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  • 1.
    Abdi Mohammed, Farhan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    A Said, Mahdi
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Möjligheten att utföra LCA i en totalentreprenad: En studie om LCA i en totalentreprenad2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The environment is an important issue in society today. Emissions contribute to medium temperature rises gradually allowing the consequences on the nature, climate and society. The construction industry accounts for approximately 40 % of all energy use in Sweden. The environment in various ways, namely that different lifestyles and ways of life such as heating residences, waste management, travel to and from work affects the adverse impact on the environment. With the help of the growing awareness of the environment and the impetus given to it by the public authorities to reduces the environmental impact and energy use. LCA is a systematic analysis that is new in the construction industry where construction processes measured by the flow of energy and material usage. LCA can help decision makers by performing the LCA can be developed in analytical evaluations environmentally. Without LCA would investment, costs may be the most important thing for the decision makers than the environmental benefits. The aim of this work is to perform a life cycle assessment in the construction process with total construction and following questions is: • Possibilities to perform LCA in this construction form? • What demands are made from the client? • Possibilities and difficulties with total construction to perform LCA? The aim of this thesis is to illustrate how a life cycle analysis can be performed in a total construction. The study will highlight the role of the client. The focus will be on project Kungsljuset in Borlänge. The method of accounting analysis of the life cycle of the construction project is used and performed in a total construction. Interviews with the project management for this object. The result was unfortunately that there was a lack of data for the implement of LCA in this project. The reason was the knowledge and interest of the lack of both the client and the material supplier. It is required that the client demands on the material supplier and entrepreneur to specify the material and other resources used in this construction project.

  • 2.
    Ackemo, Sandra
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Hästanpassade vägar: I Leksands Kommun2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Approximately 13 000 persons get injured every year in Sweden while riding or handling a horse. Due to regulations, a horse is not allowed on to the walk- and cycle path or the sidewalks. Since some places don’t have paths developed for the horse, the equipage is forced out in trafficked roads. The horse is a prey animal, they run first and then they stop to see what the potential threat was. This, in combination with car driver´s general lack of knowledge about horses, could increase the possibility of an accident.The purpose of this project is to evaluate if the equestrian practitioners find it difficult to be in traffic environment with the horse and how commonly practitioners use public roads with the horse. The purpose is also to provide a review of how well the equestrian practitioners are aware of the traffic rules regarding horses in traffic. The main purpose of this thesis is, however, to offer suggestions on how road design should be improved with regard to road safety, security and accessibility for equestrian practitioners.

    The study was carried out with a questionnaire and studying literature. The questionnaire was handed out to 38 members of the riding club of Leksand. The results show that the knowledge of traffic rules could be increased among the ones who answered the questionnaire. They also think that the horse needs to be a part of the community and infrastructure planning and that all road-users need to learn more about horses in traffic, to better understand its behavior. Other proposals are lowered speed limits for motorized traffic at

  • 3.
    Agirman, Nesim
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Ali, Mustafa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    U-värde av isoleringsmaterial i en kassett: En experimentell jämförelse mellan en fönsterkassett som har isolering och en utan isolering2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Insulation and insulation material is one of the most important components in the construction industry and has a wide range of applications and therefore the demand is huge. Because of the high costs on the market, new and different researches take place every day to find alternative insulation materials. The technology make the opportunities greater to find and use cheaper materials. Therefore, it is not un common to see insulations made of different materials every day.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate two Moniflexcassettes, one with insulation and one without, in a climate chamber, to then compare their u-values.

    The results showed the influence on the insulation, that the u-value was lower on the cartridge with the insulation, and therefore a proof that the insulation can use as an additional insulation. This applied especially for windows and glass portions who have a high u-value, which mean that windows and glass portions do not have to change to newer windows with lower u-values.

    The company Isolight´s current u-value of the cassette with the isolation was not the same as with the tested U-value in Högskolan Dalarnas climate chamber. On the cassette without insulation, there has been no comparison between the tested value and the value of the company because the company does not have a u-value for that.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Adam
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Berggren, Pontus
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Utvärdering av träbjälklag i ett äldre flerbostadshus med avseende på stegljud och nedböjning: Mätningar och möjliga åtgärder och åtgärdsförslag2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    New buildings will only maginally contribute to future quantity of residential housing. Therefor new knowledge of past building technics are required, to asses which action propsals are suitable when interventions are considered. Objective. This study aims to evaluate lightweight timber joist floors in a multi-story residential building from 1903, with regard to footfall noise and deflection. Method. Data has been collected with a survey and through measurements of footfall noise and deflection. The purpose of the survey is to evaluate the residentals subjective perception of footfall noise and deflection. Footfall noise has been measured with a tapping machine in accordance with Swedish Standards. The deflection has been measured with Leica NA2 paired with a parallel-plate micrometer, GFS1, for precise leveling assessment. Results. The survey shows that the residents don’t experience any issues with regard to footfall noise and deflection. The measurements show a L’nT,w+CI,50-2500 level of 55 dB and an average deflection of 0.320 mm/kN. Conclusion. Footfall noise- and deflection levels satisfy today’s requirements according to Swedish Standards and therefor the results doesn’t motivate any action proposals or interventions.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Linnea
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Ekeblad, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Energieffektivisering av klimatskal - miljonprogrammets flerbostadshus: Tjärna Ängar, Borlänge2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During The Million Homes Programme, 1964 – 1975, over one million homes were built and it’s now time for an extensive modernization of these buildings.

    The purpose of this work was to see how the building envelope of a multifamily building from the Million Homes Programme can be energy efficient. This was done through enquiries and calculations, and by comparing these to current and future requirements of energy use. The enquiries that have been conducted were tests of impermeability and thermography. The calculations suggest both individual and combined actions to improve the building envelope.  The enquiries and calculations do not consider installations, architectural values, or economy, only how much the energy use can be optimized through improving the building envelope. 

    The best result achieved through combined actions was a reduction of energy use by 32,3 %. The individual action with the best result was the replacement of windows and balcony door: 16,4 % reduction of energy use.

    Only the building envelope has been taken in to account in this rapport which means that a greater improvement is possible if installations also is included.

    An important conclusion of the project is that the building envelope has a great effect on a building’s energy usage. The requirements of energy use that come into effect January 1, 2021 can be accomplished by only correcting the deficiencies in the building envelope.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Mikael
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Lind, Christoffer
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Genomstansning i betong: En jämförelsestudie mellan Eurokod 2, Strusoft Winstatik Punching och Eurocode Software caeEc230.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Computers have become invaluable for advanced calculation tasks in most industries.

    Formerly, designers had to rely on his skills and knowledge to perform calculations.

    Nowadays, designers can execute a calculation without the need to use the actual formulas

    behind. It is recommended by experienced designers that some of the programs used in the

    building industry, which are based on the European Eurocodes needs to be validated.

    The aim of this study has been to calculate the punching capacity of ordinary reinforced

    slab and to design the shear reinforcement, according to Eurocode 2. The method was a

    theoretical study of the Eurocodes. A calculation sheet for punching capacity was made in

    Mathcad. The calculations from the sheet were compared to Winstatik Punching and

    caeEc230. The work has been defined to include only an inner column on a concrete slab

    with a circular cross section without any column heads or other reinforcements. In order to

    achieve realistic calculations, nine cases with different slab thicknesses and spans were

    manipulated.

    The capacities from the three calculations were nearly identical, both at the columns

    perimeter and at the control perimeter. The greatest differences were found in the design of

    the shear reinforcement. They showed similar amount of reinforcement in terms of area, but

    offered no guidance on the design. CaeEc230 suggested about double the amount of rebar

    cuts than the calculations in Mathcad. Winstatik Punching reported no total at all.

  • 7.
    Andreason, Ellen
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Grundvattenhantering i vägskärning: Överväganden, problem och bedömningar kring grundvattnet genom planerandet och byggandet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Questions and problems related to groundwater management are important in road construction, especially at a cutting slope. The thesis describes the problems encountered during the construction of a road caused by high levels of groundwater. The aim of the thesis was to follow up considerations, problems and assessments considering groundwater connected to the building phase. Four specific aims were formulated; description of erosion control and of the assessments made considering groundwater and its effect on the construction, monitoring groundwater levels during the building phase and to do a simple theoretical calculation of the groundwater levels. 

    To meet the objective several methods were selected, literature review, surveys, interviews with people professionally related to the project and field measurements of groundwater tables.

    Measures to prevent erosion can be divided into vegetative and landscaped, either with soil and rock fills on the slopes or with various ditches. During the project, the design for the road and hillsides changed. Problems with groundwater and erosion have been important for the modified construction. Groundwater levels outside the intersection first increased, probably due to the deforestation and then dropped during the excavation. All but one pipe at the intersection show a lowering of the groundwater during the excavations and a smaller increase during snowmelt than in previous years. The calculated level of groundwater shows in one pipe a level far below the measured, indicating a continuing decrease, in the other pipe a higher level is calculated.

    Advanced vegetative erosion control systems are relative uncommon in Sweden today. Measurements of the groundwater tables should be carried out for a long time to provide a reliable reference level. Knowledge of the soils in the cutting intersection is important in the context of groundwater management together with a sufficient communication between those involved in the construction process. The groundwater levels in the intersection will probably continue its declining trend. Reliable calculations of groundwater tables are complex and their result can still be questioned.  

  • 8.
    Argårds, Mattias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Analys av lägenhetsskiljande bjälklag: Fallstudie av produktion av flerbostadshus i Sälenfjällen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In construction of apartments several parameters determines the choice of production method. Costs and production time for the various operations are two important parts , As early as the planning stage it is important to have a clear picture of the different solutions' and its prerequisites to simplify the choice of production method.

    For new construction projects in Sälenfjällen the tight production times makes it important to know whether any solution could involve considerable delays in production time. On the other hand faster construction methods may also lead to higher costs.

    The thesis has been limited to four different floor constructions which are Finjas “Combi bjälklag”, “plattbärlag”, cross laminated timber and Dala cements “Daladekk”. The calculation has been linked to a reference building in Sälenfjällen and a supposed new production of four similar buildings.

    With the help of the structural design calculations were carried out to estimate the costs each approach brings, it also performed one simple analysis of the time spent.

    The result shows that it is best economical to build with "plattbärlag", followed by cross laminated timber. At the same time plattbärlaget and its construction has a risk for delayed production times, which mean it may be advantageous to chose the solution with cross laminated timber.

  • 9.
    Blomqvist, Stina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Helgesson, Robin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Framtagning av yttervägg för småhus: En analys med hänsyn till kommande energikrav2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today is the specific requirements for the building’s energy use in new buildnings. These requirements come under the EU directive to be tightened firmly to the year 2020. This work was the basis of an interpretation of the coming energy requirements, 2020 requirements, designing a new energy-efficient exterior wall construction. This has been done with Fiskarhedenvillan and the construction has been valued in terms of material cost, assembly and the square meter price.

    By calculations and fact finding, demonstrated how energy in small houses could be reduced by replacing the insulating material to a material with lower heat conductivity. The method was to interpret the coming energy requirements and analyze Fiskarhedenvillan current wall construction. Next, search for information and facts about various insulation materials and then design a new proposal on the exterior wall construction.

    The outer wall construction is a crucial factor for the building envelope energy efficiency. Because Fiskarhedenvillan chosen to focus only on the outer wall, this work is delimited to that part of the building envelope.

    An important conclusion of this work is that the 2020 objectives can be met by improving the exterior wall construction and that it is possible to make a design that meets the requirements in entire Sweden

  • 10.
    Brinkebäck, Eric
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Jönsson, Johan
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Fallstudie av moderna timmerhus: Kvalitetskontroll av nybyggda timmerhus mot FST:s kvalitetsnormer och BBR:s kommande energihushållningskrav2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A study has been conducted to investigate how log houses will meet the new requirements regarding U-value and specific energy use with primary energy factor as a basis, which will be put into use in 2017. In the study, two houses have been investigated. Both houses were constructed with 200 mm thick logs without any additional isolation. Both houses have geothermal heating systems. The study found that the new requirements will be rough against timber house constructions with geothermal or electricity as a heating system, since a primary energy figure of 1.6 will be multiplied by the total energy consumption when heated by electricity.

  • 11.
    Brosius, Isabelle
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Utfackningsväggar i trä: En tid- och kostnadsjämförelse mellan prefabricerade och platsbyggda byggmetoder2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To win procurements today, it is important that you as an entrepreneur choose the most effective resource and production methods. That already in the calculation stage, decide how high degree of prefabrication the project should have, is favorable to promptly adapt the workplace in order to get the best output.

    In Mora, Skanska has a block workshop that among other things manufactures curtain walls. Skanska has expressed a desire for a study of the differences in time and cost between their precast curtain walls and site-built curtain walls in order to see for which construction projects it may be appropriate to make use of their precast curtain walls.

    The purpose of this project is to facilitate the choice of production method for the manufacture of curtain walls, depending on the construction project's requirements regarding:

    • If the project has a short or long timetable.
    • How many square meters of curtain-wall the project needs.
    • Distance to block workshop.

    The work is defined to include construction projects that have a bearing frame with lightweight curtain walls of wood. The production methods studied for building curtain walls in wood is prefabrication and site-built.

    The production cost has defined to only conclude the cost of the work and the expenses of the workplace, no costs for the materials that are built-in are included. The cost of the built-in materials is assumed in this work to be the same whether the curtain walls are site built or prefabricated.

    With unit times from the block workshop, has a production time for prefabrication of curtain walls been calculated. For the site-built curtain wall, unit times from Nybyggnadslistan 1999 has been retrieved and used to calculate a manufacturing time for building the wall in place. A cost benefit analysis has been done comparing the different manufacturing cost. The cost benefit analysis show the amount of wall area required to choose prefabricated over place built at the highest profit.

    The result shows that to manufacture and mount one square meter of prefabricated curtain wall takes 0,135 hours less time than that place build the same amount. Time on site is reduced by 0,578 hours per square meter when using precast curtain walls.

    The result also shows that the cost to manufacture one square meter of curtain-wall is 32.77 SEK lower than that place build the same amount of curtain-wall. The thing that pulls up the cost of precast curtain walls is the transport. A fully loaded truck with 370 m² of wall can be transported 43 Swedish miles before profitability ceiling is reached.

    The time at the construction place, is getting shorter when using prefabricated curtain walls, leading to reduced costs in the workplace.

    For a construction project located at a distance of 30 Swedish miles from block workshop, is it profitable to choose prefabricated curtain walls, if the object needs 256 m² or more square meters of wall. For construction projects that require a smaller number of square meters of curtain walls, it is more profitable to use the site-built curtain walls. Especially if the construction project is located at a far distance from the block workshop.

    Important conclusions from this thesis are:

    • Shorter production time for precast curtain walls, which results in a lower production cost.
    • The time on the construction site is reduced by the use of precast curtain walls.
    • For long trips, a larger number of square meters precast curtain walls is needed to make the use of prefab to be profitable.
    • The use of precast curtain walls means less need for storage of materials on the construction site.
  • 12.
    Campanyim, Sunitda
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Laine, Jenny
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Samband mellan vägytans textur och buller i vägfordon2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there are several authorities in Sweden that have responsibilities toregulate noise emission levels to limits that are not too disruptive to theenvironment. Currently there are no guidelines or recommendations for interiornoise in vehicles. Since there are no clear requirements for noise levels invehicles, there is also no standard method to measure noise inside the vehicle.The aim of this thesis was to develop correlations between the road surfacetexture and noise levels in vehicles and suggest appropriate research methodswhen studying how noise generated in the contact area between tire and roadsurface affects the inside of the vehicle.

    The study was divided into two phases: a measurement of road texture ondifferent coating types and a noise examination with different vehicles atselected test sections.

    The study showed that the methods used did not work properly and gaveunreliable results. Road surface texture has to some degree influence on thenoise generated by the traffic but to find a good correlation between the roadsurface texture and noise inside vehicles, other sources of error have to beminimized.To develop a reliable method more investigations are needed.

  • 13.
    Candell, André
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Ehn Jansson, Oskar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Synsättet på förnyelsebara elkällor inom fastighetsbranschen2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Between the years 1965 and 1975 one million residences in Sweden were built.

    Today the work of renovating these buildings has begun, in connection with this

    work there are many measures taken to reduce energy usage.

    The purpose of this work was to find out what is the most economical choice of

    various green power sources.

    Also the thoughts and beliefs of the property owners are set in relation to the

    conclusions of the calculations to get an idea of how different the property

    owner’s beliefs are compared to the calculations.

    To avoid making the work too large and demanding these boundaries have been

    set:

     To get appropriate conclusions the work has been limited to the region

    of Dalarna.

     The work has also been limited to examining the economic factor when

    choosing between various green power sources.

    Two surveys were conducted with several different property owners as

    participants and then two calculations of the payback period for solar power,

    wind power, and green electricity were conducted. These two results were then

    compered to each other to be able to analyze and present these conclusions.

    Conclusions:

     Wind power is not profitable at today’s electricity prices.

     Real estate owners are uncertain of what choice gives the best

    profitability of wind power, solar power or green power.

  • 14.
    Danielsson, Christoffer
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Hansson, Christopher
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Planindikatorer som utvärderingsverktyg för hållbar fysisk planering: En konsekvensbedömning på detaljplanenivå2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The urbanization that has occurred in the last century results in an increasing awareness of urban planning and assessment tools are increasingly used to demonstrate that development in the direction of sustainable occurs.

    The purpose of this study is to produce indicators and analyze how the municipality development plans for the station area in Borlänge meet the national-, regional- and local objectives in terms of sustainable urban planning. The method applied in the development of indicators is based on Boverkets and Naturvårdsverkets model that was developed in conjunction with the SAMS-project. Applying this method has resulted in eleven indicators that have been applied to the present situation and the development plans in which the result shows that any major change to the assessment ladder has not occurred.

    As a result of some municipal goals beeing vaguely designed, the difficulty in meeting them increases. This creates a difficulty in applying the assessment tools in the form of indicators that can guide planning in the right direction. The development plans extent is not enough for the municipal goals to be met. The produced planning indicators can be the basis for a dialogue with the municipality in order to sharpen the objectives and generate a better goal achievement.

  • 15.
    Dellfjord, Veronica
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Kunskap hos privatpersoner om fukt på kallvind2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is common that homeowners are recommended to add an insulation layer on the attic to lower building heating energy, however many do not realize the problem with complementary insulation compared to what the building and the building shell is adapted for. The lack of knowledge of the homeowners, can result in that they accidentally fill the longitudinal ventilation slits on the cold roof that is there to maintain the natural ventilation and prevent air from drying out any moisture.

    The aim is to find thus out:

    • How much knowledge do the homeowners have about the risk of moisture problems in the cold roof, and how to prevent future moisture damage in the best way, depending on the design of the roof?

    • Is there a risk of moisture problems for the objects studied, based on moisture measurements and high moisture content?

    The method chosen for the study was semi-structured interviews, containing sixteen questions, with homeowners and measurements of relative humidity of air and wood and the moisture content in the wood. The study was limited to the spring of 2016 and to four homeowners.

    It turned out to differ little among the interviewers on how much knowledge they had about moisture in cold roofs and how much knowledge they possess today. Some had enough knowledge to prevent moisture damage while others needed more information. Several felt that the insurance company is where they have to acquire information from, preferably in the form of a leaflet with short questions, sent out annually.

    The measurements proved to give good results with little risk of moisture damage to the cold roofs. There were no high moisture content in neither truss nor inside roof.

  • 16.
    Edvardsson, Karin
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Magnusson, Rolf
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Road Technology.
    Impact of fine materials content on the transport of dust suppressants in gravel road wearing courses2011In: Journal of materials in civil engineering, ISSN 0899-1561, E-ISSN 1943-5533, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 1163-1170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A significant problem when dust-suppressing agents are used on gravel roads is that they tend to leach during rainfall. The purpose of this study is to illustrate this problem by using laboratory studies and studies in situ. Both capillary rise and leaching of suppressants were examined by using cylinders filled with wearing course material. Chloride was more prone than lignosulphonate to transport upwards by means of capillary rise, and therefore, it showed a more effective performance over a longer period of time. Optimal percentages of fine material for minimal lignosulphonate and chloride leaching were found to be 15% by weight and 10-15% by weight, respectively. Ions of calcium chloride seemed to flocculate clay particles, which probably prevents them from leaching. To study the in situ longevity of fine material in general, calcium carbonate, mesa, was used as a marker. The fine material in gravel wearing courses must be replenished regularly. Mesa loss was up to 80% after 1 year. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)MT.1943-5533.0000282. (C) 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  • 17.
    Emborg, Emma
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Miljöbetong för hållbart byggande: En analys av betongblandningar med mer miljövänliga tillsatsmaterial2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to study how concrete can be made more environmentally friendly with as well as without fly ash and how this can then be evaluated using a new computer program for the Environmental Product Declarations (EPD). This work also includes studies using a simulation tool, Production Planning Concrete (PPB) on the temperature and strength development of concrete.

    Concrete is an important construction material that has been used for thousands of years. The concrete ingredients are mostly natural materials that have a low environmental impact: stone, gravel, sand and water. The cement is, however, a material that still requires high energy consumption during manufacturing and produces large carbon emissions, at present about 2-3% of Sweden's total amount of carbon emissions.

    Environmental impact is an important topic and building industry operators today are keen to develop building materials that make as little environmental impact as possible. The materials must also be evaluated in a fair and timely manner in order to be compared with each other. There are new rules for the admixtures used in concrete, which means that it is now possible to add, for example, fly ash or slag in the mix at the concrete factory to produce concrete with less environmental impact. Cement and Concrete Research Institute (Cement- och Betonginstitutet), together with the trade association Swedish Concrete (Svensk Betong) also developed a tool to make declarations for these more environmentally friendly concrete mixes. These declarations are called Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs). At the same time, there is now on the market a new program that calculates early strength growth in various production scenarios. The program is called Production Planning Concrete (PPB).

    The work has involved a literature review and preparation of background data to insert in the two calculation programs used. The theory addresses the environmental impact of the various constituent materials of the concrete, how the concrete's properties are determined and what these mean, and what EPDs are and how they are made. After the literature review, calculations and simulations have been done in computer programs, which have resulted in a variety of charts and tables presented in the report.

    One of the conclusions of the work is that the production of cement is the part of the concrete that has the largest impact on the environment, and by replacing a portion of the cement with fly ash reduces the environmental impact evidently. Another conclusion from the work is that concrete with fly ash has a slower rate of strength development and are more likely to freeze in the early stages, which should be taken into consideration in the planning and design of the building process.

    The work also shows that the results of the EPD calculations and strength simulations can be useful for concrete manufacturers developing new products, while they also can be used by clients and contractors to get information about a concrete's environmental impact and characteristics.

  • 18.
    Eriksson, Emma
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Samarbetsutveckling i traditionella entreprenader: Riktlinjer för ökat samarbete och färre konflikter kopplade till ÄTA-arbeten2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    The construction industry has been criticized for the relationship between the client and the contractor. The

    contractor is perceived to take low cost contracts and then claim compensation for correctional and additional work,

    CAW. Compensation requirements for CAW is one of the main reasons for conflicts in the construction industry. Clients

    are suspicious of the contractor's claim for compensation, which reduces trust. Partnering is advocated as the solution to

    conflicts associated with CAW. The client and the contractor then work loyally instead of only seeking their own interests

    and focusing on what is best for the project. A working co-operation climate reduces negative discussions, and to achieve

    this, cooperation and various cooperative activities are required. Implementation of cooperation activities has a major

    impact on cooperation. There is a significant benefit in establishing a way of working that allows for a tractable handling

    of correctional and additional work.

    Purpose:

    The purpose of the study is to develop guidelines for how cooperation between client and contractor in

    construction contracts can increase, thus reducing conflicts associated with correctional and additional work.

    Restrictions:

    The study was restricted to include execution and total contracts within the framework of AB04 and

    ABT06. Only public clients were interviewed and from contractors, employees of NCC Sverige AB. Collaborative

    activities and tools on which the study is based are present in partnering projects and Extended Collaboration Level 1. The

    study was geographically restricted to actors in the Dala / Gävleborg / Uppsala region.

    Method:

    A literature study was conducted regarding the handling and regulation of correctional and additional work in

    AB04 and ABT06 as well as tools and activities for development of cooperation. A qualitative data collection was

    conducted with semi structured interviews.

    Result:

    Both client and contractor benefit from collaborating. Cooperation must permeate the entire corporate

    organization and the right people with the right will and conditions are a must. The parties must get to know each other

    early. A good relationship provides a smooth management of CAW, a clear and transparent dialogue must be conducted.

    The contractor does not earn money on CAW, as it is difficult to get paid for the disturbance. The clients believe that they

    reach far enough without Partnering.

    Conclusion:

    The study leads to the guidelines: Work for cooperation to permeate the business organization, appoint

    collaborator, early activity for the parties to get to know each other, establish common goals, meetings for collaborative

    development, transparency on economics and risks, study the extent of the contract, change attitude towards AB04 and

    ABT06 as well as establishing a clear and transparent dialogue regarding correctional and additional work.

  • 19.
    Eriksson, Jimmy
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Nilsson, Jonas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Partnering: Arbetsuppgifter och egenskaper hos arbetsledning i produktion2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Partnering is a way of work that is becoming more and more popular within the

    construction industry. The interest for partnering and the idea for this thesis

    came through a lecture that was held for the students at Högskolan Dalarna. The

    purpose of this theisis project was primarily to investigate if there were any

    differences in work tasks in leadership in a total contract versus a partnering

    contract. A secondary purpose was to see which personal qualities were

    considered important to have in partnering.

    The chosen method of carrying out the work became a more extended literary

    study. The literary study was then compared with interviews with people with

    good insight into partnering and the management situation.

    Partnering is a collaborative form that occurred in the united states in the 1980´s.

    The engineer group that created partnering aimed at getting a more productive

    way of working in the construction industry, and also to make it more similar to

    the automotive industry.

    There are a few factors that must occur in order for a partnering project to be

    called a partnering project. These factors are presented in the report.

    There is not much that differs from the tasks contained in a total contract versus

    a partnering contract. Although the way the tasks are conducted may differ.

    Some important conclusions that are drawn from this work, among other things

    are that work tasks do not significantly differ and that personal qualities such as

    openness, responsiveness, commitment and accuracy appear as desired

    characteristics.

  • 20.
    Eriksson, Magnus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Denkji, Jack
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Vattenskador i byggnader: Hur de teoretiska branschreglerna fungerar i praktiken2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Water damages in buildings cost more than 6 billion SEK per year in Sweden. It is a figure

    that the insurance companies want and are working for to decrease.

    Sweden are constantly building new constructions, today's technology is a much more

    advanced one then it was in the past and the need for greater knowledge is a requirement to

    not build errors. The materials and the construction methods become more and more complex

    by time. Now days the materials interact with each other and are built in inside the walls

    where it is not visible if there is a leak. More professionals should collaborate with each other

    because it’s more complex there are more laws and rules that must be followed. The artisans

    must be trained theoretically today to gain knowledge and understanding of their job.

    The aim with this work was primarily to investigate how the theoretically under the laws and

    rules should be built and how it actually performed in practice.

    The report deals with water damage that occurs inside the villas. The theoretical laws and

    industry regulations examined in this report will be the newest versions that apply today.

    The method that was used in this work is essentially meetings and contact with the people in

    the industry. The people who will be interviewed are plumbers, vocational school, adult

    education, insurance, tilers, carpet layers, materials dealers other companies in the industry.

    Cooperation with Länsförsäkringar Dalarna AB will take place throughout the project.

    The result of the surveys was that there is a gap between what is theoretically being carried

    out and how it is carried out in practice. Since the law says it should be built so that there will

    be no water damage, but it still occur water damages. It suggests that there is a problem

    between theory and practice. The problems for the artisans include stress, industry

    regulations, coordination, customers and price etc.

    Industry rules problem is that they can be misinterpreted and are too academically written.

    Coordination between the different professional groups is too poor, provide training to the

    carpenters so that they have more knowledge about plumbing fitter profession.

    The conclusion of this work is that there is a gap between what is theoretically being carried

    out and how it is carried out in practice. Industry rules must be even better written and

    designed.

    One example is clear that there is a problem with how the industry rules are designed, is that

    most interview participants in this survey felt that ROT rules were too vague and difficult to

    read.

    Very many also believe that ROT rules do not work as they should in the practice as it is in

    practice very difficult to motivate the customer economical to build entirely by industry

    regulations. The renovation work can be very large and expensive changes to achieve the

    industry standard rules. Then craftsmen use deviations that customers do not have much

    knowledge of and what they mean.

  • 21.
    Eriksson, Marie-Louise
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Korrelation mellan spårriktningsåtgärder och befästningstyp, ballastålder, rälåder samt rälvikt2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Transport Administration has stated that the maintenance of the Swedish railway network has been neglected. To maintain adequate supply of transport in the long term preventative measures are required. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze how fastening, ballast age, rail age and rail weight influence the need for tamping action on the Swedish railway network. The purpose is also to clarify if the used method is useful for further analysis on the topic.

    The work was based on the Swedish Transport Administrations infrastructure data from the years 2007-2013 consisting of information about tamping, fastening, rail, ballast, freight traffic, passenger traffic, tonnage and traffic volume. A selection was carried out to simplify the study and then Excel was used to correlate data. Analysis about fastening was conducted per track meter, while the analysis for the rail and ballast was conducted per line section.

    An analysis, weighted for the volume of traffic in terms of gross tonnage and number of trains show that the type of fastening that requires the most tamping actions is Rail Spike while the fastening that is currently used for new construction, Pandrol Fastclip, is one type that requires few tamping actions. The median age for tamping actions was 22 years regarding both ballast and rail. The rail mean weight that requires the most tamping actions is according to the results 50 kg/m, which is also the most common rail weight.

    The method used in this thesis provides a good foundation for further study but should be evaluated and developed for use in preparation of economic effect models of maintenance for the Swedish railway network.

  • 22.
    Erlingsson, Mattias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Tillskottseffektens påverkani klimatkammare: En fallstudie av U-värdet för en massivträskiva2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Näringslivet i Dalarna har efterfrågat möjligheten att testa byggkomponenters energiprestanda för att utveckla dessa ytligare ur energisynpunkt. Högskolan Dalarna har i och med det investerat i en klimatkammare. I klimatkammaren skapas det två klimat, ett kallt utomhusklimat och ett varmt inomhus klimat.

    En av de första byggkomponenter som testades var en massivträskiva. De initiala mätningarna av massivträskivan påvisade ett bättre U-värde än teoretiskt förväntat. Detta stärkte behovet av att innan fortsatta mätningar kunde göras utreda orsaken till avvikelsen. Därmed ändrades huvudinriktningen på examensarbetet till att utveckla metoden för klimatkammaren. Fokus lades på att ta fram beräkningsmodeller för tillskottseffekt till mätlådan i klimatkammaren, då denna tillskottseffekt inte var implicerad.

    Massivträskivan testades vid fyra olika ute temperaturer, +10°C, 0°C, -10°C och -20°C. Resultatet från massivträskivan var att U-värdet förbättrades vid kallare temperatur men de var alla bättre än teoretiskt förväntat.

    Tre olika beräkningsmodeller för tillskottseffekt har arbetats fram och applicerats på mätdata för en kalibreringsvägg med kända termiska egenskaper. Resultatet från beräkningsmodellerna visar att kalibreringen av klimatkammaren är bristfällig vid 0°C då kalibreringsväggens U-värde är cirka 4.5 % bättre än vad de borde vara, vid de andra kalibrerings temperaturer är skillnaden endast 1 %.

    Slutsatsen är att klimatkammaren på Högskolan Dalarna behöver finjusteras och om kalibreras för att få verifierbara resultat för U-värdes mätningar.

  • 23.
    Franzon, Joffe
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Hur en armerad betongbalk dimensioneras för hål i livet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the design stage, conflicts between installations and bodies often arise. In multi-story

    buildings huge profits can be made from being able to make holes in concrete beams in

    order to carry an installation through the beam. But the knowledge of how the beam is to

    be dimensioned for larger holes is not generally known.

    Two concrete manuals with different calculation methods have therefore been analyzed to

    evaluate which of these could be the basis for a calculation template. The prerequisites

    were defined as beams without prestressed concrete, with rectangular cross-sections and

    square or rectangular holes.

    The Mathcad calculation program was used to make two calculation templates for the

    Swedish and Norwegian methods. As a calculation example, dimensions and loads were

    used from an experimental study in Egypt 2005. In that study, the beam was exposed to

    loads that brought it to failure. Their theoretical failure capacity was in line with the

    practical values.

    A comparison of the amount of reinforcement and execution was made between the three

    different models. It turned out that the Norwegian model was the most similar to the

    Egyptian. The reinforcement of the Norwegian model was the most similar to that of the

    Egyptian model, but the amount of reinforcement was slightly less.

    The Swedish model was not considered reliable for design purposes. As the Norwegian

    model had a little less reinforcement, it was considered necessary to add a safety factor or

    perform a load capacity test in order to ensure the beam’s capacity.

  • 24.
    Fredin, Andreas
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Snöborgs, Oscar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Energimässig och kostnadsmässig jämförelse av FTX och FX system i landet: Jämförelse av två alternativa renoverings lösningar för värmeåtervinning i flerbostadshus2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report includes an energy- and geographical comparison between two alternative renovation solutions for heat recovery in apartment buildings. The survey includes a typical apartment building that is representative of the ‘Miljon Program’, and was carried out because of the ongoing debate about which system works best for the renovation of apartment buildings. The project work was carried out with simulations through an Excel-based program called TMF Energy 2.2 developed by SP, Sweden’s Technical Research Institute.

    he purpose of this project was to develop two geographical representations of Sweden that would show where in the country the two different ventilation and heat recovery systems worked most efficiently regarding primary energy and energy costs for heating.

    The results showed that there was no threshold, boundary of grey area in the country, one of the systems was more efficient in terms of primary energy use and the other system was more energy cost efficient.

    The discussion section of this report includes a variety of topics such as primary energy factors, how to manage requirements, why airtightness affects the systems differently and energy costs for district heating.

    The conclusions that were drawn from the results includes that the FTX-system is the most primary energy efficient and that the FX-system is the most energy cost efficient. There was no boundary or grey area in the country for the chosen building, and the FTX-system is affected more by varying airtightness than the FX-system.

  • 25.
    Frid, Mikael
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Solcellsdrivet FTX-system för miljonprogramshus: Tjärna Ängar, Borlänge2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The project is a feasibility study of including the installation of solar cells and an FTX ventilation system in the renovation of a Swedish million program multi-family ouse. The question concerns whether the energy production of the PV system can match with the energy consumption of the FTX-system. Input data was obtained from:

    • Databases, literature and interviews.
    • Simulations of photovoltaics modules in the computer program PVSYST
    • Modulation of the vents in the computer program MagiCAD

    The aim was primarily to investigate whether it was possible to get a theoretical working system. The economy of the project should also be investigated depending on the results.

    The study showed that it should be theoretically possible to install photovoltaics for electricity generation that is able to cover the FTX system's electricity needs on a yearly basis. The photovoltaics are also expected to produce enough electricity for some other equipment that requires electricity for much of the year. It was also found that it should be possible to get the photovoltaics modules economically viable if a pay-back time of 14 years was used. The method used for these results is thoroughly described and with small changes applicable to a large number of buildings in the Swedish building stock.

    An important conclusion from the project is that if property owner can see 14 years into the future with an investment in solar energy, there is much to be gained. There are already skills, available technologies and products available in order to recover a large portion of the properties' electricity needs through solar energy.

  • 26.
    Gesar, Daniel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Hansson, Erik
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Uppvärmningslösningars klimat- och resurspåverkan i Dalarna: Jämförelse mellan fjärrvärme och andra uppvärmningslösningars klimat- och resurspåverkan beroende på renoveringsstrategi och geografisk placering i Dalarna2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För att nyttja jordens resurser på bästa sätt är det viktigt att använda rätt energityp till dess mest effektiva ändamål. Att energieffektivisera och minska utsläppen av växthusgaser är något som har fått mycket uppmärksamhet under 2000-talet och är fortsatt en högt prioriterad fråga i dagens samhälle.

    Detta examensarbete syftar till att jämföra byggnaders klimat- och resurspåverkan inom Dalarnas fjärrvärmenät. Genom olika renoveringssenarier påverkas en byggnads primärenergianvändning och utsläpp av koldioxid olika beroende på vart i Dalarna den är placerad. I arbetet ingår även en jämförelse av vanliga värmesystem jämfört med Dalarnas kommuners fjärrvärmesystem. Vid jämförelserna användes data från en byggnadssimulering för att simulera olika förhållanden i byggnaden. Beräkningar och jämförelser av resultaten belyser vilka faktorer som har stor inverkan på energianvändning, utsläpp samt vilka åtgärder som ger den bästa förändringen.

    Resultaten visar att variationen är stor mellan fjärrvärmesystemen i Dalarnas kommuner och de olika värmesystemen, där kommunernas bränslemix har en stor inverkan på resultatet. Bränslen med höga primärenergifaktorer leder till en stor ökning av primärenergianvändningen. Eftersom el har en hög primärenergifaktor är det viktigt att minimera elanvändningen. Renoveringsresultaten tyder på att en sänkning av inomhustemperaturen ger den största förändringen i primärenergianvändning och koldioxidutsläpp. Att installera en frånluftsvärmepump till fjärrvärmesystemet är överlag sämre ur miljösynpunkt. Att byta till en oljepanna är mycket dåligt i samtliga kommuner medan en pelletspanna kan minska koldioxidutsläppen i stora kommuner.

  • 27. Gu, Yaxiu
    et al.
    Zhang, Xingxing
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Han, Mengjie
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Microdata Analysis.
    Chen, Xiangjie
    Yuan, Yanping
    Techno-economic analysis of a solar photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) concentrator for building application in Sweden using Monte Carlo method2018In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 165, p. 8-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The solar energy share in Sweden will grow up significantly in next a few decades. Such transition offers not only great opportunity but also uncertainties for the emerging solar photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) technologies. This paper therefore aims to conduct a techno-economic evaluation of a reference solar PV/T concentrator in Sweden for building application. An analytical model is developed based on the combinations of Monte Carlo simulation techniques and multi energy-balance/financial equations, which takes into account of the integrated uncertainties and risks of various variables. In the model, 11 essential input variables, i.e. average daily solar irradiance, electrical/thermal efficiency, prices of electricity/heating, operation & management (OM) cost, PV/T capital cost, debt to equity ratio, interest rate, discount rate, and inflation rate, are considered, while the economic evaluation metrics, such as levelized cost of energy (LCOE), net present value (NPV), and payback period (PP), are primarily assessed. According to the analytical results, the mean values of LCOE, NPV and PP of the reference PV/T connector are observed at 1.27 SEK/kW h (0.127 €/kW h), 18,812.55 SEK (1881.255 €) and 10 years during its 25 years lifespan, given the project size at 10.37 m2 and capital cost at 4482–5378 SEK/m2 (448.2–537.8 €/m2). The positive NPV indicates that the investment on the selected PV/T concentrator will be profitable as the projected earnings exceeds the anticipated costs, depending on the NPV decision rule. The sensitivity analysis and the parametric study illustrate that the economic performance of the reference PV/T concentrator in Sweden is mostly proportional to solar irradiance, debt to equity ratio and heating price, but disproportionate to capital cost and discount rate. Together with additional market analysis of PV/T technologies in Sweden, it is expected that this paper could clarify the economic situation of PV/T technologies in Sweden and provide a useful model for their further investment decisions, in order to achieve sustainable and low-carbon economics, with an expanded quantitative discussion of the real economic or policy scenarios that may lead to those outcomes.

  • 28.
    Gustafsson, Annica
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Granberg, Per
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Energieffektivisering av klimatskal i tropiskt klimat: Fallstudie av en byggnad i Surabaya, Indonesien2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien omfattar en undersökning av en byggnad i Surabaya, Indonesien

    belägen på universitet UBAYA. Användningen av luftkonditionering ökar kraftigt i

    utvecklingsländer. Detta gör att behovet av förbättringar i såväl

    klimatanläggningar som i byggnader kommer att vara nödvändiga för att inte

    orsaka ytterligare påfrestningar på miljön genom ökad energianvändning

    Syftet med studien är att hitta energibesparande åtgärder på byggnadens

    klimatskal med hänsyn till det tropiska klimatet utan att orsaka fuktproblem i

    ingående byggnadsdelar.

    Byggnaden fungerar i dagsläget bra ur fuktsynpunkt och har inga direkt synliga

    skador orsakade av fuktproblem i konstruktionen. Däremot påvisar det höga uvärdet

    för byggnaden dess ineffektivitet gällande energibehov. Fyra olika

    åtgärdsförslag med utgångspunkt i den nuvarande konstruktionen presenteras i

    studien. Åtgärdsförslagen utvärderas ur fuktsynpunkt med programmet WUFI

    samt ur ett energimässigt perspektiv med programmet Polysun.

    Resultatet visar att störst energibesparing kan ske genom att isolera taket då det

    visar sig vara en stor värmekälla till byggnaden. Denna åtgärd innebär samtidigt

    en viss risk för fuktproblem på grund av höga relativa fukthalter och

    temperaturer. Även en tätning av de nuvarande läckagen i byggnaden påverkar

    energiförbrukningen i stor utsträckning, vilket gör dessa två åtgärder till den

    bästa kombinationen för att sänka energiförbrukningen. Att byta ut nuvarande

    englaskassetter mot tvåglas samt isolera de befintliga ytterväggarna är de

    åtgärder som påverkar energibehovet minst.

    Några av de slutsatser som dras ur studien är att totalt sett kan byggnadens

    energiförbrukning sänkas med 50 % om samtliga åtgärdsförslag genomförs.

    Fuktriskerna ökar vid isoleringsåtgärder men är genomförbara.

  • 29.
    Gustafsson, Elina
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Persson, Jannika
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Miljövänliga material i villakonstruktion: En jämförande studie av fyra olika vägg- och vindsbjälklagsförslag gällande miljö och hälsa, med fuktanalys och U-värdesberäkningar.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental awareness today is larger than ever, and continues to expand. The increasing knowledge has led to a rising demand of using environmental friendly materials and the interest of building and living in a way that is good for the health and environment has grown with it. The small house manufacturer Fiskarhedenvillan, has noticed this demand and that is why this study has been done.

    The purpose of this study is to investigate what opportunities there is to replace one or some of the chosen materials from Fiskarhedenvillans construction to materials that fulfills higher demands at being environment- and healthfriendly. The U-value of the suggestions should be equivalent or improved. The most important aspect otherwise was to investigate how well the new suggestions manage moisture impact. The suggested materials have been windbarrier board, insulation, waterproofing, vapour barrier, tape and interior lining.

    The study was performed by a thorough investigation of the materials that could be of interest. This was done by searching for relevant information through databases, reports, manufacturers homepages and from other construction related books and internet sources. The moisture simulations and U-value calculations were done in the simulation program WUFI pro 5.3. A survey was sent out to Fiskarhedenvillans agents to investigate the housing markets interest in changing to environmental-friendly materials.

    The investigations resulted in four functional suggestions on external wall construction with loft floor, which was chosen based on the purposes. The results show that all constructions successfully handled the moisture exposure, except the wallconstruction with cellulose based insulationboards, where the relative humidity during the whole year stays at such high levels that risk of mould- and moisturedamage is existing. The result of the U-value calculations shows that the suggestions have similar U-value to Fiskarhedenvillans current constructions. However, the proposal with hempinsulation had to be extended 10cm in order to meet this requirement. For the loft floor with hempinsulation it was accepted that the U-value was somewhat lesser than the others. The result from the survey shows that more than half of the agents have experienced a demand from potential customers to change materials to more environment-friendly.

    The most important conclusion is that it is possible to change materials in a house and maintain its construction capacity while managing the impact of moisture as well. Since customers appear willing to pay more for changing materials, we believe that it would not be a problem for Fiskarhedenvillan to establish at least one construction possibility with environmental-friendly materials.

  • 30.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology. KTH.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH.
    Techno-economic analysis of three HVAC retrofitting options2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accounting for around 40% of the total final energy consumption, the building stock is an important area of focus on the way to reaching the energy goals set for the European Union. The relatively small share of new buildings makes renovation of existing buildings possibly the most feasible way of improving the overall energy performance of the building stock. This of course involves improvements on the climate shell, for example by additional insulation or change of window glazing, but also installation of new heating systems, to increase the energy efficiency and to fit the new heat load after renovation. In the choice of systems for heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC), it is important to consider their performance for space heating as well as for domestic hot water (DHW), especially for a renovated house where the DHW share of the total heating consumption is larger.

    The present study treats the retrofitting of a generic single family house, which was defined as a reference building in a European energy renovation project. Three HVAC retrofitting options were compared from a techno-economic point of view: A) Air-to-water heat pump (AWHP) and mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR), B) Exhaust air heat pump (EAHP) with low-temperature ventilation radiators, and C) Gas boiler and ventilation with MVHR. The systems were simulated for houses with two levels of heating demand and four different locations: Stockholm, Gdansk, Stuttgart and London. They were then evaluated by means of life cycle cost (LCC) and primary energy consumption. Dynamic simulations were done in TRNSYS 17.

    In most cases, system C with gas boiler and MVHR was found to be the cheapest retrofitting option from a life cycle perspective. The advantage over the heat pump systems was particularly clear for a house in Germany, due to the large discrepancy between national prices of natural gas and electricity. In Sweden, where the price difference is much smaller, the heat pump systems had almost as low or even lower life cycle costs than the gas boiler system. Considering the limited availability of natural gas in Sweden, systems A and B would be the better options. From a primary energy point of view system A was the best option throughout, while system B often had the highest primary energy consumption. The limited capacity of the EAHP forced it to use more auxiliary heating than the other systems did, which lowered its COP. The AWHP managed the DHW load better due to a higher capacity, but had a lower COP than the EAHP in space heating mode. Systems A and C were notably favoured by the air heat recovery, which significantly reduced the heating demand.

    It was also seen that the DHW share of the total heating consumption was, as expected, larger for the house with the lower space heating demand. This confirms the supposition that it is important to include DHW in the study of HVAC systems for retrofitting.

  • 31.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology. KTH.
    Dermentzis, Georgios
    Univeristy of Innsbruck.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Ochs, Fabian
    Univeristy of Innsbruck.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH.
    Feist, Wolfgang
    Energy performance comparison of three innovative HVAC systems for renovation through dynamic simulation2014In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 82, p. 512-519Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, dynamic simulation was used to compare the energy performance of three innovativeHVAC systems: (A) mechanical ventilation with heat recovery (MVHR) and micro heat pump, (B) exhaustventilation with exhaust air-to-water heat pump and ventilation radiators, and (C) exhaust ventilationwith air-to-water heat pump and ventilation radiators, to a reference system: (D) exhaust ventilation withair-to-water heat pump and panel radiators. System A was modelled in MATLAB Simulink and systems Band C in TRNSYS 17. The reference system was modelled in both tools, for comparison between the two.All systems were tested with a model of a renovated single family house for varying U-values, climates,infiltration and ventilation rates.It was found that A was the best system for lower heating demand, while for higher heating demandsystem B would be preferable. System C was better than the reference system, but not as good as A or B.The difference in energy consumption of the reference system was less than 2 kWh/(m2a) betweenSimulink and TRNSYS. This could be explained by the different ways of handling solar gains, but also bythe fact that the TRNSYS systems supplied slightly more than the ideal heating demand.

  • 32.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology. KTH.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Comparison of two HVAC renovation solutions: A case study2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the aging building stock of Europe, there is great potential of saving energy through renovation and upgrading to modern standards, and to thereby approach the internationally set goals of lower energy use. This paper concerns the planned renovation of the building envelope and HVAC systems in a multi-family house in Ludwigsburg, Germany. Five systemic HVAC solutions were compared, with special focus on two systems: A) Balanced ventilation with HRC + Micro heat pump, and B) Forced exhaust ventilation + Heat pump with exhaust air HRC + Ventilation radiators. Given the predicted heating demand and ventilation rate of the house after renovation, the performance of the two systems was compared, alongside three common systems for reference. Calculations were made using TMF Energi, a tool developed by SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.

       Both systems A and B were found to have the lowest electrical energy use together with the ground source heat pump system for the assumed conditions. For other assumptions, including different climate and degree of insulation, some differences between these three systems were noted. Most significant is the increased electrical use of system B for higher heating loads due to limitations in the power available from the heat source, exhaust air, which is dependent on the ventilation rate.

  • 33.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology. KTH.
    Swing Gustafsson, Moa
    Falu Energi och Vatten.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy and Environmental Technology.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH.
    Economic and environmental analysis of energy renovation measures for a district heated multi-family houseManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Renovation of existing buildings plays an important part in the work towards European climate and energy goals. The present paper treats energy efficiency renovation measures for a district heated Swedish multi-family house, evaluated through dynamic simulation. Five HVAC systems were studied in combination with three renovation levels, starting from basic renovation to maintain functionality and then adding 1) better insulating windows and flow-reducing water taps, and 2) additional insulation on roof and façade. The HVAC systems were based on the existing district heating substation and included mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and different configurations of exhaust air heat pump. Life cycle cost, discounted payback period, primary energy consumption, CO₂ emissions and non-renewable energy use were assessed for all combinations.

    The system with the lowest cost and environmental impact was, in most cases, the one where district heating and heat pump were combined for both heating and DHW. Low-temperature heating improved the performance factor of the heat pump, but reduced the heat output and increased the need for backup heating. Changing windows and water taps was found to be profitable, while additional insulation reduced the environmental impact but increased the life cycle cost.

  • 34.
    Gustafsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Swing Gustafsson, Moa
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Bales, Chris
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Holmberg, Sture
    Techno-economic analysis of energy renovation measures for a district heated multi-family house2016In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 177, p. 108-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Renovation of existing buildings is important in the work toward increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. The present paper treats energy renovation measures for a Swedish district heated multi-family house, evaluated through dynamic simulation. Insulation of roof and façade, better insulating windows and flow-reducing water taps, in combination with different HVAC systems for recovery of heat from exhaust air, were assessed in terms of life cycle cost, discounted payback period, primary energy consumption, CO2 emissions and non-renewable energy consumption. The HVAC systems were based on the existing district heating substation and included mechanical ventilation with heat recovery and different configurations of exhaust air heat pump.Compared to a renovation without energy saving measures, the combination of new windows, insulation, flow-reducing taps and an exhaust air a heat pump gave up to 24% lower life cycle cost. Adding insulation on roof and façade, the primary energy consumption was reduced by up to 58%, CO2 emissions up to 65% and non-renewable energy consumption up to 56%. Ventilation with heat recovery also reduced the environmental impact but was not economically profitable in the studied cases. With a margin perspective on electricity consumption, the environmental impact of installing heat pumps or air heat recovery in district heated houses is increased. Low-temperature heating improved the seasonal performance factor of the heat pump by up to 11% and reduced the environmental impact.

  • 35.
    Hammar, Mimmi
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Utformning av arbetsmetod för betongreparationer med PPA, preplaced aggregate2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vanlig betong består av ballast, cement, vatten och eventuellt tillsatsmedel. Detta

    blandas samman till en homogen massa som sedan placeras i form där det härdar

    under värmeutveckling. Under härdningen uppstår krympningar i cementen som

    orsakar spänningar. Genom att använda sig av större andel ballast i betongen kan

    krympningen reduceras.

    Fram till 1980-talet var en metod där ballasten först packades i en gjutform och sedan

    injekterades med cementbruk som band samman stenarna vanlig för att bygga och

    reparera betongkonstruktioner. Denna betong kallas bland annat för

    injekteringsbetong, two-stage concrete eller preplaced aggregate (PPA). Genom

    reparationen av Gamla Årstabrons valv 2007 fick PPA-betong en pånyttfödelse då

    reparationen krävde en betong med minimal krympning för att krympspänningarna

    inte skulle slita sönder underliggande konstruktion.

    Vid byggandet av Citybanans järnvägsbro, som sträcker sig mellan Älvsjö och

    Årstaberg i Stockholm, upptäcktes skador på undersidan av de balkar som gjutits för

    att bära delar av spårbanan. Dessa skador behövde åtgärdas och beställaren,

    Trafikverket, valde att reparera bron med PPA. Tack vare entreprenören E-Schakt har

    författaren fått möjligheten att följa arbetet med PPA-reparationerna och

    sammanställa denna rapport vars syfte var att utveckla arbetsmetoden och försöka

    hitta alternativa lösningar till utförandet.

    Arbetet genomfördes genom platsbesök och intervjuer med personer som bidrog med

    information, erfarenheter och nyttiga infallsvinklar. En litteraturstudie gjordes för att

    samla grundläggande information om vilka egenskaper betong och PPA har och hur

    dessa egenskaper påverkar utförandet

    Rapporten visar att form utav plexiglas och en helt rund ballast skulle kunna förenkla

    arbetet och förbättra resultatet. Dessutom framkommer att samarbete, engagemang

    och gemensam uppfattning om varför just PPA används är viktigt för ett lyckat

    slutresultat.

  • 36.
    Hanses, Axel
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Brossberg, Klas
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Infästningsmetoder för prefabricerade fasadelement2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It was approximately 50 years ago since the houses from the miljonprogram era

    were built. Today many of these houses are in need of renovation. The energy

    usages in these buildings are very high, and many changes need to happen for

    them to meet the modern standards of energy useage in buildings.

    One way to decrease the energy usage is to attach prefabricated facades

    to buildings, to lower the building envelopes heat transmission coefficient.

    This study’s purpose is to find suitable attachment methods for Dalahus

    prefabricated facade elements.

    The study started with researching common multi-family residential

    buildings from the miljonprogram era. After reviewing constructional drawings over

    the chosen buildings, it became apparent that it would be complicated to attach

    the elements without doing any preparatory work on the building, something that

    BioInnovation wants to avoid.

    The study then continued with researching past projects, with prefabricated

    facade renovations, to see what kind of methods were used. Three different kinds

    of attachment methods that met BioInnovations standards were developed. Using

    a method which requires as little preparatory work as possible.

    The foundation method uses Lecablocks placed in the ground, as a

    foundation for the elements. The second technique uses L-profiles that are

    attached to the walls, whereas the third method uses a rail where the elements

    hang on.

    Calculations were made to see if the methods worked and could handle the

    forces from the elements. The result of this study shows that lamellarhouses with

    L-profiles are the most suitable attachment method

  • 37.
    Heier, Johan
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Bergdahl, Martin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Börjesson, Petter
    Energiexpertis.
    Paketrenovering i småhus med BELOK Totalmetodik: Resultat som beslutsunderlag vid finansiering med energilån?2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att illustrera en metod för att hjälpa ägare av mindre fastigheter att nå en högre energieffektiviseringsgrad vid renovering genom paketering av åtgärder. Metoden som används, BELOK Totalprojekt, utvecklades ursprungligen för användning ilokaler och kommersiella byggnader, men vår ambition i Dalarna är att visa metodens tillämpning även för mindre fastigheter som småhus. Det som avgör fastighetsägarensbeslut om åtgärdspaket är ofta dels osäkerheten kring vad som är rätt åtgärder men också kring kostnaden och lönsamheten med investerat kapital. Metoden som visas i denna rapport kan avsevärt minska dessa osäkerheter och på så vis även underlätta vid kreditgivares bedömning när eventuella lån ska beviljas.

    I den här studien har fyra typiska småhus av olika ålderskategori genomgått en energianalys för att identifiera tekniskt möjliga åtgärder för att minska energianvändningen. Dessa åtgärder har sedan satts samman till ett antal åtgärdspaket för att slutligen lönsamhetsberäknas med hjälp av BELOK Totalverktyg. Resultaten presenteras i form av internräntediagram, vilket ger ett mått på paketets lönsamhet, årsbehov av köpt energi och primärenergi före och efter åtgärderna samt slutligen årlig energikostnad för varje paket.

    Resultatet visar att det går att göra lönsamma åtgärdspaket som når en halvering av energianvändningen (både köpt energi och primärenergi) i 2 av 4 studerade hus. De två hus som klarar av att lönsamt halvera energianvändningen är båda uppvärmda med el utan värmepump eller energiåtervinning på ventilationen. Det ena huset där en lönsam halvering inte är möjlig är uppvärmt med fjärrvärme och det andra är ett nyare hus som är utrustat med värmeåtervinning på ventilationsluften. Om man har ett relativt billigt uppvärmningssätt (fjärrvärme kontra el) eller om byggnaden redan har en låg energianvändning är det svårt att nå en lönsam halvering. Det går dock att hitta mindre åtgärdspaket som är lönsamma och samtidigt innebär en betydande energieffektivisering.

    En annan slutsats från resultaten är att det är relativt enkelt att göra stora besparingar i både köpt energi och primärenergi i ett eluppvärmt hus genom att installera någon form av värmepump. Att installera en värmepump i ett hus uppvärmt med fjärrvärme kan ge en stor besparing i köpt energi, men ger enbart en måttlig besparing i primärenergi. Att byta från el till förnyelsebar energikälla (pellets i detta fall) ger i ett av exemplen en nästan oförändrad användning av köpt energi medan man når en halvering av primärenergianvändningen. Det är alltså viktigt att poängtera att en kostnadseffektivisering med de metoder som används i rapporten inte nödvändigtvis leder till en energieffektivisering i ett större sammanhang, där primärenergi vägs in.

    Denna rapport är resultatet från Lågan-projektet 2014:12 ”BELOK S – exempel påtillämpning i befintliga småhus”. Projektet är finansierat av Lågan (och därmed indirekt av Energimyndigheten), ByggDialog Dalarna samt Högskolan Dalarna genom Energi- och miljökompetenscentrum, EMC. Även tre banker har bidragit med egen tid i form av deltagande i intervjuer samt synpunkter och dessa är Swedbank Falun, Länsförsäkringar bank Dalarna samt Leksands sparbank.

  • 38.
    Hellström, Emma
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Maleki, Benjamin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Kondensrisk i frånluftsfläkt för behovsstyrd ventilation: En experimentell undersökning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden it is very common for villas and small houses to have an uninsulated

    attic, a so called cold attic. Installing a demand-controlled ventilation system is a

    way to increase energy efficiency in both old and newly built houses. To be able

    to place an exhaust fan in a cold attic in a nordic climate, where temperatures

    reaches twenty degrees below zero, some type of insulation is not uncommonly

    required to prevent condensation from forming inside the unit. The purpose of

    this study has been to investigate how thick the insulation needs to be around

    the fan to prevent from condensation, depending on temperature. The

    investigation have been done in the climate chamber at the university of

    Dalarna. To ensure the right climate an exhaust fan with insulated conduits was

    installed to create one damp indoor- and one colder outdoor environment to

    conducted tests at different temperatures with different levels of insulation. The

    study shows that insulation is required, at what temperatures and what levels of

    insulation we can expect condensation to form and what is required to prevent

    condensation from forming. The results from these tests could aid in preventing

    moisture problems that could occur when installing a demand-controlled

    ventilation system.

  • 39.
    Henning, Annette
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Energy Technology.
    Sattari, Amir
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Evaluating thermal comfort in a Swedish block of flats: A methodological comparison2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two methodological approaches have been used to investigate thermal comfort amongoccupants in a Swedish block of flats; measurements and thermal comfort standards on the onehand, and qualitative interviews on the other. The purpose with this paper is to present, compareand discuss results from these two radically different methods. The results coincide concerningvariations of thermal comfort throughout the day, but are much less in accord in results whereoccupants express, or are presumed to complain of, thermal discomfort. The interviews showthat female occupants tend to suffer more from thermal discomfort than male occupants, a resultwhich is absent in the measurement methodology. The results give support to suggestions thatgender aspects should be taken more into account when determining and controlling thermalcomfort. The differing results also point at the importance of complementing standardizedthermal comfort measurements with surveys or qualitative interviews.

  • 40.
    Hesaraki, Arefeh
    et al.
    KTH.
    Myhren, Jonn Are
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Holmberg, Sture
    KTH.
    Influence of different ventilation levels on indoor air quality and energy savings: a case study of a single-family house2015In: Sustainable cities and society, ISSN 2210-6707, Vol. 19, p. 165-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of different ventilation levels on indoor air quality (IAQ) and energy savings were studied experimentally and analytically in a single-family house occupied by two adults and one infant, situated in Borlänge, Sweden. The building studied had an exhaust ventilation system with a range of air flow rate settings. In order to find appropriate ventilation rates regarding CO2, relative humidity (RH) and temperature as indicators of IAQ, four ventilation levels were considered, as follows: (I) A very low ventilation rate of 0.10 L s-1 m-2; (II) A low ventilation rate of 0.20 L s-1 m-2; (III) A normal ventilation rate of 0.35 L s-1 m-2; (IV) A high ventilation rate of 0.70 L s-1 m-2. In all cases, the sensor was positioned in the exhaust duct exiting from habitable spaces. Measurements showed that, for case I, the CO2 concentration reached over 1300 ppm, which was higher than the commonly referenced threshold for ventilation control, i.e. 1000 ppm, showing unacceptable IAQ. In case II, the CO2 level was always below 950 ppm, indicating that 0.20 L s-1 m-2 is a sufficient ventilation rate for the reference building. The case III showed that the ventilation rate of 0.35 L s-1 m-2 caused a maximum CO2 level of 725 ppm; showing the level recommended by Swedish regulations was high with respect to CO2 level. In addition, measurements showed that the RH and temperature were within acceptable ranges in all cases. An energy savings calculation showed that, in case II, the comparative savings of the combined energy requirement for ventilation fan and ventilation heating were 43% compared with case III.

  • 41.
    Husanov, Fuad
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Kunskap hos privatpersoner om termisk komfort inomhus: En fallstudie av kunskapen om termisk komfort2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal comfort indoors is a big factor in how you feel comfortable in your home. It is important to know how individuals are experiencing their thermal comfort indoors. To get there you must also find out how much knowledge they have for thermal climate, as this may affect the way they behave to control their experience of the thermal climate in their homes.

    The aim is answered on the following issues

    • How much

    knowledge individuals have about thermal comfort

    • What are the problem areas that might arise based on measurements taken of each home

    • Is there a connection between how much knowledge they have on their residence and higher risk of

    poor thermal comfort

    • The proportion of satisfied / dissatisfied with their thermal comfort

    and to compare measurements to results of the interview.

    The individuals were found to have thorough knowledge of the thermal climate and differed between the different home. In total 13 people are in interviewed which includes 5 houses. Homeowners were found to have more knowledge than those who lived in apartment. But no one knew which factors influence thermal environment other than trim level and the temperature of the air. There were two residents that had problems and higher risk of illness. You could also see a link between low knowledge of the thermal climate and the higher risk of poor thermal climate. It turned out that the majority were satisfied with the thermal climate in their homes. What was interesting, however, was that those who had too warm indoors were still satisfied while those who had it a bit too chilly were dissatisfied. According PMV index that I got was that both parties should be dissatisfied. One possible explanation for this not being the case could be that when you have it too warm in the winter indoors then you have a greater opportunity to cool down the house by lighter clothing, reducing the temperature of the radiator or open the balcony door so that it comes in fresh air while also cooling the house. All this are free from charge.

    While for those who has a bit too chilly can not control the temperature free of charge during winter.

    According to measurements, the carbon dioxide content are normal in all houses except the above mentioned which had too high levels. The house with high carbon dioxide content also had slightly higher relative humidity, which was 41.5% which is higher than others, in comparison. The temperature was within reasonable levels but some had air temperature below 20C

    0. After looking at the house, I found a possible cause of high carbon dioxide content. They had closed the air ducts that sat across the windows in the belief that it would lead to warmer housing. Although house 1, which had the air temperature of about 20.3C0, they felt cool at home. The cause of that was long curtains that hung and covered the radiator, which could rub the heat circulation and the distribution of heat. Although house 1 who had air temperature about 20.3C0, felt chilly at home. Sick Building Syndrome house was also investigated and a very likely cause were found in house ventilation system.

    In this theses it has shown that the majority is satisfied with their thermic comfort, but the minority is over 30 %.

    This investigation is clearly showing problem areas with thermal climate which can occur and the need of informing house owners of thermal climate to avoid any problem caused by them.

  • 42.
    Janols, Henrik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Wik, Tina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Nulägesanalys av passivhusbyggande i Sverige 20102012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Byggsektorn slukar årligen ca 40 % av Sveriges totala energiförbrukning. Nya normer kräver energieffektivare bostäder. Normerna idag fokuserar enbart på driftkostnader och tar inte alls hänsyn till energiförbrukningen och koldioxidavtrycket som själva byggprocessen alstrar. Med höga driftvärden blir energiförbrukningen i byggskedet en liten procent men för passivhus, och ännu högre grad för plusenergihus, som förbrukar ytterst lite energi, blir tillverkningsenergin den avgörande miljöbelastningen. Ny teknik för att uppnå de nya kraven finns i viss utsträckning, men kännedom och kunskap om dem saknas då de fått otillräcklig spridning. En del tekniska lösningar befinner sig fortfarande i en utvecklingsprocess och är inte färdigutvecklade för en större produktion. Ambitionen med denna nulägesanalys och därtill lika inventeringsarbete har varit att fånga in de lösningar och tester som gjorts och ta del av utvärderingarna så att vi kan dra nytta utav dessa i vårt arbete. Denna sammanställning grundar sig på muntlig information vi tagit del av under studiebesöken, ritningar, beskrivningar, protokoll samt rapporter vi samlat in.

    Syfte

    Syftet med vår resa till nedanstående objekt var att ta reda på hur flerfamiljshus med passivhus standard är byggda. Vilka stomval har gjorts och av vilken anledning. Vi ville också ta reda på hur man klarat av täthetskraven i de olika projekten samt hur detta mätts. I många fall verkar det som om utformning och arkitektur glöms bort när man ska bygga passivhus som om passivhuskravet vore så betungande att god utformning inte är förening med det. Därför ville vi också bedöma byggnaderna från arkitektoniska aspekter då dessa är av stor vikt för en bra miljö.

  • 43.
    Johansson, Tobias
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Intervjustudie av oskyddade trafikanters situation på 13 m mötesseparerad landsväg2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor)Student thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I kölvattnet av Nollvisionen uppstår problem för oskyddade trafikanter. Vid mittseparering av 13-metersvägar blir utrymmet för dessa trafikantgrupper otillräckligt och nya lösningar måste till. Detta examensarbete syftar till att förbättra framkomligheten och trafiksäkerheten för oskyddade trafikanter på s k MLV (Mötesseparerad LandsVäg). Målet med examensarbetet har varit att inventera problem, identifiera förbättringsområden, finna bra lösningar samt att beräkna vilka kostnader som dessa lösningar orsakar. Som ett resultat av arbetet har framkommit att det saknas en nationell samstämmighet i synen på hur oskyddade trafikanter på MLV, skall behandlas. Vidare existerar det en stor fokusering i centrala direktiv, kanske mest inofficiella, på bilisters och transportörers behov vid utformningen av MLV. Som en konsekvens av detta har de oskyddade trafikanterna blivit undanträngda, både bildligt och fysiskt talat, från dessa vägtyper och därmed begränsas deras förflyttnings-möjligheter. Ytterligare resultat är att det behövs mer utredning kring hänvisning för de oskyddade trafikanterna på MLV, detta för att i möjligaste mån separera trafikantgrupperna. I arbetet har också utförts en kostnadsberäkning av en GCM-lösning (GCM står för Gång, Cykel och Moped) på en vägsträcka, riksväg 80 mellan Falun och Hofors. Kostnaden blev 1,1 - 2,2 mn kr, vilket motsvarar en projektfördyring med 4,4 - 11 %, beroende på alternativ. De viktigaste slutsatserna i arbetet är att man bör anstränga sig till det yttersta för att erbjuda ett alternativ till en MLV, och att man då också måste förbättra skyltningen, för att undvika att oskyddade trafikanter irrar sig in på MLV:n, trots acceptabla alternativvägar. För detta har ett förslag till ett nytt vägmärke framtagits, Alternativ GCM-väg längs MLV, se Bilaga 5.

  • 44.
    Jomaa, Diala
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Yella, Siril
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Edvardsson, Karin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Effectiveness of trigger speed of vehicle-activated signs on mean and standard deviation of speed2016In: Journal of Transportation Safety and Security, ISSN 1943-9962, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 293-309Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Excessive or inappropriate speeds are a key factor in traffic fatalities and crashes. Vehicle-activated signs (VASs) are therefore being extensively used to reduce speeding to increase traffic safety. A VAS is triggered by an individual vehicle when the driver exceeds a speed threshold, otherwise known as trigger speed (TS). The TS is usually set to a constant, normally proportional to the speed limit on the particular segment of road. Decisions concerning the TS largely depend on the local traffic authorities. The primary objective of this article is to help authorities determine the TS that gives an optimal effect on the Mean and Standard Deviation of speed. The data were systematically collected using radar technology whilst varying the TS. The results show that when the applied TS was set near the speed limit, the standard deviation was high. However, the Standard Deviation decreased substantially when the threshold was set to the 85th percentile. This decrease occurred without a significant increase in the mean speed. It is concluded that the optimal threshold speed should approximate the 85th percentile, though VASs should ideally be individually calibrated to the traffic conditions at each site.

  • 45.
    Jomaa, Diala
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Yella, Siril
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Edvardsson, Karin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Effectiveness of vehicle activated signs on mean speed and standard deviation of vehicle speed2014Report (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Jomaa, Diala
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Yella, Siril
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Dougherty, Mark
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Computer Engineering.
    Edvardsson, Karin
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Data based Calibration System for Radar used by Vehicle Activated Signs2014In: Journal of Data Analysis and Information Processing, ISSN 2327-7203, no 2, p. 11p. 106-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The accurate measurement of a vehicle’s velocity is an essential feature in adaptive vehicle activated sign systems. Since the velocities of the vehicles are acquired from a continuous wave Doppler radar, the data collection becomes challenging. Data accuracy is sensitive to the calibration of the radar on the road. However, clear methodologies for in-field calibration have not been carefully established. The signs are often installed by subjective judgment which results in measurement errors. This paper develops a calibration method based on mining the data collected and matching individual vehicles travelling between two radars. The data was cleaned and prepared in two ways: cleaning and reconstructing. The results showed that the proposed correction factor derived from the cleaned data corresponded well with the experimental factor done on site. In addition, this proposed factor showed superior performance to the one derived from the reconstructed data.

  • 47.
    Jäderbrink, Erik
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Isaksson, Lena
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Kostnadseffektivisering av ett lågenergikoncept: En komponentjämförelse för småhus2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this degree thesis is to investigate and establish how the choice of components such as windows, entrance doors and HRV-units affect the energy demand and operating cost of a detached house.

    The Swedish company Fiskarhedenvillan currently offers two different concepts for detached houses; conventional houses and passive houses which comply with the German Passive House Institute (PHI).   The passive house concept (as set by PHI) puts high emphasis on not just low energy consumption but also on high comfort. With high demands come high investment costs. Fiskarhedenvillan wishes for the concept of the passive house to be modified to a nearly zero-energy building by replacing certified components with non-certified ditto with the intention to lower the investment costs.   The objective of this thesis degree is to develop a more cost efficient low-energy concept compared to the passive house according to PHI and this by making different choices concerning components. Two question formulations were made:

    • By what amount can the investment costs be reduced by changing components and how will the modification affect the energy demand?
    • Is it possible to develop a more cost efficient low-energy concept?

    The comparison research was made by using a control sample, projected to meet the demands set by PHI, as a reference.  A comparison was made by using the planning tool Passive House Planning Package together with data from the control sample. The variation in result between the control sample and the new alternatives was due only to choice of components. 

    The study resulted in two equally cost efficient combinations of components with regard to technical lifespan. Both combinations consist of non-certified windows and entrance doors but have the certified HRV-unit used in the controlled sample. Thus, the most cost efficient alternative consists of both certified and non-certified components.

    Conclusions:

    • The investment cost can be reduced by up to 59,1 % for components or 6,7 % for building kit with new components included. The energy demand increased by11 kWh/m². 
    • It is fully possible to develop a concept that is more cost efficient than Fiskarhedenvillan’s existing low-energy concept.
  • 48.
    Kabanshi, Alan
    et al.
    HiG.
    Sattari, Amir
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Linden, Elisabet
    HiG.
    Wigö, Hans
    HiG.
    Sandberg, Mats
    HiG.
    Experimental study on contaminant entrainment in air distribution systemswith free jets2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Kamaludin, Abdulkani
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Ahmed, Abdurahman
    Omräkningsfaktor för jämförelse av investeringskostnader vid nyproduktion av olika lägenhetstyper: Fallstudie på Hyttkammaren, ett fler bostadshus i Falun2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Nybyggnation av bostäder är en av de viktigaste uppgifterna i

    dagens samhälle. Bostadsbolag bygger varje år nya lägenheter för

    mycket stora pengar och för att det ska vara ekonomiskt lönsamt

    är det viktigt att det byggs lägenheter som drar ned på kostnaderna

    så mycket som möjligt.

    Genom många års lägenhetsbyggande har bostadsbolag samlat på

    sig erfarenheter som bekräftar att små lägenheter är dyrare att

    bygga än större lägenheter per kvadratmeter.

    Syftet med det här examensarbetet är att ta reda på hur mycket

    dyrare små lägenheter är i förhållande till de större lägenheterna

    samt vad det är som drar upp kostnaderna för de små lägenheterna.

    Bakgrunden till det här arbetet är att Kopparstaden, ett

    bostadsbolag som ägs av Falu Kommun, har märkt att

    bostadsbyggande är olika dyrt på olika platser i landet och vill ta

    reda på vad orsaken till detta är. De har inlett en undersökning där

    de jämför ett dussin bostadsprojekt utspridda över Dalarna och

    jämför deras projektkostnader för att ta reda på vilka som är dyrast

    och vad som orsakar deras skillnader. För att kunna göra en rättvis

    jämförelse mellan projekten måste justeringar göras efter faktorer

    som byggtid, storlek, standard samt tomt- och fastighetskostnad.

    Syftet i den här studien är att ta fram de procentuella

    kostnadsskillnaderna mellan olika lägenhetsstorlekar för ett

    testobjekt som Kopparstaden sedan kan använda till att göra

    storleksjusteringar mellan olika byggnadsprojekt

  • 50.
    Karlsson, Samuel
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Construction.
    Husgrunders miljöpåverkan: Jämförelse av grundläggningsmetoder för ett småhus2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Buildings affect the environment and climate in many ways, not only during the

    operating stage, but also during production. While buildings are constructed to

    be more energy-effective, a greater share of the buildings total energy demand

    will depend on how the building is produced. Previous studies show that

    buildings with a frame made of wood has substantially lower energy demand and

    greenhouse gas emissions due to production than building frames made of

    concrete. The aim with this report is to investigate the environmental effects due

    to different methods for foundation of a detached house. The main focus is to

    calculate the energy consumption and emissions of carbon dioxide equivalents

    from production of materials. Three different constructions are compared;

    foundation with cellular glass (The Koljern-method), a concrete slab, and a post

    and pier foundation with a wood-based floor. By designing the three

    constructions to be equal in terms of ability to carry the load from a two story

    house 8X12m, and with equal U-values, the comparison is made out of the

    required use of materials. Data for use of energy and CO2e-emissions” from

    cradle to gate” has been taken from declarations on the building products,the

    ICE database and EPD-documents for the various materials. Thereafter, the

    total use of energy and emissions of CO2e has been calculated. Assessments

    from the SundaHus database is also studied to get a more detailed picture of the

    environmental impact and health aspects of the materials.

    The result shows that the post and pier foundation has the lowest use of energy

    in production of the materials and a negative release of greenhouse gas due to

    sequestration. The foundation made of cellular glass has the highest demand of

    energy for producing the materials for the foundation, and a concrete slab has

    the highest emissions of greenhouse gas.

    From estimations made by SundaHus, no further conclusions could be made

    due to the use of environmentally and health restricted materiel. The deduction

    is that the post and pier foundation can be an interesting alternative to reduce

    the carbon footprint from the production of building foundation, but to get a better

    overview a total lifecycle analysis has to be made.

12 1 - 50 of 91
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