prevent & Res Inst, Genoa, Italy..
    Palmieri, Luigi
    Ist Super Sanita, Rome, Italy..
    Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra
    Heidelberg Univ, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Panza, Francesco
    Univ Bari, I-70121 Bari, Italy..
    Papandreou, Dimitrios
    Zayed Univ, Dubai, U Arab Emirates..
    Parnell, Winsome R.
    Univ Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand..
    Parsaeian, Mahboubeh
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Pecin, Ivan
    Univ Zagreb, Sch Med, Zagreb 41000, Croatia..
    Pednekar, Mangesh S.
    Healis Sekhsaria Inst Publ Hlth, Navi Mumbai, India..
    Peer, Nasheeta
    South African Med Res Council, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Peeters, Petra H.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Peixoto, Sergio Viana
    Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz, Rene Rachou Res Inst, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil..
    Pelletier, Catherine
    Publ Hlth Agcy Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Peltonen, Markku
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland..
    Pereira, Alexandre C.
    Inst Heart, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Marina Perez, Rosa
    Natl Inst Hyg Epidemiol & Microbiol, Havana, Cuba..
    Peters, Annette
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Oberschleissheim, Germany..
    Petkeviciene, Janina
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania..
    Pham, Son Thai
    Pigeot, Iris
    Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epi, Bremen, Germany..
    Pikhart, Hynek
    UCL, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Pilav, Aida
    Fed Minist Hlth, Sarajevo, Bosnia & Herceg..
    Pilotto, Lorenza
    Cardiovasc Prevent Ctr Udine, Udine, Italy..
    Pitakaka, Freda
    Univ New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Plans-Rubio, Pedro
    Publ Hlth Agcy Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain..
    Polakowska, Maria
    Cardinal Wyszynski Inst Cardiol, Warsaw, Poland..
    Polasek, Ozren
    Univ Split, Split, Croatia..
    Porta, Miquel
    Inst Hosp Invest Med, Barcelona, Spain..
    Portegies, Marileen L. P.
    Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Pourshams, Akram
    Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Pradeepa, Rajendra
    Madras Diabet Res Fdn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Prashant, Mathur
    Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India..
    Price, Jacqueline F.
    Univ Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9YL, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Puiu, Maria
    Victor Babes Univ Med & Pharm Timisoara, Timisoara, Romania..
    Punab, Margus
    Tartu Univ Clin, Tartu, Estonia..
    Qasrawi, Radwan F.
    Al Quds Univ, Jerusalem, Israel..
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Alborz Univ Med Sci, Karaj, Iran..
    Radic, Ivana
    Univ Novi Sad, Novi Sad 21000, Serbia..
    Radisauskas, Ricardas
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania..
    Rahman, Mahfuzar
    BRAC, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Raitakari, Olli
    Turku Univ Hosp, Turku, Finland..
    Raj, Manu
    Amrita Inst Med Sci, Ernakulam, Kerala, India..
    Rao, Sudha Ramachandra
    Natl Inst Epidemiol, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Ramos, Elisabete
    Univ Porto, Sch Med, Rua Campo Alegre 823, P-4100 Oporto, Portugal..
    Rampal, Sanjay
    Univ Malaya, Julius Ctr, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia..
    Rangel Reina, Daniel A.
    Gorgas Mem Inst Hlth Studies, Panama City, Panama..
    Rasmussen, Finn
    Karolinska Inst, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Redon, Josep
    Univ Valencia, E-46003 Valencia, Spain..
    Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M.
    Ribeiro, Robespierre
    Minas Gerais State Secretariat Hlth, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Riboli, Elio
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England..
    Rigo, Fernando
    Hlth Ctr San Agustin, Gran Canaria, Spain..
    de Wit, Tobias F. Rinke
    PharmAccess Fdn, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Ritti-Dias, Raphael M.
    Hosp Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Robinson, Sian M.
    Univ Southampton, Southampton SO9 5NH, Hants, England..
    Robitaille, Cynthia
    Publ Hlth Agcy Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, E-28049 Madrid, Spain..
    Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura A.
    Univ Ind Santander, Bucaramanga, Santander, Spain..
    Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba
    Inst Nacl Salud Publ, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Rosengren, Annika
    Gothenburg Univ, S-41124 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Rubinstein, Adolfo
    Inst Clin Effectiveness & Hlth Policy, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Rui, Ornelas
    Univ Madeira, Funchal, Portugal..
    Sandra Ruiz-Betancourt, Blanca
    Inst Mexicano Seguro Social, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Russo Horimoto, Andrea R. V.
    Inst Heart, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Rutkowski, Marcin
    Med Univ Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland..
    Sabanayagam, Charumathi
    Singapore Eye Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore..
    Sachdev, Harshpal S.
    Sitaram Bhartia Inst Sci & Res, Delhi, India..
    Saidi, Olfa
    Univ Tunis El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia..
    Sakarya, Sibel
    Marmara Univ, Istanbul, Turkey..
    Salanave, Benoit
    French Publ Hlth Agcy, St Maurice, France..
    Salazar Martinez, Eduardo
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Salmeron, Diego
    CIBER Epidemiol & Salud Publ, Madrid, Spain..
    Salomaa, Veikko
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland..
    Salonen, Jukka T.
    Univ Helsinki, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland..
    Salvetti, Massimo
    Univ Brescia, I-25121 Brescia, Italy..
    Sanchez-Abanto, Jose
    Natl Inst Hlth, Lima, Peru..
    Sans, Susana
    Catalan Dept Hlth, Barcelona, Spain..
    Santos, Diana
    Univ Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Santos, Ina S.
    Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil..
    dos Santos, Renata Nunes
    Univ Sao Paulo, Clin Hosp, BR-05508 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Santos, Rute
    Univ Porto, Rua Campo Alegre 823, P-4100 Oporto, Portugal..
    Saramies, Jouko L.
    S Karelia Social & Hlth Care Dist, Lappeenranta, Finland..
    Sardinha, Luis B.
    Univ Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Margolis, Giselle Sarganas
    Robert Koch Inst, Berlin, Germany..
    Sarrafzadegan, Nizal
    Isfahan Cardiovasc Res Ctr, Esfahan, Iran..
    Saum, Kai-Uwe
    German Canc Res Ctr, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Savva, Savvas C.
    Res & Educ Inst Child Hlth, Nicosia, Cyprus..
    Scazufca, Marcia
    Univ Sao Paulo, Clin Hosp, BR-05508 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Schargrodsky, Herman
    Hosp Italiano Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Schneider, Ione J.
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, BR-88040900 Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Schultsz, Constance
    Acad Med Ctr Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Schutte, Aletta E.
    South African Med Res Council, Cape Town, South Africa.;North West Univ, Potchefstroom, South Africa..
    Sen, Abhijit
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Trondheim, Norway..
    Senbanjo, Idowu O.
    Lagos State Univ, Coll Med, Lagos, Nigeria..
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Sharma, Sanjib K.
    BP Koirala Inst Hlth Sci, Dharan, Nepal..
    Shaw, Jonathan E.
    Baker IDI Heart & Diabet Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Shibuya, Kenji
    Univ Tokyo, Tokyo 1138654, Japan..
    Shin, Dong Wook
    Seoul Natl Univ, Coll Med, Seoul 151, South Korea..
    Shin, Youchan
    Singapore Eye Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore..
    Siantar, Rosalynn
    Singapore Eye Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore..
    Sibai, Abla M.
    Amer Univ Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Santos Silva, Diego Augusto
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, BR-88040900 Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Simon, Mary
    India Diabet Res Fdn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Simons, Judith
    St Vincents Hosp, Darlinghurst, NSW, Australia..
    Simons, Leon A.
    Univ New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia..
    Sjotrom, Michael
    Karolinska Inst, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Skovbjerg, Sine
    Res Ctr Prevent & Hlth, Glostrup, Denmark..
    Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta
    Med Univ Lodz, Lodz, Poland..
    Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw
    Int Inst Mol & Cell Biol, Warsaw, Poland..
    Smith, Margaret C.
    Univ Oxford, Oxford OX1 2JD, England..
    Snijder, Marieke B.
    Acad Med Ctr Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    So, Hung-Kwan
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, ```, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Sobngwi, Eugene
    Univ Yaounde I, Yaounde, Cameroon..
    Soderberg, Stefan
    Umea Univ, S-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Solfrizzi, Vincenzo
    Univ Bari, I-70121 Bari, Italy..
    Sonestedt, Emily
    Lund Univ, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Song, Yi
    Peking Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.
    Univ Copenhagen, DK-1168 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Jerome, Charles Sossa
    Inst Reg Sante Publ, Ouidah, Benin..
    Soumare, Aicha
    Univ Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France..
    Staessen, Jan A.
    Univ Leuven, Leuven, Belgium..
    Starc, Gregor
    Univ Ljubljana, Ljubljana 61000, Slovenia..
    Stathopoulou, Maria G.
    INSERM, F-75654 Paris 13, France..
    Stavreski, Bill
    Heart Fdn, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Steene-Johannessen, Jostein
    Norwegian Sch Sport Sci, Oslo, Norway..
    Stehle, Peter
    Univ Bonn, Bonn, Germany..
    Stein, Aryeh D.
    Emory Univ, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA..
    Stergiou, George S.
    Sotiria Hosp, Athens, Greece..
    Stessman, Jochanan
    Hadassah Univ, Med Ctr, Jerusalem, Israel..
    Stieber, Jutta
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Oberschleissheim, Germany..
    Stoeckl, Doris
    Helmholtz Zentrum Munchen, Oberschleissheim, Germany..
    Stocks, Tanja
    Lund Univ, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Stokwiszewski, Jakub
    Natl Inst Publ Health, Natl Inst Hyg, Warsaw, Poland..
    Stronks, Karien
    Univ Amsterdam, NL-1012 WX Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Strufaldi, Maria Wany
    Univ Fed Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Sun, Chien-An
    Fu Jen Catholic Univ, New Taipei, Taiwan..
    Sung, Yn-Tz
    Chinese Univ Hong Kong, ```, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul
    Mahidol Univ, Salaya, Thailand..
    Sy, Rody G.
    Univ Philippines, Quezon City 1101, Philippines..
    Tai, E. Shyong
    Natl Univ Singapore, Singapore, Singapore..
    Tammesoo, Mari-Liis
    Univ Tartu, Tartu, Estonia..
    Tamosiunas, Abdonas
    Lithuanian Univ Hlth Sci, Kaunas, Lithuania.;Karolinska Inst, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tang, Line
    Res Ctr Prevent & Hlth, Glostrup, Denmark..
    Tang, Xun
    Peking Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Tanser, Frank
    Univ KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa..
    Tao, Yong
    Peking Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Tarawneh, Mohammed Rasoul
    Minist Hlth, Amman, Jordan..
    Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina B.
    Natl Inst Hlth, Lima, Peru..
    Taylor, Anne
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Theobald, Holger
    Karolinska Inst, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Thijs, Lutgarde
    Univ Leuven, Leuven, Belgium..
    Thuesen, Betina H.
    Res Ctr Prevent & Hlth, Glostrup, Denmark..
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Danish Canc Soc, Res Ctr, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Tolonen, Hanna K.
    Natl Inst Hlth & Welf, Helsinki, Finland..
    Topbas, Murat
    Karadeniz Tech Univ, Trabzon, Turkey..
    Topor-Madry, Roman
    Jagiellonian Univ, Coll Med, PL-31007 Krakow, Poland..
    Jose Tormo, Maria
    Murcia Reg Hlth Council, Murcia, Spain..
    Torrent, Maties
    IB SALUT Area Salut Menorca, Palma De Mallorca, Spain..
    Traissac, Pierre
    Inst Rech Dev, Marseille, France..
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA..
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Hellen Hlth Fdn, Athens, Greece..
    Trinh, Oanh T. H.
    Univ Pharm & Med Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam..
    Trivedi, Atul
    Govt Med Coll, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India..
    Tshepo, Lechaba
    Sefako Makgatho Hlth Sci Univ, Pretoria, South Africa..
    Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.
    Univ West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica..
    Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka
    Univ Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland..
    Turley, Maria L.
    Minist Hlth, Wellington, New Zealand..
    Tynelius, Per
    Karolinska Inst, S-10401 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tzourio, Christophe
    Univ Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France..
    Ueda, Peter
    Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA..
    Ugel, Eunice
    Univ Ctr Occidental Lisandro Alvarado, Lara, Venezuela..
    Ulmer, Hanno
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Uusitalo, Hannu M. T.
    Univ Tampere, Tays Eye Ctr, FIN-33101 Tampere, Finland..
    Valdivia, Gonzalo
    Pontificia Univ Catolica Chile, Santiago, Chile..
    Valvi, Damaskini
    Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA..
    van der Schouw, Yvonne T.
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Van Herck, Koen
    Univ Ghent, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    van Rossem, Lenie
    Univ Med Ctr Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.
    Acad Med Ctr Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Vanderschueren, Dirk
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Leuven, Belgium..
    Vanuzzo, Diego
    Ctr Prevenz Cardiovasc Udine, Udine, Italy..
    Vatten, Lars
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Trondheim, Norway..
    Vega, Tomas
    Consejeria Sanidad Junta de Castilla & Leon, Valladolid, Spain..
    Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Veronesi, Giovanni
    Univ Insubria, Varese, Italy..
    Verschuren, W. M. Monique
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm, Bilthoven, Netherlands..
    Verstraeten, Roosmarijn
    Inst Trop Med, Antwerp, Belgium..
    Victora, Cesar G.
    Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, RS, Brazil..
    Viet, Lucie
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm, Bilthoven, Netherlands..
    Viikari-Juntura, Eira
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Vineis, Paolo
    Imperial Coll London, London W2 1PG, England..
    Vioque, Jesus
    Univ Miguel Hernandez, Elche, Spain..
    Virtanen, Jyrki K.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland..
    Visvikis-Siest, Sophie
    INSERM, F-75654 Paris 13, France..
    Viswanathan, Bharathi
    Minist Hlth, Mt Fleuri, Seychelles..
    Vollenweider, Peter
    Univ Lausanne Hosp, Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Vrdoljak, Ana
    UHC Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia..
    Vrijheid, Martine
    Ctr Res Environm Epidemiol, Barcelona, Spain..
    Wade, Alisha N.
    Univ Witwatersrand, ZA-2050 Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Wagner, Aline
    Univ Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France..
    Walton, Janette
    Univ Coll Cork, Cork, Ireland..
    Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon Wan
    Inst Med Res, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia..
    Wang, Ming-Dong
    Publ Hlth Agcy Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Wang, Qian
    Xinjiang Med Univ, Urumqi, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Ya Xing
    Beijing Tongren Hosp, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Wannamethee, S. Goya
    UCL, London WC1E 6BT, England..
    Wareham, Nicholas
    Univ Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1TN, England..
    Wederkopp, Niels
    Univ Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark..
    Weerasekera, Deepa
    Minist Hlth, Wellington, New Zealand..
    Whincup, Peter H.
    St Georges Univ London, London, England..
    Widhalm, Kurt
    Med Univ Vienna, Vienna, Austria..
    Widyahening, Indah S.
    Univ Indonesia, Depok, Indonesia..
    Wiecek, Andrzej
    Med Univ Silesia, Silesia, Poland..
    Wijga, Alet H.
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm, Bilthoven, Netherlands..
    Wilks, Rainford J.
    Univ West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica..
    Willeit, Peter
    Med Univ Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria..
    Williams, Emmanuel A.
    Komfo Anokye Teaching Hosp, Kumasi, Ghana..
    Wilsgaard, Tom
    UiT Arctic Univ Norway, Tromso, Norway..
    Wojtyniak, Bogdan
    Int Inst Mol & Cell Biol, Warsaw, Poland..
    Wong, Tien Yin
    Duke NUS Med Sch, Singapore, Singapore..
    Wong-McClure, Roy A.
    Caja Costarricense Seguro Social, San Jose, Costa Rica..
    Woo, Jean
    Wu, Aleksander Giwercman
    Lund Univ, S-22100 Lund, Sweden..
    Wu, Frederick C.
    Univ Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England..
    Wu, Shou Ling
    Kailuan Gen Hosp, Tangshan, Peoples R China..
    Xu, Haiquan
    Minist Agr, Inst Food & Nutr Dev, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Yan, Weili
    Fudan Univ, Childrens Hosp, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Xiaoguang
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Ye, Xingwang
    Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Yiallouros, Panayiotis K.
    Univ Cyprus, CY-1678 Nicosia, Cyprus..
    Yoshihara, Akihiro
    Niigata Univ, Niigata, Japan..
    Younger-Coleman, Novie O.
    Univ West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica..
    Yusoff, Ahmad F.
    Zambon, Sabina
    Univ Padua, I-35100 Padua, Italy..
    Zdrojewski, Tomasz
    Med Univ Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland..
    Zeng, Yi
    Duke Univ, Durham, NC 27706 USA.;Peking Univ, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Zhao, Dong
    Capital Med Univ, Beijing An Zhen Hosp, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Zhao, Wenhua
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Zheng, Yingffeng
    Singapore Eye Res Inst, Singapore, Singapore..
    Zhu, Dan
    Inner Mongolia Med Univ, Hohhot, Peoples R China..
    Zimmermann, Esther
    Bispebjerg Hosp, Copenhagen, Denmark.;Frederiksberg Univ Hosp, Frederiksberg, Denmark..
    Zuniga Cisneros, Julio
    Gorgas Mem Inst Hlth Studies, Panama City, Panama..
    Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015: a pooled analysis of 1479 population-based measurement studies with 19.1 million participants2017In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 389, no 10064, p. 37-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher. Methods For this analysis, we pooled national, subnational, or community population-based studies that had measured blood pressure in adults aged 18 years and older. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends from 1975 to 2015 in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of raised blood pressure for 200 countries. We calculated the contributions of changes in prevalence versus population growth and ageing to the increase in the number of adults with raised blood pressure. Findings We pooled 1479 studies that had measured the blood pressures of 19.1 million adults. Global age-standardised mean systolic blood pressure in 2015 was 127.0 mm Hg (95% credible interval 125.7-128.3) in men and 122.3 mm Hg (121.0-123.6) in women; age-standardised mean diastolic blood pressure was 78.7 mm Hg (77.9-79.5) for men and 76.7 mm Hg (75.9-77.6) for women. Global age-standardised prevalence of raised blood pressure was 24.1% (21.4-27.1) in men and 20.1% (17.8-22.5) in women in 2015. Mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure decreased substantially from 1975 to 2015 in high-income western and Asia Pacific countries, moving these countries from having some of the highest worldwide blood pressure in 1975 to the lowest in 2015. Mean blood pressure also decreased in women in central and eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and, more recently, central Asia, Middle East, and north Africa, but the estimated trends in these super-regions had larger uncertainty than in high-income super-regions. By contrast, mean blood pressure might have increased in east and southeast Asia, south Asia, Oceania, and sub-Saharan Africa. In 2015, central and eastern Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, and south Asia had the highest blood pressure levels. Prevalence of raised blood pressure decreased in high-income and some middle-income countries; it remained unchanged elsewhere. The number of adults with raised blood pressure increased from 594 million in 1975 to 1.13 billion in 2015, with the increase largely in low-income and middle-income countries. The global increase in the number of adults with raised blood pressure is a net effect of increase due to population growth and ageing, and decrease due to declining age-specific prevalence. Interpretation During the past four decades, the highest worldwide blood pressure levels have shifted from high-income countries to low-income countries in south Asia and sub-Saharan Africa due to opposite trends, while blood pressure has been persistently high in central and eastern Europe. Funding Wellcome Trust.

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