Digitala Vetenskapliga Arkivet

Change search
Refine search result
1234567 1 - 50 of 677
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Abi Nassif, L.
    et al.
    University Brest, France; University Saint Joseph, France.
    Rioual, S.
    University Brest, France.
    Farah, W.
    University Saint Joseph, France.
    Hellio, C.
    University Brest, France.
    Fauchon, M.
    University Brest, France.
    Trepos, R.
    University Brest, France.
    Abboud, M.
    University Saint Joseph, France.
    Diler, Erwan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Thierry, Dominique
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Lescop, B.
    University Brest, France.
    Reduction of potential ennoblement of stainless steel in natural seawater by an ecofriendly biopolymer2020In: Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, E-ISSN 2213-3437, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 103609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of biofilm formation on passive stainless steel in seawater environments is of primary importance since it leads to potential ennoblement of surfaces and subsequently to localized corrosion such as pitting and crevice corrosion. This study aims at developing an ecofriendly alginate biopolymer containing both non-toxic calcium and a limited amount of biocidal zinc ions which inhibits this effect. For this purpose, calcium alginate containing less than 1 % of zinc ions localized in the vicinity of the steel surface in natural and renewed seawater is demonstrated to reduce significantly the ennoblement process of steel. After 1 month of immersion, a mass loss of only 4 % of the active material is observed authorizing thereby long-term protection of steel in real environment. 

  • 2.
    Ahlström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Jafri, Yawer
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Furusjö, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sustainable aviation fuels – Options for negative emissions and high carbon efficiency2023In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, E-ISSN 1878-0148, Vol. 125, article id 103886Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mitigating the climate impact from aviation remains one of the tougher challenges in adapting society to fulfill stated climate targets. Long-range aviation cannot be electrified for the foreseeable future and the effects of combusting fuel at high altitude increase the climate impact compared to emissions of green-house gasses only, which further limits the range of sustainable fuel alternatives. We investigate seven different pathways for producing aviation biofuels coupled with either bio-energy carbon capture and storage (BECCS), or bio-energy carbon capture and utilization (BECCU). Both options allow for increased efficiency regarding utilization of feedstock carbon. Our analysis uses process-level carbon- and energy balances, with carbon efficiency, climate impact and levelized cost of production (LCOP) as primary performance indicators. The results show that CCS can achieve a negative carbon footprint for four out of the seven pathways, at a lower cost of GHG reduction than the base process option. Conversely, as a consequence of the electricity-intensive CO2 upgrading process, the CCU option shows less encouraging results with higher production costs, carbon footprints and costs of GHG reduction. Overall, pathways with large amounts of vented CO2, e.g., gasification of black liquor or bark, as well as fermentation of forest residues, reach a low GHG reduction cost for the CCS option. These are also pathways with a larger feedstock and corresponding production potential. Our results enable a differentiated comparison of the suitability of various alternatives for BECCS or BECCU in combination with aviation biofuel production. By quantifying the relative strengths and weaknesses of BECCS and BECCU and by highlighting cost, climate and carbon-efficient pathways, these results can be a source of support for both policymakers and the industry. © 2023 The Author(s)

  • 3.
    Ai, Jiayi
    et al.
    China University of Petroleum, China; Macquarie University, Australia.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Zhong, Ningning
    China University of Petroleum, China.
    Chen, Jianfa
    China University of Petroleum, China.
    Wang, Tieguan
    China University of Petroleum, China.
    Qiu, Nansheng
    China University of Petroleum, China.
    George, Simon
    Macquarie University, Australia.
    Co-existing two distinct formation mechanisms of micro-scale ooid-like manganese carbonates hosted in Cryogenian organic-rich black shales in South China2023In: Precambrian Research, ISSN 0301-9268, E-ISSN 1872-7433, Vol. 393, article id 107091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manganese-rich deposits in the lower member of the Datangpo Formation (DTP) (ca. 663–654 Ma) in South China formed in the aftermath of the Cryogenian Sturtian glaciation. The Mn in the DTP occurs dominantly as rhodochrosite and Ca-rhodochrosite. A hydrothermal origin of the Mn2+ is shown by the rare earth element distribution and significantly high Mn/Fe ratios (3–19, average = 10.1). Previous studies suggested a microbially-mediated process for controlling the DTP black-shale hosted Mn carbonate deposits. However, detailed reports on the formation mechanisms of micro-scale (<2–5 μm) ooid-like Mn carbonates in the DTP have rarely been published. Systematic petrography and geochemical analyses in this study demonstrate the coexistence of two types of micro-scale ooidal-like Mn carbonates formed through two distinct mechanisms, either dominated by microbially-mediated or physiochemically-forced pathways. The Type I Mn carbonate has relatively larger grain size of 2–5 μm and exhibits a radial-concentric microfabric that shows signs of growth banding in the form of alternating light and dark laminae, which mainly express variation in Ca and Mn concentrations. The initial precipitation phase of the Type I Mn carbonate is interpreted to be Mn oxide/hydroxide, based on positive Ce anomalies and selective enrichments of particular trace elements. Novel evidence indicates that the capture of Mn as a carbonate phase directly from the water column by primarily precipitated calcite, which is referred to as the Type II Mn carbonate, has also contributed to the DTP Mn-rich deposits. Multiple roles of organic matter in Mn carbonate formation have been established: (1) catalysed Mn-redox cycling; (2) trapping and transportation of initial mineral precipitates to sediments; (3) serving as a carbon source; (4) regulating the morphology of the Mn carbonate. As a key link for understanding Cryogenian carbon and Mn cycling, specific formation pathways for the DTP Mn-carbonates are likely to have been controlled by given atmospheric-oceanic compositions (including oxygen level, pCO2, and redox conditions) in response to major geological and biological events during the interglacial period. In turn, massive storage of inorganic carbon and phosphorous in Mn carbonate phases would have had a substantial influence on biogeochemical carbon cycling during the Cryogenian. 

  • 4.
    Akbari, Saeed
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Mishra, Madhav
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Packaging Induced Stresses in Embedded and Molded GaN Power Electronics Components2023In: Int. Conf. Therm., Mech. Multi-Phys. Simul. Exp. Microelectron. Microsyst., EuroSimE, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Residual stresses created during the packaging process can adversely affect the reliability of electronics components. We used incremental hole-drilling method, following the ASTM E 837-20 standard, to measure packaging induced residual stresses in discrete packages of power electronics components. For this purpose, we bonded a strain gauge on the surface of a Gallium Nitride (GaN) power component, drilled a hole through the thickness of the component in several incremental steps, recorded the relaxed strain data on the sample surface using the strain gauge, and finally calculated the residual stresses from the measured strain data. The recorded strains and the residual stresses are related by the compliance coefficients. For the hole drilling method in the isotropic materials, the compliance coefficients are calculated from the analytical solutions, and available in the ASTM standard. But for the orthotropic multilayered components typically found in microelectronics assemblies, numerical solutions are necessary. We developed a subroutine in ANSYS APDL to calculate the compliance coefficients of the hole drilling test in the molded and embedded power electronics components. This can extend the capability of the hole drilling method to determine residual stresses in more complex layered structures found in electronics. 

  • 5.
    Akbari, Saeed
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Johansson, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Johansson, Emil
    Adaxis, France.
    Tönnäng, Lenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Hosseini, Seyed
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Large-Scale Robot-Based Polymer and Composite Additive Manufacturing: Failure Modes and Thermal Simulation2022In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 14, no 9, article id 1731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing (AM) of large-scale polymer and composite parts using robotic arms integrated with extruders has received significant attention in recent years. Despite the contributions of great technical progress and material development towards optimizing this manufacturing method, different failure modes observed in the final printed products have hindered its application in producing large engineering structures used in aerospace and automotive industries. We report failure modes in a variety of printed polymer and composite parts, including fuel tanks and car bumpers. Delamination and warpage observed in these parts originate mostly from thermal gradients and residual stresses accumulated during material deposition and cooling. Because printing large structures requires expensive resources, process simulation to recognize the possible failure modes can significantly lower the manufacturing cost. In this regard, accurate prediction of temperature distribution using thermal simulations is the first step. Finite element analysis (FEA) was used for process simulation of large-scale robotic AM. The important steps of the simulation are presented, and the challenges related to the modeling are recognized and discussed in detail. The numerical results showed reasonable agreement with the temperature data measured by an infrared camera. While in small-scale extrusion AM, the cooling time to the glassy state is less than 1 s, in large-scale AM, the cooling time is around two orders of magnitudes longer. © 2022 by the authors

  • 6.
    Akbari, Saeed
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Kostov, Konstantin Stoychev
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Brinkfeldt, Klas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Lim, Jang-Kwon
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Andersson, Dag
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Bakowski, Mietek
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Wang, Qin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Salter, Michael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Ceramic Additive Manufacturing Potential for Power Electronics Packaging2022In: IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging, and Manufacturing Technology, ISSN 2156-3950, E-ISSN 2156-3985, Vol. 12, no 11, p. 1857-1866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared with silicon-based power devices, wide band gap (WBG) semiconductor devices operate at significantly higher power densities required in applications such as electric vehicles and more electric airplanes. This necessitates development of power electronics packages with enhanced thermal characteristics that fulfil the electrical insulation requirements. The present research investigates the feasibility of using ceramic additive manufacturing (AM), also known as three-dimensional (3D) printing, to address thermal and electrical requirements in packaging gallium nitride (GaN) based high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs). The goal is to exploit design freedom and manufacturing flexibility provided by ceramic AM to fabricate power device packages with a lower junction-to-ambient thermal resistance (<italic>R</italic>&#x03B8;JA). Ceramic AM also enables incorporation of intricate 3D features into the package structure in order to control the isolation distance between the package source and drain contact pads. Moreover, AM allows to fabricate different parts of the packaging assembly as a single structure to avoid high thermal resistance interfaces. For example, the ceramic package and the ceramic heatsink can be printed as a single part without any bonding layer. Thermal simulations under different thermal loading and cooling conditions show the improvement of thermal performance of the package fabricated by ceramic AM. If assisted by an efficient cooling strategy, the proposed package has the potential to reduce <italic>R</italic>&#x03B8;JA by up to 48%. The results of the preliminary efforts to fabricate the ceramic package by AM are presented, and the challenges that have to be overcome for further development of this manufacturing method are recognized and discussed. 

  • 7.
    Albæk, Julie Kamp
    et al.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Shahbazi, Sasha
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    McAloone, Tim C.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Circularity evaluation of alternative concepts during early product design and development2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 22, article id 9353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product design and development are essential for a circular transition. Circularity decisions, such as those concerning the type of material, assembly method, and expected lifespan, made during the early design stages will significantly influence a product’s quality, cost, esthetics, sustainability, and circularity performance over the product lifecycle. However, circularity is not often considered in the early stages of product design and development. This paper presents the development of the concept circularity evaluation tool (CCET), which aims to support the evaluation of alternative product concepts in terms of their circularity potential in the early stages of product design and development. The CCET was iteratively developed based on an extensive literature review of the success criteria for tool development, guidelines, and existing tools for circular product design and development and strong collaboration with manufacturing companies. The tool was tested and verified at four manufacturing companies in Nordic countries. The tool has been proven useful for evaluating the circularity of products and supportive in the decision-making process in the early stages of product design and development. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

  • 8.
    Alcayde, B.
    et al.
    CIMNE Centre Internacional de Mètodes Numèrics en Enginyeria, Spain; Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, Spain.
    Merzkirch, M
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Cornejo, A.
    CIMNE Centre Internacional de Mètodes Numèrics en Enginyeria, Spain; Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, Spain.
    Jiménez, S.
    CIMNE Centre Internacional de Mètodes Numèrics en Enginyeria, Spain; Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, Spain.
    Marklund, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Barbu, L. G.
    CIMNE Centre Internacional de Mètodes Numèrics en Enginyeria, Spain; Universidad Politécnica de Cataluña, Spain.
    Fatigue behaviour of glass-fibre-reinforced polymers: Numerical and experimental characterisation2024In: Composite structures, ISSN 0263-8223, E-ISSN 1879-1085, Vol. 337, article id 118057Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents a novel numerical methodology to model the degradation and failure of composite materials like GFRP submitted to monotonic and high cycle fatigue loads. This is done by using the Serial–Parallel Rule of Mixtures homogenisation technique together with a proper mechanical characterisation of the constituent materials of the composite. This paper also proposes an efficient way of estimating the fatigue properties of each of the material constituents (fibre or matrix) to comply with the experimental results obtained at composite level; this enables to estimate the fatigue strength of any stacking/orientation of fibres with only one mechanical characterisation of the material properties. A comparison of the results obtained analytically and experimentally for GFRP is presented. The results show the applicability and accuracy of the proposed methodology in this field.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Allsopp, Benjamin
    et al.
    Sheffield Hallam University, UK.
    Orman, Robin
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Johnson, Simon
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Baistow, Ian
    Solar Capture Technologies, UK.
    Sanderson, Gavin
    Solar Capture Technologies, UK.
    Sundberg, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Andersson, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Booth, Jonathan
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Bingham, Paul
    Sheffield Hallam University, UK.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Towards improved cover glasses for photovoltaic devices2020In: Progress in Photovoltaics, ISSN 1062-7995, E-ISSN 1099-159X, Vol. 28, p. 1187-1206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the solar energy industry to increase its competitiveness, there is a global drive to lower the cost of solar-generated electricity. Photovoltaic (PV) module assembly is material-demanding, and the cover glass constitutes a significant proportion of the cost. Currently, 3-mm-thick glass is the predominant cover material for PV modules, accounting for 10%–25% of the total cost. Here, we review the state-of-the-art of cover glasses for PV modules and present our recent results for improvement of the glass. These improvements were demonstrated in terms of mechanical, chemical and optical properties by optimizing the glass composition, including addition of novel dopants, to produce cover glasses that can provide (i) enhanced UV protection of polymeric PV module components, potentially increasing module service lifetimes; (ii) re-emission of a proportion of the absorbed UV photon energy as visible photons capable of being absorbed by the solar cells, thereby increasing PV module efficiencies and (iii) successful laboratory-scale demonstration of proof of concept, with increases of 1%–6% in Isc and 1%–8% in Ipm. Improvements in both chemical and crack resistance of the cover glass were also achieved through modest chemical reformulation, highlighting what may be achievable within existing manufacturing technology constraints. © 2020 The Authors.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gong, Guan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Nyström, Birgitha
    Podcomp AB, Sweden.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Characterization of Wood and Graphene Nanoplatelets (GNPs) Reinforced Polymer Composites.2020In: Materials, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, no 9, article id E2089Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the utilization of commercial masterbatches of graphene nanoplatelets to improve the properties of neat polymer and wood fiber composites manufactured by conventional processing methods. The effect of aspect ratio of the graphene platelets (represented by the different number of layers in the nanoplatelet) on the properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) is discussed. The composites were characterized for their mechanical properties (tensile, flexural, impact) and physical characteristics (morphology, crystallization, and thermal stability). The effect of the addition of nanoplatelets on the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the reinforced polymer with different contents of reinforcement was also investigated. In general, the mechanical performance of the polymer was enhanced at the presence of either of the reinforcements (graphene or wood fiber). The improvement in mechanical properties of the nanocomposite was notable considering that no compatibilizer was used in the manufacturing. The use of a masterbatch can promote utilization of nano-modified polymer composites on an industrial scale without modification of the currently employed processing methods and facilities.

  • 11.
    Al-Maqdasi, Zainab
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pupure, Liva
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden; Riga Technical University, Latvia.
    Gong, Guan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Emami, Nazanin
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Joffe, Roberts
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Time-dependent properties of graphene nanoplatelets reinforced high-density polyethylene2021In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 138, no 30, article id 50783Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deformation of polymers at constant applied stress is one of their major drawbacks, limiting their use in advanced applications. The study of this property using classical techniques requires extensive testing over long periods of time. It is well known that reinforced polymers show improved behavior over time compared to their neat counterparts. In this study, the effect of adding different amounts of graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) on the time-dependent properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) is investigated using short-term creep tests and load/unload recovery tests. The results are discussed in terms of the test profile and the influence of loading history. Viscoplasticity/viscoelasticity analysis is performed using Zapas model and by comparing creep, creep compliance and pure viscoelasticity curves. The results show that the reinforcement of 15 wt% GNP have the most significant effect on the time-dependent behavior, reducing the strain by more than 50%. The creep compliance curves show that nano-reinforced HDPE behaves nonlinearly viscoelastically even at very low stresses. In addition to demonstrating the effect of nano-reinforcement, the discussion of the results concludes that the influence of loading history can be quite significant and should not be neglected in the design and evaluation of material behavior. © 2021 The Authors.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Almstrand, Ann-Charlotte
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bredberg, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Runstrom, Gunilla
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Helen
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Assenhoj, Maria
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Akdeve, Hatice Koca
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olin, Anna-Carin
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Tinnerberg, Hakan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Respiratory health among operators working in polymer additive manufacturing2023In: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 62, no 67, article id PA3350Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Almstrand, Ann-Charlotte
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Bredberg, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Runström Eden, Gunilla
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Helen
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Assenhöj, Maria
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Koca, Hatice
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Olin, Anna-Carin
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Tinnerberg, Håkan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    An explorative study on respiratory health among operators working in polymer additive manufacturing2023In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 11, article id 1148974Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing (AM), or 3D printing, is a growing industry involving a wide range of different techniques and materials. The potential toxicological effects of emissions produced in the process, involving both ultrafine particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), are unclear, and there are concerns regarding possible health implications among AM operators. The objective of this study was to screen the presence of respiratory health effects among people working with liquid, powdered, or filament plastic materials in AM. Methods: In total, 18 subjects working with different additive manufacturing techniques and production of filament with polymer feedstock and 20 controls participated in the study. Study subjects filled out a questionnaire and underwent blood and urine sampling, spirometry, impulse oscillometry (IOS), exhaled NO test (FeNO), and collection of particles in exhaled air (PEx), and the exposure was assessed. Analysis of exhaled particles included lung surfactant components such as surfactant protein A (SP-A) and phosphatidylcholines. SP-A and albumin were determined using ELISA. Using reversed-phase liquid chromatography and targeted mass spectrometry, the relative abundance of 15 species of phosphatidylcholine (PC) was determined in exhaled particles. The results were evaluated by univariate and multivariate statistical analyses (principal component analysis). Results: Exposure and emission measurements in AM settings revealed a large variation in particle and VOC concentrations as well as the composition of VOCs, depending on the AM technique and feedstock. Levels of FeNO, IOS, and spirometry parameters were within clinical reference values for all AM operators. There was a difference in the relative abundance of saturated, notably dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (PC16:0_16:0), and unsaturated lung surfactant lipids in exhaled particles between controls and AM operators. Conclusion: There were no statistically significant differences between AM operators and controls for the different health examinations, which may be due to the low number of participants. However, the observed difference in the PC lipid profile in exhaled particles indicates a possible impact of the exposure and could be used as possible early biomarkers of adverse effects in the airways. 

  • 14.
    Amani, Mozhdeh
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Al-Emrani, Mohammad
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Shear Behavior of Stainless Steel Girders with Corrugated Webs2022In: Proc. of Stainless Steel in Structures – Sixth International Experts Seminar, 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports experimental and finite element investigations conducted to assess the shear strength of corrugated web girders in stainless steel. The steel under consideration is LDX 2101. Four trapezoidal corrugated web girders were tested under shear. All tested girders reached the shear yield strength followed by strain hardening. An imperfection sensitivity study was done with the aid of finite element modelling. It was observed that an initial geometric imperfection based on the first eigen buckling mode with a maximum amplitude of the minimum dimension of the critical corrugation sub panel divided by 200, 𝑎max200⁄, leads to an ultimate shear strength greater than the shear yield strength and close to the test findings. It is concluded that EN 1993-1-5 shear design model for corrugated webs is conservative for stainless steel girders tested in the current study.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 15.
    Amani, Mozhdeh
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Al-Emrani, Mohammad
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Shear behavior of stainless steel girders with corrugated webs2023In: Journal of constructional steel research, ISSN 0143-974X, E-ISSN 1873-5983, Vol. 210, article id 108086Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the shear strength of corrugated web girders made of EN 1.4162/LDX 2101 stainless steel is investigated. Four full-scale trapezoidal corrugated web girders were tested under shear. Before conducting the tests, DIC was used to measure the real geometric imperfections in the web panels. Complementary finite element analysis studies were conducted to assess the sensitivity of the shear strength to initial imperfections. The experimental results indicated that all the tested girders with a local slenderness ratio of λ = 0.7 attained the shear yield strength, which was then followed by strain hardening in the material at a level that was 8–18% higher than the yield strength. This implies that the Eurocode's limit of λ = 0.25 to attain the plastic shear strength in corrugated webs can be quite conservative for stainless steel. According to the findings of the imperfection sensitivity studies, an initial geometric imperfection based on the first eigen buckling mode and with a maximum amplitude of amax/200, where amax is the maximum corrugation fold length, yielded ultimate strength within 3% of the test results. When the amplitude was increased to hw/200, where hw is the web height, the ultimate strength was estimated to be 25% lower on average than in the experiments. In three of the studied girders, initial imperfections with other forms than the first buckling mode were found to be more critical. Further, it was found that regardless of mode number, mode shapes that are more extended over the web panel result in a higher degradation of the ultimate shear strength. © 2023 The Authors

  • 16.
    Andersson, Anton
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Brander, Linus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Roos, Åke
    Boliden AB, Sweden.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    A Method for Synthesizing Iron Silicate Slags to Evaluate Their Performance as Supplementary Cementitious Materials2023In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 13, no 14, article id 8357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Utilizing iron silicate copper slag as supplementary cementitious material (SCM) is a means to improve resource efficiency and lower the carbon dioxide emissions from cement production. Despite multiple studies on the performance of these slags in SCM applications, the variations in cooling procedure, grinding, and methods for evaluating reactivity limit the ability to assess the influence of chemical composition on reactivity from the literature data. In this study, a methodology was developed to synthesize iron silicate slags, which were then evaluated for their inherent reactivity using the R3 calorimeter-based experiments. The results demonstrated that laboratory-scale granulation produced the same reactivity as industrially granulated slag. Furthermore, a synthesized triplicate sample showed high repeatability. Based on these two aspects, this method can be used to systematically study the influence of chemical composition on the inherent reactivity of iron silicate slags while producing results that are directly translatable to industrial slags. © 2023 by the authors.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Anton
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Brander, Linus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Lennartsson, Andreas
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Roos, Åke
    Boliden AB, Sweden.
    Engström, Fredrik
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ground granulated iron silicate slag as supplementary cementitious material: Effect of prolonged grinding and granulation temperature2023In: Cleaner Materials, ISSN 2772-3976, Vol. 10, article id 100209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The metallurgical and cement industries contribute significantly to anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. Utilizing oxidic by-products from the metallurgical industry as supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) can improve resource efficiency and reduce emissions from cement production. Iron silicate copper slags have been studied as SCMs, but mainly in systems where Portland cement is used as an activator. There is limited research on the inherent reactivity of the slag under changing processing conditions. The present study offers insight into the effect of granulation temperature and grinding on the inherent reactivity of an industrially produced iron silicate copper slag. The results showed that granulation temperature had an insignificant effect on reactivity, while grinding generated substantial improvements. The latter effect was concluded to stem from the increased specific surface area, increased number of sites for nucleation and growth of hydrates, and changes in the inherent reactivity owing to structural changes induced by the grinding. 

  • 18.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Ahlström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Corrosion.
    Berg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Olsson, Henrik
    Karlsson, Lars-Evert
    Wärtsilä Sweden AB. Sweden.
    Niinipuu, Mirva
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Pizzul, Leticia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Biologisk metanisering av syngas från förgasning och pyrolys - lovande koncept mot implementering2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biological methanation of syngas from pyrolysis and gasification – promising concepts for implementation The need for increased biogas production is significant, and in the EU, there are plans for a substantial expansion in the coming years through the RePowerEU initiative. Part of the increase will come from the expansion of conventional digestion technology, where organic materials such as food waste, manure, and crop residues are used for biogas production. However, to meet the future increased demand, it is also necessary to utilize more difficult-to-digest substrates, such as biomass rich in lignocellulose, for biogas production. This could be forest residues such as branches and tops, sawdust, or bark. This type of substrates cannot be used in a conventional digestion process, and other technology chains are therefore required to convert such biomass into biomethane. This can be done by first converting the biomass into syngas through a thermochemical process such as gasification or pyrolysis. This is followed by a methanation process where the syngas is converted into biogas, and finally, the gas is upgraded to reach biomethane quality. These types of technology chains are not currently available on a commercial scale, but they have been demonstrated, for example, through the Gobigas project, where gasification was followed by catalytic methanation for biomethane production. As full-scale implementation of catalytic methanation of bio-syngas has not yet been achieved, thereis a need to develop alternative conversion technologies that can more cost-effectively achieve the methanation of woody biomass. One possible opportunity for to this is to apply biological methanation instead of a catalytic process. A biological process comes with several advantages, including a greater ability to handle contaminants, higher selectivity in the conversion of syngas, and operation at relatively low temperature and pressure, which simplifies material selection and reactor design. RISE, together with its partners, are developing a concept based on biological methanation of syngas. This project has examined the biological process's ability to handle contaminants in syngas through continuous experiments in carrier-filled trickle bed reactors with an active volume of 5 liters. The process's ability to handle and break down contaminants is an important parameter that can affect and simplify the design of the gas cleaning that occurs after gasification or pyrolysis. Another aspect of the project has been to put the experimental results into context at the concept and system level. Different production techniques for syngas have been mapped out, which could be combined with biological methanation. Based on the mapping, three types of plants have been selected for more detailed analyses of techno-economics, carbon footprint, and opportunities for increased carbon efficiency. The methanation experiments lasted for 552 days, and overall, it was a stable process with high turnover of syngas and high methane production over a long time. There have been some operational disturbances, mainly related to the supply of gas to the process (i.e. delivery of gas cylinders). However, biochemical inhibition or disturbances have been rare, demonstrating a high robustness for biological methanation of syngas. The breakdown of contaminants has been excellent in the process, with levels decreasing below the detection limit. At the same time, as contaminants have been continuously added to the process, microbiology has been able to maintain high turnover of hydrogen and carbon monoxide to methane. The specific methane production was high both during the reference period without contaminants and during the experimental periods with added contaminants. During long periods, the specific methane production has been around 4 L CH4/Lbed volume /day, which is about 4 times higher than our previously achieved results. The transition to thermophilic temperature and using carriers with higher effective surface area has contributed to this increase. During the project, three types of plants have been selected for more detailed analysis: 1) Gasification with Cortus process, which generates a relatively clean syngas with minimal purification needs before biological methanation. There is no need for co-location with a heating plant, but it is an advantage if there is access to the district heating network to sell waste heat. 2) Gasification with Bioshares' concept, where the gasifier is integrated into a larger cogeneration plant and where the produced syngas is purified with an RME-scrubber before biological methanation. Co-location with a larger cogeneration plant provides interesting synergies and integration opportunities, but also sets the boundaries for where the plants can be located. 3) Slow pyrolysis according to Envigas' concept, where the primary product is biochar and where the produced syngas is seen as a by-product. The syngas contains some impurities but generally requires no other purification than cooling to the right temperature (condensing out tars) before being added to biological methanation. This type of plant differs from plant types 1-2 in that the syngas formed is not the primary product, and the syngas has a relatively low energy value compared to the others. Syngas from plant types 2 and 3 contains some hydrocarbons (C1-C3) that are considered inert over the methanation step and therefore do not negatively affect the process. This means that heavier hydrocarbons do not need to be removed upstream, which would likely have been required with catalytic methanation. This leads to a higher system efficiency, and the need for reactor capacity for biological methanation decreases since there is less gas to be processed (more of the end-product consists of hydrocarbons already formed during the thermochemical conversion upstream). For all plant types, downstream of the methanation step, there is a need for further gas purification and upgrading. During the upgrading step carbon dioxide is separated to reach the product specification required by the end user. If long distance distribution is required a final process step consisting of a liquefaction plant for the production of liquid biogas (LBG) can be added to the concept. As another option, the systems can be supplemented with treatment of the carbon dioxide flow out of the upgrading plant, where the flow is processed by drying, compression, and cooling to produce liquid carbon dioxide. For plant type 2, where benzene is present in the syngas, this gas is expected to be separated with relatively high precision in the system and thereby generate a small flow of liquid benzene as a side product. The carbon dioxide emissions for the final product LBG are in the range of 1.6 to 2.6 gCO2-eq/MJLBG, which compares favorably to other types of second-generation biofuels. Compared to fossil gas, the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions is 96-97%. The carbon efficiency of the systems can be significantly increased if excess carbon dioxide is utilized either through BECCS or BECCU. If the carbon dioxide stream from the upgrading plant is processed into liquid carbon dioxide, the production cost is estimated to be 187-204 SEK/ton. If the product is to be sent to permanent storage the cost for transportation and storage would need to be added to estimate total cost of BECCS, but this is out of scope for the current project.. Assuming that BECCS is applied and that the entire carbon sink is allocated to the final product LBG, this will result in negative emissions in the range of -35 to -104 gCO2-eq/MJLBG. An alternative is to utilize excess carbon dioxide directly in the methanation process by boosting incoming gas with extra hydrogen. Hydrogen and carbon dioxide are then converted by methanogens, which generates extra methane. Since the addition of extra hydrogen is assumed to come from electrolysis, the additional methane production can likely be classified as electrofuel, so-called e-methane. The techno-economic evaluation results in a production cost ranging from 740 to 1300 SEK/MWhLBG, including all sensitivity scenarios. The lower price scenarios include a lower investment cost, which can be assumed to represent cases with public investment support. Overall, a large part of the scenarios are considered to be within the range of what can be considered market relevant production costs. This leads to the conclusion that there is techno-economic potential at this stage to justify continued development of concepts based on biological methanation of syngas. With scaling up and continued development in the right direction, the concepts may eventually lead to cost-effective utilization of forest residues for the production of biomethane at a commercially relevant scale. The next step in the development is scaling up to pilot scale, which will take place during 2023-2025 through an EU-funded project and will be carried out by RISE, Wärtsilä, Cortus and Swedish Gas Association. A pilot plant for biological methanation will then be operated with syngas from Cortus' gasifier in Höganäs.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Hellström, Anna-Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Lundahl, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Challenges and opportunities with the EU Taxonomy Regulation– with focus on chemical safety and usage in complex products2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of Policy Lab processes has been growing in Sweden and other countries to accelerate the adaptation of regulations to emerging technologies. Policy Lab facilitates active collaboration between relevant authorities, companies, and stakeholders through interactive and iterative methods based on Design Thinking principles. This approach bridges the gap between the legislative domain responsible for developing regulatory frameworks and the innovative companies that create solutions for emerging markets using new technologies and opportunities. In our study, we applied Policy Lab processes to the EU Taxonomy Regulation to identify challenges and opportunities related to chemical safety and usage for manufacturers of complex products. The EU Taxonomy Regulation, along with its delegated acts, represent a serious effort to establish standardized sustainability reporting within EU. However, it is still in its early stages and lacks maturity. Moreover, certain ambiguities within the regulation currently prevent a comprehensive comparison of companies due to the development of other legislations. Addressing these gaps depends on the future development of, for example, REACH. Our conclusion is that the EU Taxonomy Regulation is part of a larger “movement” that reflects the policymakers’ intentions. This intention also includes increased data sharing at a significantly different level compared to current practices. In the long run, the shift will enable authorities to access the data and develop new legislations. Our specific focus was on the objective of pollution prevention and control regarding the use and presence of hazardous substances listed in Appendix C of the EU Taxonomy Regulation. According to Appendix C, activities must not lead to the manufacture, placing on the market or use of listed substances, whether on their own, in mixture or in articles. Regarding listed substances, reference is made to existing EU legislation that regulates hazardous substances within the EU. The most challenging aspect in Appendix C is point (g), which aims to identify substances, whether alone, in mixtures, or in articles, that meet the criteria set out in Article 57 of REACH but are not yet included in the Candidate list. Our workshops, interviews, and literature review confirmed that the main challenge in meeting the criteria of Appendix C, specifically point (g) is the need to enhance transparency and traceability throughout supply chains. Overcoming these challenges requires addressing barriers, such as the lack of a harmonized regulatory framework across the value chain, the need for faster identification and restriction of hazardous substances, and the reinforcement of stronger enforcement measures. The enabling of full declaration of the hazardous properties and functions of the substances, while considering the balance between information disclosure and protecting trade secrets, would reduce the need for extensive tracking of substance of very high concern along the value chain. To improve communication along the value chain and identify data gaps while protecting trade secrets, workshop participants have proposed the use of a user-friendly interface based on traffic light scenario. This interface would serve as a filter mechanism, allowing product manufacturers to establish specific criteria for material suppliers to respond to. The objective is to enhance communication, establish criteria, and effectively identify data gaps. While the SCIP database ensures accessibility of information on articles containing substances from the Candidate List above 0.1 w/w%, it is limited to hazardous substances on that list. This means that hazardous substances not listed in the Candidate List may not be covered by the database. The EU Commission has proposed the implementation of a digital product passport to enhance information sharing about products and their supply chain, including substances of concern. Our study is conducted under the Mistra SafeChem program, where screening tools for hazard and exposure assessment of substances are currently being developed. These tools aim to provide screening data for direct decision-making based on the Defined Approach (DA). These screening tools have the potential to contribute to filling data gaps during the early design phases of complex products, particularly when screening for multiple material alternatives.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 20.
    Andersson, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Swanpalmer, J.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Palm, I.
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Båth, M.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Chakarova, R.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Cylindrical ionization chamber response in static and dynamic 6 and 15 MV photon beams2023In: Biomedical Engineering & Physics Express, E-ISSN 2057-1976, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 025004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. To investigate the response of the CC13 ionization chamber under non-reference photon beam conditions, focusing on penumbra and build-up regions of static fields and on dynamic intensity-modulated beams. Methods. Measurements were performed in 6 MV 100 × 100, 20 × 100, and 20 × 20 mm2 static fields. Monte Carlo calculations were performed for the static fields and for 6 and 15 MV dynamic beam sequences using a Varian multi-leaf collimator. The chamber was modelled using EGSnrc egs_chamber software. Conversion factors were calculated by relating the absorbed dose to air in the chamber air cavity to the absorbed dose to water. Correction and point-dose correction factors were calculated to quantify the conversion factor variations. Results. The correction factors for positions on the beam central axis and at the penumbra centre were 0.98-1.02 for all static fields and depths investigated. The largest corrections were obtained for chamber positions beyond penumbra centre in the off-axis direction. Point-dose correction factors were 0.54-0.71 at 100 mm depth and their magnitude increased with decreasing field size and measurement depth. Factors of 0.99-1.03 were obtained inside and near the integrated penumbra of the dynamic field at 100 mm depth, and of 0.92-0.94 beyond the integrated penumbra centre. The variations in the ionization chamber response across the integrated dynamic penumbra qualitatively followed the behaviour across penumbra of static fields. Conclusions. Without corrections, the CC13 chamber was of limited usefulness for profile measurements in 20-mm-wide fields. However, measurements in dynamic small irregular beam openings resembling the conditions of pre-treatment patient quality assurance were feasible. Uncorrected ionization chamber response could be applied for dose verification at 100 mm depth inside and close to large gradients of dynamically accumulating high- and low-dose regions assuming 3% tolerance between measured and calculated doses. © 2023 The Author(s).

  • 21.
    Andersson Trojer, Markus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles. Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, Germany; .
    Andersson, Mats
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Flinders University, Australia.
    Bergenholtz, Johan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gatenholm, Paul
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Elastic strain-hardening and shear-thickening exhibited by thermoreversible physical hydrogels based on poly(alkylene oxide)-grafted hyaluronic acid or carboxymethylcellulose2020In: Physical Chemistry, Chemical Physics - PCCP, ISSN 1463-9076, E-ISSN 1463-9084, Vol. 22, no 26, p. 14579-14590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of strongly elastic physical gels based on poly(alkylene oxide)-grafted hyaluronan or carboxymethylcellulose, exhibiting both shear-thickening and strain-hardening have been studied using rheometry and explained using a slightly different interpretation of the transient network theory. The graft copolymers were prepared by a quantitative coupling reaction. Their aqueous solutions displayed a thermoreversible continuous transition from Newtonian fluid to viscoelastic solid which could be controlled by the reaction conditions. The evolution of all material properties of the gel could be categorized into two distinct temperature regimes with a fast evolution at low temperatures followed by a slow evolution at high temperatures. The activation energy of the zero shear viscosity and the relaxation time of the graft inside the interconnecting microdomains were almost identical to each other in both temperature regimes. This suggests that the number of microdomains remained approximately constant whereas the aggregation number inside the microdomains increased according to the binodal curve of the thermosensitive graft.

  • 22.
    Andren, Oliver C. J.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ingverud, Tobias
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hult, Daniel
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Bogestål, Yalda
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Caous, Josefin S
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Blom, Kristina
    Medibiome AB, Sweden.
    Zhang, Yuning
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Andersson, Therese
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Pedersen, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Björn, Camilla
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Löwenhielm, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Antibiotic-Free Cationic Dendritic Hydrogels as Surgical-Site-Infection-Inhibiting Coatings2019In: Advanced Healthcare Materials, ISSN 2192-2640, E-ISSN 2192-2659, article id e1801619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A non-toxic hydrolytically fast-degradable antibacterial hydrogel is herein presented to preemptively treat surgical site infections during the first crucial 24 h period without relying on conventional antibiotics. The approach capitalizes on a two-component system that form antibacterial hydrogels within 1 min and consist of i) an amine functional linear-dendritic hybrid based on linear poly(ethylene glycol) and dendritic 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid, and ii) a di-N-hydroxysuccinimide functional poly(ethylene glycol) cross-linker. Broad spectrum antibacterial effect is achieved by multivalent representation of catatonically charged β-alanine on the dendritic periphery of the linear dendritic component. The hydrogels can be applied readily in an in vivo setting using a two-component syringe delivery system and the mechanical properties can accurately be tuned in the range equivalent to fat tissue and cartilage (G' = 0.5-8 kPa). The antibacterial effect is demonstrated both in vitro toward a range of relevant bacterial strains and in an in vivo mouse model of surgical site infection.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 23.
    André, Alann
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Bru, Thomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Ghafoor, Abdul
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Sinha, Sugandh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Mattsson, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Digital platform for managementof EoL windturbine blades: Rekovind 2 - WP22023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rekovind2 project, financed by the Swedish Energy Agency, focuses on digitizing wind turbine blade streams for reuse and recycling. This is of the utmost importance to enable new, more circular technical solutions that can replace today’s non-sustainable recycling, i.e. landfill and incineration of wind turbine blades. In this report, the work carried out to map the wind turbine blades in service in Sweden is presented. The digital platform intended to make possible the re-use of blades reaching end-of-life is build around key features that will be required for re-use: blade database with all needed informations on the blade (age, damages, material, model, ...), map with blades geolocation, digital tool to help blade processing such as cutting, and information on what can be done with EoL blades.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24.
    André, Alann
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Juntikka, Magdalena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Mattsson, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Nedev, Georgi
    SWECO, Sweden.
    Reza, Haghani
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    The Re-use of End-of-Life Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composites in Construction2022In: CICE 2021: 10th International Conference on FRP Composites in Civil Engineering pp 1183-1195|, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2022, p. 1183-1195Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to achieve a more resource-efficient society and a future with reduced carbon dioxide emissions, new technological challenges must be dealt. One way to reach a more sustainable world is to start re-using end-of-life structures and waste and give them a “Second Life” with new functions in the society. As fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are lightweight, strong, stiff and durable materials, there is great potential to re-use decommissioned FRP structures for new resource-efficient solutions in the building and infrastructure sectors. The present paper investigates innovative solutions in re-using wind turbine blades and glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) pipes as structural elements in new bicycle and pedestrian bridges. Specifically, a concept design for decking system made of GFRP pipes is developed and discussed. The main design requirements for pedestrian bridges are considered and assumptions regarding end-of-life GFRP quality and their mechanical properties have been addressed. The aim of this paper is to contribute to a sustainable use of GFRP waste and at the same time provide a more cost-effective solution for short span pedestrian bridges. In a larger perspective, the authors would like to highlight the economically profitable potential of recovering and reusing/re-manufacturing end-of-life GFRP composites. © 2022, The Author(s)

  • 25.
    André, Alann
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Kullberg, J.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Nygren, D.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Mattsson, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Nedev, G.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Haghani, Reza
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Re-use of wind turbine blade for construction and infrastructure applications2020In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, IOP Publishing Ltd , 2020, Vol. 942, no 1, article id 012015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve a more resource-efficient society with a future with reduced carbon dioxide emissions, new technological challenges must be dealt. One way to reach a more sustainable world is to start re-using end-of-life structures and waste and give them a Second Life"with a new function in the society. As composite structures are lightweight, strong, stiff and durable materials, there is great potential to re-use decommissioned composite for new resource-efficient solutions in the building and infrastructure sector. The present paper investigates innovative solutions in re-using wind turbine blades as elements in new bicycle and pedestrian bridge designs. Several conceptual bridge designs where wind blades utilized as load bearing elements were developed and studied. The main design requirements for pedestrian bridges were considered and assumptions regarding wind blades quality and their mechanical properties addressed based on interviews with industries working with wind turbine blades repair and recycling. The aim of this paper is to contribute to a sustainable use of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) waste and at the same time provide a more cost-effective FRP bridges. In a larger perspective, the authors would like to highlight the economically profitable potential of recovering and reusing / re-manufacturing end-of-life glass FRP composites.

  • 26.
    André, Alann
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Mattsson, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Bru, Thomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Wästerlid, Cecilia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Lorentzon, Katarina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Lindh, E Mattias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Hallquist, Lukas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Thidevall, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Cirkulärt omhändertagande av solcellspaneler och vindturbinblad för vindkraftverk2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I regleringsbrevet för 2023 fick Energimyndigheten i uppdrag av regeringen att utreda hur solcellspaneler och vindturbinblad till vindkraftverk i högre utsträckning ska kunna tas om hand på ett giftfritt och cirkulärt sätt i enlighet med avfallshierarkin. Redovisningen av detta regeringsuppdrag, rapporten Från avfall till resurs – Förslag för en mer cirkulär hantering av solcellspaneler och vindturbinblad, ER 2024:11, baseras på denna underlagsrapport som har tagits fram av forskningsinstitutet RISE på uppdrag av Energimyndigheten. Analyser, slutsatser och förslag/rekommendationer som framförs i rapporten är författarnas egna.En fortsatt utbyggnad av fossilfri elproduktion är av stor vikt för att vi ska kunna nå Sveriges energi- och klimatmål. För att utbyggnaden i sig ska vara hållbar är det viktigt att vi redan nu planerar för hur avfallet från dessa elproduktionsanläggningar ska förebyggas, minimeras och sedan hanteras.Det finns redan i dagsläget aktörer som har utvecklat och håller på att utveckla ett flertal olika lösningar för ökad cirkularitet. Dessa möjligheter kan tas tillvara och främjas genom regelbunden kartläggning och genom att arbeta gemensamt inom EU. Genom ett sådant arbete finns det också större möjligheter att etablera industriella värdekedjor i Sverige för hanteringen av avfallet från solcellspaneler och vindturbinblad.En cirkulär hantering av avfall ger ett betydligt mindre avtryck på miljön än det som en linjär hantering ger upphov till. Det är viktigt att de aktörer som tillhandahåller fossilfri elproduktion tar ansvar under hela livscykeln och att det finns goda förutsättningar för aktörerna att göra det.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 27.
    Antonsson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Berntsson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Nordling, Bengt
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Demker, Ingvar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Sjöqvist, Mia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Funktionsprovning av tätskiktsystem för våtutrymmen 20222022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Functional testing of waterproofing systems for use behind ceramic tiling based on flexible sheets 2022 This research project is a repetition of previously completed projects. These projects span a long period of time, 12 years. The projects were completed during the period 2010 to 2022. Functional testing The result is better than before. 2022 2019 (1) 2016 (2) 2014 (3) 2010 (4) Result Result Result Result Result Result No leakage 9 (47 %) 6 (32 %) 8 (40 %) 3 (15 %) 0 (0 %) Leakage 10 (53 %) 13 (68 %) 12 (60 %) 17 (85 %) 5 (100 %) In this investigation, most of the leaks are located to penetrations of large and small sewer pipes. In this investigation, we have on several occasions seen that the pipe sleeves have had substandard quality. This has manifested itself in the fact that the polymeric material which is to seal around the pipe during the test has lost its sealing ability. It is probable that the material has developed a residual deformation (settling) which means that the material has lost its ability to seal around the pipe. We have also noticed that pipe cuffs have delaminated, the layers in the cuff during the test have been divided into their components. Leakage has also occurred at inner corners, outer corners and at chafing. Only a few, two, leaks at connections to floor drains have been noted. Better yet, none of the examined waterproofing systems showed leaks that were so extensive that one can speak of a total damage. Water vapour resistance and mass per unit area The vast majority of investigated waterproofing foils have a water vapour resistance of between 2.5 and 4.5 million s m, which is a high or very high value. Results for five waterproofing foils fall below 2.5 million s / m. Based on the determinations of water vapor resistance and basis weight, it can be concluded that probably six of the waterproofing suppliers have developed new or changed foils since the last survey. The trend of wanting to make thinner foils seems to have been broken. Most of the waterproofing foils have a higher vapor passage resistance now than in the previous survey. It is also noteworthy that the PVC sealing layer has a low water vapor passage resistance. The waterproofing foil has basically the same basis weight now compared to the previous survey. Indication of long-term properties To obtain an indication of the amount of added antioxidants that improve the long-term properties of the materials, DSC analyses of the waterproofing foils have been performed. Compared with the previous study, the induction temperatures are at about the same level as before, only small differences occur. The average induction temperature for all polyethylene films is 216 ° C and, in summary, the materials appear to be stabilized at the same level as the previous study. In the same way as in the survey, 2016, most materials seem to be more stabilized for long-term use compared with the previous study, 2014. However, for all analysed materials, to make a reliable service life prediction of the material, a more comprehensive aging study is recommended

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 28.
    Aramburu-Zabala, Marta
    et al.
    LORTEK-BRTA, Spain.
    Masurtschak, Simona
    LORTEK-BRTA, Spain.
    Moreno, Ramon
    LORTEK-BRTA, Spain.
    Jean-Jean, Jeremy
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Veiga, Angela
    CEIT-BRTA, Spain.
    Time Series Clustering for Knowledge Discovery on Metal Additive Manufacturing2020In: 21th International Conference on Intelligent Data Engineering and Automated Learning, IDEAL 2020, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2020, p. 447-455Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work meets Metal Additive Manufacturing and Time Series Processing. It presents a four-step analytical procedure addressed to support the discovery of defect causes in 3D metal printing. The method has a phase of data space transformation, where the features space is firstly reduced and secondly exploited in a higher dimensional space. Later, a procedure for knowledge discovery is applied. Finally, by analyzing the results, it is concluded the most probable causes of the high rate of defects in the production phase. This procedure is proved with data obtained from a SLM machine, and the results are convincing.

  • 29.
    Arellanoa, Santiago
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Kasani, Björn
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Steffen, Holger
    Lantmäteriet, Sweden.
    EPOS Sweden: A national contribution to the European Plate Observing System-European Research Infrastructure Consortium2022In: Abstract book, 2022Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The pan-European “European Plate Observing System (EPOS)” is focussed on Europe and adjacent regions and includes geophysical monitoring networks, local observations (including permanent in-situ and volcano observatories), topographic/surface dynamics information, surface and subsurface geological information, experimental and laboratory data and functions, and satellite data. In 2021 the Swedish Research Council (VR) approved an application for Sweden to join EPOS-ERIC, formally establishing existing collaborations between EPOS and Swedish research infrastructures.

  • 30.
    Argyropoulos, Dimitris
    et al.
    North Carolina State University, USA.
    Crestini, Claudia
    Ca’ Foscari University of Venice, Italy.
    Dahlstrand, Christian
    Ren FuelK2B AB, Sweden.
    Furusjö, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gioia, Claudio
    Universityof Trento, Italy.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Henriksson, Gunnar
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lawoko, Martin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pierrou, Clara
    RenFuel Materials AB, Sweden.
    Samec, Joseph
    RenFuel Materials AB, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden; Chulalongkorn University, Thailand; Ren FuelK2B AB, Sweden.
    Subbotina, Elena
    Yale University, USA.
    Wallmo, Henrik
    Valmet AB, Sweden.
    Wimby, Martin
    Valmet AB, Sweden.
    Kraft Lignin: A Valuable, Sustainable Resource, Opportunities and Challenges.2023In: ChemSusChem, ISSN 1864-5631, E-ISSN 1864-564X, article id e202300492Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kraft lignin, a by-product from the production of pulp, is currently incinerated in the recovery boiler during the chemical recovery cycle, generating valuable bioenergy and recycling inorganic chemicals to the pulping process operation. Removing lignin from the black liquor or its gasification lowers the recovery boiler load enabling increased pulp production. During the past ten years, lignin separation technologies have emerged and the interest of the research community to valorize this underutilized resource has been invigorated. The aim of this review is to give (1) a dedicated overview of the kraft process with a focus on the lignin, (2) an overview of applications that are being developed, and (3) a techno-economic and life cycle asseeements of value chains from black liquor to different products. Overall, it is anticipated that this effort will inspire further work for developing and using kraft lignin as a commodity raw material for new applications undeniably promoting pivotal global sustainability concerns.

  • 31.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Aarhaug, Thor
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Bacquart, Thomas
    NPL, UK.
    Morris, Abigail
    NPL, UK.
    Bartlett, Sam
    NPL, UK.
    Wagner, Lisa
    Linde GmbH, Germany.
    Blondeel, Clair
    Air Liquide, France.
    Gozlan, Bruno
    Air Liquide, France.
    Lescornez, Yann
    Air Liquide, France.
    Chramosta, Nathalie
    Air Liquide, France.
    Spitta, Christian
    ZBT, Germany.
    Basset, Etienne
    Research Center ENGIE LAB CRIGEN, France.
    Nouvelot, Quentin
    Research Center ENGIE LAB CRIGEN, France.
    Rizand, Mathilde
    Research Center ENGIE LAB CRIGEN, France.
    Strategies for the sampling of hydrogen at refuelling stations for purity assessment2021In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 46, no 70, p. 34839-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen delivered at hydrogen refuelling station must be compliant with requirements stated in different standards which require specialized sampling device and personnel to operate it. Currently, different strategies are implemented in different parts of the world and these strategies have already been used to perform 100s of hydrogen fuel sampling in USA, EU and Japan. However, these strategies have never been compared on a large systematic study. The purpose of this paper is to describe and compare the different strategies for sampling hydrogen at the nozzle and summarize the key aspects of all the existing hydrogen fuel sampling including discussion on material compatibility with the impurities that must be assessed. This review highlights the fact it is currently difficult to evaluate the impact or the difference these strategies would have on the hydrogen fuel quality assessment. Therefore, comparative sampling studies are required to evaluate the equivalence between the different sampling strategies. This is the first step to support the standardization of hydrogen fuel sampling and to identify future research and development area for hydrogen fuel sampling. © 2021 The Authors

  • 32.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Bacquart, Thomas
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Schröter, Karin
    EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Switzerland.
    Carré, Martine
    Air Liquide, France.
    Gozlan, Bruno
    Air Liquide, France.
    Beurey, Claire
    Air Liquide, France.
    Blondeel, Claire
    Air Liquide, France.
    Detection of contaminants in hydrogen fuel for fuel cell electrical vehicles with sensors—available technology, testing protocols and implementation challenges2022In: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Europe’s low-carbon energy policy favors a greater use of fuel cells and technologies based on hydrogen used as a fuel. Hydrogen delivered at the hydrogen refueling station must be compliant with requirements stated in different standards. Currently, the quality control process is performed by offline analysis of the hydrogen fuel. It is, however, beneficial to continuously monitor at least some of the contaminants onsite using chemical sensors. For hydrogen quality control with regard to contaminants, high sensitivity, integration parameters, and low cost are the most important requirements. In this study, we have reviewed the existing sensor technologies to detect contaminants in hydrogen, then discussed the implementation of sensors at a hydrogen refueling stations, described the state-of-art in protocols to perform assessment of these sensor technologies, and, finally, identified the gaps and needs in these areas. It was clear that sensors are not yet commercially available for all gaseous contaminants mentioned in ISO14687:2019. The development of standardized testing protocols is required to go hand in hand with the development of chemical sensors for this application following a similar approach to the one undertaken for air sensors. © 2021 by the authors. 

  • 33.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Bohlen, Haleh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    de Krom, Iris
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Heikens, Dita
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    van Wijk, Janneke
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Hydrogen purity analysis: Suitability of sorbent tubes for trapping hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and sulphur compounds2020In: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ISO 14687-2 standard sets requirements for the purity of the hydrogen that is delivered at refuelling stations. These specifications cover a wide range of impurities and include challenging measurements, mainly due to the very low levels of the required detection limits and the need for "total" measurements (total hydrocarbons, total sulphur compounds, halogenated compounds). Most of the compounds belonging to the species are organic. Thermal desorption often coupled with gas chromatography is a common speciation method used to determine the content of organic impurities. However, no existing sorbent tubes are sufficiently universal to trap all possible impurities; depending on the sorbents and the sampling volume, some compounds may irreversibly adsorb or may break through. It is therefore necessary to evaluate sorbents for the compounds targeted at the level required. In this study, the suitability of sorbent tubes for trapping organic impurities in hydrogen was investigated. Suitable sorbents were selected based on a literature review of suitable sorbent materials. Short-term stability studies for compounds among hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds and sulphurcompounds on the selected sorbents have then been performed for storage periods of two weeks since this is the period typically required to complete the collection, transport and analysis of hydrogen samples. The study clearly shows that the method is promising for total species, even through the results show that not all of the compounds belonging to the three total species to be analysed when performing hydrogen purity analysis can be quantified on one unique sorbent. A multibed sorbent consisting of Tenax TA (weak), Carboxen 1003 (medium), Carbograph 1 (strong) is shown to be a versatile sorbent suitable for the three "total species"; only a few compounds from each family would need to be analysed using other analytical methods. This method proposed here for total species will not only provide a sum of concentrations, but also an identification of which compound(s) is/are actually present in the hydrogen.

  • 34.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Comparison of different models to calculate the viscosity of biogas and biomethane in order to accurately measure flow rates for conformity assessment2021In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 1660Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presents an optimised method to correct flow rates measured with a LFE flowmeter pre-set on methane while used for gas mixtures of unknown composition at the time of the measurement. The method requires the correction of the flow rate using a factor based on the viscosity of the gas mixtures once the composition is accurately known. The method has several different possible applications inclusive for the sampling of biogas and biomethane onto sorbent tubes for conformity assessment for the determination of siloxanes, terpenes and VOC in general. Five models for the calculation of the viscosity of the gas mixtures were compared and the models were used for ten binary mixtures and four multi-component mixtures. The results of the evaluation of the different models showed that the correction method using the viscosity of the mixtures calculated with the model of Reichenberg and Carr showed the smallest biases for binary mixtures. For multi-component mixtures, the best results were obtained when using the models of Lucas and Carr. 

  • 35.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Fischer, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Persijn, Stefan
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Moore, Niamh
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Development and evaluation of a novel analyser for ISO14687 hydrogen purity analysis2020In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 31, no 7, article id 075010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Standards ISO14687 and EN17124 set stringent limits for numerous gaseous impurities and particulates that may damage the fuel cell system in a hydrogen vehicle, as it is highly sensitive to the presence of even very low levels of impurities. However, performing the whole set of analyses is both technically challenging and time-consuming for any laboratory and will require a combination of several analytical techniques or instruments. In this study, we discussed the selection of analytical techniques for hydrogen purity testing in order to optimize the CAPEX (capital expenditure) and OPEX (operational expenditure), while ensuring the quality of the results and the compliance of the analytical methods with ISO21087. Among the individual impurities to be analysed in ISO14687, spectroscopy techniques are suitable for ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, formic acid, oxygen and water. Spectroscopy techniques are even suitable for some impurities belonging to the three total species such as hydrogen sulphide, hydrogen chloride and methane. However, helium and argon, which are monoatomic, do not exhibit response in the infrared region. Therefore, any spectroscopic analysis method must be completed by another method in order to simultaneously analyse all individual gaseous impurities from ISO14687. In this study, we constructed and demonstrated the feasibility of an instrument composed of a gas chromatograph having three columns (two packed columns and a PLOT (Porous Layer Open Tubular) column and two detectors (FID and TCD) coupled in parallel to two OFCEAS instruments using reference gas mixtures. Finally, we also proposed an extended configuration that will allow performing the whole set of analyses for gaseous species from ISO14687

  • 36.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Culleton, Lucy
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Nwaboh, Javis
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Li, Jianrong
    VSL Van Swinden Laboratorium BV, Netherlands.
    Need for a protocol for performance evaluation of the gas analyzers used in biomethane conformity assessment2024In: Accreditation and Quality Assurance, ISSN 0949-1775, E-ISSN 1432-0517, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 69-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomethane may contain trace components that can have adverse effects on gas vehicles performances and on the pipelines when injected in the gas grid. Biomethane quality assurance against specifications is therefore crucial for the integrity of the end-users’ appliances. Analytical methods used to assess biomethane conformity assessment must be validated properly and possibly, new methods specifically for biomethane should be developed. This paper provides an overview of the biomethane quality assurance infrastructure and the challenges faced with focus on sampling, analysis methods, reference gas mixtures, and performance evaluation. Currently, requirements for analytical method validation and fit-for-purpose assessments do not exist for biomethane. The industry is in urgent need of a protocol to evaluate the fit-for-purpose of methods in a harmonized manner. Reference gas mixtures to check the accuracy of the instrument and to determine the traceability of the measurement are also urgently required. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 37.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Fischer, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Adrien, Herve
    INERIS Parc Alata, France.
    El Masri, Ahmad
    INERIS Parc Alata, France.
    Lestremau, Francois
    INERIS Parc Alata, France.
    Robinson, Tim
    Waverton Analytics Ltd, UK.
    Analytical methods for the determination of oil carryover from CNG/biomethane refueling stations recovered in a solvent2020In: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 10, no 20, p. 11907-11917Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle gas is often compressed to about 200 bar at the refueling station prior to charging to the vehicle's tank. If a high amount of oil is carried over to the gas, it may cause damage to the vehicles; it is therefore necessary to accurately measure oil carryover. In this paper, three analytical methods for accurate quantification of the oil content are presented whereby two methods are based on gas chromatography and one on FTIR. To better evaluate the level of complexity of the matrix, 10 different compressor oils in use at different refueling stations were initially collected and analysed with GC and FTIR to identify their analytical traces. The GC traces could be divided into three different profiles: oils exhibiting some well resolved peaks, oils exhibiting globally unresolved peaks with some dominant peaks on top of the hump and oils exhibiting globally unresolved peaks. After selection of three oils; one oil from each type, the three methods were evaluated with regards to the detection and quantification limits, the working range, precision, trueness and robustness. The evaluation of the three measurement methods demonstrated that any of these three methods presented were suitable for the quantification of compressor oil for samples. The FTIR method and the GC/MS method both resulted in measurement uncertainties close to 20% rel. while the GC/FID method resulted in a higher measurement uncertainty (U = 30% rel.).

  • 38.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Francini, Lorena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Sampling methods for renewable gases and related gases: challenges and current limitations2022In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 414, p. 6285-6294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable gases, hydrogen and biomethane can be used for the same applications as natural gas: to heat homes, power vehicles and generate electricity. They have the potential to contribute to the decarbonisation of the gas grid. Hydrogen blending with existing natural gas pipelines is also proposed as a means to increase the performance of renewable energy systems. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) and carbon capture and utilisation (CCU) technologies can be an answer to the global challenge of significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Due to production methods, these gases typically contain species in trace amounts that can negatively impact the equipment they come into contact with or pipelines when injected into the gas grid. It is therefore necessary to ensure proper (and stable) gas quality that meets the requirements set out in the relevant standards. The gas quality standards require the collection and transport of a representative gas sample from the point of use to the analytical laboratory; i.e., no compounds may be added to or removed from the gas during sampling and transport. To obtain a representative sample, many challenges must be overcome. The biggest challenge is material compatibility and managing adsorption risks in the sampling systems (sampling line and sampling vessels). However, other challenges arise from the need for flow measurement with non-pure gases or from the nature of the matrix. Currently, there are no conclusive results of short-term stability measurements carried out under gas purity conditions (suitable pressure, matrix, appropriate concentrations, simultaneous presence of several species). © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 39.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Francini, Lorena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Fischer, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Arques, Laurent
    AP2E, France.
    Comparison of optical feedback cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy and gas chromatography for the measurement of the main components and impurities in biogas, landfill gas, biomethane and carbon dioxide streams2023In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 34, no 9, article id 095011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we evaluated the performances of a custom-built optical feedback cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFCEAS) instrument for the determination of the composition of energy gases, focusing on methane and carbon dioxide as main components, and carbon monoxide as impurities, in comparison with the well-established, validated, and traceable gas chromatographic method. A total of 115 real sample gases collected in biogas plants or landfills were analyzed using with both techniques over a period of 12 months. The comparison of the techniques showed that the virtual model which allows the measurement, needs to be optimized using real samples of varied compositions. The OFCEAS measurement technique was found to be capable of measuring both the main components and a trace component in different matrices; to within a 2% measurement uncertainty (higher than the gas chromatograph/thermal conductivity detector (GC/TCD) method). The OFCEAS method exhibits a very fast response, does not require daily calibration, and can be implemented online. The agreements between the OFCEAS technique and the GC/TCD method show that the drift of the OFCEAS instruments remains acceptable in the long term as long as no change is made to the virtual model. Matrix effects were observed, and those need to be taken into consideration when analyzing different types of samples. © 2023 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • 40.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Morris, Abigail
    NPL, UK.
    Hookham, Mathew
    NPL, UK.
    Moore, Niamh
    NPL, UK.
    Modugno, Pierpaolo
    NPL, UK.
    Bacquart, Thomas
    NPL, UK.
    An inter-laboratory comparison between 13 international laboratories for eight components relevant for hydrogen fuel quality assessment2024In: Measurement, ISSN 0263-2241, E-ISSN 1873-412X, Vol. 230, article id 114553Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of the hydrogen delivered by refuelling stations is critical for end-users and society. The purity of the hydrogen dispensed at hydrogen refuelling points should comply with the technical specifications included in the ISO 14687:2019 and EN 17124:2022 standards. Once laboratories have set up methods, they need to verify their performances, for example through participation in interlaboratory comparisons. Due to the challenge associated with the production of stable reference materials and transport of these which are produced in hydrogen at high pressure (>10 bar), interlaboratory comparisons have been organized in different steps, with increasing extent. This study describes an inter-laboratory comparison exercise for hydrogen fuel involving a large number of participants (13 laboratories), completed in less than a year and included eight key contaminants of hydrogen fuel at level close to the ISO14687 threshold. These compounds were selected based on their high probability of occurrence or because they have been found in hydrogen fuel samples. For the results of the intercomparison, it appeared that fully complying with ISO 21087:2019 is still challenging for many participants and highlighted the importance of organising these types of exercises. Many laboratories performed corrective actions based on their results, which in turn significantly improved their performances. © 2024 The Author(s)

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 41.
    Artiach, Gonzalo
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Carracedo, Miguel
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Plunde, Oscar
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Wheelock, Craig E
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Thul, Silke
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Franco-Cereceda, Anders
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Laguna-Fernandez, Andres
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Arnardottir, Hildur
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Bäck, Magnus
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Decrease Aortic Valve Disease through the Resolvin E1 and ChemR23 Axis.2020In: Circulation, ISSN 0009-7322, E-ISSN 1524-4539, Vol. 142, p. 776-789Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Aortic valve stenosis (AVS), which is the most common valvular heart disease, causes a progressive narrowing of the aortic valve as a consequence of thickening and calcification of the aortic valve leaflets. The beneficial effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in cardiovascular prevention have been recently demonstrated in a large randomized controlled trial. In addition, n-3 PUFA serve as the substrate for the synthesis of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs), which are known by their potent beneficial anti-inflammatory, pro-resolving and tissue-modifying properties in cardiovascular disease. However, the effects of n-3 PUFA and SPMs on AVS have not yet been determined. The aim of this study was to identify the role of n-3 PUFA-derived SPMs in relation to the development of AVS. Methods: Lipidomic and transcriptomic analyses were performed in human tricuspid aortic valves. Apoe-/- mice and wire injury in C57BL/6J mice were used as models for mechanistic studies. Results: We found that n-3 PUFA incorporation into human stenotic aortic valves was higher in non-calcified regions compared with calcified regions. LC-MS-MS based lipid mediator lipidomics identified that the n-3 PUFA-derived SPM resolvin E1 (RvE1) was dysregulated in calcified regions and acted as a calcification inhibitor. Apoe-/- mice expressing the Caenorhabditis elegans Fat-1 transgene (Fat-1tgxApoe-/-), which enables the endogenous synthesis of n-3 PUFA, increased valvular n-3 PUFA content, exhibited reduced valve calcification, lower aortic valve leaflet area, increased M2 macrophage polarization and improved echocardiographic parameters. Finally, abrogation of the RvE1 receptor ChemR23 enhanced disease progression, and the beneficial effects of Fat-1tg were abolished in the absence of ChemR23. Conclusions: n-3 PUFA-derived RvE1 and its receptor ChemR23 emerge as a key axis in the inhibition of AVS progression, and may represent a novel potential therapeutic opportunity to be evaluated in patients with AVS.

  • 42.
    Arvidsson, Hans
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Larsson, Gunnar
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Larsolle, Anders
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Neely, Gregory
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Hansson, Per-Anders
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Easily applicable methods for measuring the mental load on tractor operators2020In: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health, ISSN 1074-7583, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 5-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agriculture technology is moving toward automation, placing operators in a supervisory role. This change in operator workload may lead to increased stress and higher mental load, resulting in reduced attention and hence greater risk of illness or injury to humans and damage to equipment. This study investigated the use of easily applicable equipment to measure mental load. Three methods were used to measure the mental load on machine operators: heart rate monitoring, two types of electroencephalograph (EEG) evaluation, and an assessment protocol. Three driving exercises (general driving, slalom driving, and loading) and a counting exercise were used in a driving simulator to create different levels of mental load. Due to the number of exercises, a singlescale assessment protocol was used to save time. We found that only the assessment protocol gave clear results and would work well as an evaluation tool. The heart rate and EEG measurements did not provide clear data for mental load assessment. 

  • 43.
    Arya, Mina
    et al.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Malmek, Else-Marie
    Juteborg AB, Sweden.
    Ecoist, Thomas Koch
    Ecoist AB, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Jocke
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Khalili, Pooria
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Enhancing Sustainability: Jute Fiber-Reinforced Bio-Based Sandwich Composites for Use in Battery Boxes2023In: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 15, no 18, article id 3842Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rising industrial demand for environmentally friendly and sustainable materials has shifted the attention from synthetic to natural fibers. Natural fibers provide advantages like affordability, lightweight nature, and renewability. Jute fibers’ substantial production potential and cost-efficiency have propelled current research in this field. In this study, the mechanical behavior (tensile, flexural, and interlaminar shear properties) of plasma-treated jute composite laminates and the flexural behavior of jute fabric-reinforced sandwich composites were investigated. Non-woven mat fiber (MFC), jute fiber (JFC), dried jute fiber (DJFC), and plasma-treated jute fiber (TJFC) composite laminates, as well as sandwich composites consisting of jute fabric bio-based unsaturated polyester (UPE) composite as facing material and polyethylene terephthalate (PET70 and PET100) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) as core materials were fabricated to compare their functional properties. Plasma treatment of jute composite laminate had a positive effect on some of the mechanical properties, which led to an improvement in Young’s modulus (7.17 GPa) and tensile strength (53.61 MPa) of 14% and 8.5%, respectively, as well as, in flexural strength (93.71 MPa) and flexural modulus (5.20 GPa) of 24% and 35%, respectively, compared to those of JFC. In addition, the results demonstrated that the flexural properties of jute sandwich composites can be significantly enhanced by incorporating PET100 foams as core materials. © 2023 by the authors.

  • 44.
    Aspegren, Anders
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Bäckdahl, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Storbritanniens satsning på tidig detektion av cancer med hjälp av flytande biopsier – beskrivning och analys2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det pågår omfattande studier, framför allt i USA och Storbritannien, som undersöker möjligheterna att införa screening med hjälp av blodprover för tidig upptäckt av ett flertal cancerformer, så kallade MCED (Mulitple Cancer Early Detection). Ännu har inget faktiskt screeningsprogram med MCED-screening initierats i världen. I Sverige ställs idag höga krav på evidens från studier för att ett screeningprogram ska kunna införas. Det pågår studier som adresserar frågan om screening, men än så länge saknas mycket information. Med utgångspunkt i denna rapport kan därför inte en initiering av MCEDscreening i Sverige rekommenderas i dagsläget. För att vara i framkant bör Sverige dock följa området nogsamt. Grail är ett väletablerat företag som i augusti 2021 blev uppköpt av Illumina, ett företag som 2020 rapporterade en vinst på 2,34 miljarder USD. Företaget har stora ambitioner för framtida screeningprogram och kan bedömas ha de resurser som krävs att genomföra essentiella studier. De har säkrade medel och genomför projekt för att utveckla sin produkt för att fungera i en screeningsituation. Storbritanniens stora pågående studie ”NHS-Galleri Clinical Trial” beräknas publicera nya resultat under 2023. Om denna studie faller ut väl planeras en utvidgning av studien som ska omfatta en miljon personer. Denna större studie beräknas kunna avslutas 2030. Data att följa i nämnda ovanstående studie är bland annat: - Hur stor population ännu icke diagnostiserade utgör, i empiriska siffror - Utvecklingen av testmetoden gällande sensibilitet och sensitivitet - Patientnyttan, t.ex. ökar överlevnaden mot dagens siffror - Risken för överdiagnostik - Kostnader och logistik som kommer belasta sjukvården En problematik med MCED-screening är att testernas specificitet och sensitivitet behöver vara tillräckligt tillförlitliga för att det inte skall belasta snarare hjälpa samhället. Det är osannolikt att dessa värden kommer att vara 100-procentiga, men hur bra dessa värden bör vara innan man inför en screening är öppet för diskussion, däri ligger problematiken. I rapporten förklaras dessa begrepp i mer detalj. Det bör nämnas att Grail redan har kunnat presentera en ökad prestanda utifrån preliminära resultat ifrån pågående studier som presenterats i en så kallad sub-studie, där sensitivitet, sensibilitet och ”Tissue of Origin” (TOO) har förbättrats ytterligare gällande tolv olika cancerformer. Beräkningar i vår rapport har nyttjat dessa värden för att söka ge en bild över vad som kan förväntas vid ett införande av en Grail-MCED-screening i Sverige. För de tolv cancerformerna kan beräkningarna sammanfattas enligt; - Under förutsättning att det finns adekvat behandling att erbjuda vid tidigare diagnostik, kommer det ske en markant förskjutning av i vilket stadie som diagnostiserade individer detekteras och förhoppningsvis behandlas. Idag behandlas cirka 40 -45% av de cancerdiagnostiserade i stadie III/IV, att jämföras mot de beräknade 6% vid införande av årlig screening. - Ökningen av antalet individer som skulle överleva sin cancer uppskattas till mellan 3 - 5 000 individer, utöver de cirka 9 000 som överlever med hjälp av dagens diagnostik/behandling. - 25 – 35% kostnadsreducering både vad gäller direkta kostnader och samhällskostnader, extrapolerat från IHE rapport (1). Vi har dock inte tagit hänsyn till de kostnadsökningar ett införande av en MCED-screening skulle innebära. Det reella värdet av rapportens beräkningar bör vägas mot de empiriska data som kommer produceras av NHS studie av Grails metod. Starka avvikelser (”positiva/negativa”) från empiriska data kan då ligga till grund för om och i så fall hur pass snabbt man vill driva införande av MCED screening i Sverige. Rapportens sammantagna bedömning är att de av Socialstyrelsen uppsatta kriterier för införande av en screening, inte är uppfyllda i dagsläget. Men vi har även försökt visualisera vad som skulle komma att ske med dagens diagnostiserade cancerpatientgrupper om en MCED-screening införs i ålderspopulationen 40 – 80 år (96% av dagens diagnostiserade), på de tolv cancerformer som metoden visar bäst sensibilitet/sensitivitet mot. Dessa tolv cancerformer utgör 36% av dagens diagnostiserade patienter. Trots att ett införande av screening inte är att rekommendera i dagsläget, finns det alternativ att ta ställning till; - Endast avvakta utredningarna i Storbritannien (till 2023, eller till 2030). - Avvakta utredningarna men initiera samtal med beslutsfattare som styr över de ekonomiska medel som kan bistå med satsningar på större Grailtester i Sverige - Avvakta utredningarna, men initiera samtal med både NHS och Grail i syfte att behålla momentum i detta första initiativ till utredning. Författarnas uppfattning är att Grails teknik är signifikant och kommer med stor sannolikhet bedömas som tillämpbar för MCED-screening i framtiden.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 45.
    Bachinger, Angelika
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Bengtsson, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Chemistry, Biomaterials and Textiles.
    Lindkvist, K
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    The morphology of ABS with phosphorus-based flame-retardants and its influence on the impact performance2021In: Abstract Book of FRPM21, 2021, p. 86-87Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Halogen-free flame-retardants (HFFRs) have a pronounced effect on the impact performance of ABS. The addition of flame-retardant (FR) particles may interfere with the morphology of ABS or introduce weak spots into the plastic. The present work studies the morphology of ABS with phosphorus-based flame-retardant systems and sets it in relation to their respective impact performance with the aim of identifying mechanisms influencing the impact performance and revealing possibilities to overcome this issue.

  • 46.
    Bachinger, Angelika
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Hellström, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    de Muinck, Derk
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Commercial textile reinforcements – performance in green cement and surface treatment2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present report addresses the Deliverables 2.1 and 2.2 of the project ‘Green cement based on blast-furnace slag’. Deliverable 2.1 aims at the evaluation of the mechanical and thermal performance of commercial reinforcements. Deliverable 2.2 describes the modification of those commercial reinforcements and evaluation.Two different commercial textile reinforcement grids for concrete were evaluated: (i) a basalt-fibre grid from US Basalt impregnated with epoxy resin and (ii) a carbon fibre grid from V. Fraas that is impregnated with Styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The grids were exposed to plasma oxidation to increase their hydrophilicity and create functional groups that can react with the uncured cement. The adhesion to the green cement matrix was then measured of both, the untreated and the plasma treated grids by pull-out testing of fibre bundles.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 47.
    Bachinger, Angelika
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Hellström, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Domergue, Anaïs
    Gaüzere, Laurie
    de Muinck, Derk
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Development of textile reinforcements with improved adhesion and thermal stability for green cement2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present report addresses the Deliverable 2.3 of the project ‘Green cement based on blast-furnace slag’. Deliverable 2.3 aims at the development of new textile reinforcements with improved adhesion and thermal stability for green cements.Two different approaches for impregnation of textile reinforcements with materials that exhibit good adhesion to cementitious matrices as well as good thermal stability were studied: (i) impregnation with cementitious materials, (ii) impregnation with molecular precursors. Moreover, a nano-CSH impregnation system developed at Chalmers was characterized and compared to the systems developed at RISE.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 48.
    Bachinger, Angelika
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Sandinge, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Lindqvist, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Strid, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Gong, Guan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Polymeric Materials and Composites.
    Systematic evaluation of bromine-free flame-retardant systems in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene2022In: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 139, no 13, article id 51861Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A systematic investigation of phosphorus-based flame-retardant (PFR) systems in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) is presented. The effect of various PFRs, combinations thereof and influence of different synergists is studied in terms of fire and mechanical performance, as well as toxicity of resulting ABS. Sustainable flame-retardant systems with a promising effect on the fire-retardant properties of ABS are identified: A combination of aluminum diethylphosphinate and ammonium polyphosphate is shown to exhibit superior flame-retardant properties in ABS compared to other studied PFRs and PFR combinations. Among a variety of studied potential synergists for this system, a grade of expandable graphite with a high-initiation temperature and a molybdenum-based smoke suppressant show the most promising effect, leading to a significant reduction of the peak heat release rate as well as the smoke production rate. Compared to current state-of-the-art brominated flame-retardant for ABS, the identified flame-retardant systems reduce the maximum smoke production rate by 70% and the peak heat release rate by 40%. However, a significant reduction of the impact performance of the resulting ABS is identified, which requires further investigation.

  • 49.
    Bacquart, Thomas
    et al.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    de Huu, Marc
    METAS, Switzerland.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Applied Mechanics.
    Aarhaug, Thor Anders
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Viitakangas, Jaana
    VTT, Finland.
    Murugan, Arul
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    METROLOGY FOR HYDROGEN VEHICLE 2: ACHIEVEMENTS AND PROGRESSES2022In: Proceedings of WHEC 2022 - 23rd World Hydrogen Energy Conference: Bridging Continents by H2, International Association for Hydrogen Energy, IAHE , 2022, p. 1223-1225Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen fuel cells are an alternative power supply for electric drive trains and could represent 32 % of fuel demand by 2050. To deploy fuel cell electrical vehicles, there is current regulatory barriers (ISO 14687, OIML recommendations) that requires accurate measurements. The European funded project MetroHyVe has provided solutions and improvements in the four measurements challenges (flow metering, quality control, quality assurance and sampling). New challenges arised due to increase of hydrogen economy, therefore a new European project MetroHyVe 2 started in 2020 and its objectives will provide perspectives for the hydrogen economy to solve all regulatory barriers (ISO 14687, ISO 19880-8, ISO 19880-1, ISO 21087, OIML R139-1) and new measurement challenges (flow metering, quality control, sampling and fuel cell stack testing). The presentation will provide a comprehensive overview of the project achievements. The achievements around primary standard for flow metering (light and heavy duty), worldwide inter-laboratory comparison for hydrogen fuel quality, hydrogen sampling intercomparison and fuel cell stack testing recommendations will be highlighted.

  • 50.
    Barlo, A
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sigvant, M
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden; Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Islam, M S
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pérez Caro, Lluís
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Olofsson, E
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Al-Fadhli, M
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Pham, Q T
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pilthammar, J
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden; Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Odenberger, Eva-Lis
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Proposal of a New Tool for Pre-Straining Operations of Sheet Metals and an Initial Investigation of CR4 Mild Steel Formability2023In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, ISSN 1757-899X, Vol. 1284, article id 012079Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the increased focus on reducing carbon emissions in the automotive industry, more advanced materials are introduced to reduce the vehicle weight, and more complex component geometries are designed to both satisfy customer demands and to optimize the vehicle aerodynamically. With the increase in component complexity, the strain paths produced during the forming operation of car body components often display a highly non-linear behavior which makes the task of failure prediction during the manufacturing feasibility studies more difficult. Therefore, CAE engineers need better capabilities to predict failure induced by strain path nonlinearity. This study proposes a new tool designed for creating bi-linear strain paths, by performing a pre-strain of a sheet large enough to cut out Nakajima specimens to perform the post-straining in any direction. From five pre-straining tests the tool present a stable pre-straining operation with a uniform strain field in a radius of 100 [mm] from the centre, corresponding to the region of interest of a Nakajima specimen. From the five pre-strained samples, different Nakajima specimens are cut transverse and longitudinal to the rolling direction and a failure prediction approach in an alternative, path independent evaluation space was used to predict the onset of necking with promising results.

1234567 1 - 50 of 677
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf