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  • 1.
    Abdellatif, Amal
    et al.
    Accounting & Financial Management Department Faculty of Business and Law Northumbria University Newcastle upon Tyne UK.
    Aldossari, Maryam
    University of Edinburgh Edinburgh UK.
    Boncori, Ilaria
    University of Essex Colchester UK.
    Callahan, Jamie
    Leadership & HRD Northumbria University Newcastle upon Tyne UK.
    Na Ayudhya, Uracha Chatrakul
    School of Business, Economics, and Informatics University of London London UK.
    Chaudhry, Sara
    University of Edinburgh Business School Edinburgh UK.
    Kivinen, Nina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Sarah Liu, Shan‐Jan
    University of Edinburgh Edinburgh UK.
    Utoft, Ea Høg
    Danish Centre for Studies in Research and Research Policy Aarhus University Aarhus Denmark.
    Vershinina, Natalia
    Audencia Business School Nantes France.
    Yarrow, Emily
    Portsmouth Business School Portsmouth UK.
    Pullen, Alison
    Macquarie University Sydney, New South Wales Australia.
    Breaking the mold: Working through our differences to vocalize the sound of change2021In: Gender, Work and Organization, ISSN 0968-6673, E-ISSN 1468-0432, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 1956-1979Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper orchestrates alterethnographical reflections in which we, women, polyphonically document, celebrate and vocalize the sound of change. This change is represented in Kamala Harris's appointment as the first woman, woman of color, and South Asian American as the US Vice President, breaking new boundaries of political leadership, and harvesting new gains for women in leadership and power more broadly. With feminist awareness and curiosity, we organize and mobilize individual texts into a multivocal paper as a way to write solidarity between women. Recognizing our intersectional differences, and power differentials inherent in our different positions in academic hierarchies, we unite to write about our collective concerns regarding gendered, racialised, classed social relations. Coming together across intersectional differences in a writing community has been a vehicle to speak, relate, share, and voice our feelings and thoughts to document this historic moment and build a momentum to fulfill our hopes for social change. As feminists, we accept our responsibility to make this history written, rather than manipulated or erased, by breaking the mold in the form of multi-layered embodied texts to expand writing and doing research differently through re/writing otherness.

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  • 2.
    Abran, Eszter
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering.
    Andersson, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering.
    Nilsson Rova, Therese
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering.
    Battery Storage for Grid Application: A case study of implementing a Lithium-ion storage system for power peak shaving and energy arbitrage2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Large scale Lithium-ion battery energy storage systems (BESS) for stationary power grid application is a developing field among energy storage technologies. Predictions indicate an increased use of the technology which offers a solution to the challenges that the increasing share of intermittent energy sources causes on the power grid. The non-plannability of intermittent power production requires solutions to maintain a stable and reliable power grid. Further commercialization of BESSes is also seen as use increases for electric vehicles and other mobile use.

    A distribution grid owner, referred to as the Company, has a power subscription for power that is fed from the regional grid, where additional power peak fees are added when exceeding the subscription limit. This study investigates whether a Lithium-ion BESS can be financially beneficial for the Company by examining two power grid services. The first one is power peak shaving, and the second one is energy arbitrage. Energy arbitrage signifies that the BESS is charged during low electricity prices and discharged during high prices, thus generating profit. This is accomplished by simulating a Lithium-ion BESS in MATLAB (2019) where the studied services are combined.

    The results show that a Lithium-ion BESS can be used for the purpose of peak shaving and energy arbitrage, although an investment is not profitable for the Company with the current market situation. The sensitivity analysis does however indicate profitability if the current power peak fees and spot prices remain unchanged while the BESS investment cost is reduced by 50%. This decrease in BESS cost is predicted possible within the next decade as BESS demand is expected to increase. The study implies that the main factor effecting the solution to be profitable is the high investment cost.

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  • 3.
    Abu Al Shaikh, Ahmed
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    A summary of and a phenomenological study on ethics within the project management practitioner community2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Project managers typically work under constant and strict time, money and quality pressures which can, alongside other factors, lead to professional ethics within the project environment taking a backseat. This paper provides an overview on ethics; project management and ethics within project management with focus on the conventional vs. alternative deliberations taking place in this field of study. Fixed codes of ethics; rationalist-derived standards which are imposed on the field vs. Aristotelian (and other accounts of) virtue ethics are covered. The paper also provides an account of the epistemological shift that has been deemed necessary due to the existential disruptions being caused by the rising rates of failure in projects across multiple industries under the conventional metalanguage: from a natural sciences perspective toward a more existentially-derived phenomenological attitude in the hopes of coming to a better theoretical and practical understanding of project management. The paper finally utilizes a phenomenological analysis methodology after interviewing seven experienced project managers working in different fields while summarizing the two splits present throughout the paper in a Dreyfusian-helped Coeckelberghian framework: with the ultimate aim of seeing how the phenomena of ethics are being experienced from within the project management practitioner world.

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  • 4.
    Adamopoulos, Emmanouil
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Malik, Wasim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Crisis Management and Early-Stage Greek Startups: The case of COVID-19 pandemic crisis2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 pandemic had a worldwide economic effect, and it seems to have produced a challenging economic climate for startups to work in. Thus, the aim of this degree project is to investigate how startups survived the financial and organizational crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, and what was the role of their employees during the crisis. The objective is to look at how early-stage startups in Greece are dealing with the COVID-19 crisis, whether they can utilize crisis management models, and how the crisis encourages creative destruction. Schumpeterian innovation theory has been merged with crisis management theories to achieve this goal. The thesis employs a qualitative methodology and uses a multiple case study design where cases are the individual startups interviewed. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with a top-management representative of each company. 

    The results indicate that the startups under discussion are experiencing significant changes. At the beginning of the crisis, they faced a threatening disengagement and demotivation of their employees, which they managed to overcome by focusing on their wellbeing, coaching them, and guiding them through the crisis. The Caplanian model was utilized to analyze their approach. Based on the companies’ core competencies, they are actively pivoting to emerging business models and new markets. These companies are discovering new possibilities and innovating in a number of areas, following both the Schumpeterian evolutionary theories of creative destruction and creative accumulation. Overall, the findings suggest that in responding to the crisis, startups modified and strengthened their strategies. The shift in customer purchasing behavior was a major reason why businesses needed to develop their strategies. The modified consumer behavior was the outcome of actions taken by the Greek government and the Public Health Agency to avoid the spread of the virus such as social distancing, travel bans, and closed borders.

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    Crisis Management and Early-Stage Greek Startups
  • 5.
    Adel, Amin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Civil Engineering and Built Environment.
    Roshan, Armin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Civil Engineering and Built Environment.
    En Jämförelse Av Brännbart Avfall Mellan Två Byggprojekt På Ncc: En fallstudie om hantering av brännbart avfall och dess kostnader samt miljöpåverkan2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag behöver världen minska utvinningen av jordens resurser på global nivå. FN och världens länder möttes 2015 för att ta fram Agenda 2030, en agenda som bidrar till hållbar utveckling. Med hjälp av Agenda 2030 ska världens länder uppnå ett mål som bidrar till en social, ekonomisk och miljömässigt hållbar utveckling. Svenska byggsektorn står för den största mängd avfall som genereras i samhället varför åtgärder relaterad till minskning av avfall måste prioriteras. Naturvårdsverket har tagit fram en avfallsplan i enlighet med EU: avfallsdirektiv för att främja bygg- och rivningsavfall som genererar en stor mängd av avfall. NCC (Nordic Construction Company) är ett ledande bygg och fastighetsföretag som är verksamma i Norden. Företaget stödjer agenda 2030 och beskriver årligen i deras årsredovisning hur de jobbar med hållbar utveckling. NCC:s hållbarhetsmål och deras strategi följs upp och redogörs regelbundet. NCC arbetar ständigt för att minska mängden avfall som genereras i byggproduktion. Företaget samarbetar med avfallföretaget Ragn-Sells som hanterar avfallet som uppstår. Det som har framkommit i det här arbetet är att det finns stora potentialer att minska mängden brännbart material på byggarbetsplatsen. Brännbart material består främst av trä, plast, papper och wellpapp som kan sorteras i separata fraktioner och därefter återvinnas. Genom sortering i fraktioner ökar materialåtervinning och parallellt minskas dessutom förbränning av avfall vilket ger stora ekonomiska och miljömässiga vinster för NCC. Enligt utförda ekonomiska och miljömässiga beräkningar av mängd avfall på två av NCC:s projekt (Stationslunden och Mörbylund) fram kom det att NCC kan genom sortering av material kan minska mängden avfall upp till 55 procent. Minskning av mängd avfall med 55 procent är en jämförelse mellan Stationslundens genererade avfall till referensprojektet i Mörbylund som hade bäst hanteringsavfall. Källsorteringen kan i första hand lösas genom NCC:s interna åtgärder vilket det här arbetet har påpekat. Det finns också möjligheter att påverka mängden avfall externt genom att NCC börjar ställa högre krav på deras leverantörer för att arbeta mot en hållbar utveckling där mängden brännbart avfall ska minskas. De framkomna åtgärdsförslagen som det här arbetet redovisar kan NCC använda sig av för att förbättra sin källsortering. Ytterligare kan även andra byggföretag inom byggproduktion använda sig av åtgärdsförslagen för att öka källsorteringen som gynnar samhället i sin helhet.

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  • 6.
    Adolfsson, Ida
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Civil Engineering and Built Environment.
    Boman, Kristin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Civil Engineering and Built Environment.
    Energidelning mellan byggnader: Utveckling av en gemensam energicentralsmodell i IDA ICE2021Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to evaluate the potential of sharing energyregarding heat and cooling between buildings in a smalldecentralized energy system. A model of an energy substation wasdeveloped in IDA ICE Advanced level only system to create a timeefficient tool that is easy to handle for people in the industry.Three cases of building stocks with different heating and coolingdemands were modeled in the energy substation, both separately andcollectively, to investigate the differences in energy performanceas a result of energy recovery between buildings.

    The study also contained a sociotechnical aspect of thedecentralized energy system. Interviews were carried out to studyhow a mutual energy substation is implemented in reality and whatchallenges and opportunities the technology faces. An importantconclusion is that the future development for this new technologyis highly dependent on an increased cooperation between companiesin the industry.The simulations of the cases showed an improved energy performancefor the mutual energy substations in all three cases, sevenpercent improvement as most.

    The report concludes that there ispotential for an improved energy performance in a building stockwhen implementing a mutual energy substation since it enables theability to save energy through energy recovery. Furthermore, it isconcluded that a resembling heat and cooling demand within thebuilding stock increases the total energy performance of thesystem. An improved control system of the model is recommendedbefore deciding if and where it is beneficial to implement amutual energy substation. 

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    Adolfsson_Boman
  • 7.
    af Ugglas, Adam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Artilleriplattform Amfibie - Tekniska sensorer för självskydd ur ett användarperspektiv: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om användares behov2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Materiel acquisition for The Swedish Armed Forces (Försvarsmakten) is made by The Swedish Defence Materiel Administration (Försvarets materielverk) and is a rigorous and expensive process. The incentives to produce adequate material for the users are high, but how is the process of producing adequate material for the users best achieved? Theoutcome of these processes is to some extent judged by the satisfaction of the users. So wouldn't it be advantageous toinclude them in the process? By using theories of USCE (User centred systems engineering) and PD (Participatory Design) the purpose of this thesis is to examine future users expressed needs of technical sensors, for a high-speed artillery vessel with an integrated grenade launcher. The thesis also examines how theories and methods of USCEand PD can be applied to find out user needs in specific defined contexts. The study does so by using a series of scenarios presented in text and graphically. The interviewed users were asked to express their needs in relation to specific situations and threats in the scenario. The users’ expressed needs are later translated into a set of possible technical sensors for self-defence of the high-speed artillery vessel. The core idea of USCE is designing with the user in consideration. The core idea of PD is to design with the user, enabling for more valid information to be extractedand put into design. In this case it was done by presenting nine scenarios, where the respondents were asked what they wanted to know and what they wanted to do. In addition to answering questions, they were also encouragedto draw graphic information on the illustrations of the scenario material. This was done to enable transfer of additional knowledge and information from the respondents. The analysis suggests a combination of technical sensors that was found to correspond to the expressed user needs. It was also found that USCE and PD can be used to better identify user needs. However, the methods and activities for doing so can benefit from further studies. The presented combination of technical sensors for self-defence might reflect the expressed needs of users, it is however not necessarily the best solution for this high-speed artillery vessel. The best solution also needs to account for factors like budget and the role of the high-speed artillery vessel in a larger context. The presented sensor solution could be further validated if tested together with potential users. The result of this study might however contribute to more substantiated decisions for the final design of the artillery platform, as well as showing the importance of involving users and carefully chosen activities for doing so.

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  • 8.
    Agerhäll, Isabella
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering.
    Kindmark, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering.
    Stern, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering.
    Towards Climate Neutral Facility Management: Improved Greenhouse Gas Emission Calculations for Ihus2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Uppsala municipality has set a goal in line with the UN’s 2030 Agenda for sustainable development to be fossil-free by 2030. To achieve this a lot of local companies have signed the Uppsala Climate Protocol. One of these companies is the municipal facility management company AB Uppsala Kommun Industrihus, Ihus. This project aimed to help Ihus map their emissions connected to facility maintenance and management and to enable them to reach their goal of becoming climate neutral by 2030. 

    The daily facility management was split up into the categories gardening, ventilation and installation, cleaning and facility work, materials and products, renovations, and painting. A sustainability spend analysis was performed on Ihus’ organisation and emissions per spent MSEK were calculated for each category by researching Ihus’ suppliers. By using those emission intensities, the two categories with the highest emissions could be identified as renovations and materials and products with intensities of 84.48 and 57.56 tonnes CO2e/MSEK, respectively. The remaining categories all had intensities below 3 tonnes CO2e/MSEK. 

    Sensitivity analyses were performed on the results by tweaking the values of which the emissions were based on. The results showed that to lessen Ihus’ climate impact the areas of improvement are life cycle assessments for their facilities and overseeing transports. 

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  • 9.
    Ahl, Matilda
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Hållbar utveckling: Utveckling av en organisations hållbarhetsarbete genom benchmarking2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Work with sustainable development can result in several benefits to an organization and is above all important when it comes to the organization's opportunities to handle the changes in the world around it and survive in the long run. Previous research shows, however, that it is not an easy task to conduct successful work with sustainable development, partly due to conflicting aspects and lack of guidance regarding which strategies, methods or activities that need to be implemented to achieve the desired result. Making decisions regarding how competent work with sustainable development should be conducted and developed is therefore difficult, which is why a case study has been carried out in order to assess how a specific organization can develop the work with sustainable development based on the benchmarking method Sustainability Progress Indicator Comparative Evaluation (SPICE). Based on this method, which is specifically developed for benchmarking regarding organizations' sustainability work, several of the mistakes that can undermine an organization's work with sustainable development could be studied and assessed. In this way, it became possible to assess the current situation of the specific organization based mainly on public information, but also to identify differences in performance and learn from the competitors in the energy and communications industry who have come further with their sustainability work. It then emerged that the organization's competitors are making more progress and conducting more extensive work with sustainable development, which was judged to be due to the specific organization lacking sufficient knowledge in the area. Due to the fact that knowledge, constant learning and development work form the basis for successful sustainability work, training of the organization's employees was therefore recommended in the first place. How the organization's sustainability work should be developed thereafter is not answered by the case study, however, which is why the necessary guidance to some extent is still lacking. It is therefore important that further investigation is carried out.

  • 10.
    Ahlqvist, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering.
    Applicability of simulation analysis for planning agri-food supply chains: A case study at a Swedish farmer-owned cooperative2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Agri-food supply chains (ASCs) are becoming increasingly complex, and its actors are in need of sophisticated planning tools to remain competitive in an industry that have been moving away from small individual actors towards large multi-national, highly vertically integrated cooperatives. This case study views reality from an objectivist point of view and utilises a positivist approach to study this reality. It combines qualitative and quantitative methods to study an ASC operating in the Kingdom of Sweden. This ASC’s planning processes are investigated in order to identify processes that are applicable to simulation by considering model verification, validation, and credibility. 

     

    The simulation model allowed for system analyses from a strategic perspective and, hence, simplified the planning process of evaluating different scenarios. The model was intrinsically verified and validated in consultation with the supervisor and subject reader and was thus able to accurately imitate the real-world system. The simulated scenarios comprised changes to the ASC’s infrastructure or design. The changes, in turn, comprised decommissions of one or more port-site storage facilities (HPs). Questions that were asked during the evaluation of the experiment results included what happens to the inventory levels of the non-decommissioned HPs when certain ones close? will the demand still be met? and if, then where, will queues arise in the system? It is shown that the non-decommissioned HPs will manage the closed HP’s volumes, but only to a certain extent. One closed HP does not cause severe problems, while two closed ones can create queues, which, in turn, will result in lower than desired inventory levels at the end of the harvesting period. Queues will arise from the closing of just one HP, although this queue is practically negligible, but as two are closed, the queues will create problems. The demand was able to be met even though an HP was closed, but to meet it while two HPs are closed, one of the non-decommissioned ones’ capacity must be increased. This, ultimately, generated or achieved for the host organisation a so called proof of concept (this is argued to generate credibility in the model). Some of the identified characteristics of their ASC are considered generic, while others can only be claimed to be specific the studied ASC. The study thus claims to have initiated a framework for the differentiation of strategic, tactical, and operational planning levels in an ASC. 

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  • 11.
    Ahlström, Emil
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Fors, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Play hard, work harder: Workification of gaming in a Swedish World of Warcraft Classic guildIn: Ephemera : Theory and Politics in Organization, ISSN 2052-1499, E-ISSN 1473-2866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper sets out to problematize and further develop the concept of workification in studies on the intersection of play and work. The literature on workification is scarce and focuses mainly on how game design transforms potentially playful activities in games into work-like tasks. In this study, which utilizes material from interviews and autoethnography, we illustrate the transformation of a World of Warcraft Classic guild, evolving from an informal gathering of friends into a structured organization with clear hierarchies and defined functions. By adopting the theoretical perspective of dominant logic, we show how the governing values and decision premises of the studied organization create a balancing act for management. The differing values of individuals within the organization led to the creation of administrative tools and rules to govern the organization’s members. Our conceptualization of workification emphasizes how aspects traditionally related to work – such as task management and organizational hierarchies – are being employed by guilds to enable new ways of enjoying the gaming experience. Committed players devote time and effort to producing spreadsheets, codes of conducts, and performance indicators, in addition to actually playing the game. While this may detract from the ‘magic’ of the game, we argue that workification can also offer new opportunities for playfulness and enjoyment.

  • 12.
    Ahmad, Bilal
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering.
    Kosasih, ii Ratna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering.
    Investigating Safe Implementation In Railway Industry: A case study at Alstom DC Sweden2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Organizations have always tried and pushed themselves to bring changes in how they conduct business. They do this to reach the market quickly and achieve customer satisfaction. This master thesis was conducted at a global leader transportation company, Alstom, to investigate Scaled Agile Frameworks (SAFe) adoption in their Sweden Development Centre, identifying SAFe implementation challenges in a safety-related development as a single-case study. For the thesis, two research questions were formulated to identify the implementation challenges and find their reasons. For the data collection of the thesis, semi-structured interviews, self-completion surveys, and relevant research papers were used to serve the purpose of both primary data and secondary data sources. The researchers acted as ethnographers by participating in the company’s daily events and taking notes. The analysis of the collected data was done using the triangulation approach to get reliable results. In addition, researchers also used SAFe core competency assessment to evaluate the business agility of the case organization.The analysis from the collected data resulted in five implementation challenges. The data suggested that the major challenge was insufficient training and lack of agile mindset among the team members. The case organization had invested in training and support for going through the transformation, but the agile training was interrupted in 2019. Since then, the knowledge about SAFe and the agile way of working was acquired based on learning by doing. Based on the data, the researchers concluded that lack of continuous training has resulted in the development over time of other implementation challenges like insufficient self-organization, nonoptimal team size, and lack of clarity when defining role responsibilities. The data also suggested that transparent communication between different levels may still be a challenge. The SAFe assessment that has been conducted resulted in confirm previous result that in some places complemented the identified implementation challenges. 

    Key Words: Scaling Agile Framework, Implementation challenges, Lean, Waterfall, Self-organization, Continuous learning culture, Safety related development, Business agility, Ethnography.

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  • 13.
    Ahmadi, Mostafa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering.
    Chamoun, Afram
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering.
    Artificiell intelligens som beslutsfattande medel vid ROT-arbeten: En kvalitativ intervjustudie för kartläggning av beslutfattningsprocessen2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The construction industry stands for a third of the total carbon dioxide emissions globally , this includes the building process as well as the usage of the buildings. This in combination with the need for renovating older buildings in Sweden can lead to additional stress on the environment. This project aims to map out the decision-making process for property owners and consultants when working with renovation projects. The purpose of the study is to identify problematic areas that hinder efficient decision-making and sustainability efforts. With the problem areas mapped out, different solutions containing artificial intelligence will be explored and discussed. Ethical implications with the implementation of artificial intelligence will also be discussed in this study. In this qualitative study, a set of steps were taken to answer the research questions. Firstly, a literature review was conducted to explore existing research. Secondly, semi-structured interviews were held to gather empirical data. Lastly, the interviews were transcribed and analyzed with thematic analysis, to identify problematic areas in the renovation projects. The research strategy applied for this study is abductive. Due to the existing pandemic, the usage of software such as Zoom and Microsoft Teams have been used to conduct the interviews. The results show that the factors hindering the decision-making process were regulations & laws, economy & sustainability, lack of recycling, and lack of documentation. These were areas that both the consultants and property owners described as bottlenecks in the decision- making process. Artificial intelligence solutions were discussed for the problem areas regulations & laws and economy & sustainability because there is statistical data that could be used for training an artificial intelligence, unlike the other two problem areas that have to be dealt with manually due to the neglect of workers. The artificial intelligence solutions presented in this study can be considered ethical due to their assisting purpose. Although this research provides ideas for the implementation of artificial intelligence they are very brief and theoretical, further development and exploration are needed to implement the solutions. 

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  • 14.
    Akhlaqi, Rohollah
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Civil Engineering and Built Environment.
    Momqvist, Jon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Civil Engineering and Built Environment.
    Fuktberäkningar i fogbetongen mellan håldäcksplattor: En analys av det ekvivalenta mätdjupet2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis covers calculations of the equivalent measuring depth in the joint concrete between hollow-core slabs performed using the calculation and simulation program WUFI Pro. The calculations are based on input data from field measurements performed by Polygon|AK in Uppsala. Input from the company has been combined with a moisture profile from the calculation program Torka S to construct a basic model in WUFI. Simulations have been made based on the basic model with constant water-cement ratio in joint concrete, three varying parameters in terms of relative humidity in spackle, leveling height for spackle and vapor resistance in carpets. In order to get a broader result basis, 18 different typical cases for further analysis have been studied. 

    The calculation results indicate that the industry standard according to RBK, which states the equivalent measuring depth to 50 % of the hollow-core slabs joint height, does not correspond to the calculation basis for this work. The result of this work indicates that the actual equivalent measuring depth is about 15-18 % of the height of the joint, depending on the selected parameters. The difference between the industry standard and the result of this work can be explained by the fact that in the previous calculations of the equivalent measuring depth assumes a completely dense surface layer and no drying downwards and moisture from glue has not been taken into account. The assumption that the water contained in the cross section does not dry out and only redistributes leads to results that do not correspond to today's real conditions in terms of more diffusion-open carpets, moisture from carpet glue and different moisture conditions in spackle. 

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  • 15.
    Al Dawood, Hayder Mahdi A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Bridging the gap between AI systems and society: algorithmic accountability and ethics within small AI organisations in Sweden: Is Sweden ready for AI Ethics?2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the last years, ethics has gained greater attention in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI). Stakeholders engage in debates on how to apply ethical principles in various AI organisations with many differing viewpoints. The importance of ethics in AI continuously increases as this area grows rapidly, with a considerable amount of small organisations appearing every day. At the same time, AI solutions enter all the spheres of human activities. Algorithmic accountability can be seen as one of the ways to achieve AI ethics. This thesis will, therefore, explore how small AI organisations can ensure algorithmic accountability. The thesis is based on qualitative data collected from semi-structured interviews in four Swedish small AI organisations. Findings reveal that small AI organisations in Sweden do not apply or consider applying ethical principles when developing their products. The reasons for such decisions are mainly a lack of policies and regulations. The lack of legislation makes ethics of less priority. This thesis proposes governmental bodies facilitate the AI industry by establishing clear policies, standards, and certifications. Such initiatives can assist AI organisations, especially small ones, to address ethical implications and push them towards a high level of AI. 

    Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, Algorithmic accountability, Small organisations, AI governance 

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  • 16.
    Al Dawood, Hayder Mahdi A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Seeking legitimacy through specialization and diversification: How do film festivals select films2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Seeking legitimacy through specialization and diversification
  • 17.
    Al Wazir, Alhussein
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Civil Engineering and Built Environment.
    Cedergren, Carl-Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Civil Engineering and Built Environment.
    Kartläggning av värdeflöden för prefabkonstruktion av kundanpassade betongprodukter: En fallstudie av APJ-Prefab AB2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background to the study is the increasing demand for customized products, which has led to more customer-driven companies being established to meet customers' needs. However, the requirements are the same for these companies as for non-customer driven companies, namely to reduce lead times, production costs and increase quality in order to thus become more competitive and profitable in the market. The purpose of the study was to investigate how value stream mapping (VSM), which is initially a tool adapted for linear production, can be applied within a customer order-driven company characterized by high variation and low volume (HVLV). The aim is also to identify problem areas and develop suggestions for improvement. In order to answer the purpose of the study, a literature study was carried out in parallel with a case study at a manufacturing company that produces customized concrete products. Relevant literature was collected in order to be able to carry out a mapping of the production process with the help of the VSM tool. Interviews and observations made up the empirical material. Together, the theory and the collected material have formed the basis for answering the study's purpose and questions. Through the current VSM map together with production design, it was found that the case company has a complex material flow consisting of long transport routes, many intersecting material flows, many intermediate warehouses and where waste could be identified. This then constituted the development of improvement proposals and how the case company can make operations more efficient. The main conclusion of this study is that VSM can be adapted to operations with other production characteristics. The aspects that have proven to be significant when implementing VSM at companies, within the aforementioned context, is that the focus should be on mapping the physical flow of material and information and not treating time variables. In addition to the use of process maps that show the location of the processes inside the factory premises, which results in the practitioner being able to see intersecting material paths in the production process. Finally, the study reported other aspects that proved significant, namely the mapping of the professional worker's role in the flow, which theory around VSM does not deal with.

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  • 18.
    Al-Azzawi, Zahraa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Civil Engineering and Built Environment.
    Kuiper, Frida
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Civil Engineering and Built Environment.
    Standardisering av kontrollpunkter för nyproduktion av flerbostadshus: Vägen till en mer effektiv och kvalitativ kontrollplansprocess2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s control plan process is problematic according to the Swedish National Board of Housing. Unclear legislation has led to municipalities approving flawed control plans, since different actors have made different interpretations. Which highlights the lack of an established standard for the control plan process. Indicating a need for standardized control points guaranteeing a certain level of quality. BIMformation requested a standardized template for their digital tool ASK. Where the template would be a tool for effectivization of the control plan process. The template would also be available for other actors and not bound to ASK. This thesis investigates if it is possible to create an industry-wide standard, in the form of a template with control points for new construction of apartment buildings. To achieve this, control plans from previous apartment building projects have been collected from Swedish municipalities and control managers. Their contents were analyzed and the control points present in more than half were identified and compiled into a table. The result is table of 23 shared control points categorized after the Swedish Nation Board of Housing’s building regulations’ (BBR) chapters.  A survey was created to evaluate the result and answer the question of to what extent the compiled template could be implemented in practice. The results were diverging but indicated that the template did function as a minimum level standardization. With possibilities to add individual control points to make the control plan fit the project at hand. The control point template will then be an aid in creating control plans. The content should however be evaluated further to allow for identification of other potential issues. After which it could be used for an actual construction project. The template could be part of a more effective and qualitative control plan process that in the future could be used on a national level independent of differing directives from different municipalities. 

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  • 19.
    Al-Barghouthi, Mohammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Towards Understanding Knowledge Interchange In Cross-Functional Teams: A case study on organizational learning2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, many organizations are facing an increased necessity to employ cross-functional teams. Its growing popularity is rooted in its positive impacts on innovation. Additionally, these teams are an excellent way of managing complex organizational tasks without the need for a significant modification of the existing organizational structure. Despite the benefits of the cross-functional team, the diversity in the profession and the specialized knowledge possessed by the team members lead to different thought worlds and perceptions, causing communication barriers. This is problematic because communication is needed to share, transfer, and create knowledge, which are the prerequisites of both individual and organizational learning. There is various literature on knowledge management and learning; however, our understanding of how knowledge interchanges in cross-functional teams remain limited. Therefore, this thesis conducts semi-structured interviews at five successful companies to examine the policies and procedures established by management to facilitate the interchange of knowledge in the organization. Also, it investigates the activities used by coordinators to maximize learning and create a sense of belonging in the cross-functional team.

    The findings of this study revealed several activities that could increase both the knowledge interchange and the team’s learning. First, it is preferred to have decent knowledge accessibility, where the bar to contact anyone is low. Second, it seems that knowledge receptivity has to be increased, which can be done by giving knowledge a meaning, using pictures, analogies, metaphors, Etc. Third, a frame of reference could be needed, where people can get into each other’s shoes through, for example, job rotations and learn each other’s jobspecific terminologies. Fourth, competition is preferred to be eliminated, which can be achieved by establishing a common team goal, removing internal bonuses, and eliminating ranking systems. Finally, it seemed essential to have cohesion in the group, which can be accomplished by having, for instance, afterworks, group travel activities, and collective organizational culture

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  • 20.
    Alberti, Giorgia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering.
    What can a National Park bring to Gotland?: A case study on Bästeträsk National Park in Sweden2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The role of community participation in protected areas has long been debated. Sweden is in the process of establishing two new National Park, of which one is located on the island of Gotland. In order to figure out the best approach to management of the area, it is important to listen to the residents. Through a qualitative study, I have therefore investigated whether residents would like to be included in the Park implementation and management, along with how the National Park could help Gotland reach its sustainability agenda by 2040. The findings show that communities are eager to be included in the National Park project, but also that Region Gotland should revise the way they address regional development.

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  • 21.
    Aldalati, Omar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Användning av laserprojiceringsteknik inom tillverkningsprocesser2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    All companies strive for increased quality and productivity in their operations by streamlining resource use and / or using new technology. This has led them to try to find new technical solutions that can be integrated into production as part of the improvement process, and that can drive the improvement work in the company forward.

     

    The purpose of this study is to identify opportunities for the use of laser projection technology in manufacturing processes and to study whether there may be a potential to use the technology in parallel with the manual activities. The study presents various theories about laser projection technology and identifies important concepts, and it is conducted at Hitachi-ABB in a sheet metal workshop department within their production of transformers. To do this, several interviews and observations have been conducted within their factory in Ludvika, and a company that supplies laser projection products has been contacted to study their products and find a product that fits.

     

    The result has been that the company Faro supplies laser projection technology solutions and has suitable products that can minimize disruption to manual work and can replace a large part of the measurement, etching and quality control that is performed in the Detail area of ​​the sheet metal workshop department. Faro Tracer has not been tested in the workplace, but a comparison has been made between data collected from Hitachi-ABB and the technology supplier Faro. However, further studies must be performed where the technology can be tested on-site.

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  • 22.
    Aldalati, Omar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Investigating the existing state of the municipal water and sewage infrastructure (VA) in Sweden and identifying privatization & partnership opportunities2023Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     The Swedish government supports local government initiatives in an effort to promote societal wellbeing. Municipalities work to improve the quality of life for their citizens while also providing services that are friendly to the environment. One of the major duties for municipalities that need more attention is providing drinkable water and maintaining a reliable sewer system. In order to prevent any contamination of drinking water or any filtration or leakage concerns with sewer systems, they demand significant investment and long-term attention. The VA (stands for water and sewer system in Swedish)is one of the most important infrastructure assets in a functioning society, where disruptions and interruptions risk having far-reaching consequences for people's health. The report outlines the current status of the water and sewage system in Sweden and details how accommodating it is to be improved. The study seeks areas where water and sewage services can be improved through external entrepreneurs that could establish and manage these assets, instead of the local governmental authorities. The report will also look at potential improvements in water and sewage system, through enhanced collaboration and partnership with other municipalities. In order to accomplish this, numerous literature and interviews with municipal representatives have been made, in addition to the inspection of other resources to gather information on how to continue. As a result, the water and sewage infrastructure is currently in a critical state and requires significant investment as well as quick action. The report also discovered that there are numerous legal barriers and limitations for privatizing water and sewerage operations. On the other hand, one of the report's main conclusions is that it is necessary to take into account cooperation and partnerships between municipalities in order to enhance local organizational performance and come up with a joint solution to the financial problems. However, more research must be done, and the business justifications of some municipalities' current partnerships should be looked at. 

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  • 23.
    Alderhell, William
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Hamad, Gulnaz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management. Uppsala University.
    The Challenge Of Incubating Sustainability In The Swedish Innovation System: An Exploratory Study Of Business Incubators And Entrepreneurs Tackling Sustainability Issues2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years there has been an increased focus on preservation of our environment and natural resources. As a result, in a notably natural resource consuming world, sustainable development has evolved in societies for the conservation of the environment. Even though the term sustainability has become more frequently discussed, the subject remains complex. The aim of the study is to explore how high-profile business incubators in Sweden and the startups they support relate to sustainability, and to understand the conditions for pushing more progressive sustainability agendas, in a country that boasts about its sustainability ambitions. Fourteen in-depth, semi-structured interviews were held with both incubator business developers, startup founders, an expert within the innovation system and a professional investor. This qualitative study analyses different perceptions regarding sustainability and the incubators and startups role within the innovation system in a country that boasts about its sustainability ambitions. The results indicate that there is a demand for stricter institutional pressures, with increased support for entrepreneurs. It also turns out that incubators have room for improvement when it comes to motivational inspiration and behavioural changes for their tenants. However, they show to be receptive and attentive towards a systematic approach in order to enhance sustainability work. It is also shown that entrepreneurs', compared to the incubators, appears to have taken a greater distance from understanding the sustainability topic. As many as 56 percent of the entrepreneurs claimed that a forced method could be beneficial but might require more time than it is worth. The remaining 44 percent saw it as purely advantageous. Future studies are encouraged to conduct an investigation including a greater number of participants as an attempt to generalise these findings, and also try to identify if gender has a significant role regarding the matter.

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  • 24.
    Alfredsson, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering.
    Business Excellence: Kvalitetssäkringsplanering2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 25.
    Alhajji, Ali
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Civil Engineering and Built Environment.
    Möjligheter till energieffektivisering för småhus från 1950- och 1960-talet i Tierp.2023Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, three different single-family house types were meticulously studied with the aim of improving energy efficiency through a variety of measures. These measures were identified, simulated, and combined to create specific action packages for each single-family house type. The individual measures simulated using BIM Energy software included basement wall insulation, exterior wall insulation, attic floor insulation, window and door replacements (only for house type 1, as other single-family houses had already undergone these replacements), installation of FTX ventilation, and installation of solar panels. After simulating the individual measures, three distinct action packages were created by combining the individual measures. The results demonstrated that the action packages had a positive impact on energy efficiency and influenced various aspects, such as energy performance, heating, energy losses, and the U-value. The three created action packages were designed to improve the building envelope and energy performance. Action Package 1 consisted of FTX ventilation, exterior wall insulation, and window and door replacements. In Action Package 3, FTX ventilation, attic floor insulation, and exterior wall insulation were combined, with the combination for single-family house type 3 being the same as that for single-family house type 2. Simulations revealed that single-family house type 2 was the only one that met the energy performance requirements according to BBR 29 after implementing the action package. Single-family house types 1 and 3 did not fully meet the energy requirements, but they came close to compliance after implementing the action package. As for the U-value, it was only met in house type 2 when implementing individual measures, specifically exterior wall insulation. Single-family house type 3 came close to meeting the requirements, while single-family house type 1 required substantial improvements to comply with the standards. In summary, this research highlights the importance of selecting the right measures to enhance energy efficiency in single-family houses, with specific measures tailored to each single-family house type. 

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  • 26.
    Al-Helly, Taif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering.
    Processbaserad utveckling: En fallstudie för att mäta produktionsprocessen i en avdelning.2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study is about examining an area for improvement in the selected department in the organization's production process. The improvement work is based on problems that arise with the employees during production. The study is qualitative, which means that the information is collected through interviews and observations.

    The study visualizes the manufacturing process in the company. First, a rough process mapping is created for the most requested service in the department, then activities are found that do not create value for the business and the customers. The activities that do not create value must be eliminated and a plan of measures must be presented.

    The information obtained about the process will be used by the employees in the department to create a better internal communication. The study provides suggestions for working methods on how the department can follow up the new process and how the department can work systematically with the drawn processes.

    The process presented consists of two parts. The first part is the sub-process that presents all the steps that take place before the employees start manufacturing the service. It consists daily activities that have not been documented before. In part two of the process, which is the main process, its about presenting all the steps that employees go through to create a service. That part of the process looks different depending on which service is to be analyzed.

    The study aims to improve the quality of the manufacturing process by using different tools and working methods. The process mapping is designed to visualize the production process, areas for improvement are identified with the help of FMEA to work constantly with improvements. Follow-up of the process mapping is presented in a kanban board so that the business can follow up the production process on the board.

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  • 27.
    Alho, Charlotta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Pettersson, Alice
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    En undersökning av digitala projektstyrningsverktyg: En fallstudie utförd på en kommunikationsbyrå i Visby 2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study has been conducted on a communication agency called Outhousebyrån. The study examines the organization’s approach to project management and explores opportunities for enhancing efficiency. The study has also investigated how a new digital project management tool affects Outhousebyråns project management.

    Outhousebyrån faces difficulties structuring, planning and communicating during projects. The study has chosen to examine two digital project management tools, Trello and Monday. These have been tested on Outhousebyråns ongoing projects based on their needs and preferences.

    The purpose of the study is to present a digital project management tool to help Outhousebyrån structure and make their projects more effective. The study conducted is a qualitative case study where the data was collected using three methods, semi-structured interviews, observations, and sent-out questionnaires. The collected data has been analyzed based on theories that originates from Total Quality Management (TQM) and project management.

    Based on the analyzed result it was concluded that Outhousebyrån needed a digital project management tool, that would help them structure their projects. The study has compiled a list of the employees preferences regarding functions in a updated digital project management tool.

    The result showed that both tools fulfilled most of the expectations collected from the data. Since both tools could be implemented, the choice between the two was based on Mondays wider selection of functions and Outhousebyråns personal preferences. The result showed that Monday was more suitable for the organization. Finally, a proposal was presented on how Monday could be implemented for Outhousebyråns project management.

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  • 28.
    Al-Jaff, Mohammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Messing With The Gap: On The Modality Gap Phenomenon In Multimodal Contrastive Representation Learning2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In machine learning, a sub-field of computer science, a two-tower architecture model is a specialised type of neural network model that encodes paired data from different modalities (like text and images, sound and video, or proteomics and gene expression profiles) into a shared latent representation space. However, when training these models using a specific contrastive loss function, known as the multimodalinfoNCE loss, seems to often lead to a unique geometric phenomenon known as the modality gap. This gap is a clear geometric separation of the embeddings of the modalities in the joint contrastive latent space. This thesis investigates the modality gap in multimodal machine learning, specifically in two-tower neural networks trained with multimodal-infoNCE loss. We examine the adequacy of the current definition of the modality gap, the conditions under which the modality gap phenomenon manifests, and its impact on representation quality and downstream task performance.

    The approach to address these questions consists of a two-phase experimental strategy. Phase I involves a series of experiments, ranging from toy synthetic simulations to true multimodal machine learning with complex datasets, to explore and characterise the modality gap under varying conditions. Phase II focuses on modifying the modality gap and analysing representation quality, evaluating different loss functions and their impact on the modality gap. This methodical exploration allows us to systematically dissect the emergence and implications of the modality gap phenomenon, providing insights into its impact on downstream tasks, measured with proxy metrics based on semantic clustering in the shared latent representation space and modality-specific linear probe evaluation.

    Our findings reveal that the modality gap definition proposed by W. Liang et al. 2022, is insufficient. We demonstrate that similar modality gap magnitudes can exhibit varying linear separability between modality embeddings in the contrastive latent space and varying embedding topologies, indicating the need for additional metrics to capture the true essence of the gap.

    Furthermore, our experiments show that the temperature hyperparameter in the multimodal infoNCE loss function plays a crucial role in the emergence of the modality gap, and this effect varies with different data sets. This suggests that individual dataset characteristics significantly influence the modality gap's manifestation. A key finding is the consistent emergence of modality gaps with small temperature settings in the fixed temperature mode of the loss function and almost invariably under learned temperature mode settings, regardless of the initial temperature value. Additionally, we observe that the magnitude of the modality gap is influenced by distribution shifts, with the gap magnitude increasing progressively from the training set to the validation set, then to the test set, and finally to more distributionally shifted datasets.

    We discover that the choice of contrastive learning method, temperature settings, and temperature values is crucial in influencing the modality gap. However, reducing the gap does not consistently improve downstream task performance, suggesting its role may be more nuanced than previously understood. This insight indicates that the modality gap might be a geometric by-product of the learning methods rather than a critical determinant of representation quality. Our results encourage the need to reevaluate the modality gap's significance in multimodal contrastive learning, emphasising the importance of dataset characteristics and contrastive learning methodology.

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  • 29.
    Almassri, Fatma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering.
    Holmgren, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering.
    Att optimera resursanvändandet för att främja kapacitet och tillgänglighet till vård: En kartläggning för att möta framtidsutmaningar2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Health care is facing major future challenges with a changing demographic. An aging population means increasing multi-morbidity and complex care needs. This means that more people need to share the same resources. The study intends to investigate how existing resources can be optimized to promote accessibility to care from a quality engineering perspective.

    Method: Data collection was carried out with combination of a systematic literature study and a case study. A deductive thematic analysis was used to analyze collected qualitative data which was compiled into categories and themes. The results of both studies were analyzed using pattern analysis, where similarities and differences were highlighted.

    Results: Several barriers in hospital-wide flow were identified and compiled into eight categories; management, planning & collaboration, quality, capacity, system understanding, communication, patient and staff. Process indicators are demonstrated in many parts of the care process and the various functions of healthcare. Proposed solutions for resource optimization to promote accessibility to care were summarized into six themes and 28 categories. Identified themes are, the patient at the center, mission and organization, strategic leadership, people in the organization, applying new technology and developing the care services.

    Conclusion: Previous studies that examined factors which affects capacity in hospitals emphasizes the importance of holistic understanding, which is confirmed in this study. If the capacity and thus accessibility to care is to be promoted, it is required that the development takes place with an understanding of the healthcare system. It also requires knowledge of how care can meet patients' needs with the help of quality technology. By using a variety of principles, methods and tools, performance can be improved and accessibility to care can be promoted.

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  • 30.
    Alonso Guerrero, Aida Sarai
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering.
    The Pillars of Sustainable Cultural Tourism and Entrepreneurship: The case of Gotland as a Cultural Destination2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Island of Gotland is well-known for being prosperous in cultural  and natural values, as well as for its attractiveness as a touristic destination that draws local and international visitors to its myriad of cultural activities, offerings and establishments. For those reasons, Region Gotland has created comprehensive plans aimed at achieving goals related to exalting the image of the island as place for sustainable tourism and the promotion of culture. However, it is important to identify possible problematics that may arise during the implementation of such plans, and additionally it is important to compare and analyze the directives of the Region against what cultural actors and artists perceive in their day-to-day activities. Therefore, based on the existing literature, the collected data, and the identified themes in this research, a model that seeks to incorporate concepts related to the Promotion of Culture, Culturally Sustainable Enterprises and Cultural Tourism will be presented as a solution to tackle the problems and issues that cultural destinations such as Gotland might face.

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  • 31.
    Altenburg, Sido
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    The Swedish System of Protein Extraction Industry from Legumes and the System Limitations: A Technical Innovation System Study2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background – The climate impact of the agricultural sector calls for sustainable transitions in the food industry. One solution to a more environmentally friendly sector, is the transition towards plant-based diets. Legumes play an important role in the sustainability transitions towards more plant-based protein.

    Purpose – The study aims to explore and define the system functions for plant-based protein extraction from legumes in Sweden and to analyse the current limiting functions of the system. To investigate the above aim, this research intends to adres the following two research questions:

    1) What actors and system functions shape the plant-based protein extraction industry out of legumes look like in Sweden from a system perspective?

    2) What functions are limiting the establishment of protein extraction facilities in Sweden?

    Method – The methodology used is a qualitative case study of the Swedish plant-based protein extraction industry. The data was collected through interviews and literature review. The data collected was analysed according to the Technical Innovation System (TIS) framework.

    Findings – The current Swedish system of protein extraction is lacking the ability to provide a wide variety of high-quality extracted protein due to lack of technology, infrastructure and actors for establishing a well-developed Swedish plant-based protein extraction industry. The main limitations found for the protein extraction industry are the high economic investment needed to establish extraction facilities. This together with high uncertainties for new actors to enter the field and due to limited knowledge of providing high-quality and tasty protein to the industry.

    Implications – The findings of this study provide a guideline to developers and policymakers which aim to encourage the development of the Swedish plant-based food industry. And will allow the emerging protein extraction industry to get more support in the areas which are currently the most important obstacles.

    Limitations – The study is limited in that perspectives of certain actors are not represented in the interviews. One example of this is the perspectives of equippment suppliers, which is important as this group of actors have been highlighted to have significant knowledge in the studied area. 

    Keywords – Sustainability transitions, Socio-technical systems, Technical Innovation System, Value Chain, Protein Extraction, Legumes

  • 32.
    Ambekar, Shubham
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering.
    Samuel Jonathan Andrews, Danny Duke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering.
    Investigating Perceive Value in B2B Setting2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Value is fundamental in business-to-business marketing, where marketing revolves around the term value. Understanding the value of offering through customers' eyes is important for business success. Due to the subjective nature of value, it's imperative to understand the value based on the customer's individual interpretation. In this context, perceived value plays a central theme for this study, and analyzed in the terms of benefits and sacrifices. But to capture the broader picture of customers' value functional, social, and emotional perceived values were considered. The research questions were formed to investigate the kind of values that customers perceive, and another question was framed to investigate the multidimensionality of values. In order to answer the research questions, a qualitative descriptive approach was applied and through judgmental sampling, respondents were chosen. The five potential customers were interviewed through semi-structured technique.

    The authors applied the model “value hierarchy” to investigate the customer's perceived value which consists of three layers: attributes, consequences and objects; it shows correlation among the three layers. The laddering technique was used in connection with hierarchy, through this technique authors understood how consumers were able to perceive value in each layer. The tangibilization strategy was used to provide cues that helped build mental construct of services in customer’s minds. Customers assess the services by evaluating its value. The value from the consequences were perceived multidimensionally by customers depending on the attributes. Customers perceived functional value in aspects of saving time and ease of workload. They were able to perceive value socially, when some features helped manage stress among the employees and through provision of these services to end customers saw an increase in firm awareness in the market. Customers also felt a feeling of happiness when using certain attributes especially among the end customers thereby bringing emotional value into the picture. All the different values perceived helped reach their respective end-goals.  The model found useful to investigate the customer value sequentially, also evaluating current customer’s needs. The study revealed that the attributes aren't chosen without a purpose. Customers perceive some benefits from the attributes that help achieve their specific needs. The study was confirmation about integrating the model with different value dimensions helped determine the connection of these dimensions with customer value. The study ends with presenting managerial, theoretical and practical implications and provides ground for future research in exploring other framework of values, followed by limitations of the study.

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  • 33.
    Amirian, Parissa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering.
    Volunteering at an eco-community: The impact on the three basic psychological needs - a case study of Hästekasen Farm2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 34.
    Amouzgar, Kaveh
    et al.
    Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management. Högskolan i Skövde, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap.
    Ljustina, Goran
    Volvo Car Corporation, ME PS Research and Technology, Skövde, Sweden.
    Optimizing index positions on CNC tool magazines considering cutting tool life and duplicates2020In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 93, p. 1508-1513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Minimizing the non-machining time of CNC machines requires optimal positioning of cutting tools on indexes (stations) of CNC machine turret magazine. This work presents a genetic algorithm with a novel solution representation and genetic operators to find the best possible index positions while tool duplicates and tools life are taken in to account during the process. The tool allocation in a machining process of a crankshaft with 10 cutting operations, on a 45-index magazine, is optimized for the entire life of the tools on the magazine. The tool-indexing time is considerably reduced compared to the current index positions being used in an automotive factory. 

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  • 35.
    Amouzgar, Kaveh
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management. University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Nourmohammadi, Amir
    University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Ng, Amos H. C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management. University of Skövde, Skövde, Sweden.
    Multi-objective optimisation of tool indexing problem: a mathematical model and a modified genetic algorithm2021In: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588X, Vol. 59, no 12, p. 3572-3590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Machining process efficiencies can be improved by minimising the non-machining time, thereby resulting in short operation cycles. In automatic-machining centres, this is realised via optimum cutting tool allocation on turret-magazine indices – the “tool-indexing problem”. Extant literature simplifies TIP as a single-objective optimisation problem by considering minimisation of only the tool-indexing time. In contrast, this study aims to address the multi-objective optimisation tool-indexing problem (MOOTIP) by identifying changes that must be made to current industrial settings as an additional objective. Furthermore, tool duplicates and lifespan have been considered. In addition, a novel mathematical model is proposed for solving MOOTIP. Given the complexity of the problem, the authors suggest the use of a modified strength Pareto evolutionary algorithm combined with a customised environment-selection mechanism. The proposed approach attained a uniform distribution of solutions to realise the above objectives. Additionally, a customised solution representation was developed along with corresponding genetic operators to ensure the feasibility of solutions obtained. Results obtained in this study demonstrate the realization of not only a significant (70%) reduction in non-machining time but also a set of tradeoff solutions for decision-makers to manage their tools more efficiently compared to current practices.

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  • 36.
    Anand Alagamanna, Aravindh
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Juneja, Simarjit Singh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Man-Hour Estimations in ETO: A case study involving the use of regression to estimate man-hours in an ETO environment2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The competition in the manufacturing industry has never been higher. Owing to the technological changes and advancements in the market, readily available data is no longer a thing of the past. Numerous studies have discussed the impact of industry 4.0, digital transformation as well as better production planning methods in the manufacturing industry.  The Mass-Manufacturing industry, in specific, has gained efficiency levels in production that were previously unimaginable. Industry 4.0 has been discussed as the ‘next big thing’ in the manufacturing context. In fact, it is seen as a necessity for manufacturing companies to stay competitive. However, efficient production planning methodologies are a preliminary requirement in order to successfully adopt the new manufacturing paradigms. The Engineering-to-order (ETO) industry is still widely unexplored by the academia ETO industries, barely have any production planning methodologies to rely on owing to their complex production processes and high reliance on manual-labour. Regression techniques have repeatedly been used in the production planning context. Considering its statistical prowess, it is no surprise that even the newer machine-learning techniques are based on regression. Considering its success in the mass-manufacturing industry for production planning, is it possible that its usage in the ETO industry might lead to the same results?

    This thesis involves a case study that was performed at an electrical transformer manufacturing plant in Sweden. After understanding the several operations that are performed in the production process, regression techniques are employed to estimate man-hours. The results from the study reconfirm the statistical prowess of regression and show the possibility of using regression in order to estimate man-hours in the ETO industry. In addition, several factors that can affect successful adoption of this tool in the production planning context are discussed. It is hoped that this study will lay the foundation for better production planning methodologies for the ETO industries in the future which might subsequently result in more data-driven decision making rather than instincts.

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  • 37.
    Anandarao, Venkatesh
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Bandi, Sukrit Reddy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Factors affecting the adoption of solar thermal technology: A study on Food and Chemical Industries2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The rising concerns of climate change and global warming have made the current practices of industrial energy generation and consumption highly unsustainable. There is a growing awareness of the importance of renewable energy use in addressing climate change and establishing sustainable development. One of the renewable sources which have gained popularity over time is solar energy. Among the various solar technologies, one potential segment is solar thermal technology which involves solar thermal collectors. This technology mainly concentrates on providing industrial process heat across a wide range of temperature, and it's classified within the industry of Solar Heat for Industrial Process (SHIP). Though the SHIP technologies show strong technical feasibility, only few industries employ solar heat and there is a decreasing trend of adoption. 

    Hence, this research aims to understand the reasons for decreasing adoption by studying what and how are the factors affecting the adoption of solar thermal technology. This is done by performing a qualitative study across two industrial sectors food and chemical in the region of Middle East and North Africa (MENA). The obtained data by conducting semi-structured interviews are analysed using the Technological-Organization-Environment (TOE) theoretical framework. 

    The results from the study show that there are 9 important factors affecting the adoption of solar thermal technology that are categorized into technological factors (reliability, flexibility, financial attractiveness, and competitive alternatives), organizational factors (management support and resources) and environmental factors (regulatory environment, technology support provider and competitive pressure). Apart from the technological factors of lack of reliability and financial attractiveness, the organizational factors of lack of resources and the environmental factor of low incentives in MENA region, the aspect of cheap competitive alternatives especially in the MENA region, is causing the decrease in adoption within the food and chemical industry.

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  • 38.
    Anantharramu, Gurruraj
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Kaiser, Pascal
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Understanding the design and delivery of customer experience from multiple perspectives: A case study within luxury travel industry2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Staging experiences and providing optimal customer experience has become the new battlefield within the marketing segment, since the introduction of experience economy. The modern customer has multiple devices, channels and touchpoints to interact with the organization and with rapidly changing digital technology, where the product or service information are available online 24/7, he/ she is in-charge of his/ her own experiences. This multitude of options pose great challenges for the organization to understand customer needs, expectations, and behavior, and predict and manage customer experience. Despite numerous studies and streams of literature, several authors, scholars, and practitioners have developed fragmented frameworks and models that partially addresses this multidimensional construct of customer experience. Furthermore, things get complicated when these fragmented constructs are used by the luxury travel industry to design, develop, and manage customer experience.

    Therefore, in order to address this broad concept and provide the organization with a holistic framework that can be leveraged for providing customer experience, we conducted a qualitative multi-case study, that included 14 semi-structured interviews from various actors within the supply- chain of the luxury travel industry. Using thematic analysis, the rich empirical data from the interviews were analyzed and transformed into sub-themes and themes. Keeping these themes as the foundation, we propose an integrated conceptual model that captures a firm integrating customer and co-creation perspectives to provide customer experience. This integrated model consists of five building blocks, Organizational Factors, Design, Delivery and Management of customer experience, Co-Creation, Customer Experience Insights / Metrics and Moderating Factors, that coupled together should influence customer experience. Using this conceptual model, we analyzed how different actors within the supply-chain provide customer experience. Subsequently, we also develop a customer journey map (from a customer perspective) consisting of customer needs, channels, and touchpoints to understand the critical touchpoint that act as the primary contributors for providing customer experience. And finally, we highlight the driving factors and barriers for providing customer experience within luxury travel industry.

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    Understanding CX - A case study within luxury travel industry
  • 39.
    Ancillai, Chiara
    et al.
    Univ Politecn Marche, Dept Management, Piazzale Martelli 8, I-60121 Ancona, Italy..
    Sabatini, Andrea
    Univ Politecn Marche, Dept Management, Piazzale Martelli 8, I-60121 Ancona, Italy..
    Gatti, Marco
    Univ Politecn Marche, Dept Management, Piazzale Martelli 8, I-60121 Ancona, Italy..
    Perna, Andrea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management. Univ Politecn Marche, Dept Management, Piazzale Martelli 8, I-60121 Ancona, Italy.
    Digital technology and business model innovation: A systematic literature review and future research agenda2023In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 188, article id 122307Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital technologies (e.g. Industry 4.0, Internet of Things, cloud computing, big data, blockchain, etc.), are profoundly affecting companies' activities and processes, thus leading to changes in firms' value creation, value delivery, and value capture mechanisms. Yet, despite significant investments in digital technologies and digital transformation, firms are struggling to yield the most out of them, thereby facing a digital paradox. This scenario has drawn the attention of academics and practitioners leading to a growing body of literature on the rela-tionship between digital technology and business model innovation. Yet, the extant academic research in this area appears highly fragmented. Hence, this study conducts a systematic literature review to gather and syn-thesize the extant knowledge on this topic. The review identifies four main thematic areas, provides an inter-pretative framework, and suggests valuable future research directions within each thematic area. The article contributes to the theoretical and managerial discussion on digital-driven business model innovation.

  • 40.
    Andersson, Jakob
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering.
    Norqvist, Sakarias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering.
    Granskning och utveckling av rutiner kring markradon vid projektering i Helsingborg2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A building with high levels of radon gas in the indoor air has a negative effect on the users of the building. Radon in buildings is one of the most common cause to lung cancer in Sweden today, which is why the Boverkets byggregler have set a limit value of 200 Bq/m3 for indoor air in new buildings. The limit value is twice as high as the limit value set by WHO, due to the high uranium levels in Sweden. The soil conditions in Sweden vary, which leads to the problem with the concentration of radon in the soil being different in different geographical locations in Sweden. The thesis has examined routines regarding radon in the soil at the design stage at Skanska in Helsingborg to highlight the risks of the municipality designating the area as a low-risk area. The methods used in this thesis consists of a survey, interviews and examination of documents and geodata. The survey and interviews were conducted with employees at Skanska in both Helsingborg and Uppsala, in order to make a comparison between two areas where the radon problem differ. The results show that there are gaps in knowledge about radon among the employees in Helsingborg, due to lack of experience. If the municipality does not set requirements regarding radon in the inspection plan, Skanska will not do so either. The results also show from measurements that there are areas in Helsingborg that should be considered a high-risk area for radon. One conclusion for the thesis is that regular internal education regarding radon can be beneficial in an area that is considered a low-risk area, as there is a lack of practical experience. Another conclusion is that it is misleading to generalize an area as a low-risk area, as measured values from radon examination in soils show local differences. A recommendation is therefore to always perform a radon examination before a new building is constructed.

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  • 41. Andersson, Johnn
    et al.
    Plummer, Paul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Lennerfors, Thomas Taro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Hedberg, Charlotta
    Socio-techno-ecological transition dynamics in the re-territorialization of food production: the case of wild berries in Sweden2024In: Sustainability Science, ISSN 1862-4065, E-ISSN 1862-4057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent geopolitical and economic crises underline the need for a European transition towards a more sustainable food system. Scholars and policymakers have called for a re-territorialization of food production to strike a better balance between local, regional and global value chains. This paper explores the role of re-territorialization through an analysis of the emergence, development and current transformation of the Swedish wild berry value chain. The analysis combines the multi-level perspective on sustainability transitions with a socio-techno-ecological system approach and draws on interviews, informal conversations, participant observations and a range of secondary sources. The resulting case narrative shows how processes of de-territorialization may result in regimes that fail to address sustainability potential and problems. It also highlights that processes of re-territorialization challenge established regimes by promoting niches that represent different, albeit complementary, value chain configurations. Apart from a rich empirical narrative that brings useful knowledge to stakeholders to the Swedish wild berry value chain, the paper contributes to the theoretical understanding re-territorialization, shows how the ecological dimension can be accounted for with the multi-level perspective on sustainability transitions and presents a number of general policy implications.

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  • 42.
    Anderzon, Anneli
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Civil Engineering and Built Environment.
    Wilhelmsson, Åsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Civil Engineering and Built Environment.
    Byggmaterialens klimatpåverkan och framtida förbättringar av flerfamiljshus i byggskedet2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is one of man´s greatest challenges today and will have major consequences if no action is taken. Limited climate impact is one of Sweden’s environmental quality goals and means that Sweden’s net emissions of greenhouse gases must be zero in 2045, and then achieve negative emission. In 2018, the construction and real estate sector accounted for 20 % of Sweden´s total greenhouse gas emissions. In order to reach the government´s goal of net zero emissions by 2045 the construction sector aim to halve 2015 greenhouse gas emissions by 2030. To reduce a building´s climate impact, the already implemented measures of energy efficiencies need to be supplemented with the development of more climate friendly and ecologically sustainable materials. A new legal requirement on climate declarations for new buildings will be introduced in January 2022. The climate declaration demand that the climate impact of the building materials is calculated using life cycle analyses. The aim of the study was to halve the climate impact from the materials in a multi-family building by the year 2030 and see how close to net zero it is possible to reach. The consulting firm WSP assisted with material data for a 4-storey building with a load-bearing element of concrete. The climate footprint for the product phase was calculated for the foundation, load-bearing elements, building enclosure and interior walls. Simulations were performed in the BM calculation program to compare emission levels with the building´s current situation and find materials that reduce the climate impact the most. The study is based on two basic scenarios, one with concrete in the foundation and load-bearing elements, together with climate-improving measures of the materials. In the second scenario, CLT-wood is used in the load-bearing elements. The results show that climate-improved concrete and reinforcement will reduce the climate impact in 2030 by 52 % compared with 2015. A load-bearing element of CLT-wood with cellulose insulation and climate-improved foundation gives a reduction of 62 %. Both scenarios meet the goal of halving the climate footprint by 2030. The alternative that gives the lowest climate impact in 2045 is the scenario with CLT-wood including carbon storage, but it is not permitted to credit carbon storage in the climate declaration. Thus, the scenario for the year 2045 with concrete will be the best alternative with an emission of 145 tonnes CO2e, closely followed by the scenario with CLT-wood with 159 tonnes of CO2e. In order to achieve the 2045 goal, a larger overall picture and compensatory measures will be required. But also, that the smaller components, such as plaster and insulation, are developed to minimize the climate impact.

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  • 43. Andreasson, Martin
    et al.
    Karabag, Solmaz Filiz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management. Department of Management and Engineering, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping, Sweden.
    Simonsson, Johan
    Agarwal, Girish
    Dynamics of related and unrelated digital diversification in established firms: Strategies, programs, process, and outcomes2024In: Technological forecasting & social change, ISSN 0040-1625, E-ISSN 1873-5509, Vol. 202, article id 123300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on digital transformation focuses on business models and technological innovation but it often lacks a detailed exploration of how firms develop, execute, and evaluate related and unrelated digital diversification strategies. To address this gap, this study employs a multiple case study approach to uncover the varied processes and outcomes of implementing digital diversification programs in established firms. The findings reveal that established firms frequently refine and adjust their digital diversification strategies to achieve desired results. Specifically, related digital diversification strategies benefit from well-defined market segments, clear technological focus, and robust senior management support. In contrast, unrelated digital diversification strategies thrive through extensive exploration and experimentation with novel digital technologies and markets, reduced senior managerial intervention and increased middle- and lower-level management involvement. Semi-related digital diversification strategies, which incorporate elements of both related and unrelated approaches, often encounter tensions owing to conflicting traditional and new program execution methods, posing significant realization challenges. Key factors identified as instrumental in the success of digital diversification strategies include technology, markets, management & organization, and program execution. The study concludes by discussing the managerial and academic implications and offers recommendations for future research in this domain.

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  • 44.
    Ansander, Rikard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Civil Engineering and Built Environment.
    Vätgassystem som reservkraft och effektkompenserande medel: Modellering och ekonomisk värdering av ett potentielt vätgassystem till ett sjukhus2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, a hydrogen system was investigated to supply a hospital with reserve power and power compensation. Through modelling, four different configurations of hydrogen systems and five different levels of maximum power intake from the electrical grid was evaluated. The evaluation was based on the economical feasibilty and climate footprint of the four different systems. The optimal hydrogen system that was suggested in this report was consisting of Proton electrolyte membrane(PEM) electrolysers, PEM fuel cells and solar panels that powered the elctrolysers for hydrogenproduction. The optimal power intake level was 2000 kW.

    The suggested system (hydrogen system 3) was never profitable and was shown using the economical metrics Net presentvalue and Levelised cost analysis. Though the hydrogen system had a positive cash flow, it had a large investment cost making it never profitable during the lifetime of the project, that was set to ten years. The total investment cost for the system amounted to 133 million swedish crowns and the cost of the energy used from the PEM fuel cells amounted to 0,536 thousand swedish crowns per kWh. This was due to the fuel cells since they were dimensioned for the reserve power as well which demanded a high power output, thus increasing the investment cost. Another reason for the high investement cost was the PEM technology that was used for the electrolysers and fuel cells. It is an immature technology but it stands out as leading technology for improvements and being important to reach an energy system that is sustainable. The amount of saved carbondioxide equivalents compared to the normal case when a hydrogen system was not in use, amounted to 74 tons. 

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  • 45.
    Ansari, Asif Akhtarhussain
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering.
    Decoding Agile: Challenges and Solutions A Qualitative study of the transition to Agile method2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The needs of the consumer are drastically changing with increased awareness, technology, and innovation. Information technology services are no longer part of the support function but a full-scale solution; the increased demand for personalized, real-time, and hassle-free services has burdened software solution providing companies. Over the last decade, Agile project management has gained popularity among various industries and specifically in the Information Technology industry and is often considered a silver bullet to solve different software project management challenges. Agile project management revolutionized the way software projects are developed and organized. However, organizations find it challenging to implement agile principles as the process requires an organization-wide cultural and social transformation. Managers face several barriers when they try to bring agile approaches in traditional organizations regarding technology, mindset, practices. It’s not adequate to just start learning and implementing new ways of working. The transition process needs parallel or equally salient activities of dealing with challenges on the organization and team level. This study provides insights for software organizations willing to undergo an agile transition that needs an initial understanding of various challenges, which can be a potential pitfall in the transition process. 

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  • 46. Ansari, Iman
    et al.
    Barati, Masoud
    Sadeghi Moghadam, Mohammad Reza
    Ghobakhloo, Morteza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    An Industry 4.0 readiness model for new technology exploitation2023In: International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, ISSN 0265-671X, E-ISSN 1758-6682, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 2519-2538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Considering the importance and the broad applications of the Fourth Industrial Revolution in various organizations and industries and enjoying the many benefits of this digital transformation framework, organizations need to measure their Industry 4.0 readiness as a starting point and take steps to achieve the strategic goals of Industry 4.0. This study aims to design a comprehensive and practical model that can determine Industry 4.0 readiness level, allowing organizations to implement and exploit technological constituents of this phenomenon.

    Design/methodology/approach

    A systematic literature review (SLR) methodology was used to evaluate and summarize a clear and comprehensive literature overview of Industry 4.0 readiness models and to certify the validity and transparency of the review process. After reviewing 71 articles and survey and then the consensus of Industry 4.0 experts, the 10 dimensions of the 4.0 Industry readiness model were finalized with their indicators having the most frequency in the published articles and models.

    Findings

    The application of the SLR to the development of the new Industry 4.0 readiness model which includes 10 dimensions and 37 indicators and can assess the Industry 4.0 readiness of firms and industries accurately and effectively.

    Research limitations/implications

    An extensive review of the previous literature yielded the current Industry 4.0 readiness model. The comprehensiveness of this model leads to its wide application in different companies. Future research suggestions are presented at the end of the manuscript.

    Practical implications

    The concept of the Fourth Industrial Revolution and the application of its technologies are vague and complicated for many organizations and managers, while the need to implement the components and technologies of Industry 4.0 is essential to achieve organizational goals. The presented readiness model helps companies to measure their readiness to enter the Fourth Industrial Revolution and achieve long-term goals.

    Originality/value

    In this study, an attempt was made to examine the Industry 4.0 readiness models thoroughly and extensively and identify their different approaches. Finally, a comprehensive and multi-dimensional readiness model is presented to assess the position of organizations in order to enter Industry 4.0.

  • 47.
    Antti, Albin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Introducing Software Sustainability Demands into Large Organisational Procurement Processes2023Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As the ICT sector saw exponential growth over the last few decades, so too did the greenhouse gas emissions caused by it, to the point where the ICT sector is at least as big, if not bigger, than the airline industry. Previous research in this field has circled around methodologies for performing life cycle assessment of ICT software products, but has not put it in an organisational context which has lead to no agreed upon way of calculating and comparing sustainable software. This study analyses existing research in the field and through a thematic analysis of qualitative interviews and a case study of Scania CV AB in Södertälje, Sweden puts it into a procurement context, focusing on key metrics and comparability over exhaustiveness. This study found that by assessing ICT software products through four different phases, or scopes, a level of accuracy suitable for large organisations are achieved. Key metrics for organisational procurement processes to take into account are those of the hosting phase, such as geographical location, source of electricity and data centre effectiveness. By putting software life cycle assessments into a business context, this study helps make ICT sustainability research more readily available to people working with ICT product procurement and makes a contribution to the interdisciplinary research in the fields of technology, business and sustainability.

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  • 48.
    Anttila, Eveliina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering.
    Perceptions of Open Data in the Tourism Industry in Finland: Implementation, Use, and Links with Sustainable Tourism Development2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Making data openly accessible and how to utilize data are becoming increasingly clear in business development. Therefore, succeeding in it can allow a tremendous competitive advantage in the tourism market. The previous research has been lacking to show how tourism enterprises and regions can utilize open data in their favor. In this study, the implementation and the use of open data, and its interconnectedness to sustainable tourism development in Finland, are scrutinized. Visit Finland’s nationally launched open database is used as a case to examine the phenomenon. The study relies on qualitative methods using semi-structured interviews, interviewing tourism businesses, and regional tourism organizations, who meet the criteria of early adopters, following Rogers's diffusion of innovations theory. The study is to explore what both groups think of the advantages, disadvantages, facilitators, and hindrances of the implementation and the usage of the open database along with how they see its linkages to sustainable tourism development. The findings show that the overall perception of launching an open national database is affirmative. The significance of resource management, communication, and collaboration in succeeding in the implementation of the open database is highlighted in the results. The study shows that the diffusion of innovations is a fitting framework for understanding adaptation processes in terms of this kind of innovation. The linkages between open data and openness as a culture with sustainable development shall be made much more clearly, as they are linked; however, people do not often know how. The collaboration between tourism actors through organizational level management needs to be adequately navigated by increased awareness through communication. This way, the value of investing in open data can be perceived, and thus, the challenge of continuousness, which is a challenge of diffusion, can be overcome, and direct and indirect gains can be received by tourism stakeholders. The adaptation climate is favorable by accelerated competition in the global tourism market due to COV19, thereby urging tourism actors to take the digitalization leap. The study shows how all comes down to people and their management of change. Behind every technological appliance, there are people whose shoes must step in order to understand the diffusion.

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    Eveliina Anttila Perceptions of Open Data in the Tourism Industry in Finland
  • 49.
    Anund Jansson, Carl Herman
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Halldén, Linus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Industrial Engineering and Management.
    Kartläggning av stödprocess inom transformatorlindning: Undersökande studie på Hitachi ABB2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to map the process of manufacturing the wooden template used in winding. Electricity demand in households as well as in the industry is expected to rise in the future, partly as the global community tackles the environmental crisis. To support this infrastructure, power transformers meeting high customer standards are required. The company Hitachi ABB Power Grids supply transformers globally and are known for creating complex customer-tailored transformers. Continuous improvements are important in the production department to compete against other producers, in the theory chapter challenges in “Engineer- to- Order'' companies and possibilities to improve production in terms of output and productivity are presented. A case study was completed on a specific step in the process at Hitachi ABB to collect detailed data. An inductive approach meant that after the collection of data theory on the field was researched in order to understand and analyze the material. The case study had an explorative purpose and the framing of questions: “how does…” and “which solutions…” were used.A mapping of the process was made to examine which activities are involved, and what type of information flows are present in the process. The result showed a complex process where areas could be identified as problematic, the chapter also presents solutions that can decrease the lead time for producing the template.The conclusions were made that incremental changes could be implemented immediately but bigger optimizations needed more preparation.

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  • 50.
    Apelryd, Caroline
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Civil and Industrial Engineering, Civil Engineering and Built Environment.
    Säsongslagra el med vätgas: Ekonomiska möjligheter för långtidslagring av grön vätgas producerad ur vindkraft2022Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The energy carrier hydrogen has a great advantage over other electricity storing techniques on the market: the ability to store electricity long-term without any geographical needs. Though today’s techniques available are of low efficiency, the interests for them are high. Hydrogen gas is versatile, and with future developments it is possibly to make great economical profit from having a hydrogen storage. This master thesis project is evaluating the possible profitability that can be made when connecting a hydrogen system to a wind farm located in Swedish electricity region SE1. 

    The system contains of production, storage and cold combustion of hydrogen with one main purpose: to produce hydrogen through electrolysis when the electricity prices are low and convert the gas back to electricity to sell when the prices are high. Four different simulations are made with a mixture of incomes: using the variety in the electricity price over a year, selling the by-products from the hydrogen system and selling pure hydrogen gas. 

    The different simulations are mainly compared through three values: levelized cost of hydrogen (LCOH), earnings before interests and tax (EBIT) and return. The results show that the LCOH -cost per produced kilo hydrogen- for all simulations are higher than other compared production methods; even higher than the price per sold kilo hydrogen. EBIT -earnings per year- show that selling pure hydrogen gas makes a major difference on the yearly profit, from (the lowest result) -52217 SEK to (the highest result) 4853306 SEK. Even though EBIT show a positive result for some of the simulations, the return on the investment is negative which makes the investment non-profitable. In a sensitivity analysis with three variables, is the one who makes the biggest difference on the return value the cost of the hydrogen storage. Lowering that cost enough would make the investment profitable. 

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