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  • 1.
    Akbari, Saeed
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Mishra, Madhav
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Packaging Induced Stresses in Embedded and Molded GaN Power Electronics Components2023In: Int. Conf. Therm., Mech. Multi-Phys. Simul. Exp. Microelectron. Microsyst., EuroSimE, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residual stresses created during the packaging process can adversely affect the reliability of electronics components. We used incremental hole-drilling method, following the ASTM E 837-20 standard, to measure packaging induced residual stresses in discrete packages of power electronics components. For this purpose, we bonded a strain gauge on the surface of a Gallium Nitride (GaN) power component, drilled a hole through the thickness of the component in several incremental steps, recorded the relaxed strain data on the sample surface using the strain gauge, and finally calculated the residual stresses from the measured strain data. The recorded strains and the residual stresses are related by the compliance coefficients. For the hole drilling method in the isotropic materials, the compliance coefficients are calculated from the analytical solutions, and available in the ASTM standard. But for the orthotropic multilayered components typically found in microelectronics assemblies, numerical solutions are necessary. We developed a subroutine in ANSYS APDL to calculate the compliance coefficients of the hole drilling test in the molded and embedded power electronics components. This can extend the capability of the hole drilling method to determine residual stresses in more complex layered structures found in electronics. 

  • 2.
    Akbari, Saeed
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Johansson, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Johansson, Emil
    Adaxis, France.
    Tönnäng, Lenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Hosseini, Seyed
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Large-Scale Robot-Based Polymer and Composite Additive Manufacturing: Failure Modes and Thermal Simulation2022In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 14, no 9, article id 1731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing (AM) of large-scale polymer and composite parts using robotic arms integrated with extruders has received significant attention in recent years. Despite the contributions of great technical progress and material development towards optimizing this manufacturing method, different failure modes observed in the final printed products have hindered its application in producing large engineering structures used in aerospace and automotive industries. We report failure modes in a variety of printed polymer and composite parts, including fuel tanks and car bumpers. Delamination and warpage observed in these parts originate mostly from thermal gradients and residual stresses accumulated during material deposition and cooling. Because printing large structures requires expensive resources, process simulation to recognize the possible failure modes can significantly lower the manufacturing cost. In this regard, accurate prediction of temperature distribution using thermal simulations is the first step. Finite element analysis (FEA) was used for process simulation of large-scale robotic AM. The important steps of the simulation are presented, and the challenges related to the modeling are recognized and discussed in detail. The numerical results showed reasonable agreement with the temperature data measured by an infrared camera. While in small-scale extrusion AM, the cooling time to the glassy state is less than 1 s, in large-scale AM, the cooling time is around two orders of magnitudes longer. © 2022 by the authors

  • 3.
    Akbari, Saeed
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Kostov, Konstantin Stoychev
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Lim, Jang-Kwon
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Bakowski, Mietek
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Wang, Qin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Salter, Michael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Ceramic Additive Manufacturing Potential for Power Electronics Packaging2022In: IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 2156-3950, E-ISSN 2156-3985, Vol. 12, no 11, p. 1857-1866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared with silicon-based power devices, wide band gap (WBG) semiconductor devices operate at significantly higher power densities required in applications such as electric vehicles and more electric airplanes. This necessitates development of power electronics packages with enhanced thermal characteristics that fulfil the electrical insulation requirements. The present research investigates the feasibility of using ceramic additive manufacturing (AM), also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, to address thermal and electrical requirements in packaging gallium nitride (GaN) based high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs). The goal is to exploit design freedom and manufacturing flexibility provided by ceramic AM to fabricate power device packages with a lower junction-to-ambient thermal resistance (<italic>R</italic>&#x03B8;JA). Ceramic AM also enables incorporation of intricate 3D features into the package structure in order to control the isolation distance between the package source and drain contact pads. Moreover, AM allows to fabricate different parts of the packaging assembly as a single structure to avoid high thermal resistance interfaces. For example, the ceramic package and the ceramic heatsink can be printed as a single part without any bonding layer. Thermal simulations under different thermal loading and cooling conditions show the improvement of thermal performance of the package fabricated by ceramic AM. If assisted by an efficient cooling strategy, the proposed package has the potential to reduce <italic>R</italic>&#x03B8;JA by up to 48%. The results of the preliminary efforts to fabricate the ceramic package by AM are presented, and the challenges that have to be overcome for further development of this manufacturing method are recognized and discussed. 

  • 4.
    Barlo, A
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sigvant, M
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden; Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Islam, M S
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pérez Caro, Lluís
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Olofsson, E
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Al-Fadhli, M
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Pham, Q T
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pilthammar, J
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden; Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Odenberger, Eva-Lis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Proposal of a New Tool for Pre-Straining Operations of Sheet Metals and an Initial Investigation of CR4 Mild Steel Formability2023In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1757-899X, Vol. 1284, article id 012079Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increased focus on reducing carbon emissions in the automotive industry, more advanced materials are introduced to reduce the vehicle weight, and more complex component geometries are designed to both satisfy customer demands and to optimize the vehicle aerodynamically. With the increase in component complexity, the strain paths produced during the forming operation of car body components often display a highly non-linear behavior which makes the task of failure prediction during the manufacturing feasibility studies more difficult. Therefore, CAE engineers need better capabilities to predict failure induced by strain path nonlinearity. This study proposes a new tool designed for creating bi-linear strain paths, by performing a pre-strain of a sheet large enough to cut out Nakajima specimens to perform the post-straining in any direction. From five pre-straining tests the tool present a stable pre-straining operation with a uniform strain field in a radius of 100 [mm] from the centre, corresponding to the region of interest of a Nakajima specimen. From the five pre-strained samples, different Nakajima specimens are cut transverse and longitudinal to the rolling direction and a failure prediction approach in an alternative, path independent evaluation space was used to predict the onset of necking with promising results.

  • 5.
    Barlo, A
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sigvant, M
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden; Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Pérez Caro, Lluís
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Islam, M S
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pilthammar, J
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden; Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    A Study of the Boundary Conditions in the ISO-16630 Hole Expansion Test2022In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1757-8981, E-ISSN 1757-899X, Vol. 1238, article id 012031Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As new and more advanced sheet metal materials are introduced to the market, more accurate techniques for determination of failure limits are needed. One area that needs attention is edge formability, where the ISO-16630 standardized Hole Expansion Test currently is used to express this through the Hole Expansion Ratio. Over the years, this standard has been criticized for producing a large scatter in repeated tests. This paper investigates a new setup for the Hole Expansion Test which introduces draw beads into the setup to ensure sufficient restraining of the specimen during the test in an effort to reduced the scatter. In total 62 tests of a DP800 steel alloy were executed, but a large scatter in the results were still seen. It was therefore concluded that a lack of restraining force in the Hole Expansion Test was not the primary cause of the reported scatter seen in other tests.

  • 6.
    Bartkowiak, Tomasz
    et al.
    Poznan University of Technology, Poland.
    Berglund, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Brown, Christopher
    Worcester Polytechnic Institute, USA.
    Multiscale characterizations of surface anisotropies2020In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, no 13, article id 3028Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anisotropy can influence surface function and can be an indication of processing. These influences and indications include friction, wetting, and microwear. This article studies two methods for multiscale quantification and visualization of anisotropy. One uses multiscale curvature tensor analysis and shows anisotropy in horizontal coordinates i.e., topocentric. The other uses multiple bandpass filters (also known as sliding bandpass filters) applied prior to calculating anisotropy parameters, texture aspect ratios (Str) and texture directions (Std), showing anisotropy in horizontal directions only. Topographies were studied on two milled steel surfaces, one convex with an evident large scale, cylindrical form anisotropy, the other nominally flat with smaller scale anisotropies; a EDMed surface, an example of an isotropic surface; and an additively manufactured surface with pillar-like features. Curvature tensors contain the two principal curvatures, i.e., maximum and minimum curvatures, which are orthogonal, and their directions, at each location. Principal directions are plotted for each calculated location on each surface, at each scale considered. Histograms in horizontal coordinates show altitude and azimuth angles of principal curvatures, elucidating dominant texture directions at each scale. Str and Std do not show vertical components, i.e., altitudes, of anisotropy. Changes of anisotropy with scale categorically failed to be detected by traditional characterization methods used conventionally. These multiscale methods show clearly in several representations that anisotropy changes with scale on actual surface measurements with markedly different anisotropies.

  • 7.
    Berglund, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Wärmefjord, Kristina
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Söderberg, Rikard
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Detailed evaluation of topographical effects of Hirtisation post-processing on electron beam powder bed fusion (PBF-EB) manufactured Ti-6Al-4V component2024In: Precision engineering, ISSN 0141-6359, E-ISSN 1873-2372, Vol. 85, p. 319-327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal additive manufacturing surface topographies are complex and challenging to characterise due to e.g. steep local slopes, re-entrant features, varying reflectivity and features of interest in vastly different scale ranges. Nevertheless, average height parameters such as Ra or Sa are commonly used as sole parameters for characterisation. In this paper, a novel method for selecting relevant parameters for evaluation is proposed and demonstrated using a case study where the smoothing effects after three processing steps of the electro chemical post-process Hirtisation of a metal AM surface are quantified. The method uses a combination of conventional areal texture parameters, multiscale analysis and statistics and can be used to efficiently achieve a detailed and more relevant surface topography characterisation. It was found that the three process steps have different effects on the surface topography regarding the types and sizes of features that were affected. In total, Sdq was reduced by 97 %, S5v was reduced by 81 % and Sa was reduced by 78 %. A surface texture with much lower average roughness, less deep pits and less steep slopes was produced, which is expected to be beneficial for improved fatigue properties.

  • 8.
    Berglund, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Söderberg, Rikard
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wärmefjord, Kristina
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Leach, Richard
    University of Nottingham, UK.
    Morse, Edward
    University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA.
    Functional tolerancing of surface texture - A review of existing methods2020In: Procedia CIRP, Elsevier B.V. , 2020, p. 230-235Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Surface texture parameters can provide a link between texture, its processing and function. Recent surveys and industrial experience have shown that the ISO 25178 areal surface texture parameters have not received the level of traction in industry that was predicted when introduced despite the fact that the areal parameters were predicted to have more functionally relevant characterisations than the ISO 4287 profile parameters. The objective of the paper is to enable more functionally relevant specifications of surface texture to be taken up by industry and the scientific community by increasing the knowledge of the ISO 25178 texture and novel feature parameters, and their potential use, as well as knowledge about methods for establishing functionally relevant surface texture specifications. In the paper, existing methods for functional tolerancing of surface texture are reviewed and discussed, examples of applications are given and a direction for continued research is presented. © 2020 The Authors

  • 9.
    Bjurenstedt, Anton
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    GRETA – Fallstudie återvunnen aluminium2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    GRETA – a case study on die-cast secondary aluminium

    In ongoing production at AGES in Kulltorp, die-cast components of a secondary aluminium alloy have been continuously taken out for mechanical testing and microstructure investigations. The aim has been to increase the understanding of whether properties vary and, if so, why. In an industrial and well-controlled process, the properties and performance of the obtained material has been analysed for comparison with the original secondary alloy and its specification to see how the material varies during production. The results showed a uniform quality of the produced castings. The hardness test also showed very even results for each component. No statistical difference between the samples could be demonstrated. This means that even if some data collected from the castings were on the edge of the desired range, the properties have not been significantly affected. In other words, there is a higher potential in recycled alloys than that reported in the standard SS-EN 1706:2021. Solidification rate, possible heat treatment and the amount of defects play a decisive role in the final properties of a cast part. By optimizing these, properties that exceed the standard can be obtained.

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  • 10.
    Boedeker, Felix
    et al.
    Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, Germany.
    Herr, Pauline
    Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, Germany.
    Biel, Anders
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Moshfegh, Ramin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes. Lamera AB, Sweden.
    Marzi, Stephan
    Technische Hochschule Mittelhessen, Germany.
    An FFT-based homogenization scheme for cohesive zones with an application to adhesives and the core material of thin metal sandwich plates2023In: Theoretical and applied fracture mechanics (Print), ISSN 0167-8442, E-ISSN 1872-7638, Vol. 129, article id 104186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cohesive Zone Models with finite thickness are widely used for the fracture mechanical modeling of material layers, e.g., adhesive layers. Within this approach, the whole layer is modeled as a cohesive zone. Moreover, computational homogenization techniques are crucial for the development of advanced engineering materials, which are often heterogeneous. Compared to the commonly used Finite Element Method (FEM), solvers based on the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) are expected to reduce the computational effort needed for the homogenization. Originated from an existing method for the computational homogenization of cohesive zones using FEM, a novel FFT-based homogenization scheme for cohesive zone models is presented. Our implementation of the FFT solver uses a displacement-based Barzilai-Borwein scheme and a non-local ductile damage model for the fracture behavior. Finally, the practical application of the method is discussed using an adhesive layer and the core material of HybrixTM metal sandwich plates as examples.

  • 11.
    Bolelli, G.
    et al.
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Lyphout, Christophe
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Berger, L. -M
    Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Testa, V.
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Myalska-Głowacka, H.
    Silesian University of Technology, Poland.
    Puddu, P.
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Sassatelli, P.
    Il Sentiero International Campus Srl, Italy.
    Lusvarghi, L.
    University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Italy.
    Wear resistance of HVOF- and HVAF-sprayed (Ti,Mo)(C,N)–Ni coatings from an agglomerated and sintered powder2023In: Wear, ISSN 0043-1648, E-ISSN 1873-2577, Vol. 512-513, article id 204550Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    (Ti,Mo)(C,N)-25 wt% Ni coatings obtained by spraying an agglomerated and sintered feedstock powder using different high velocity air-fuel (HVAF) and high velocity oxygen-fuel (HVOF) deposition processes are comparatively analysed for their sliding, abrasion and impact resistance. All HVOF-sprayed coatings are particularly dense, with ≈800 HV hardness (tested at 100 gf, 300 gf and 500 gf). In-flight oxidation resulted in some embrittlement, as revealed by scratch tests. In ball-on-disk sliding against an Al2O3 counterpart, they maintained a mild wear regime (wear rates ≤10−6 mm3/(N⋅m)) from room temperature up to 600 °C, with better performance in comparison to Cr3C2–NiCr reference coatings. At room temperature, the Ti(C,N) hard phase limited the abrasive cutting by counterbody asperities. At 400 °C and 600 °C, the coatings developed a thin, protective oxide tribofilm. They also exhibited no interface delamination in cyclic impact tests. However, they suffered higher wear (≈3–5 × 10−3 mm3/(N⋅m)) in high-stress particle abrasion testing, particularly when compared to HVAF-sprayed Cr3C2–NiCr. Gaining improved control over in-flight oxidation of (Ti,Mo)(C,N)–Ni during spraying is probably the key to overcome this limitation. The HVAF-sprayed (Ti,Mo)(C,N)–Ni coating exhibited severe interlamellar decohesion under all test conditions, as the limited melting degree of the feedstock did not compensate for the intrinsic microstructural inhomogeneity of the powder particles. 

  • 12.
    Bonham, Euan
    et al.
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    McMaster, Kerr
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Thomson, Emma
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Panarotto, Massimo
    Chalmers University of Technology,, Sweden.
    Müller, Jakob
    Chalmers University of Technology,, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Ola
    Chalmers University of Technology,, Sweden.
    Johansson, Emil
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Designing and integrating a digital thread system for customized additive manufacturing in multi-partner kayak production2020In: Systems, ISSN 2079-8954, Vol. 8, no 4, article id 43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing (AM) opens the vision of decentralised and individualised manufacturing, as a tailored product can be manufactured in proximity to the customers with minimal physical infrastructure required. Consequently, the digital infrastructure and systems solution becomes substantially more complex. There is always a need to design the entire digital system so that different partners (or stakeholders) access correct and relevant information and even support design iterations despite the heterogenous digital environments involved. This paper describes how the design and integration of a digital thread for AM can be approached. A system supporting a digital thread for AM kayak production has been designed and integrated in collaboration with a kayak manufacturer and a professional collaborative product lifecycle management (PLM) software and service provider. From the demonstrated system functionality, three key lessons learnt are clarified: (1) The need for developing a process model of the physical and digital flow in the early stages, (2) the separation between the data to be shared and the processing of data to perform each parties’ task, and (3) the development of an ad-hoc digital application for the involvement of new stakeholders in the AM digital flow, such as final users. The application of the digital thread system was demonstrated through a test of the overall concept by manufacturing a functional and individually customised kayak, printed remotely using AM (composed of a biocomposite containing 20% wood-based fibre). © 2020 by the authors. 

  • 13.
    Borgström, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Influence of strain rate, temperature and chemical composition on high silicon ductile iron2021In: Minerals, E-ISSN 2075-163X, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the use of solution hardened ductile iron is limited by brittleness under certain conditions. If chassis components are subjected to loads having high strain rates exceeding those imposed during tensile testing at sub-zero temperatures, unexpected failure can occur. Therefore, it is the purpose of this review to discuss three main mechanisms, which have been related to brittle failure in high silicon irons: intercritical embrittlement, the integrity of the ferritic matrix and deformation mechanisms in the graphite. Intercritical embrittlement is mainly attributed to the formation of Mg-and S-rich grain boundary films. The formation of these films is suppressed if the amount of free Mg-and MgS-rich inclusions is limited by avoiding excess Mg and/or by the passivation of free Mg with P. If the grain boundary film is not suppressed, the high silicon iron has very low elongations in the shakeout temperature regime: 300 to 500◦ C. The integrity and strength of the ferrite are limited by the reduced ordering of the silicumferrite with increasing silicon content, once the “ordinary” ferrite is saturated at 3% silicon, depending on the cooling conditions. Finally, the graphite damaging mechanisms are what dictate the properties most at low temperatures (sub −20◦ C). © 2021 by the author. 

  • 14.
    Carlsson, Raul
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Certification.
    Saeidpour, Mahsa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Thore, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Labelling material and components for digital traceability2022Report (Other academic)
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  • 15.
    Farre, Sten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    3D-sandprintade kärnor och formar - omvärldsbevakning: del 12021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En omvärldsbevakning av status för 3D sandprintning (3DSP). beskrivning av tekniken och sammanställning av kända leverantörer av printrar. Tekniken med additiv tillverkning av metalliska material har lett till att utvecklingen av nya komplexa gjutna komponenter har tagit fart. rapport belyser utvecklingen med hjälp av några exempel.

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    3DSP-del 1
  • 16.
    Farre, Sten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    3D-sandprintningsprocessen: Del 2: Omvärldsanalys, processäkerhet, design, användningsområden.2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    3D-sandprintning (3DSP) har blivet en del av produktionsapparaten vid framställning av kärnor och formar. rapporten belyser några ekonomiska aspekter och visar på de nya möjligheter som tekniken medför när komplexa gjutna komponenter kan framställas med hjälp av hybrid tekniken även benämt som AM-Cast

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    3DSP-del 2
  • 17.
    Farre, Sten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Energiforbrug, et gidsel ved fremstilling af stöbegods2022In: Stöberiet, Vol. 2, p. 5-9Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Farre, Sten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Energiförbrukning - ett gissel vid framställning av gjutgods2022In: Gjuteriet, no 1, p. 18-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Farre, Sten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Gjutna Material - En kort översikt av:: egenskaper, standarder och historik2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Gjutna material har funnits i mer än 6000 år. Rapporten ger en inblick i olika gjutna metalliska material, deras sammansättning och egenskapr, användningsområden och materialstandarder. Rapporten avslutas med en historisk överblick av gjutna material.

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  • 20.
    Farre, Sten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Staus - 3D-printing för att tillverka formar och kärnor i sand2021In: Gjuteriet, no 5, p. 24-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Farre, Sten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Stålkompetens - från masugn till stålgjutgds2021In: Gjuteriet, no 1, p. 20-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Farre, Sten
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Stålkompetens - från masugn till stålgjutgods2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige har alltid hållit sig långt framme när det gäller järn och stålhantering. Kunskaper som har införskaffats inom bruken och senare stålverken har kommit stålgjuterierna till gagn. Rapporten beskriver några områden där kunskap har överförts och ger en överblick av de utmaningar som stålgjuteribranschen står över för. Rapporten är en litteraturstudie där följande frågor har behandlats: Kompentensförsörjning, minskad energiförbrukning, minskning/eliminering av CO2-utsläpp, förändrade materialegenskaper och framtida råvaruresurser.

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    Stålkompetens
  • 23.
    Flys, Olena
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Berglund, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rosen, B. -G
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Using confocal fusion for measurement of metal AM surface texture2020In: Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, ISSN 2051-672X, Vol. 8, no 2, article id 024003Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The highly complex nature of as printed metal AM surfaces pose other challenges for making measurements compared to surfaces made with many conventional processing methods. The high complexity is caused by high aspect ratios, a mix of high and low reflexivity, steep angles etc. It is not clear which method is the most suitable for measuring these surfaces. The objective of this study was to compare four different measurement modes available in one instrument to evaluate the advantages and drawbacks of the respective techniques regarding measurements of metal AM surfaces. The evaluated measurement modes are Confocal Microscopy, Coherence Scanning Interferometry, Focus Variation and Confocal Fusion. The effect of advantages and drawbacks of studied techniques was tested on typical surfaces produced by L-PBF process. Surfaces printed at 0° and 90° inclinations were compared regarding the measurement results achieved from the different methods. The Power Spectral Density analysis and visual comparison were used for the examination of studied measurements methods. Besides the comparison of areal measurements acquired by different modes available in the instrument also extracted profile measurements were compared with profile images acquired using an Optical Microscope. This study reveals that confocal fusion is a promising technique for AM surface characterisation, due to the highest amount of valid data points in the typical measurement. The new approach developed in the study showed that PSD analysis can be used for evaluation of fill in algorithms incorporated in different software. Results of the profile comparisons help to illustrate features that can be depicted by surface measurements, applying different measurement principles, as well as enables comparison of raw profile data between different types of measurements. Further investigation of measurements on AM surfaces in the frequency domain will bring more understanding about the limitations of measurement techniques. 

  • 24.
    Flys, Olena
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Johansson, M.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Hosseini, Seyed
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production.
    Berglund, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Hatami, Sepehr
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Oikonomou, C.
    Uddeholm AB, Sweden.
    Rosen, B. -G
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Heat transfer and flow performance in additively manufactured cooling channels with varying surface topography2020In: Seimitsu Kogaku Kaishi/Journal of the Japan Society for Precision Engineering, ISSN 0912-0289, Vol. 86, no 1, p. 71-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flexibility in respect of design and manufacturing freedom that additive manufacturing (AM) offer are key driving factors for many industrial scctors. For example, designing and manufacturing unique internal conformal cooling/heating channels with enhanced functionalities for various applications like tools and heat cxchangcrs. However, for the majority of the metal AM-processes in the as-build condition, AM is associated with high surface roughness, which has a measurable impact e.g on the heat transfer and flow properties. Hence, proper characterization of the fluid flow and heat transfer is vital to understand how the AM surfaces should be optimized for maximum output. The current study considers the cffcct of surface roughness and channels dimensions on the pressure drop and heat transfer. An experimental investigation was made of cooling channels produced by Powdcr-Bcd-Fusion using Lascr-Bcam-Mclting (PBF-LBM) additive manufacturing technique. Cooling channels with as-build surfaces was compared to post-processed cooling channels such as extrude honing and drilled channels, respectively. Results showed the lowest pressure drop for extrude honed channels compare to drilled and as-build channels, while heat transfer showed the same trend for as-build and extrude honed channels. The complexity of surface topography of as-build channels need to be described by parameters suitable for the detection of fluid interaction. Combination of different parameters remains to be investigated.

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  • 25.
    Fredriksson, Marie
    RISE, Swerea, SWECAST. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Development of MMC process for high performance aluminium components2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are materials which combine a metallic matrix with ceramic reinforcements in the form of fibers, particulates or flakes. There is one supplier of MMC castings in Sweden providing brake discs in aluminium for automotive industry. The material has the potential of replacing other heavier metals and thereby contributing to lower emissions in vehicles. The MACS project has aimed towards understanding the material and its imperfections, as well as finding other viable casting methods and examine the machining parameters since the particles aggravates cutting operations.

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  • 26.
    Fredriksson, Marie
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Gustavsson, Conny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Jarfors, Anders
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Ahlström, Johan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Förstudie för forsknings- och demonstrationsanläggning för tillverkning via pressgjutning2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pre-study for research and demo facility for smart die

    casting

    This report summarizes a preliminary study carried out with the aim of investigating how

    a center for applied industrial research should be built to ensure that this benefits the

    Swedish manufacturing industry in the best way possible. The work has been carried out

    in collaboration between RISE, Jönköping University, Chalmers, Husqvarna, Comptech

    and Volvo Cars. The work originates in discussions, study visits, state-of-the-art and

    collective experiences from the group.

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  • 27.
    Gotthardsson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Jämförelse mellan två kärnbindemedel2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparison between two foundry core binders

    The purpose of this study was to compare the environmental fooprint from two foundry core binders, amine cured Coldbox and SO2 cured epoxy. The study was limited to the process inside the foundry and the main part was about what is generated and emitted from the binders when the cores are used. This was simulated in laboratory trials, where emissions from 150°C in air (simulation of drying refractory coatings) and 600°C (simulation of the actual casting) in oxygen free atmosphere were measured.

    The evaluation was made with parameters used when an Environmental Product Declaration is produced. However, environmental and sustainability data for many substances were missing, which led to that the environmental effects were mainly determined by the amount of binders in the cores.

    In order to receive more general results from this used method, there is a need for better knowledge about the climate effects from the emitted substances.

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  • 28.
    Gretarsson, Snaevar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Lindell, Hans
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    High-Frequency Vibration from Hand-Held Impact Wrenches and Propagation into Finger Tissue2023In: Proceedings, E-ISSN 2504-3900, Vol. 86, p. 10-, article id 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-frequency shock-type vibration (HFV) with a frequency content mainly above 1250 Hz, e.g., from impact wrenches, is likely to cause a significant amount of vibration injuries and even hand-arm vibration syndrome. The objective of this study was to measure vibration up to 100 kHz with a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) and investigate the variation of vibration over the machine surface, the vibration propagation into finger tissue, and the vibration reduction on the finger tissue due to a foamed polymer layer. Our results showed that the vibration on the handle varies moderately and that the amplitudes are higher on the machine surface. A large proportion of the vibration is transferred into the finger tissue and thereby subjects the finger tissue to high-vibration amplitudes, but it is effectively reduced by a thin layer of foamed polymer.

  • 29.
    Guo, Zingwei
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    de la Motte, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Circular recycling of polyester textile waste using a sustainable catalyst2021In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 283, article id 124579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A tremendous amount of polyester textile waste is discarded every year, which has caused a serious problem for the environment. In this study, the feasibility of circular recycling of polyester textile waste is investigated through a glycolysis process in the presence of environmentally friendly Mg–Al double oxides pellets as catalyst. Even though the catalytic performance of Mg–Al double oxides pellets is slightly lower than their granules at 240 °C, pellets were used as they benefit from a good recyclability. The pellet catalysts could be cycled three times without losing structural integrity or catalytic activity in the glycolysis of (poly(ethylene terephthalate)(PET)). However, to restore the catalytic activity after three cycles, the catalyst was regenerated through a heat treatment after the glycolysis reaction. After that the catalyst showed a comparable catalytic activity as that of virgin catalyst. In the glycolysis process, the monomer bis(hydroxyethyl) terephthalate (BHET) is generated and recovered. The molar yield of BHET was in the reaction over 80 mol%. From the recovered BHET, regenerated PET (r-PET) with an intrinsic viscosity (IV) of 0.67 was synthesized. The r-PET showed a very good spinnability in the melt spinning test. The quality of the obtained r-PET fibers was comparable to virgin PET fibers. 

  • 30.
    Gutkin, Renaud
    et al.
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Wirje, Anders
    Nilsson-Lindén, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Pashami, Sepideh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Lundahl, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Essvik, Krister
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Enebog, Emma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Jonasson, Christian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Andersson, Oscar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Safe to circulate: public report2023Report (Other academic)
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  • 31.
    Götelid, Sareh
    et al.
    Swerim AB, Sweden.
    Ma, Taoran
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Lyphout, Christophe
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Vang, Jesper
    Swerim AB, Sweden.
    Stålnacke, Emil
    Swerim AB, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Hosseini, Seyed
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Strondl, Annika
    Swerim AB, Sweden.
    Effect of post-processing on microstructure and mechanical properties of Alloy 718 fabricated using powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes2021In: Rapid prototyping journal, ISSN 1355-2546, E-ISSN 1758-7670, Vol. 27, no 9, p. 1617-1632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate additive manufacturing of nickel-based superalloy IN718 made by powder bed fusion processes: powder bed fusion laser beam (PBF-LB) and powder bed fusion electron beam (PBF-EB). Design/methodology/approach: This work has focused on the influence of building methods and post-fabrication processes on the final part properties, including microstructure, surface quality, residual stresses and mechanical properties. Findings: PBF-LB produced a much smoother surface. Blasting and shot peening (SP) reduced the roughness even more but did not affect the PBF-EB surface finish as much. As-printed PBF-EB parts have low residual stresses in all directions, whereas it was much higher for PBF-LB. However, heat treatment removed the stresses and SP created compressive stresses for samples from both PBF processes. The standard Arcam process parameter for PBF-EB for IN718 is not fully optimized, which leads to porosity and inferior mechanical properties. However, impact toughness after hot isostatic pressing was surprisingly high. Originality/value: The two processes gave different results and also responses to post-treatments, which could be of advantage or disadvantage for different applications. Suggestions for improving the properties of parts produced by each method are presented.

  • 32.
    Hatami, Sepehr
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Variation of fatigue strength of parts manufactured by laser powder bed fusion2022In: Powder Metallurgy, ISSN 0032-5899, E-ISSN 1743-2901, Vol. 65, no 3, p. 258-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study reports the variability of the fatigue strength of specimens manufactured by the laser powder bed fusion process with respect to their location on the build plate. Specimens from the right-hand and left-hand halves of the build plate were tested under high cycle fatigue. Comparison of the fatigue data suggests that the specimens manufactured on the right-hand half of the build plate have a higher fatigue strength than those manufactured on the left-hand half. One reason for the observed discrepancy in fatigue strength was the higher accumulation of spattered powder particles on the left-hand side as compared to the right-hand side of the build plate. These spattered particles are oxidised, and form defects such as inclusions within the specimen. © 2021 The Author(s)

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  • 33.
    Hatami, Sepher
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Ma, Taoran
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Vuoristo, Taina
    Swerim AB, Sweden.
    Bertilsson, Jens
    Sigma Industry East North AB, Sweden.
    Lyckfeldt, Ola
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Fatigue Strength of 316 L Stainless Steel Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting2020In: Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print), ISSN 1059-9495, E-ISSN 1544-1024, Vol. 29, p. 3183-3194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the fatigue strength of 316 L stainless steel manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM) is evaluated. The effect of powder layer thickness and postmachining is investigated. Specimens were produced with 30 and 50 µm layer thickness and tested under high cycle fatigue in as-printed and postmachined conditions. Examination of the specimens reveals that in the as-printed condition, fatigue strength suffers from high roughness and surface tensile residual stresses as well as defects such as pores and lack of fusion voids. After machining, the fatigue strength was improved due to lower surface roughness, presence of compressive residual stresses, and removal of surface porosity. The results show that increasing the layer thickness (within the range tested) has a minor negative impact on fatigue strength; however, it has a major positive impact on the productivity of the SLM process. In addition, it is clear that the impact of postmachining on fatigue is far greater than that of the layer thickness. © 2020, The Author(s).

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  • 34.
    Hoier, Philipp
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Azarhoushang, Bahman
    Furtwangen University of Applied Sciences, Germany.
    Lundin, Per
    Schlumpf Scandinavia AB, Sweden.
    Malakizadi, Amir
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Badger, Jeffrey
    The Grinding Doc, USA.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Björk, Thomas
    Ovako AB, Sweden.
    Klement, Uta
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hashimoto, Fukuo
    Advanced Finishing Technology Ltd, USA.
    Krajnik, Peter
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Influence of batch-to-batch material variations on grindability of a medium‑carbon steel2022In: Journal of Manufacturing Processes, ISSN 1526-6125, Vol. 73, p. 463-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses the influence of material variations on the grindability of crankshaft steel. Most previous studies on the effect of material microstructure on grindability involve comparisons of significantly different steel grades. This study, in contrast, is focused on batch-to-batch grindability variations for one steel grade, a scenario frequently occurring in industry where batches from different steel makers are fed into a production line. For this purpose, a batch made of recycled steel and a batch made of ore-based steel were compared with regards to microstructure and grindability under identical grinding and dressing conditions. Although both batches met the same material specifications, microstructural variations were identified in terms of grain size and micro-constituents (inclusions, carbonitrides). While specific grinding energy, residual stress and full-width at half-maximum profiles of ground surfaces were the same for both batches, the recycled batch showed different and unfavorable variation in wheel wear and Barkhausen noise (BN) response. Larger fractions of oxide inclusions and larger grain sizes (affected by carbonitrides) were present in the recycled batch, which were the likely reasons for the differences in wheel wear and BN response, respectively. These findings may aid grindability improvement by steel-grade adjustments, e.g. modification of the distribution and type of inclusions and/or amount of elements forming carbonitrides. Furthermore, the results highlight the importance of understanding and controlling material microstructure, as existing in-line quality by BN control may not always be able to correctly indicate surface integrity, which could lead to misinterpretations (e.g. false part-rejection on the assumption of grinding burn). © 2021 The Authors

  • 35.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Berglund, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Brohede, Ulrika
    Swerim AB, Sweden.
    Åkerfeldt, Pia
    Luleå university of Technolgy, Sweden.
    Sandell, Viktor
    Luleå university of Technology, Sweden.
    Rashid, Amir
    KTH Royal institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Zhao, Xiaoyu
    KTH Royal institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Dadbakhsh, Sasan
    KTH Royal institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Fischer, Marie
    Chalmers university of Technology, Sweden.
    Hryha, Eduard
    Chalmers university of Technology, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Hassila, Carl Johan Karlsson
    Uppsala university, Sweden.
    Hosseini, Seyed
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Machining of additively manufactured alloy 718 in as-built and heat-treated condition: surface integrity and cutting tool wear2023In: The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 0268-3768, E-ISSN 1433-3015, Vol. 130, no 3-4, p. 1823-1842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing (AM) using powder bed fusion is becoming a mature technology that offers great possibilities and design freedom for manufacturing of near net shape components. However, for many gas turbine and aerospace applications, machining is still required, which motivates further research on the machinability and work piece integrity of additive-manufactured superalloys. In this work, turning tests have been performed on components made with both Powder Bed Fusion for Laser Beam (PBF-LB) and Electron Beam (PBF-EB) in as-built and heat-treated conditions. The two AM processes and the respective heat-treatments have generated different microstructural features that have a great impact on both the tool wear and the work piece surface integrity. The results show that the PBF-EB components have relatively lower geometrical accuracy, a rough surface topography, a coarse microstructure with hard precipitates and low residual stresses after printing. Turning of the PBF-EB material results in high cutting tool wear, which induces moderate tensile surface stresses that are balanced by deep compressive stresses and a superficial deformed surface that is greater for the heat-treated material. In comparison, the PBF-LB components have a higher geometrical accuracy, a relatively smooth topography and a fine microstructure, but with high tensile stresses after printing. Machining of PBF-LB material resulted in higher tool wear for the heat-treated material, increase of 49%, and significantly higher tensile surface stresses followed by shallower compressive stresses below the surface compared to the PBF-EB materials, but with no superficially deformed surface. It is further observed an 87% higher tool wear for PBF-EB in as-built condition and 43% in the heat-treated condition compared to the PBF-LB material. These results show that the selection of cutting tools and cutting settings are critical, which requires the development of suitable machining parameters that are designed for the microstructure of the material.

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  • 36.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Berglund, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Andersson, Pär
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Lundin, Per
    Ludin Stress Service AB, Sweden.
    Influence of Local Electropolishing Conditions on Ferritic–Pearlitic Steel on X-Ray Diffraction Residual Stress Profiling2024In: Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print), ISSN 1059-9495, E-ISSN 1544-1024, Vol. 33, p. 3682-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Layer removal with electropolishing is a well-established method when measuring residual stress profiles with lab-XRD. This is done to measure the depth impact from processes such as shot peening, heat treatment, or machining. Electropolishing is used to minimize the influence on the inherent residual stresses of the material during layer removal, performed successively in incremental steps to specific depths followed by measurement. Great control of the material removal is critical for the measured stresses at each depth. Therefore, the selection of size of the measurement spot and electropolishing parameters is essential. The main objective in this work is to investigate how different electrolytes and electropolishing equipment affect the resulting surface roughness, geometry, microstructure, and consequently the measured residual stress. A second objective has been to establish a methodology of assessing the acquired electropolished depth. The aim has been to get a better understanding of the influence of the layer removal method on the accuracy of the acquired depth. Evaluation has been done by electropolishing one ground and one shot peened sample of a low-alloy carbon steel, grade 1.1730, with different methods. The results showed a difference in stresses depending on the electrolyte used where the perchloric acid had better ability to retain the stresses compared to the saturated salt. Electropolishing with saturated salt is fast and results in evenly distributed material removal but has high surface roughness, which is due to a difference in electropolishing of the two phases, ferrite, and pearlite. Perchloric acid electropolishing is slower but generates a smooth surface as both ferrite and pearlite have the same material removal rates but may cause an increased material removal for the center of the electropolished area. In this work, it is suggested to use perchloric acid electropolishing for the final layer removal step. © 2023, The Author(s).

  • 37.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Berglund, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Wretland, Anders
    GKN Aerospace Engine Systems AB, Sweden.
    Klason, Anki
    Hanza Mechanics Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Persson, Roger
    Hanza Mechanics Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Milling or grinding for manufacturing of an Alloy 718 gas turbine component?: – A comparison of surface integrity and productivity2024In: Procedia CIRP, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 123, p. 7-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Milling is traditionally the most used machining method when manufacturing complex gas turbine components. In particular those made from nickel-based superalloys. However, for larger free form surfaces, grinding may be an efficient alternative that could be used throughout the complete manufacturing route, from roughing to finishing. Hence, in this work the two processing methods has been compared in regard to surface integrity and productivity. Machining tests have been performed on case plates of heat-treated Alloy 718 using best practise setting for roughing and finishing with grinding and milling. The surface integrity of the work pieces was evaluated regarding surface topography, residual stresses, and deformation. This comparison showed that the main advantage with grinding is the ability to switch between roughing and finishing by just altering the depth of cut. Further, grinding offers lower surface roughness, compressive residual stresses, and significantly lower degree of deformation. From a productivity perspective, deep grinding may offer high material removal rates and ability to machine several work pieces in the same setup. However, grinding is limited to simpler free form geometries and may result in minor surface damages and abrasive surface residue. For selection of machining strategy, advantages and drawbacks shown in this work need to be considered for the application at hand in respect to productivity, surface integrity and requirements on fatigue life.

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  • 38.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Hammersberg, Peter
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundin, Per
    Lundin Stress Service AB, Sweden.
    Olavison, Jari
    Volvo Group Trucks Operations, Sweden.
    Predictive Modeling of Induction-Hardened Depth Based on the Barkhausen Noise Signal2023In: Micromachines, E-ISSN 2072-666X, Vol. 14, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A non-destructive verification method was explored in this work using the Barkhausen noise (BN) method for induction hardening depth measurements. The motive was to investigate the correlation between the hardness depth, microstructure, and the Barkhausen noise signal for an induction hardening process. Steel samples of grade C45 were induction-hardened to generate different hardness depths. Two sets of samples were produced in two different induction hardening equipment for generating the model and verification. The produced samples were evaluated by BN measurements followed by destructive verification of the material properties. The results show great potential for the several BN parameters, especially the magnetic voltage sweep slope signal, which has strong correlation with the hardening depth to depth of 4.5 mm. These results were further used to develop a multivariate predictive model to assess the hardness depth to 7 mm, which was validated on an additional dataset that was holdout from the model training.

  • 39.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF. University West, Sweden.
    Palosaari, Mikko
    Stresstech OY, Finland.
    Hosseini, Seyed
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF.
    Larjosuo, Henri
    Stresstech OY, Finland.
    Andersson, Pär
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Materials and Production, IVF. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Round Robin Study on Residual Stresses Using X-RayDiffraction for Shot-Peened Tool Steel Specimens2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residual stress measurements using x-ray diffraction is a well established methodused within the industrial and academic community to verify the performance of differentprocesses for metallic materials. The measurement gives an absolute value of the stress statewhich can be used to design and optimize the process route to induce beneficial compressiveresidual stresses and avoid detrimental tensile stresses. Investigating the uncertainty andaccuracy of the measurement system, operator and the material is therefore of high relevanceboth from an industrial and scientific point of view. Round robin testing is an important way toquantify the uncertainties that could affect the quality of the measured results and hence how aprocess is optimized and tuned. Such an investigation allows the operator to understand andreduce variations. Current round robin test includes results from five different laboratories usingcomparable equipments located in Sweden, Finland, Germany and United States. This workfocuses on five shot-peened tool steel specimens produced with identical process settings.Additionally, an investigation of the repeatability of the system, influence of the operator,variations within the specimen, and the long time stability of the specimens has been measured.

  • 40.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Wendel, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Progressive Induction Hardening: Measurement and Alteration of Residual Stresses2024In: Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print), ISSN 1059-9495, E-ISSN 1544-1024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Progressive induction hardening is an in-line steel heat treatment method commonly used to surface harden powertrain components. It produces a martensitic case layer with a sharp transition zone to the base material. This rapid process will induce large residual stresses, where a compressive state in the case layer will shift to a tensile state in the transition zone. For fatigue performance, it is important to quantify the magnitude and distribution of these stresses, and moreover how they depend on material and processing parameters. In this work, x-ray diffraction in combination with a layer removal method is used for efficient and robust quantification of the subsurface stress state, which combines electropolishing with either turning or milling. Characterization is done on C45E steel samples that were progressively induction hardened using either a fast or slow (27.5 or 5 mm/s, respectively) scanning speed. The results show that although the hardening procedures will meet arbitrary requirements on surface hardness, case depth and microstructure, the subsurface tensile stress peak magnitude is doubled when using a fast scanning speed. However, the near-surface compressive residual stresses are comparable. In addition, the subsurface tensile residual stress peak is compared with the on-surface tensile stresses in the fade-out zone.

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  • 41.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Wretland, Anders
    GKN Aerospace Engine Systems AB, Sweden.
    Berglund, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Abrasive Water Jet Milling as An Efficient Manufacturing Method for Superalloy Gas Turbine Components2022In: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing, ISSN 2504-4494, Vol. 6, no 5, article id 124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to improve efficiency when manufacturing gas turbine components, alternative machining techniques need to be explored. In this work, abrasive water jet (AWJ) machining by milling has been investigated as an alternative to traditional milling. Various test campaigns have been conducted to show different aspects of using AWJ milling for the machining of superalloys, such as alloy 718. The test campaigns span from studies of individual AWJ-milled tracks, multi-pass tracks, and the machining of larger components and features with complex geometry. In regard to material removal rates, these studies show that AWJ milling is able to compete with traditional semi/finish milling but may not reach as high an MRR as rough milling when machining in alloy 718. However, AWJ milling requires post-processing which decreases the total MRR. It has been shown that a strong advantage with AWJ milling is to manufacture difficult geometries such as narrow radii, holes, or sharp transitions with kept material removal rates and low impact on the surface integrity of the cut surface. Additionally, abrasive water jet machining (AWJM) offers a range of machining possibilities as it can alter between cutting through and milling. The surface integrity of the AWJM surface is also advantageous as it introduces compressive residual stress but may require post-processing to meet similar surface roughness levels as traditional milling and to remove unwanted AWJM particles from the machined surface. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 42.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes. University West, Sweden.
    Wretland, Anders
    GKN Aerospace Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Berglund, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Beno, Tomas
    University West, Sweden.
    A detailed investigation of residual stresses after milling Inconel 718 using typical production parameters for assessment of affected depth2020In: Materials Today Communications, ISSN 2352-4928, Vol. 24, article id 100958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of superalloy gas turbine parts involves time consuming milling operations typically performed in a sequence from rough to finish milling. Rough milling using ceramic inserts allows high removal rates but causes severe sub-surface impact. A relatively large allowance is therefore left for subsequent cemented carbide milling. With increased knowledge of the affected depth it will be possible to reduce the machining allowance and increase efficiency of the manufacturing process. Milling Inconel 718 using typical production parameters has been investigated using new and worn ceramic and cemented carbide inserts. Residual stresses in a milled slot were measured by x-ray diffraction. Stresses were measured laterally across the slot and below the surface, to study the depth affected by milling. The most important result from this work is the development of a framework concerning how to evaluate the affected depth for a milling operation. The evaluation of a single milled slot shows great potential for determining the optimum allowance for machining. Our results show that the residual stresses are greatly affected by the ceramic and cemented carbide milling; both regarding depth as well as distribution across the milled slot. It has been shown that it is important to consider that the stresses across a milled slot are the highest in the center of the slot and gradually decrease toward the edges. Different inserts, ceramic and cemented carbide, and tool wear, alter how the stresses are distributed across the slot and the affected depth.

  • 43.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes. University West, Sweden.
    Wretland, Anders
    GKN Aerospace Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Berglund, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Beno, Tomas
    University West, Sweden.
    Selection of milling strategy based on surface integrity investigations of highly deformed Alloy 718 after ceramic and cemented carbide milling2020In: Journal of Manufacturing Processes, ISSN 1526-6125, Vol. 58, p. 193-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High speed milling with ceramic indexable inserts is a current practice for manufacturing of gas turbine components in superalloys since it allows for high material removal rates. Ceramic milling is used for rough milling, which is followed by cemented carbide semi- and finish milling. The tool motion play an important role on the resulting surface integrity. The machining strategy of up or down milling will induce different degree of residual stresses and deformations. Increased knowledge of selecting the machining strategy with lowest impact will promote improved productivity by using ceramic milling to a greater extent based on the affected depth. The main objective in this work has been to correlate the residual stresses and deformations to promote a greater utilization of ceramic milling while still producing surfaces with acceptable properties. Prior investigations have shown that ceramic milling induce very high tensile stresses in the surface, exceeding the material's nominal yield strength. A second objective has been to explain these stress levels by thorough investigations of the deformation after milling. In this study, milling tests with new and worn ceramic and cemented carbide inserts have been performed in Alloy 718. The topography, residual stresses, deformation and hardness have been investigated for up, centre and down milling. Residual stress measurements were performed using X-ray diffraction, followed by evaluation of hardness and deformation, using hardness testing, light optical microscopy as well as electron back scattering diffraction (EBSD). These results have been used to determine an appropriate milling strategy based on lowest possible impact in respect to residual stresses and deformation. The results show a high degree of deformation after milling that differs for the up, centre and down milling. Based on these results, it is shown that up milling is preferable for new inserts but as the inserts wear out, down milling becomes more suitable since a lower degree of deformation and residual stress impact was observed. EBSD and hardness testing showed that the milling, especially ceramic milling, caused severe deformation of the surfaces resulting in grain refinement to a nano-crystalline level. This is most likely the explanation for the prevalence of the high tensile stresses without distorting or causing failure. © 2020 The Authors

  • 44.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Wretland, Anders
    GKN Aerospace Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Berglund, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Beno, Tomas
    University West, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Anton
    Tooltec Trestad AB, Sweden.
    Surface integrity investigation to determine rough milling effects for assessment of machining allowance for subsequent finish milling of alloy 7182021In: Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing, ISSN 2504-4494, Vol. 5, no 2, article id 48Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The planned material volume to be removed from a blank to create the final shape of a part is commonly referred to as allowance. Determination of machining allowance is essential and has a great impact on productivity. The objective of the present work is to use a case study to investigate how a prior rough milling operation affects the finish machined surface and, after that, to use this knowledge to design a methodology for how to assess the machining allowance for subsequent milling operations based on residual stresses. Subsequent milling operations were performed to study the final surface integrity across a milled slot. This was done by rough ceramic milling followed by finish milling in seven subsequent steps. The results show that the up-, centre and down-milling induce different stresses and impact depths. Employing the developed methodology, the depth where the directional influence of the milling process diminishes has been shown to be a suitable minimum limit for the allowance. At this depth, the plastic flow causing severe deformation is not present anymore. It was shown that the centre of the milled slot has the deepest impact depth of 500 µm, up-milling caused an intermediate impact depth of 400 µm followed by down milling with an impact depth of 300 µm. With merged envelope profiles, it was shown that the effects from rough ceramic milling are gone after 3 finish milling passes, with a total depth of cut of 150 µm. © 2021 by the authors. 

  • 45.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes. University West, Sweden.
    Wretland, Anders
    GKN Aerospace Engine System Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Hammersberg, Peter
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Berglund, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Suárez, Alfredo
    Tecnalia R&T, Spain.
    Beno, Tomas
    University West, Sweden.
    Surface integrity investigations for prediction of fatigue properties after machining of alloy 7182021In: International Journal of Fatigue, ISSN 0142-1123, E-ISSN 1879-3452, Vol. 144, article id 106059Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatigue performance is crucial for gas turbine components, and it is greatly affected by the manufacturing processes. Ability to predict the expected fatigue life of a component based on surface integrity has been the objective in this work, enabling new processing methods. Alloy 718 samples were prepared by different machining setups, evaluated in fatigue testing and surface integrity investigations. These results generated two predictive statistical multi-variate regression models. The fatigue correlated well with roughness, residual stresses and deformation. The two models showed great potential, which encourages further exploration to fine-tune the procedure for the particular case. © 2020 The Authors

  • 46.
    Hosseini, Seyed
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mallipeddi, D.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Rännar, L. -E
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Koptyug, A.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Sjöström, W.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden.
    Krajnik, P.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Klement, U.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Comparison of machining performance of stainless steel 316L produced by selective laser melting and electron beam melting2022In: Procedia CIRP, Elsevier B.V. , 2022, p. 72-77Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Powder bed fusion processes based additively manufactured SS 316L components fall short of surface integrity requirements needed for optimal functional performance. Hence, machining is required to achieve dimensional accuracy and to enhance surface integrity characteristics. This research is focused on comparing the material removal performance of 316L produced by PBF-LB (laser) and PBF-EB (electron beam) in terms of tool wear and surface integrity. The results showed comparable surface topography and residual stress profiles. While the hardness profiles revealed work hardening at the surface where PBF-LB specimens being more susceptible to work hardening. The investigation also revealed differences in the progress of the tool wear when machining specimens produced with either PBF-LB or PBF-EB. .

  • 47.
    Isaksson, Ola
    et al.
    Chalmers Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Brahma, Arindam
    Chalmers Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hajali, Tina
    Chalmers Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, David
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Mallalieu, Adam
    Chalmers Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The Importance of Digitalisation in Industrialising Additive Manufacturing: Learnings from the DIDAM P2030 Project2024In: Advances in Transdisciplinary Engineering, ISSN 2352-751X, Vol. 52, p. 442-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing, a technology that has evolved significantly over the last few decades, has shifted from prototyping to final product manufacturing. Despite its potential in design flexibility and customisation, its implementation in industrial ecosystems often faces challenges, especially in companies with established traditional manufacturing methods. This paper explores additive manufacturing beyond the printing process, drawing insights from the DIDAM project in Swedish manufacturing companies. It maps the advantages of additive manufacturing to external factors influencing its success such as digital infrastructure. This mapping yields “risk factors” for its implementation. These factors are based on empirical observations from the DIDAM project to identify potential failure modes, assess risks, and provide a snapshot view of critical issues. This objective evaluation aims to support managers in evaluating the risks associated with additive manufacturing’s integration into a company’s manufacturing ecosystem, based on empirical findings in industrial cases as reported in the DIDAM Digital Model Guide (Digital Model Guide, 2023).

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  • 48.
    Jones, C. A.
    et al.
    Cranfield University, United Kingdom.
    Jolly, Mark R.
    Cranfield University, United Kingdom.
    Jarfors, Anders Eric Wollmar
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Irwin, Mark
    TPC Components AB, Sweden.
    Svenningsson, Roger
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Steggo, J.
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, J.
    TPC Components AB, Sweden.
    A verification of thermophysical properties of a porous ceramic investment casting mould using commercial computational fluid dynamics software2020In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Physics Publishing , 2020, Vol. 861, no 1, article id 012036Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Defects in cast metals remain a common problem in many areas of the foundry industry, particularly in the investment casting of large area, thin-walled components for aerospace applications. During previous research, the thermophysical properties, density and porosity of a fibre reinforced ceramic investment casting mould were determined using several experimental techniques. Without verification, these experimental results remain nothing more than educated guesswork. The purpose of this study is to verify previous results and to more fully characterise the ceramic mould material with complementary measurements. A commercially available computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation package, Flow-3D®, was used in conjunction with a full-scale Ni-superalloy (IN718) casting to assess the accuracy of these results. By placing thermocouples strategically across the mould thickness, temperature profiles were determined and compared directly to predicted profiles extracted from the simulation by a custom-written Python script.

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    fulltext
  • 49.
    Jönsson, Christina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Wei, Ren
    University of Greifswald, Germany.
    Biundo, Antonino
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; REWOW srl, Italy.
    Landberg, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Schwarz Bour, Lisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Pezzotti, Fabio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Toca, Andreea
    Swedish Stockings, Sweden; Hyper Island, Sweden.
    Jacques, Les
    LYCRA Company, UK.
    Bornscheuer, Uwe
    University of Greifswald, Germany.
    Syrén, Per-Olof
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Biocatalysis in the Recycling Landscape for Synthetic Polymers and Plastics towards Circular Textiles2021In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, Vol. 14, no 19, p. 4028-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although recovery of fibers from used textiles with retained material quality is desired, separation of individual components from polymer blends used in today's complex textile materials is currently not available at viable scale. Biotechnology could provide a solution to this pressing problem by enabling selective depolymerization of recyclable fibers of natural and synthetic origin, to isolate constituents or even recover monomers. We compiled experimental data for biocatalytic polymer degradation with a focus on synthetic polymers with hydrolysable links and calculated conversion rates to explore this path The analysis emphasizes that we urgently need major research efforts: beyond cellulose-based fibers, biotechnological-assisted depolymerization of plastics so far only works for polyethylene terephthalate, with degradation of a few other relevant synthetic polymer chains being reported. In contrast, by analyzing market data and emerging trends for synthetic fibers in the textile industry, in combination with numbers from used garment collection and sorting plants, it was shown that the use of difficult-to-recycle blended materials is rapidly growing. If the lack of recycling technology and production trend for fiber blends remains, a volume of more than 3400 Mt of waste will have been accumulated by 2030. This work highlights the urgent need to transform the textile industry from a biocatalytic perspective.

  • 50.
    Kahkonen, Henri
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Proper, Sebastian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Ala-Laurinaho, Juha
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Viikari, Ville
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Comparison of additively manufactured and machined antenna array performance at Ka band2022In: IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters, ISSN 1536-1225, E-ISSN 1548-5757, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 9-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is a rapidly developing field which potentially decreases the manufacturing costs and enables increasingly complex antenna shapes. Metal-based AM might be particularly useful to manufacture antennas at mm-wave range, because there antennas are physically small enough making additive manufacturing cost efficient, and manufacturing accuracy could still suffice for good electrical performance. In this paper, two additively manufactured and an identical machined fully metallic Ka-band Vivaldi antenna arrays are compared. The manufactured antenna arrays are compared using RF-measurements to conclude the feasibility of AM for manufacturing antenna arrays at mm-wave frequencies. Comparison of the measured radiation patterns and realized gains of each of the antenna arrays between 26 and 40 GHz shows close to identical radiation patterns for all the arrays. A loss in efficiency of 0.51.5 dB is observed in the AM arrays when compared to the machined array due to the used materials and the surface roughness. 

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