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  • 1.
    Altebo Stenmark, Erica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Förändringar för barns rätt till delaktighet och inflytande på förskolan.: En jämförande dokumentanalys av Barnkonventionen och Läroplanen samt en intervjustudie med förskollärare.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Förskolan vilar på en demokratisk grund och på respekten för de människliga rättigheterna. Syftet med denna studie var att beskriva inkorporeringen av barnkonventionen i förskolan, i synnerhet med avseende på revideringen av läroplanen och begreppen delaktighet och inflytande samt förskollärares uppfattningar om ämnet.Studien har sin utgångspunkt och bakgrund i förändringarna i den kommande Läroplanen Lpfö18 och det faktum att barnkonventionen under år 2020 blir svensk lag. Tidigare forskning visar barnkonventionens status i Sverige och i andra länder som likt Sverige implementerat konventionen. Forskning visar också på att det är förskollärarnas förhållningssätt som avgör hur mycket delaktighet och inflytande barnen ges och vid vilka tillfällen detta sker. Resultatet från dokumentanalysen visar på att delaktighet och inflytande har stor plats i såväl barnkonventionen som den nya läroplanen samt att dessa flätas samman och ger delaktighet och inflytande än större plats i den reviderade läroplanen för 2019. I intervjuerna har det visats på en medvetenhet om de kommande förändringarna i förhållande till barnkonventionen och läroplanen, att dessa två dokument används i verksamheten samt en enad syn på innebörden och vikten av begreppen delaktighet och inflytande. Studien visar på att den svenska demokratin såväl som förskollärarens uppfattning och förhållning till sin roll påverkar möjligheten till delaktighet och inflytande. I arbetet med delaktighet och inflytande använder sig förskollärarna av olika resurser så som aktivitetstavlor, miljön som den tredje pedagogen och samlingen. Förskollärarna använder exempelvis barnböcker för att levandegöra barnkonventionen i arbetet. Slutligen visar studien att organisationen kan skapa såväl hinder som möjligheter för möjligheten till delaktighet och inflytande. 

  • 2.
    Baum, Saskia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Språkutveckling i Montessori- respektive Waldorfförskolan: En jämförelse av det pedagogiska arbetet med barns språkutveckling i Montessori- respektive Waldorfförskola2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Språkutvecklingen hos barn har fångat en nyfikenhet hos mig under min studietid och hur det vardagliga arbetet kan utveckla barnens språkutveckling. Ett intresse för olika pedagogiska inriktningar har vuxit fram och vilka strategier som används inom dessa för att stimuleras den verbala språkutvecklingen. Syftet med studien är därför att jämföra två pedagogiska arbetssätt, ett grundat i Montessoripedagogik systemet och ett grundat i Waldorfpedagogik systemet. Studiens frågeställning är vilka strategier som förskollärarna använder sig av och vilka likheter och skillnader som finns inbördes och mellan de två olika pedagogiska inriktningarna.

    Genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med fyra olika förskollärare, två inom respektive pedagogisk inriktning, där deltagarna svarar på frågor om vilka arbetssätt som respektive förskola använder sig av för att stimulera språkutvecklingen hos barn. Detta medför att resultatet nödvändigtvis inte behöver bero på respektive pedagogisk ideologi. Utan det kan även förekomma strategier utan specifik pedagogisk inriktning.

    Studien visar att barnens första språkutveckling är något som är en del av den vardagliga verksamheten på förskolan. Strategierna som används skiljer sig däremot emellan de pedagogiska inriktningarna. I Montessoriförskolan nyttjas pedagogiskt material för att lära barnen de mer specifika delarna av språkutvecklingen. Inom Waldorfförskolan nyttjas den fria leken och ett mer generellt lärande, där lärandet anpassas efter barnets egna förmågor.

  • 3.
    Berglund, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Mattsson, Henrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Barn gör rätt om de kan, inte om de vill: En kvalitativ studie om yrkesverksamma lärares erfarenhet av metoden lågaffektivt bemötande.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning 

    Arbetet med konflikthantering förekommer dagligen i skolans verksamhet och kan se olika ut. Syftet med vår studie var att undersöka vilken erfarenhet verksamma lärare som undervisar barn i åldern sex till tio år, har av metoden lågaffektivt bemötande i samband med konflikthantering. I vår studie redogör vi för hur metoden kan användas vid problematiska situationer där barn är inblandade. Lågaffektivt bemötande bygger på att barn gör rätt om de får de rätta förutsättningarna.

    Studien har genomförts med kvalitativ metod som vi valde för att uppnå ett bredare och ett mer djupgående resultat. Sju personer på tre skolor intervjuades om sin kunskap och erfarenhet av metoden lågaffektivt bemötande vid konflikthantering. Det visade sig att lärarnas erfarenheter av metoden lågaffektivt bemötande är varierande. Undersökningen visar också att det saknas utbildning och till viss del kunskap om lågaffektivt bemötande. För att det lågaffektiva bemötandet ska vara effektivt och behjälpligt i konfliktsituationer, så krävs en samsyn inom arbetslaget och en väl genomarbetad plan för metoden. Studiens slutsats blev att det råder stor brist på utbildning inom konflikthantering bland de deltagande lärarna.

  • 4.
    Bergström, Jeanette
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Forsström, Amanda
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Att vara eller inte vara i skolans värld – men vilken roll har fritidslärarna?: Ett examensarbete om fritidslärarnas syn på rollen i samverkan med lärarna.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare forskning visar att det finns återkommande oklarheter kring vilken roll fritidslärarna har inom skolan. I vår undersökning har vi utifrån bakgrunden om fritidshemmets historia och uppdrag fokuserat den förändrade roll som fritidslärare får i och med kravet på legitimation. Från juli 2019 krävs legitimation för att få undervisa och ansvara för fritidsverksamhet. Enligt läroplanen ska skolans lärare samverka med fritidslärare och utbyta kunskaper och information. Deras samverkan i detta arbete uttrycks som en parallell företeelse till hur fritidslärare uppfattar sin roll i interaktion med lärare. Vår teoretiska ansats kopplas därför till Erving Goffmans dramaturgiska teori och begrepp när vi sökt svar på frågan hur fritidslärare uppfattar sin roll i samverkan med lärare. Vi har avgränsat vår undersökning till att beskriva samverkan i form av uppfattningar. Vi har valt bort att observera interaktion mellan fritidslärare och lärare. Datainsamlingen genomfördes därav i form av en webbaserad enkät ställd till fritidslärare på en enskild skola och till en Facebook-grupp. Resultatet av vår undersökning indikerar att fritidslärare anser att det råder en otydlighet i deras roll och uppdrag. De fritidslärare som har arbetat länge framträder i sin roll och har en trygghet i sin identitet, där deras trovärdighet skapar en övertygande äkthet som leder till förståelse vid samplanering av verksamhet. Fritidslärare antar en viss roll för att teamet ska fungera och vill framträda som trovärdiga. Svaren i vår studie visar på att det råder en oklarhet kring om lärarlegitimation gör någon skillnad för fritidslärarens roll. Vår egen slutsats är att fritidslärarens roll behöver tydliggöras för att samverkan mellan skola och fritidshemmet ska kunna fungera sett utifrån styrdokumenten.

  • 5.
    Birgersson, Johanna
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Kallin, Anna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Barn med autism i skolans verksamheter: En kvalitativ undersökning om skolpersonalens strategier gällande bemötandet av barn med autism i skolans verksamheter2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I skolans verksamheter finns det idag elever med autism. Skolpersonalens uppgift är att anpassa undervisningen och bemöta elevernas behov efter allas förutsättningar. Syftet med uppsatsen är att undersöka vilka strategier skolpersonal har gällande bemötandet av barn med autism i skolans verksamheter. Studien är kvalitativ och genomfördes genom att intervjua sju personer som arbetar inom grundskolan. Resultatet visar att det finns olika metoder och strategier gällande bemötandet av elever med autism. Det framkom även brister i skolans verksamheter och brist på kunskap och utbildning inom området.

  • 6.
    Björklund, Erika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    The fragmentation of work environment training in Swedish vocational education and training2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research indicates that contemporary work environment training in Swedish vocational education and training (VET) is insufficient in terms of students’ learning. In 2011, the Swedish government implemented the current curriculum and syllabi, replacing the older one from 1994. One of the changes made was the restructuring of work environment training (WET) in VET. The reform was played out by breaking apart the former cohesive course of WET into different subjects and courses. An apparent risk with this new ‘integration’ of WET into different subjects and courses is that WET within a program may become fragmented and disorganized, not only in the policy documents but also in the daily education practice. Based on these notions, the paper will firstly develop an understanding of the thinking behind the current syllabus for WET, secondly exemplify the distribution of WET within various subjects and courses, and thirdly illustrate how the current syllabus may be played out in daily education practice. Based on these initial observations, the study will explore how notions of a ‘good work environment’ is framed and constructed within the newly re-organized context of WET. Accordingly, the study aims to explore how WET is made intelligible within the new curriculum and syllabi for VET in upper secondary school and how notions and expectations attached to a ‘good working environment’ is part of this discourse. The empirical material is the 2011 curriculum and syllabi for the upper secondary school Electricity and energy program. By systematically reviewing and analyzing the various course syllabi, the study will contribute with a comprehensive view of the current syllabus for WET and knowledge about what a ‘good work environment’ is conceived to be within these policy documents. This will provide a better understanding regarding what kind of knowledge of work environment that young people are expected to be equipped with before entering the labor market. Finally, consequences for students’ ability to learn effectively by distributing a specific content into different subjects will be discussed and elaborated on. Even though the specific example here is WET, the results have a potential to be universal.

  • 7.
    Björklund, Erika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Gustavsson, Maria
    Linköpings universitet.
    Review of educational research on ‘health work’ in Swedish Ph.D.-theses during 2005-20142016In: Social Justice, Equality and Solidarity in Education?, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we examine how health work is manifested in Swedish educational PhD-theses. We define ‘health work’ here broadly, encompassing for instance the work of all kinds of health professionals (such as health educators/promoters, public health workers, nurses, chiropractors, personal trainers, etc), health work through health related reporting in various media (e.g. magazines, web-sites, blogs, etc), and also the health work individuals perform on and for themselves (e.g. lifestyle-oriented activities). Intrinsic to these types of health work are both immanent and more direct processes of education, whereby it becomes a field of interest to educational researchers, and education research into this field of health work in turn becomes of use to health workers/practitioners.

    Therefore it is interesting to examine how this field of ‘health work’ is perceived and framed in the perspective of Swedish education research and what questions education research have been asking in this field. The aim of this paper is to explore how health work figures in Swedish education research. What aspects of health work are education researchers in Sweden interested in? What questions are being asked? And hence, how can education research in the field of health work support health workers/practitioners in their work?

    In order to answer these questions, we have looked at all of the Swedish doctoral theses in education published during the years of 2005-2014. During this period, there were 666 theses published, of which 108 were selected in the first selection, and of these, 74 were selected in the third selection. With a broad operationalization of ‘health’ and ‘health work’, the 74 theses were then further analyzed to determine how health figured in the theses and to answer the rest of the research questions. Here, a distinction was made between theses that had an explicit focus on health work in their research questions and those that did not. The analysis further consisted of categorizing the theses depending on how central or marginal issues of health work were in the studies and on whether health work was an implicit or explicit aspect of the study. The analysis was also concerned with finding common themes or issues or arenas etc.

    The preliminary results show that very few theses in education directly relate to health work. The most common areas studied are the school subject of Physical health and education (Idrott och hälsa-ämnet), student health (elevhälsa), health care (hälso- och sjukvård), and sports (idrott). Quite a few studies are concerned with issues of professionalization and many want to understand learning processes related to various illnesses or chronic conditions that people live with, while very few studies have research questions that directly relate to practices of health promotion, i.e. issues of influencing health practices from a salutogenic (“positive health”) perspective.

  • 8.
    Björklund, Erika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Discourses about electricians in vocational education2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students in vocational education to become electricians have an increased risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) once in the workforce compared to most other blue collar professions (Toomingas et al., 2014). This increased risk comes from having to work in awkward body positions, with heavy and sometimes poorly adapted tools and with time constraints. Many end up with chronic disabilities, forcing them to change careers or to go on sickness pension. Besides the significant and damaging consequences for the individual concerned, losing electricians from the workforce is a significant loss for the building industry in which electricians these days are scarce, and for society that not only loses tax-incomes but also possibly need to pay sickness pension for these people during quite a few years. It is therefore important to find ways to prevent MSDs and to promote good ergonomics in the building industry in general and among electricians specifically. Electricians’ knowledge and habits regarding MSDs are first formed and shaped in school, during vocational education to become an electrician. Drawing on the ideas of bio-power and governmentality, as introduced and developed by Foucault (1988, 1990, 2003) and developed by Rose (1999; Rabinow and Rose, 2006), discourses govern how it is possible to think and act. From this standpoint, then, talk and discourses are not perceived as innocent or ‘mere’ talk (Hall, 2001) but as governing the production, regulation and representation of both bodies and subjects through the acquisition of specific dispositions, tastes and abilities (Foucault, 1988; Rose, 1999). Thus, discourses drawn on in school about electricians and the profession govern how it is possible to think and act about oneself and others in relation to both ergonomics and MSD and, by extension, have material effects on electricians’ health. This means that, to foster healthy ergonomics one needs to consider how electricians and the profession are conceived and thought about in school, i.e. how electricians and the profession are discursively conceived. The purpose of this paper is thus to explore discursive constructions of electricians and the profession as these are expressed in discussions about MSDs in the vocational education and school context. Methods used are four focus group interviews: two with students, one with teachers and one with school management at one senior high school program for electricians. In the focus group interviews the participants were asked to discuss ideas about causes and reasons to why electricians develop MSDs, consequences and effects of MSDs and ideas about what could be done to prevent MSDs. The interviews were then transcribed and discursively analyzed with questions in mind about how each group conceived of electricians and the profession.

  • 9.
    Björklund, Erika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Discursive constructions of electricians in discussions about musculoskeletal disorders among professionals in the field2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electricians have an increased risk of developing musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) compared to most other blue collar professions. Many end up with chronic disabilities, forcing them to change careers or to go on sickness pension. Besides negative consequences for the individuals concerned, MSDs also have a detrimental impact on the workforce (reduced number of professionals) and on society (financial costs). It is therefore important to find ways to prevent MSDs and to promote good ergonomic behavior. Electricians’ knowledge and habits regarding MSDs are first formed and shaped in school, during vocational education to become an electrician. In the course of this time the students have periods of internship during which they interact with professionals within the field. Drawing on the ideas of bio-power and governmentality, as introduced and developed by Foucault and developed further by Rose, discourses govern how it is possible to think and act. From this standpoint, then, talk and discourses are not perceived as innocent or ‘mere’ talk but as producing and regulating subjects through their acquisition of specific dispositions, tastes and abilities. Thus, discourses drawn on about electricians and the profession during the students’ internship will govern how it is possible for the students to think and act about themselves and others in relation to both ergonomic behavior and MSDs and, by extension, will have material effects on electricians’ health. This means that, to foster healthy ergonomic behavior one needs to consider how electricians are thought of within the field, i.e. how electricians and the profession are discursively conceived. The purpose of this paper is thus to explore discursive constructions of electricians and the profession as these were expressed in discussions about MSDs among professionals in the field.  Two semi-structured focus group interviews and one individual interview with professionals in the field were conducted. The participants were asked to discuss ideas about i) causes as to why electricians develop MSDs, ii) consequences and effects of MSDs, and iii) ideas about what could be done to prevent MSDs. The interviews were transcribed and the material is currently being discursively analyzed with questions in mind about how the participants conceived of electricians and the profession. Results will be presented at the conference, but preliminary analyses suggests that predominant discourses are concerned with the masculinity of electricians as well as with their time pressured work situation, both contributing to casualness towards ergonomic behavior.

  • 10.
    Borg, Caroline
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Varaktiga effekter av coaching: En intervjustudie om upplevda effekter av coaching2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att söka svar på hur individer upplever varaktiga effekter av coaching samt hur coachingen påverkat deras välbefinnande. De tre respondenterna i studien hade fått en blandning av ledarskapscoaching och livscoaching hos samma coach. En kvalitativ metod med semistrukturerade intervjuer användes för att få en djupgående förståelse för de tidigare klienternas upplevelser av coaching och därefter analyserades datan med hjälp av tematisk analys. Resultatet visade att samtliga upplevt ett ökat och varaktigt välbefinnande. Ytterligare effekter, som hos vissa av deltagarna även var bestående var: en större trygghet i sig själv och/eller i yrkesrollen, ett större mod, självkännedom och förändring genom ökad reflektion, medvetenhet och insikt samt utökade färdigheter/förmågor. Slutsatsen som kan dras av studien är att de effekter som tidigare klienter upplevt av coaching bidragit till personlig utveckling och ett ökat varaktigt välbefinnande.

  • 11.
    Bransell, Karin
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Att identifiera och stödja särbegåvade barn i förskolan: En enkätstudie om förskolepedagogers självupplevda kunskaper2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med presenterat examensarbete är att undersöka förskolepedagogers kunskap om särbegåvade barn. Frågeställningen består av två forskningsfrågor; Hur uppfattar förskolepedagoger sin kunskap om särbegåvade barn? Uppvisar förskolepedagoger tecken på kunskap om särbegåvade barn? För att svara på dessa forskningsfrågor har en enkätundersökning genomförts, som riktat sig till yrkesverksamma förskollärare och barnskötare runt om i Sverige. Tecken på kunskap om särbegåvning tolkas i den här studien med hjälp av den forskningsbakgrund som presenteras. De insamlade svaren från enkäten genomgår även en korrelationsanalys för att statistiskt undersöka sambandet mellan den självupplevda kunskapen om särbegåvning och tecken på kunskap om ämnet. Resultatet diskuteras tillsammans med aktuell forskning inom fältet för särbegåvning – särbegåvade barns behov och förutsättningar i förskolan sätts i relation till studiens fynd. Med hjälp av forskningsbakgrunden belyses problematiken i att pedagoger som arbetar med barn dagligen har så lite kunskap om särbegåvade barns natur och deras behov. Konsekvenserna av utanförskap och den socioemotionella beteendeproblematik som ofta hör ihop med särbegåvning diskuteras också. Därtill diskuteras bristen på tillförlitlig identifikationsmetodik. Slutsatser som dragits utifrån studien är att mer forskning behövs inom området för särbegåvning hos små barn samt att lärar- och barnskötarutbildningarna bör inkludera undervisning om särbegåvning hos barn i den ordinarie utbildningsplanen.

  • 12.
    Bäckström, Erika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Sandberg, Ida
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Samverkan mellan skolan och socialtjänsten: En studie om pedagogen och skolans rutiner kring orosanmälan samt samverkan med socialmyndigheten2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I förskoleklassens, grundskolan och fritidshemmets gemensamma läroplan benämns inte den anmälningsplikt som råder (Skolverket, 2018). Detta trots att det specificeras i kap. 14 i Socialtjänstlagen (2001:453) att yrkespersoner inom skolverksamhet är skyldiga att anmäla vid misstanke att ett barn far illa. Skolverket (2019) benämner hur samverkan mellan skolan och socialtjänsten bör följas för de barn som inte har det bra hemma. Hur denna samverkan ska ske är däremot inget som understryks. Ytterligare kunskap behövs inom området i hur samverkan sker samt de rutiner som finns i förhållande kring anmälningsplikten. Studiens syfte är att få en större kännedom i hur samverkan mellan skolan och socialtjänsten ser ut. Målet är att uppmärksamma de rutiner pedagoger inom skolverksamheten har i samband med orosanmälan till socialtjänsten.

     

    Uppsatsens resultat visar att pedagoger anser att brister finns i samverkan med socialtjänsten. Det synliggörs hur de yrkesverksamma finner samverkan med socialtjänsten som en envägskommunikation och att de känner bristfällighet i återkoppling. Resultatet visar även att mer än hälften av pedagogerna är osäkra kring vilka rutiner som finns gällande orosanmälan på den arbetsplats de har. Genom dessa resultat kan studien bidra med inspiration för förbättringsarbete kring samverkan mellan skolan och socialtjänsten.

  • 13.
    Carlson, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Comments on Katharine Jenkins, “Ontic injustice”2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Carlson, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Comments on Katharine Paxman, “Hume and the Evolution of Appetite”2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Carlson, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Jämställdhet, vad är det?: En analys av begreppet jämställdhet i offentliga dokument om skola, utbildning och arbete2017In: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 1402-2710, Vol. 21, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I styrdokument som rör skola och utbildning likställs jämställdhet med samma möjligheter till utbildning och karriär. Det som hindrar jämställdhet antas vara traditionella könsnormer. Vad betyder ’samma möjligheter’ i denna kontext och vad krävs för att realisera detta? Utbildnings- och karriäralternativ ska avkönas, vilket analyseras som att de dels ha samma betydelser för könen, dels vara lika realiserbara. Detta verkar kräva kvantitativ jämställdhet inom varje alternativ. Vad är det då som hindras av könsnormerna? Enligt dokumenten är det individernas autentiska val. Detta analyseras som förverkligandet av antingen den mänskliga naturen eller det individuella självets autentiska önskningar. Båda dessa vägar visar sig vara återvändsgränder. Slutsatsen blir att kvantitativ jämställdhet är det enda substantiella jämställdhetsbegreppet.

  • 16.
    Carlson, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Lena Halldenius, Mary Wollstonecraft and Feminist Republicanism: Independence, Rights and the Experience of Unfreedom, London: Pickering & Chatto Ltd 20152016In: Tidskrift för politisk filosofi, ISSN 2002-3383, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 35-42Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Carlson, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    ”Samma möjligheter” till skola, utbildning och arbete: Är det realistiskt? Är det begripligt?: En begreppslig undersökning av kvalitativ jämställdhet2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Carlson, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Sex, Biological Functions and Social Norms: A Simple Constructivist Theory of Sex2016In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 18-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminist theory needs a constructivist account of biological sex for at least two reasons. The first is that as long as female and male are the only two sexes that are taken for granted, being cisgender, heterosexual, and preferably a parent will be the norm, and being intersexed, transgender, bi- or homosexual, infertile or voluntarily childless will be deemed failure. The second is the fact that, usually, sex and gender come together in the way that is expected, i.e. the fact that most females are women and most males are men needs to be explained. This paper provides a constructivist theory of sex, which is that the sex categories depend on norms of reproduction. I argue that, because the sex categories are defined according to the two functions or causal roles in reproduction, and biological functionis a teleological concept involving purposes, goals, and values, female and male are normative categories. As there are no norms or values in nature, normative categories are social constructions; hence, female and male are not natural but social categories. Once we understand that biological normativity is social, biological norms of heterosexuality, fertility, and so on are no longer incontestable. In addition, as many gender norms also concern reproduction - socially mediated reproduction - this simple theory of sex explains the common confluence of sex and gender.

  • 19.
    Carlson, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Structure and Feeling in Hume’s Accounts of the Indirect Passions2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a literature review of Hume’s psychology of the passions, Elisabeth Radcliff calls for a consistent understanding of his accounts of the indirect passions, the structural and the introspective. Hume gives a structural account of the indirect passions as he locates them within a causal structure of perceptions. Since many readers find the causal relation of passion and (sort of intentional) object mistaken they, identify the passion with the entire structure why the object is constitutive of the passion for logical or conceptual reasons. Hume however regards the passions as simple impressions only contingently related to other perceptions, and defines them by how they feel. That is the introspective account. In this paper, I present a reading of Hume’s theory that makes use of the structural account and consistently unites it with the introspective. Unlike other commentators, I argue that Hume distinguishes between having feelings of pride and being proud. Combined with an understanding of causation as event causation in opposition to species causation, this distinction is enough to save him from criticism.

  • 20.
    Carlson, Åsa
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    The Standard Account of Intentional Action Challenged by Emotion2017In: Kunskap Motstånd Möjlighet: Humanistisk forskning i dag / [ed] Ulrika Serrander & Peder Thalén, Halmstad: Molin & Sorgenfrei, 2017, 1, p. 363-382Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Carlson, Åsa
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Edenheim, Sara
    Jarlsdotter Wikström, Jenny
    New Materialism2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, it is rather common that feminist researchers position themselves as new materialists within the theory of science instead of as social constructivists or poststructuralists. Since we believe that this change happened without very much discussion, we encourage debate on the topic, in order to get a deeper understanding of new materialism and how it relates to these other positions. Our point of departure is the view of Karen Barad as presented in Meeting the Universe Half-Way. In a reaction against (oversimplified) post-structuralism, Barad attempts to reintroduce the significance and causality of matter into scientific explanations without ending up as an empiricist. Like social constructivist and poststructuralists she thinks that knowledge always depends on the subject of knowledge, situated in her social and historical context. In addition, Barad thinks that everything we observe are phenomena that depend on perceptive and technical apparati, that is, tools for investigating nature including ourselves. Since we are nature, or the ‘object’ of enquiry, strictly speaking we have no causal relation to the ‘object’. This is so because relata (that which the causal relation is a relation of) have to be two distinct entities, but the subject of knowledge is not distinct from the object of knowledge. Barad underscores this by writing that we intra-act (as opposed to interact) with nature. Because of this, she concludes that phenomena are everything that exists. This conclusion and some other entailments have not been thoroughly scrutinized.

  • 22.
    Chakraborty, Sarbani
    et al.
    University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
    Elde Mølstad, Christina
    Inland University, Elverum, Norway.
    Feng, Jingying
    University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education. Uppsala universitet.
    The reception of large-scale assessments in China and India2019In: New Practices of Comparison, Quantification and Expertise in Education: Conducting Empirically Based Research / [ed] Elde Mølstad, C. & Pettersson, D., London & New York: Routledge, 2019, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Björklund, Erika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Nordlöf, Hasse
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Occupational health science. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Utveckling av arbetsmiljöutbildning på yrkesgymnasium för förebyggande av belastningsbesvär och främjandet av ett hållbart arbetsliv för installationselektriker: En förberedande fallstudie2018In: FALF KONFERENS 2018. Arbetet - problem eller potential för en hållbar livsmiljö? Gävle 10-12 juni 2018: Program och Abstracts / [ed] Per Lindberg, Gävle: Gävle University Press , 2018, p. 92-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund och syfte

    Många yrkesprogram på gymnasiet utbildar för yrken där vi vet att anställda ofta drabbas av belastningsrelaterad ohälsa. Exempelvis visar data från Arbetsmiljöverket att 9–12% av alla installationselektriker och elmontörer rapporterar besvär orsakade av påfrestande arbetsställningar och att de rapporterar en ettårsprevalens på 6–10% för besvär i nacke, axlar, arm och rygg till följd av arbetet som varit så svåra att det påverkat arbetsförmågan. Forskning har även visat att elever på elteknikprogram löper särskilt hög risk att drabbas av arbetsskada relativt andra utbildningar. Redan under utbildningen bör åtgärder sättas in för att minska dessa risker.

    En genomgång av litteraturen visar dock att det finns tydliga brister i hur yrkesprogram förbereder eleverna för ett kommande arbetsliv vad gäller arbetsmiljökunskap och att orsakerna till dessa brister troligen finns inom undervisningens innehåll och utformning, lärares kompetens och samverkan med yrkeslivet under utbildningen. Vidare kan elever-nas attityder till arbetsmiljöundervisning utgöra ett hinder. Sammantaget förefaller hin-dren för en bra arbetsmiljöutbildning på yrkesprogram inom gymnasiet vara komplexa och multifaktoriella.

    Innan åtgärder sätts in för att utveckla undervisningen finns därför stort behov av att kartlägga de komplexa orsakssambanden bakom brister inom utbildningen och utifrån det utforma förbättringsåtgärder.

    I vår studie avser vi att svara på forskningsfrågan: Hur anser olika intressenter att olika faktorer inom såväl utbildningen som framtida yrkeskontext interagerar och bidrar till uppkomsten av belastningsbesvär hos installationselektriker?

    Metod och resultat

    Studien har en fallstudiedesign där fokusgrupper och problemträdsanalys används. Pro-blemträdsanalys är en metod för att kartlägga komplexa orsakssamband och att klargöra grundläggande orsaker. Analysen kan därmed säkra att aktiviteter och insatser inte väljs och påbörjas utan att man först har kartlagt kärnproblemets ofta komplexa orsaker grundligt.

    Som underlag till problemträdsanalysen kommer fokusgruppsintervjuer att genomföras där personer från samma kategori intressenter separat samtalar om kärnproblemet. Vi kommer genomföra intervjuer separat med elever, lärare, skolledning och representanter från arbetslivet. Problemträdsanalysen genomförs sedan vid ett tillfälle där 2–3 personer från varje intressent; elever, lärare, skolledningen, representanter från arbetslivet och forskare från projektgruppen deltar. Inför sessionen kommer vi att delge deltagarna underlag baserat på resultaten från fokusgruppintervjuerna och vår litteratursökning så att de kan ta del avSession D:2Individuella presentationer: Fysiskt arbetsliv93vad andra intressegrupper/källor identifierat som möjliga orsaksfaktorer. Efter framtagande av problemträd kommer tänkbara lösningar att formuleras i samverkan med alla intressenter för att skapa ett lösningsträd, vilket kommer att utgöra grund för kommande utvecklingsarbete inom utbildningen.

    Datainsamling och analyser genomförs under våren 2018 och preliminära resultat kommer att presenteras på konferensen.

  • 24.
    Dorio, Nunzio, Jason
    et al.
    University of California, Los Angeles, USA .
    Francia, Guadalupe
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Ayik, Bilgehan
    University of California, Los Angeles, USA .
    Abagat Liboon, Christine
    University of California, Los Angeles, USA .
    Children at Our Walls : Dehumanizing Discourses and Policies Challenging the Rights of Asylum-Seeking Minors in the United States and Sweden2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Biffi, Elisabetta
    University of Milano-Bicocca Department of Human Sciences for Education Milano.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Montà, Chiara Carla
    Università degli Studi Milano Bicocca Scienze Umane per la Formazione Riccardo Massa Roasio.
    Children’s right not to be subjected to violence – a comparative discourse analysis of educational policy between Sweden and Italy2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The desire to protect children from violence is clearly formulated in the Children’s Right Convention (CRV). For example, the right of children to be protected from:” /…/all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child is clearly stated in Article 19 of the CRC, which was ratified by Sweden in 1989 (United Nations, 1989). The right of children not to be subjected to various forms of violence is also emphasized in other international treaties signed and/or ratified by the Swedish state (the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the European Convention of Human Rights, the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2010, the Treaty of Lisbon). In order to assure this right, the Swedish legal framework (Prop., 2009/10:232) stipulates that the subjection of children to violence should be avoided at all cost. Italy assures the right of a childhood free from violence thanks to its legal framework as well. Italy’s legal framework is made up of the international documents previously cited, the CRC (ratified in 1991 with the LEGGE 27 maggio 1991, n. 176. Italy’s legal framework is also made up of national laws, in particular by the founding one: the Constitution. Art. 3. This article is used as a base for the creation of national policy to prevent the subjection of children to violence.

    In this study, the word violence is used in a broad sense to cover the numerous situations in which people are at risk of being physically and psychologically damaged (Hamby and Grych, 2013), such as in cases of discrimination, bullying, violation, or harassment (cf. Greeff and Grobler, 2008; Parkes, 2007). The ambition to oppose and counteract violence through juridification in schools has increased in Sweden through the introduction of the Discrimination Act (SFS, 2008:567) and the paragraph regarding the treatment of others in the Education Act (SFS, 2010:800, paragraph 6). For what concerns the treatment of others and discrimination, Italy refers to the National Plan for educating to the respect of others (Rispetta le differenze. Piano nazionale per l’educazione al rispetto). This plan aims at promoting the values stated in the 3rd article of the Constitution by educating and training students, teachers and families.

    There are several studies conducted in Italy and Sweden about how this particular right is approached in policy (Francia and Edling, 2016, Edling and Francia, 2017, Biffi, 2017). Although, children’s right not to be subjected to violence is given attention in many countries today it is still a question of negotiation as concerns how these rights are materialized in each country’s educational policy as well as why they are described as important to consider. Whereas Sweden is described as a highly secular (previously protestant) and individualistic country, Italy is pictured as a non-secular, catholic country premiering the collective (see Meyer, 2014; Integrationsverket, 2005).  

    Against this background, it becomes of interest to compare how two different countries like Sweden and Italy approach children’s right not to be subjected to various forms of violence by analysing educational policy that presents motifs and directives for teachers in different stages. In Italy, the plan for the 2016-2019 teacher training in chapter 4.6 (Piano per la formazione dei docenti 2016-2019) declares that teachers have to be trained in order to teach them how to promote respect for others in their classrooms in order to prevent violence.

    Method

    The following questions are asked: 1. How do the different policy documents in Sweden and Italy describe and explain teachers’ responsibilities to oppose violence in school? 2. Are there any similarities and/or differences between the countries as regards the question above? If so what kind of similarities and/or differences? To conduct a comparative study, both linkages and differences need to be taken into account. Linkages are created by posing similar questions to the material analysed and differences imply awareness that all comparisons always contain cultural and contextual differences and contestations that need to be addressed (e.g. No´voa & Yariv-Mashal, 2003). As regards linkages, Kazamias (2001) points to the need to use theoretical concepts as lenses to make more 200 coherent comparisons (p. 446) – in this case theoretical understandings of violence. This paper is based on a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of educational policy highlighting teachers’ responsibilities to promote children’s right not to be subjected to violence. Based on Fairclough (1992, 2000, 2001), we argue that CDA facilitates an understanding of the dialectical relation between discourse and social practice. Following Fairclough (2000), the interpretation of the data encompasses three dimensions: (a) text analysis (description), (b) processing analysis (interpretation), and (c) social analysis (explanation). In our study, these dimensions correspond to our research questions.

    Expected outcomes

    The study aims to distinguish how teachers’ responsibilities to oppose violence towards children is expressed and motivated by the various policy documents. The comparison makes it possible to discuss plausible similarities and differences between the countries as well as discuss cultural and political explanations for the findings that can help combat child violence. 

    References

    Biffi, Elisabetta. (2017). Protecting minors against violence: from strategy to practice. Education Sciences & Society. 1, 47-64. Fairclough, Norman. (1989). Language and power. London: Longman. London: Longman. Fairclough, Norman. (1992). Discourse and Social Change. Cambridge: Polity Press. Francia, Guadalupe, & Edling, Silvia. (2016). Children's rights and violence: A case analysis at a Swedish boarding school. Childhood, in process. Greeff, P., & Grobler, A. (2008). Bullying during the intermediate school phase. Childhood 15(1), 127-144. Hamby, Sherry , & Grych, John (2013). The Web of Violence Exploring Connections Among Different Forms of Interpersonal Violence and Abuse. New York, London: Springer Dordrecht Heidelberg. Kazamias, Andreas M. . (2001). ‘Re-inventing the Historical in Comparative Education: Reflection on a Protean Episteme by a Contemporary Player’. Comparative Education, 37(4), 439-450. LEGGE 27 maggio 1991, n. 176 Ratifica ed esecuzione della convenzione sui diritti del fanciullo, fatta a New York il 20 novembre 1989. (GU n.135 del 11-6-1991 - Suppl. Ordinario n. 35-), The Universal Declaration of Human Rights; The European Convention of Human Rights; The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2010, and the Treaty of Lisbon. Linee Guida Nazionali -art. 1 comma 16 L. 107/2015- Educare al rispetto: per la parità tra i sessi, la prevenzione della violenza di genere e di tutte le forme di discriminazione Linee di orientamento per la prevenzione e il contrasto del cyberbullismo nelle scuole -art. 4 L. 71/2017- Meyer, Erin. (2014). The cultrure map. Breaking Through the Invisible Boundaries of Global Business. NY: PublicAffairs US. Nóvoa, Antonio , & Yariv-Mashal, Tali (2003). Comparative Research in Education: A Mode of Governance or a Historical Journey? Comparative Education, 39(4), 423-438. Parkes, Jenny. (2007). The multiple meanings of violence. Children's talk about life in a South African neighbourhood. Childhood 14(4), 401-414. Prop. (2009/10:232). Strategi för att stärka barnets rättigheter i Sverige. Stockholm. SFS. (2008:567). Diskrimineringslag. SFS. (2010:800). Skollag.

  • 26.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Public or private governance of school violence: a leadership perspective2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Edling, Silvia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    “Democracy for me is saying what I want”: The teaching profession on free speech, democratic mission and the notion of political correctness in a Swedish context2019In: Teacher education and the development of democratic citizenship in Europe / [ed] Andrea Raiker, Matti Rautiainen & Blerim Saqipi, Taylor & Francis, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Elde Mølstad, Christina
    et al.
    Inland University, Elverum, Norway.
    Pettersson, DanielUniversity of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education. Uppsala universitet.
    New Practices of Comparison, Quantification and Expertise in Education: Conducting Empirically Based Research2019Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New Practices of Comparison, Quantification and Expertise in Education discusses contemporary trends and activities related to comparisons and quantifications. It aims to help scholars to conduct empirically based research on how comparisons and quantifications are instituted in practice at different levels in the educational system.

    The book furthers discussions on policy by looking at the kinds of activities that comparisons and quantifications lead to at an international, regional and national level. Most of the book’s chapters are based on empirical research conducted in different research projects. The book thus brings all these projects together and discusses them as activities promoted by the reasoning of comparisons and quantifications.

    New Practices of Comparison, Quantification and Expertise in Education will be of great interest to academics, researchers and post-graduate students in the fields of comparative education, curriculum research and policy studies. It will also appeal to those in the fields of teacher education, including student teachers.

  • 29.
    Elde Mølstad, Christina
    et al.
    Inland University, Norway.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Who Governs the Numbers?: The Framing of Educational Knowledge by TIMSS Research2018In: Education by the Numbers and the Making of Society: The Expertise of International Assessments / [ed] Sverker Lindblad, Daniel Pettersson, Thomas S. Popkewitz, New York: Taylor & Francis, 2018, p. 166-184Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contemporary society, different tests of educational performance have been given importance in educational research, policy initiatives and curriculum change as well as in media. Consequently, performance in schools has been increasingly judged on the basis of effective student learning outcomes. One of the most active agencies in performing international comparative tests is the IEA—International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement. The IEA has a history dating back to the 1950s (for a discussion on the history of the IEA see, e.g., Pettersson, 2014), and since 1995 an international large-scale assessment with the acronym TIMSS repetitively has been launched. TIMSS, together with other tests staged by either the IEA or other international organizations, has gradually transformed into reference points for general economic and social policies (Pettersson, 2014). In this context, the phenomenon of international large-scale assessments (ILSA) are serving a global governance constituted by a specific reasoning (cf. Hacking, 1992) connected to the use of numbers. ILSA research, for example, studies using data or results from TIMSS, is based on numbers constructed for partly governance reasons and is a growing interdisciplinary and increasingly international field of study (Lindblad, Pettersson, & Popkewitz, 2015). Hence, the scientific development of the field is highly relevant to analyze. However, it is surprisingly few educational studies that have made use of the data rapidly accumulating with the development of various databases and software. Given the importance of this numbered educational discourse as a social and scientific practice, we propose that it is crucial to take into account how this discourse is framed through different written formats.

  • 30.
    Elde Mølstad, Christina
    et al.
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences (INN University), Norway.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Forsberg, Eva
    Departement of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Scientific Framing of Curriculum Research: Experts or Algorithms?2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mapping research in relation to research interest is a common act of performing a research review. This kind of activity is an important part of being a researcher both to portray the competence of knowing a field and to frame specific research theoretically and analytically. The act of showing belongingness and relationship to different paradigms and thinkers (Kuhn, 1962) or various epistemic cultures (Knorr-Cetina, 1999) has over time been given different forms within the community of research. In relation to the act of framing research by different systematic research strategies we raise questions on: who inhabits and cultivates the field of curriculum research according to different strategies for scientific communication? Our theoretical framework is based on an argument that acknowledge the importance of investigating scientific reasoning (Hacking, 1992) and epistemic cultures (Knorr-Cetina, 1999) for understanding the intellectual organizing of knowledge, and by that exemplify how scientific ‘facts’ and ‘truths’ are constructed and legitimized, which is knowledge perceived as ‘common sense’ (cf. Gramsci 1992) within different scientific fields.

    We investigate four common systematic research strategies for performing research reviews, most used and reproduced within the community of researchers. We have first the handbooks where experts of a specific field are given the legitimacy to portray a specific field of research; second, the systematic search strategies performed with the help of various databases such as e.g. Web of Science, Scopus or ERIC; third, the investigating act of systematically browsing through research journals of special interest within a specific field, and fourth, the systematic research reviews performed by special institutes set up for performing these tasks, such as e.g. Danish Clearinghouse or EPPI centre, which in turn are used as a source by some researchers for illustrating the findings of more restricted and specific research questions.

    Focusing on four different forms of performing systematic research reviews we describe, analyze and compare the various forms with regards to:

    • how knowledge of/in a research field is constructed,
    • what kind of research that is selected and privileged

     In particular, we are interested in the potential movement of research reviews from an act of collective ‘intellectualizing’ among ‘experts’ to an act of ‘technologizing’ dependent on algorithms and terminology embedded in various databases, in which the amount of data is more important in ‘evidence-making’ than the perceived expertise of the source. To put it differently, the databases with their vast aggregation of data, organized by algorithms and terminology, are perceived as the authority and not the authors or the epistemic cultures in which the authors are embedded.

    We use the field of curriculum research to elaborate on the different forms of research reviews and their consequences for knowledge produced. Within the field of curriculum research, handbooks have had a dominant position in describing the field. Also, explicit research reviews within different journals have been important among researchers in the framing of the field of curriculum. However, in the contemporary, bibliometric analyses grounded in database searches and systematic research review performed by special institutes are more and more employed. 

    Method

    Dependent on which strategies used by researchers for framing different research fields we especially hypothesize on the importance of epistemic cultures and how these epistemic cultures historically have transported research, and how this is transformed, or even disappeared, with the entrance of various databases. First, we chose the collaborative act of ‘experts’ producing handbooks as an example of ‘intellectualizing’ dependent on that some researchers are given, or have taken, the role of ‘experts’. Second, we perform bibliometric searches, for reason of illuminating variances, by using Web of Science and Scopus as examples of ‘technologizing’, where databases more than individual researchers or research groups have transformed into the epistemic culture per se. Third, we will systematically browsing through research journals within the curriculum research field using explicit research reviews, within different journals (e.g. Journal of Curriculum Studies, Curriculum Inquiry, Educational Reviewer). This has been an important practice among researchers within the field of curriculum and hence it is important to capture this approach for framing the field. Fourth, we will analyze some systematic research reviews from special institutes (e.g. Danish Clearinghouse or EPPI centre) addressing curriculum research questions This has to a growing extent become a regular way to produce research reviews. Consequently, we are in a position to elaborate on how the field of curriculum research is portrayed by using different strategies for framing a research. This is most important for understanding how the field of curriculum research today is reproduced in various research settings.

    Expected Outcomes

    The preliminary results indicate that for example the use of handbooks portrays the curriculum field by mostly internationally well-recognized curriculum theory researchers, with resembling results for the use of review articles. The use of Web of Science and Scopus to map the curriculum field portrays both a broader and a narrower picture of the field, where more subject specific topics are included while some research is excluded as a consequence of the character of the corpus of journals and data in the databases. This leads to a picture of the curriculum field where actors are publishing on topics and journals more loosely connected to the core for what can be called curriculum research, this since subject specific topics are not in the same way highlighted in the handbooks. The findings of the reviews from the institutes are still to be elaborated. However, the findings so far indicate that there are important differences in the way a field is portrayed depending on which approach is applied. In sum, the results indicate that the approaches we apply shape how a field is portrayed, and by that also how a specific research field can be interpreted and understood. This is important knowledge and should have consequences for example in the way we guide PhD candidates for performing a systematic research review, as well as adding to researchers’ knowledge of the complexity and challenge of the task. It also indicates notions on how a research field is framed in the contemporary, is it made by ‘experts’ of the field or by algorithms and database specific terminology, which is situated outside well-recognized epistemic cultures? What are the consequences of this movement from defining frames of a research field among peers into a technologizing of this act?

    References

    Gramsci, A. (1992) Prison Notebook. G. Lawrence & Wishart: London.

    Hacking, I. (1992). 'Style' of historians and philosophers. Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science, 23(1), 1-20.

    Knorr Cetina, K. (1999) Epistemic Cultures: How the Science Make Knowledge. Harvard University Press.

    Kuhn, T (1962) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press

  • 31.
    Elde Mølstad, Christina
    et al.
    Inland University of Applied Sciences, Elverum, Norway.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education. Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Prøitz, Tine S
    University College of Southeast Norway, Nottoden, Norway.
    Soft Infusion: Constructing 'Teachers' within the PISA sphere2018In: Education policies and the restructuring of the educational profession: Global and comparative perspectives / [ed] Normand, R., Liu, M., Carvalho, L.M., Oliveira, D.A., LeVasseur, L., Singapore: Springer, 2018, 1, p. 13-26Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since their inception, international large-scale assessments introduced by the OECD, such as PISA, have been widely discussed and disseminated in various social fields, e.g. policy, research, practice and the media. Administrative and political actors have responded to PISA and taken part in discussions about the results (e.g. Pettersson in Internationell kunskapsbedömning som inslag i nationell styrning av skolan. Uppsala University, Uppsala, 2008; Hopmann in European Educational Research Journal 6:109–124, 2007, 2015; Ozga in Fabricating quality in education: data and governance in Europe. Routledge, New York, 2011; Ertl in Oxford Review of Education 32:619–634, 2006; Grek in Journal of Education Policy 24:23–37, 2009).

  • 32.
    Eldesten, Simon
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Kommunikation i förskolan: En studie baserad på semistrukturerande intervjuer och observationer av kommunikationssituationer på förskolan2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the preschool's activities there is constant communication between children and adults but how it looks can look different. This study investigates how preschool teachers communicate with younger children and how the children themselves communicate with each other. The methods on which the study is based on are semistructured interviews with 10 preschool teachers from two different preschools as well as observations of adult and child communication with each other. The collected material has been analyzed and categorized according to the questions asked during the interviews and study question. What the outcome of the study shows is that the preschool plays a major role in the communicative development of children and that it affects their participation in activities and games. That's why it's important that the preschool teacher takes advantage of the children's interests and needs.

  • 33.
    Elm, Annika
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Liljestrand, Johan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Preschool Teachers´ Professional Development : Teachers and Researchers in Collaboration2019In: ECER 2019: Abstracts, 2019, article id 468Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As in many other European countries early childhood education, including preschool, includes teaching in the area of subject knowledge. In Sweden this is related to a changed policy in order to connect preschool with the school system. Since 2011, “teaching” has been established as a new aspect of the preschool’s mandate and, since 2010, subjects like maths, science have been added to the national syllabus. Earlier, subjects has also been part of a preschool tradition already present in Fröbel’s kindergarten. In this earlier approach the intention was not to prepare for the forthcoming school and its subject content. Today, the national preschool syllabus has subject goals that overlaps with those of the school, often stated in a rather detailed, academic form. In addition, the Swedish school inspectorate has also included the preschools in its evaluations. According to the Swedish education act, practice should be based on scientific knowledge and proven experience. These changed directives comes with increasing expectations and demands on the preschool teacher profession for implementing this assignment. In light of this background we aim to support the preschool teachers to develop a professional and inside-out based (Stanley & Stronach 2013) knowledge for acting as professionals in this changed context. In this contribution we will direct our interest on the subject area of science and technology.

    Previous research has identified possibilities or lack of possibilities for science and technology learning in early childhood environments, with a tendency to a ‘diagnostic’ approach to preschool teacher knowledge. However, this research does not go far enough in investigating programs for developing preschool teachers´ science content knowledge (e.g. Nilsson, 2014; Fleer, 2009; Nilsson & Elm, 2017). Against the background of the need for including preschool teachers experiences and knowledge in a fair way (cf. Berry et al. 2008), while simultaneously recognize the need of further development in subject content, in the institutional frame of the preschool, we will address preschool teachers pedagogic content knowledge (PCK). The latter (PCK) refers to teachers´ understanding of the content and experiences and attitudes towards science. Our research question reads: In what ways can collaboration between preschool teachers´ and researchers contribute to preschool teachers’ professional learning and preschool development with special regard to preschool teachers’ pedagogic content knowledge?

    Our methodological approach is guided by Participatory Action Research (PAR) highlighting the need of a democratic process, developing of practical knowledge related to issues that are of great concern for the participants (Reason & Bradbury 2001). Furthermore, PAR recognizes our partners’ knowledge and experiences as a vital element to be brought into the research process (Brydon-Miller, Greenwood & Maguire, 2003). Thus, an important factor is the interaction between the researcher and the interests within the educational field, in order to promote both researchers and the practitioners work and goals. From this starting point there is initially an explicitly stated drive to meet on equal terms and to support each other to develop.

    The other leg, pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) includes teachers’ understanding of how children learn, or fail to learn; in relation to this specific subject matter has been found to be an important matter. That is, a perspective on professional development that focus on preschool teachers´ understanding of the content, pedagogical content knowledge and attitudes towards science (cf. Schulman, 1987; Van Driel & Berry, 2012). Representation of teacher content knowledge (CoRe) by means of a commonly developed table, is systematically used as a tool to trigger preschool teachers´ ideas of both science and technology content as a tool for development and cooperation.

    Methodology or Methods/ Research Instruments or Sources Used

    9 preschool teachers during 1,5 year (currently ongoing) participates in the research project which includes both indoors- and outdoors activities focusing on technology and science content, paying attention to children’s perspectives. The teachers are meeting in reflective group sessions once a month. For this paper data was collected through a qualitative approach consisting of 23 + 29 hours recorded semi structured interviews with the participating preschool teachers from one preschool unit. The interviews were conducted after the first and third semester of participation. Data was then analysed out from thematic content analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006).

    As Braun and Clarke (2006) argue, it is a method that requires researchers to be clear about what they do, why they do it and how the analysis is conducted. The analyses of the data in this study were part of an inductive process from a) transcription → b) identifying emergent initial codes → c) searching for themes → d) reviewing and revising themes → e) defining and naming themes → f) formulating the result (with the starting point in identified and named themes). First, the interviews were transcribed verbatim. Some of the statements made in the interviews that did not correspond to the subject were not transcribed. Second, the data was read, and assigned initial codes.

    The third step involved searching for overall themes, based on the initial codes. In this step, the researchers sorted the data under each theme separately. In the fourth step themes were compared, data were reviewed the themes revised. In this process, similarities were identified in the themes that had emerged in the analysis of the interviews. Related examples of the participants’ learning were examined and refined until consensus was reached. Fifth, to establish the validity of the coding and identified themes, the authors worked to finally define and name the themes. The main data was then compared with the themes and provided a critical overview in terms of aspects being overemphasised, under represented, too vague or biased. The final step in the analysis, with a starting point in the themes, was to formulate the results.

    Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or Findings

    Our results from the interview data shows that the use of CoRe:s contribute to focus on the specific content in a more systematic way. Some of the preschool teachers expressed how the use of the CoRe:s and the formulation of ‘Big Ideas’ supported them to establish the fundamental ideas of the topic they were teaching. With documentation in CoRe preschool teachers have been able to make visible aspects of their own practice and to see the educational value of a current situation. In their collegial work, the documentation of CoRe contributes to the preschool teachers distancing themselves from their daily practices and makes them evaluate their actions and activities. Further, the use of CoRE seems to provide a different point for innovative change in the preschool development. In this way, the collective knowledge of a team becomes qualitatively different to that of a single individual. In addition, other themes also comprises: improved knowledge of processes for planning; visibility of different aspects in the daily practice and in children's learning processes; a broader view connected to international and national development in preschool and society, and a practice on scientific basis.

     Our research contributes with how “teachers and other professionals on the field of education learn and develop throughout their professional career” in the developing field of early childhood education and its rising expectation of subject knowledge. We also attempt to show how teacher development and the research process is dependent on their reciprocal development in order to be accomplished. In a time characterized by rapid policy changes in the educational systems in Europe, the need for practitioner-researcher collaborations supporting professionalism based on conscious professional agency is of great concern.

    References

    Berry, A., Loughran, J. & van Driel, J.H. (2008) Revisiting the Roots of Pedagogical Content Knowledge. International Journal of Science Education, 30:10, 1271-1279.

    Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, vol. 3. (2). p. 77-101.

    Brydon-Miller, M., Greenwood, D. & Maguire, P. (2003). Why action research? Action Research, vol. 1. (1). p. 9-28.

    Fleer, M. (2009). Supporting scientific conceptual consciousness or learning in ‘a Roundabout Way’ in play-based contexts. International Journal of Science Education, 31(8), p. 1069–1089.

    Nilsson, P. (2014). When Teaching Makes a Difference: Developing science teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge through learning study. International Journal of Science Education, 36(11), 1794-1814.

    Nilsson, P. & Elm, A. (2016). Capturing and developing early childhood teachers´ science Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) through CoRes. International Journal of Science Education, 28 (5), 406-424.

    Reason, P & Bradbury, H (2001). Introduction: Inquiry and participation in search of a world worthy of human aspiration. Peter Reason & Hilary Bradbury (eds.) Handbook of Action Research. London: SAGE.

    Skolverket (2011). Curriculum for the preschool Lpfö98. www.skolverket.se

    Shulman, L. S. (1987). Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. Harvard Educational Review, 57, 1-22.

    Stanley, E. and, & Stronach, I. (2013) Raising and doubling ‘standards' in professional discourse: a critical bid. Journal of Educational Policy, 28(3), pp. 291-305.

    van Driel, J. H., & Berry, A. K. (2012). Teacher professional development focusing on pedagogical content knowledge. Educational Researcher, 41(1), 26 - 28.

  • 34.
    Faldet, Ann-Cathrin
    et al.
    Inland University Norway, Elverum, Norway.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Elde Mølstad, Christina
    Inland University Norway, Elverum, Norway.
    Jeg, du, meg och deg: Hva kan vi egentligen lære av PISA?2019In: Norsk pedagogisk tidsskrift, ISSN 0029-2052, E-ISSN 1504-2987, Vol. 103, no 1, p. 42-52Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In the presentation of the PISA results, we can see certain patterns in how the debate is being constructed and we can see certain patterns in how participating actors act in the media, and in the political and administrative arena (Pettersson, 2008). The study illustrates how PISA’s ranking lists elicit specific action patterns and rationality, where rationality is based on a particular mindset (Fleck 1997). These structural action patterns we have called something-else-ism and someone-else-ism, and we will go back in history to see how this situation could occur and highlight some challenges associated with these two action patterns.

  • 35.
    Fisk, Mikael
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Fritidshemmets digitalisering: Lärare i fritidshem och fritidspedagogers uppfattningar kring möjligheter och utmaningar gällande digitaliseringen2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I juli 2018 började den nya reviderade läroplanen med utökat fokus och nya krav på digitala kompetenser och digital utveckling för bland annat grundskolan och fritidshemmet gälla. Innan dess hade inte digitaliseringen varit lika definierad som uppdrag i läroplanen. Syftet med denna studie är att ta reda på vilka möjligheter och utmaningar utbildade lärare i fritidshem och fritidspedagoger i nuläget uppfattar gällande digitaliseringen utav fritidshem. Denna studie är en fenomenografisk studie som samlat data genom intervjuer med sex respondenter från fyra skolor i två städer belägna i Mellansverige. Databearbetningen har skett genom att respondenters uppfattningar sorterats in i beskrivningskategorier och tematiserats. Uppfattningarna har sedan även jämförts med tidigare forskning kring digitalisering, för att sätta dem i en forskningskontext.

     

    Studiens resultat visar att fritidshemmet delar vissa utmaningar med andra skolformer, såsom tekniska problem och resursbrist, samt att det även tycks finnas utmaningar som är mer specifika för fritidshemmen, såsom att finna en balans mellan digitala aktiviteter och icke-digitala. Resultaten indikerar vidare på att fritidshemmet har goda möjligheter till arbete med elevers sociala utveckling med hjälp av digitala verktyg. Fritidshem verkar dessutom utifrån sitt verksamhetsuppdrag vara väl anpassade för att arbeta elevutvecklande med digitalisering. Då det finns möjligheter för elevcentrerad, kreativ, kommunikativ, individanpassad och problemlösande undervisning genom fritidshemsaktiviteter, vilka tycks kunna komplettera skolans användning utav digitalisering.

  • 36.
    Forsberg, Eva
    et al.
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nihlfors, Elisabet
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education. Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Skott, Pia
    Department of Education, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Codification of Present Swedish Curriculum Processes: Linking Educational Activities over Time and Space2017In: Bridging Educational Leadership, Curriculum Theory and Didaktik: Non-affirmative Theory of Education / [ed] Uljens, Michael & Ylimaki, Rose M., Cham: Springer, 2017, 1, p. 363-393Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this chapter is to explore the relationship between curriculum and leadership research with examples of three recently completed mixed methods studies of assessment cultures and leadership as interlinked activities of governance and school management. We employ curriculum theoretical concepts like e.g. codes and arenas to illustrate their usefulness as a point of departure to further theorize a changing educational landscape. In our study, we illustrate how curriculum and leadership research are historically linked. We put forward some concepts to address the increased complexity of the governance system, and we stress the need to strengthen how different ways of forming the steering system interplay with key curriculum questions. Leadership researchers have, to a large extent, studied school development on a municipality- and organizational level asking questions on how to manage and guide school development. In contrast, curriculum researchers have studied school development from a reform- and governmental perspective more asking questions on how to steer educational development through law, curricula and evaluation. We suggest that these research traditions ought to be further united in order to develop both traditions in less normative, and more, critical ways, and to answer crucial educational questions in glocal times (Marginson and Rhoades. Conceptualising global relations at the glonacal levels. Paper presented at the annual international forum of the Conference of the Association for the Study of Higher Education, Richmond, VA, November 15–18, 2001). This chapter concludes with an argument for a new comparative curriculum code due to major shifts including curriculum practices, message systems, levels, arenas and number of curriculummakers engaged.

  • 37.
    Forsberg, Eva
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Nihlfors, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Skott, Pia
    Stockholm University.
    Commodification of Present Swedish Processes: Linking Educational Experiences Over Time and Space2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives or purpose. In Sweden and other Nordic countries the formation of educational systems has primarily been an issue for the national state in a rather homogenous society. Today, governance of education is embedded in global movements and a multicultural society influencing the role and function of the state. We will use two empirical cases, based in three recently completed research projects, to illuminate how curriculum and leadership research have worked in tandem to explain and develop both policy and practice. The cases focus on the assessment culture of the Swedish schools and implications of changes in governance for local educational leadership.

    Perspectives or theoretical framework. In the Swedish curriculum theory tradition, the curriculum has been analyzed as a pedagogical, a political, a practical and research problem. In order to analyze data and develop curriculum and leadership research the central concept of curriculum code (Lundgren 1977) is further elaborated. We pay attention to different levels, actors and contexts in an era dominated by governance, new public management, accountability and international comparative tests. With mass education from preschool to higher education, marketization and an increasing number of stakeholders the complexity of education governance has also increased and curriculum processes have taken new forms. Lundgren elaborated the concepts of steering group, codes and contexts. Codes relate to the purpose, content and method of a curriculum. He raised questions on how the frames were constituted, and identified historically developed curriculum codes manifested in the selection and organization of school knowledge (e.g. Lundgren, 1977). Shifts in codes were related to changed relations between production and reproduction (Lundgren, 1983); neither the purposes of education nor the subject content were taken for granted.

    Methods. In a recent empirical study, we used questionnaires, interviews and policy texts with analyses grounded in both curriculum theory and leadership research. The empirical base is Sweden from the late 1980s up until today, a highly reform intense period. Findings are presented, focusing especially on governance, leadership and assessment cultures. We include comparative studies and studies covering all 290 Swedish municipalities using both surveys and case studies.

    Results and/or substantiated conclusions. By using empirical findings from projects relating curriculum activities taking place on different levels with a focus on interlinked curriculum processes, we discuss these processes and further develop contemporary curriculum theory.  We address conceptual issues on curriculum making including educational leadership as practice and actors. By linking research on curriculum theory with leadership studies, it is possible to attend to these problems simultaneously.

    Scientific or scholarly significance. In conclusion, this paper is scanning new horizons for how to develop curriculum theory further as a relational practice appearing in various contexts. Specifically, we posit a new code to explain the contemporary situation for curriculum-leadership.

  • 38.
    Forslund, Rasmus
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Tabeshnia, Alexandra
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Förutsättningar för digitalt användande i fritidshem2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Barnen idag växer upp i ett digitaliserat samhälle, ett samhälle som ställer högre krav på individernas digitala kompetens. Tekniken utvecklas och förnyas ständigt och det är viktigt att skol och fritidsverksamheten hänger med i utvecklingen. Skolan och fritidshemmet har ett ansvar att utbilda eleverna i digitalt användande för att utveckla digital kompetens hos eleverna. Därför har vi i detta arbete valt att undersöka om fritidsverksamheten har de förutsättningarna som krävs för att uppnå målsättningarna gällande digitala verktyg som finns i styrdokumenten. Studien innefattar både en kvalitativ och kvantitativ metod där vi genomfört både enkäter och intervjuer. Resultatet av studien visar att fritidslärarna i vissa fall saknar kompetens för att bedriva digitala aktiviteter och att det saknas formell utbildning i digitalt användande hos fritidslärarna.

  • 39.
    Foss Lindblad, Rita
    et al.
    Borås University.
    Lindblad, Sverker
    University of Gothenburg.
    Pettersson, Daniel
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Wärvik, Gun-Britt
    University of Gothenburg.
    Coproduction of Comparative Education Research and Welfare State Education Policy2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study is the intimate relations between educational research and its social and political embeddings, seen through the lenses of international large-scale assessments (ILSA) such as the IEA TIMSS- and the OECD PISA-programs. While increasing influence of these assessments on educational policies is widely recognized (e.g. Ozga & Lingard, 2007) and the meta-theoretical rationality on which they are operating (Grek, 2009), the constitutive elements and dynamics involved in producing their success stand out as a more open question (e.g. Wagner, 1987, on national variations).

    Our case is the transition of Swedish Welfare State (SWS) after WW2 and the development of international comparative research in education. With the specific ambition of not letting us fall into the pitfalls of science/politics dichotomies, we are addressing the dynamics of science/society coproduction (Nowotny et al, 2003; Jasanoff et al, 2001). This case is of significant interest: Firstly, the SWS had a recognized centralistic organization with high reliance on science (Fridjonsdottir, 1987). This organization restructured thoroughly in the 1990s with an increasing emphasis of ILSA (Lindblad, Pettersson & Popkewitz, 2015). Secondly, in the emergence of international assessments Swedish researchers played an important role (Husén & Postlethwaite, 1996). The specific time-space reveals uneven patterns in science/society coproduction where IEA is manifesting success as well as a breaking-point in a today highly weakened regime of how the relevance of international comparative education is to be secured, and what this means.

    Our study is based on a combination of policy documents from state commissions and parliamentary bills, research reports and evaluations of ongoing changes in policy and research as. We identified characteristic phases in the welfare state governance from expansion and centralistic governance over deregulation and decentralization and later into the introduction of a voucher system and governing by results. The analyses resulted in three major conclusions:

    − At the start comparative education research was rare and had a humanistic base in comprehending education in other contexts. The emerging ILSA was based in the social sciences where comparisons centered on differences in efficiency over national contexts.

    − During the first decades of ILSA there was little evidence of societal relevance, e.g. in use for policy decisions and reform initiatives. However, the societal relevance increased drastically, given the restructuring of the educational system and the increasing importance given to supranational organizations.

    − ILSA was from the beginning strongly contextualized and dependent on external resources. The making of the IIE opened up new possibilities for ILSA in Academia, but it is the more recent changes in governance and changes in methodology as well as technology that has allowed the success and dominance of ILSA in research and policy discourses.

    Given these conclusions ILSA turned out to be a successful but contested approach to educational research. For the coproduction of science/society the combination of a strong emphasis on ILSA in social and political discourses on education plus the closing down of the International Institute of Education and the transfer of PISA studies to Pearson is congenial to this development.

    References:

    Fridjonsdottir, K. (1987). Social Change, Trade Union Politics, and the Sociology of Work. In The Social Direction of the Public Sciences (pp. 249-276). Springer Netherlands.

    Grek, S. (2009). Governing by numbers: The PISA ‘effect’ in Europe. Journal of education policy, 24(1), 23-37.

    Husén, T., & Postlethwaite, T. N. (1996). A Brief History of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (TEA). Assessment in Education: principles, policy & practice, 3(2), 129-141.

    Jasanoff, S. Markle, G. E., Peterson, J. C., & Pinch, T. (Eds.). (2001). Handbook of science and technology studies. Sage publications.

    Lindblad, S., Pettersson, D., & Popkewitz, T. S. (2015). International comparisons of school results - A systematic review of research on Large Scale Assessment in education. Stockholm, Sweden: Swedish Research Council.

    Nowotny, H., Scott, P., & Gibbons, M. (2003). Introduction: Mode 2'Revisited: The New Production of Knowledge. Minerva, 41(3), 179-194.

    Ozga, J., & Lingard, B. (2007). Globalisation, education policy and politics. The RoutledgeFalmer reader in education policy and politics, 65-82.

    Wagner, P. (1987). Social sciences and political projects: reform coalitions between social scientists and policy-makers in France, Italy, and West Germany. In The Social Direction of the Public Sciences (pp. 277-306). Springer Netherlands.

  • 40.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    Neoliberal policy paradigm in Teacher Education in Argentina and Sweden : Strategy for increase quality and teacher profession status?2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Francia, Guadalupe
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Edling, Silvia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Curriculum studies.
    When The Convention of The Rights of the Child is Not Enough: Civil Disobedience from a Research Perspective2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The weaker juridical nature of the Convention of the Rights of the Child (CRC) in relation of national laws is often an obstacle when it comes to implement the articles in European national contexts. For instance, Sweden has a national legal structure that gives priority to Swedish acts in favour of international conventions. Only National acts and ordinances as well as certain EU acts are binding sources of law. Therefore, except for certain EU acts, national acts always prevails before international jurisdiction, such as the Convention of the Rights of the Child (Schiratzki 2013).

    In addition, CRC stipulates several rights that are difficult to interpret on a national level (Schiratzki 2013). Several of the CRS rights, such as education, care and health, belong to the so-called second-generation human rights that require active action by the state to ensure their existence in practice.

    Unlike first-generation rights (also called freedoms or civic and political rights) that aimed to protect individuals from state interference, second-generation human rights (social, economic and cultural rights) are heavily dependent on the state's allocation of public resources. Consequently, there are often less strict implantations of second-generation rights in national contexts (Willems & Vernimmen 2017).

    Furthermore, previous research (Ahrnér 2006) shows that the CRC contains formulations that are ambiguous, diffuse and have different meanings in different contexts. Experience from Norway also (Schiratzki 2013) shows that incorporation of the CRC s in a national Act is not enough to defend childrens’ rights at national contexts. What is more, there is no international court that can punish a state that does not respect the convention. The UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (Child Rights Committee), located in Geneva, has the task of overseeing that States members implementation of CRC. However, the only possible sanctions that this UN committee can implement against a state that does not respect CRC are criticisms and pressures.(The Ombudsman for Children in Sweden 2015). 

    The weaker juridical nature of the CRC makes it interesting to investigate the existence of other strategies to guarantee Children’s rights within various national contexts that are not taken into consideration by national Acts. One of this strategy is civil disobedience.

    According to Brownlee (Fall 2017) “… on the most widely accepted account of civil disobedience, famously defended by John Rawls (1971), civil disobedience is a public, non-violent and conscientious breach of law undertaken with the aim of bringing about a change in laws or government policies. On this account, people who engage in civil disobedience are willing to accept the legal consequences of their actions, as this shows their fidelity to the rule of law. Civil disobedience, given its place at the boundary of fidelity to law, is said to fall between legal protest, on the one hand, and conscientious refusal, revolutionary action, militant protest and organised forcible resistance, on the other hand.” (Brownlee, Fall 2017)

    Starting from this most widely accepted account of civil disobedience (see Brownlee, Fall 2017) this contribution aims to introduce and discuss a research review about international research on civil disobedience as strategy to guarantee Childrens’ rights in education in national contexts. 

    Method

    Quantitative and qualitative thematic text analysis of peer review articles published in scientific journals found in ERIC (Education Resources Information Center), Web of Science Core Collection and Scopus, Legal Classic Library, Lexpress databases is used as methodology. The concepts “civil disobedience”, “children’s rights”, “Convention of the Rights of the Child” are used as keywords for the selection of the articles in these databases. Only articles in English, Swedish, Spanish, French and Hungarian published during the period 2010-2017 are selected. Starting from Hanna Arendts (1973, 2006) understanding of individual responsibility as theoretical stating point this research review focuses on the following research questions: • How is civil disobedience conceptualized in the selected articles? • Which theoretical starting points are used to study civil disobedience in relation to children’s rights in education in the selected articles? • In which extension is citizens’ individual responsability discussed in the analysis of civil obedience and children’s rights in education in the selected research articles? • Which research methodological starting points are used to study civil disobedience in relation to children’s rights in education in the selected articles? • Which ethical aspects are necesary to pay attention in the study of civil disobedience as strategy to guarantee childrens’ rights in education according to the selected articles? • What does international resesarch show about the reasons to use civil disobedience as strategy to guarantee children’s rights in education? • What does international research show about the impacts of civil disobendice on the implementation of children’s rights in education at national levels? This contribution will particularly pay attention in analysis of the research strategies used in the selected articles in order to deal with ethical aspects in the study on civil disobedience and children’s rights in education. Hanna Arendt (1973, 2006) understanding of individual responsibility is used as theoretical starting point to understand the reasons and the impacts of civil disobedience as a strategy to guarantee children’s right to education. 

    Expected Outcomes

    Focusing on Hanna Arendt’s (1973, 2006) understanding of individual responsibility, this research review contributes with new insights on the reasons and the impacts of Civil obedience as strategy to guarantee children’s rights in education. It contributes even to develop new knowledge about theoretical, methodological and ethical aspects in the field of children’ rights with focus on civil disobedience as strategy to implement CRC.

    References

    Ahrnér, E. (2006) Barns inflytande i förskolan – Problem eller möjlighet för de vuxna? En studie av ett utvecklingsarbete och dess betydelse för att förändra pedagogers förhållningssätt till barns initiativ. Licentiatavhandlingar vid Pedagogiska institutionen. Örebro universitet 3. Orebro 2006.

    Arendt, H. (1973). The origins of totalitarianism. (New ed. with added prefaces). New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich

    Arendt, H. (2006). Eichmann in Jerusalem: a report on the banality of evil. New York, N.Y.: Penguin Books.

    Brownlee, K. (Fall 2017), "Civil Disobedience", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (, Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = .

    Schiratzki, J. (2013) Välfärdsrätt i Sverige Juridisk Tidskrift, Vol. 2012/13, nr 4, 796-805 s.

    The Ombudsman for Children in Sweden (2015). Barnkonsekvensanalyser - Uppnå kvalitet i beslut som rör barn och unga. Hämtad från https://www.barnombudsmannen.se/barnombudsmannen/publikationer/genomfora-barnkonventionen/barnkonsekvensanalyser-uppna-kvalitet-i-beslut-som-ror-barn-och-unga/ [2017-11-21]

    Willems, K. & Vernimmen, J. (2017 ) The fundamental human rights to education for refugees: some legal remarks. European Educational Research Journal. ISSN 14-74-9041

  • 42.
    Ghannam, Marwan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    IKT I fritidshem: möjligheter och svårigheter: En kvalitativ studie om fritidspedagogers uppfattningar om möjligheter och svårigheter med IKT i fritidshemmet2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I fritidshemmets verksamhet arbetar fritidspedagoger med IKT och digitala verktyg på olika sätt och i olika grad, och har i uppdrag att ge barnen en meningsfull fritid där deras behov och intresse står i centrum. Syftet med denna studie har varit att undersöka hur fritidspedagoger uppfattar olika möjligheter som IKT erbjuder dem i sin undervisning samt vilka svårigheter som de upplever i sitt arbete med IKT i fritidshem. Metoden i denna studie är av kvalitativ ansats, där insamling av data har skett med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer med fem verksamma fritidspedagoger. Studiens resultat visar att IKT och digitala verktyg erbjuder många olika möjligheter för såväl lärarens undervisning som barnens lärande och utveckling. Dock framkommer det att det finns aktuella svårigheter som upplevs av respondenterna, vilket i sin tur begränsar användandet av IKT i fritidshem.

  • 43.
    Goerge, Jean
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Anpassning av undervisningen för elever med funktionsnedsättningar: En kvalitativ studie med fyra lågstadielärare2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    På 1990-talet började man tala om inkludering i skolan, vilket innebär att skolan anpassar undervisningen utifrån elevernas möjligheter och behov. Denna studie handlar om hur lågstadielärare anpassar undervisningen för elever med funktionsnedsättningar. Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur anpassningen av undervisningen ser ut i klassrummet och vilka resultat anpassningen ger.

    Detta är en kvalitativ studie med fenomenologisk ansats. Datainsamlingen skedde genom samtalsintervjuer med fyra lågstadielärare. Resultatet visar att samtliga lärare dagligen arbetar med anpassningen av undervisningen för att alla elever ska kunna nå utbildningsmålen och att de anser att detta arbetssätt är positivt. Dock har lärarna stödfunktioner i form av extra vuxna personer i klassrummet i varierande grad. De flesta av lärarna känner att det inte finns tillräckligt med resurser för att de ska kunna arbeta med inkludering på det sättet som de önskar. Lärarna anpassar undervisningen genom att variera den. Variationerna består av att förklara instruktioner på olika sätt eller att ha lektioner utomhus eller i en annan sal. Lärarna varierar även undervisningen med att sjunga, måla, rita och leka, vilket de tycker ger goda resultat.

  • 44.
    Gustafsson, Ola
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Wow!! Kunde man göra så?: En observationsstudie om Minecraft education edition i fritidshem2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 45.
    Hallqvist, Susann
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Larsson, Julia
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Syften med bild i fritidshem: En kvalitativ intervjustudie med fem lärare i fritidshem2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning visar att bildskapande kan användas på många olika sätt. I fritidshemmet är

    det vanligt att man utgår ifrån läroplanen när man planerar aktiviteter som rör bild.

    Även elevers intressen och behov ligger till grund för hur man arbetar. Utifrån de syften

    pedagoger har med en bildaktivitet formas aktiviteten. Med hjälp av denna studie ville

    vi få en djupare förståelse för varför fritidslärare arbetar med bild. Ämnet har

    undersökts genom intervjuer med fem lärare i fritidshem. Resultatet visar att

    bildaktiviteter i fritidshemmet kan användas för att ge elever utvecklad förståelse för

    människors olika förutsättningar och att elevernas intresse ofta ligger till grund för vilka

    aktiviteter som genomförs. Även pedagogens utbildning i och intresse av bild påverkar

    arbetet.

  • 46.
    Hellfeldt, Karin
    et al.
    School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Gill, Peter Edward
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Johansson, Björn
    School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Longitudinal Analysis of Links Between Bullying Victimization and Psychosomatic Maladjustment in Swedish Schoolchildren2018In: Journal of School Violence, ISSN 1538-8220, E-ISSN 1538-8239, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 86-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-sectional studies of bullying mask variability in categories of and persistence of bullying victimization. Longitudinal, individual-level data offers a greater insight into schoolchildren’s psychosomatic maladjustment as a consequence of bullying. Swedish schoolchildren (n = 3,349), with unique identifiers, in 44 schools (4th–9th grade), answered a questionnaire at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Longitudinal trends for nonvictims (88%), ceased victims (4.7%), new victims (5.7%), and continuing victims (1.6%) revealed that new victims had the largest decrease in well-being; continuing victims had a smaller though not significant decrease; while ceased victims showed a small, (nonsignificant) increase in well-being over the measurement period. It was also discovered that children not bullied at baseline but bullied subsequently, differed, at baseline, from their never-bullied peers through lower levels of overall well-being. It is argued that this finding has implications for prevention strategies.

  • 47.
    Ilstad, Sofie
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Genuspedagogiskt förhållningssätt i förskolan: En intervju- och observationsstudie om arbete, bemötande och miljö2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur genuspedagogisk verksamhet bedrivits inom förskolan tidigare och om arbetet fortgår samt utvecklas. Studien har sin bakgrund i ett jämställdhetsprojekt inom förskolan och utgår från intervjuer och observationer inom sex förskolor i Mellansverige. Studiens syfte är att undersöka om arbetet med genuspedagogik har fortskridit inom förskolan, hur arbetet ser ut i dag, i vilken utsträckning en arbetar med genuspedagogik samt vilken kunskap som finns inom verksamheten. Det som framträder är att majoriteten av de förskolor som undersöks i studien inte arbetar med genuspedagogisk verksamhet trots att kravet för detta finns i läroplanen för förskolan. Det framgår också att kunskapen om genuspedagogik inte är utbredd hos personalen på de förskolor som undersöks i studien och att det finns få resurser insatta i arbetet om genus. Studien visar också att de som arbetar med genuspedagogiskt arbete utför arbetet ingående och aktivt. Deras arbete utvecklas fortlöpande och tas upp vid planering av verksamheten samt täcker alla områden inom verksamheten med ett genusperspektiv.

  • 48.
    Jansson, Sanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Avbrott från lärarutbildningen: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om studenters orsaker till avbrott från lärarutbildningar vid Mittuniversitetet2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 49.
    Johansson, Andreas
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Elde Mølstad, Christina
    Inland University, Elverum, Norway.
    School certification: marketing schools by appearance2019In: New Practices of Comparison, Quantification and Expertise in Education: Conducting Empirically Based Research / [ed] Elde Mølstad, C. & Pettersson, D., London & New York: Routledge, 2019, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Johansson, Urban-Andreas
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences, Educational science, Education.
    Once upon a threshold: A narrative study of three men in their twenties and their experiences of violating the norms of a heteronormative school environment2016In: NERA 2016 Social Justice, Equality and Solidarity in Education: Book of Abstracts, 2016, p. 98-98Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The school takes part in reproducing societal norms and values, something that is seen as a natural part of its culture-transferring mission. Some of these norms and values ​​can be explained by the queer theoretical concept of heteronormativity, which aims to elucidate the norms and structures that emphasize heterosexuality as normal, making other sexual orientations deviant. Discrimination of non-heterosexual people in school as a place has slowly decreased in recent years (Brottsförebyggande rådet, 2014). However, that does not mean that the discrimination has been reduced in school as an environment, yet instead it has found expression through new ways such as through the Internet and through telephone/texting. This study aims to elucidate the experiences of students who commit norm violations of heteronormativity and thus exposed to the risk of discrimination due to non-heterosexuality, this is to increase the understanding of students’ experiences of a heteronormative school environment.

    The study was conducted through a narrative approach and narratives as method (Johansson, 2006). Three interviews were conducted with males identifying as non-heterosexuals. The theoretical framework that built the analysis consisted of the queer theoretical concept of heteronormativity as part of the environment and as an influencing factor in students ' socialization (Ambjörnsson, 2006). The students’ produces and reproduces norms about gender identity through socialization, making certain kinds of masculinity normal thus leads other masculinities to become deviant. The narratives have also been analyzed through Connell's (2008) concept of hegemonic masculinity, which intends to describe the power structures nature and function within and between different masculinities.

    The result shows that discrimination does not need to depend on actual homosexuality but also even suspected, or materialized, homosexuality. The results also indicates something that I have chosen to call homo-hatred, where hatred is displayed by non- heterosexuals towards others who identify as or are suspected of being non-heterosexual, despite the own sexual orientation.It has been interpreted as them kicking sideways instead of kicking upwards within the power structures of masculinities, which may be a natural reaction for the students ‘survival’. Sports seem to function as a marker of heterosexuality, where the distinctions between masculinities are made visible and the violations of heteronormativity becomes tense. Conclusions drawn from these interpretations were that the consequences or meaning of norm violations may shift over time and doesn’t necessarily need to be negative for the student, even if they were perceived as negative when they occurred.

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