Change search
Refine search result
12345 1 - 50 of 235
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Amon, Francine
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Assessment of the environmental impact of warehouse fires and fire service response2017In: Fire and Materials 2017: 15th International Conference, London, UK: Interscience Communications, 2017, p. 433-442Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Amon, Francine
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    McNamee, Margaret
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Vilic, Azra
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Measuring the impact of fire on the environment (Fire Impact Tool, version 1): Project report and user manual2019Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Chiva, Roman
    Efectis, France.
    Guillaume, Eric
    Efectis, France.
    Colwell, Sarah
    BRE, UK.
    Hofmann, Anja
    BAM, Germany.
    Toth, Peter
    EMI, Hungary.
    EUROPEAN APPROACH TO ASSESS THE FIRE PERFORMANCE OF FAÇADES2019In: Interflam 2019, proceedings / [ed] Stephen Grayson, Interscience Communications, 2019, Vol. 15, p. 213-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several attempts have been made in the past to develop a European harmonized testing and assessment method for façades before the European commission decided to publish a call for tender on the topic. A project consortium from five countries (Sweden, UK, France, Germany and Hungary) applied to the call for tender and was contracted to develop a European approach to assess the fire performance of façades. 24 sub-contractors and 14 stakeholder entities were part of the project.

    The objective of the European project was to address a request from the Standing Committee of Construction (SCC) to provide EC Member States regulators with a means to regulate the fire performance of façade systems based on a European approach agreed by SCC. In addressing this objective, the project team was asked to consider a number of issues which are presented and discussed.

    The initial stages of this project were focused on:

    • establishing a register of the regulatory requirements in all Member States in relation to the fire performance of façade systems, and
    • to identify those Member States who have regulatory requirements for the fire performance façade systems which go beyond the current EN 13501 (reaction to fire and fire resistance) classification systems and to collate the details of these additional requirements. [6]

    After having confirmed the regulatory needs the following steps were discussed:

    • a testing and classification methodology based on BS 8414 - Fire performance of external cladding systems series and DIN 4102-20 - Fire behaviour of building materials and building components - Part 20: Complementary verification for the assessment of the fire behaviour of external wall claddings to address the identified key performance and classification characteristics [4] [5]
    • a verification and validation proposal, in the form of a round robin programme to support the development of the proposed testing and classification methodologies.
    • an alternative test method which was developed on the basis of the comments from stakeholders during the project

    Several hundreds of comments were received during the project and were implemented in the development.

    This paper is a short overview of results the two-year development work, which Final Report published by the European Commission in 2018 [1].

  • 4.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Jansson McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    Fire Safety of Façades2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Façade fires do not occur often (in comparison to other major structure fires) but in recent years there have been a number of spectacular façade fires in high rise building such as the recent fire in Grenfell Tower, London.Under-ventilated compartment fires may cause flames to spill out of window openings impinging the façade, thus devastating façade fires may start on one floor leap-frogging to adjacent floors. It is therefore necessary to limit or delay fire spread to higher floors. Requirements built on large scale fire testing may decrease the risk of these types of fires provided that the building is constructed according to the specifications provided by the manufacturer. Different countries have different regulations and tests for façades. New materials and façade systems are continuously introduced which might call for an update of these tests and regulations.This report summarizes experimental and modelling efforts in characterizing the fire safety of façades using the Swedish SP Fire 105 and the British BS 8414 methods. Recent experimental results and modelling is presented exploring the variations in the fire exposure, fire load and the fuel used. The fire source and the heat exposure to the façade are characterized by additional temperatures measured by plate thermometers while some other aspects are only treated in the numerical study such as a change in fuel. It is found that the results from the BS 8414 are largely affected by wind and climate since the experimental test was performed outdoors, moreover fire spread on wooden façades is also briefly discussed.In order to obtain a deeper understanding of the test methods and the results CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) Modelling in FDS was used. The models were based on measured input parameters including uncertainties and an assessment of the impact of said uncertainties. The models could often reproduce the experimentally found temperatures qualitatively and quantitatively. A detailed discussion on the regulations and the tests that lead to the SP Fire 105 test method is also presented. Summaries of the façade testing methods and conditions in other European countries are presented in the appendices.Finally possible ways forward in updating the façade testing and regulations are discussed.

  • 5.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Jansson McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    Milovanović, Bojan
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Experimental comparisons in façade fire testing considering SP Fire 105 and the BS 8414‐12018In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 42, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparison between full‐scale façade fire tests where SP Fire 105 and BS 8414‐1 were used regarding repeatability and the use of modeling to discern changes in the setups is presented. Two test series according to BS 8414‐1 were repeated outside using the same façade systems on 2 different days, whereas for the SP Fire 105 a set of common façade systems in Sweden were tested indoors. In particular, the results show that the wind around the test setup may have a significant impact on the tests and that the heat exposure to the façade surface will depend on the thickness of the test specimen where an increased temperature in front of the façade, and a decreased temperature on the façade 2.1 m above the fire room, is observed experimentally. The heat exposure to the test specimen varies to a more limited extent when an uncontrollable free burning fire source is used (in this study heptane and wood, respectively) and that this variation increases when wind is present.

  • 6.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Boström, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Jansson McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Milovanović, Bojan
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Modelling of fire exposure in facade fire testing2017In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 475-483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a comparative simulation study on 3 large‐scale facade testing methods, namely,the SP Fire 105, BS 8414‐1, and the ISO 13785‐2 methods, is presented. Generally goodcorrespondence between simulations and experimental data has been found, provided thatthermal properties of the facade material and heat release rates are known; however, thecorrespondence deviates in close proximity of the fire source. Furthermore, a statistical ensemblefor evaluating the effects stemming from uncertainty in input data is used. Here, it wasfound using this statistical ensemble that the variability was smaller in the ISO 13785‐2compared to the BS 8414‐1 method. The heat release rates (HRR) used in the simulations wereadopted from measurements except for the ISO method where the information in the standardwas used to approximate the HRR. A quantitative similarity between the HRR in the ISOmethod and the British method was found.

  • 7.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Mindykowski, Pierrick
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Modelling in wfds of a wildfire scenario2017In: 15th International Conference and Exhibition on Fire and Materials 2017, Interscience Communications Ltd , 2017, p. 765-776Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a coarse graining process is used to subsequently model large wildland fires, starting from a model of a single tree. The models are created using Wildland Urban Interface Fire dynamics Simulator (WFDS), and it is here found that reasonable fire spread in small forests can be obtained although the results are quite dependent on grid resolution as well as moisture content. In most realistic scenarios the computational volume is rather large yielding massive amounts of data. In using WFDS a rather small grid size is needed to appropriately model the fire spread this will be a severely limiting factor in creating large models.

  • 8.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Larsson, Ida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Assessment of Self-Heating in Wood Pellets by FE Modelling2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The self-heating process in a laboratory scale experiment has been modelled using the Comsol Multiphysics software. In the simulations the gas flow and air movement in the volume and heat diffusion in the bulk were taken into account however only one reaction in the pellets bulk is considered. The input data is found from measurements of the reaction chemistry and the heat transfer properties. It is found that all relevant physics is needed in order to obtain reasonable predictions in particular the heat transfer between the bulk and the gas is important but also condensation and evaporation of moisture.   

  • 9.
    Anderson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Charlier, Marion
    ArcelorMittal, Sweden.
    Xu, Dai
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Welch, Stephen
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    Rush, David
    University of Edinburgh, UK.
    FDS SIMULATIONS AND MODELLING EFFORTS OF TRAVELLING FIRES IN A LARGE ELONGATED COMPARTMENT2019In: Interflam 2019, proceedings / [ed] Stephen Grayson, Interscience Communications, 2019, Vol. 15, p. 2085-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper investigates a travelling fire scenario in an elongated structure (Length 18 m x width 6 m x height 3 m) with a controlled fire source of six pans filled with diesel (width 4 m x length 0.5 m). The fire spread is controlled manually by initiating fires subsequently in the pools. Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) is used to a-priori investigate variations in geometry, material data and fire load whereas simulations using the final design were performed after the test. The input to the model beside fire source and geometry are thermal material data. The FDS simulation were used to determine the appropriate size of the downstands (2 m from the ceiling in the final design) on the side to create a sufficiently one-dimensional fire spread. The post test simulations indicate that although there are a lot of variations not included in the model similar results were obtained as in the test.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Aras, Silvia
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Vermina Lundström, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Runefors, Marcus
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Riskreducerande åtgärder för dödsbränder i bostäder2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thisreport summarizes the work conducted within the project ”Analysis of physicaldeterminants and technical measures in support of the zero vision” financed bythe Civil Contingency Authority (MSB) in Sweden. The work aims to find measuresto prevent and reduce the number of fatalities in fires in residentialbuildings in a Sweden, a list of such measures is provided in the end of thereport. The list is based on work conducted in several small sub-projects, ashort summary of these is also provided in the report.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Evegren, Franz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Jandali, Mourhaf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Rosengren, Max
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lion Fire: Extinguishment and mitigation of fires in Li-ion batteries at sea2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The shipping industry is facing increasing pressure to cut emissions. Diesel-electric hybrid or fully electrical propulsion systems can offer significant savings in fuel consumption and reduce emissions. However, the use of energy storage battery systems on board vessels is introducing new fire hazards and advice on suitable fire extinguishing systems and agents is desired. In a series of tests, both total compartment application water spray and water mist systems and direct injection (using several different agents) into the module were evaluated in fire tests conducted to compare different fire extinguishing approaches for a fire in a battery cell. A test compartment was constructed to simulate a battery room and a commercially available lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery cell was positioned inside a cubic box that mimicked a battery module. By heating the battery cell, combustible gases were generated, and these gases were ignited by a pilot flame inside the simulated battery module. The tests indicated that fire extinguishment of a battery cell fire inside a battery module is unlikely when using total compartment water spray or water mist fire protection systems. The water droplets are simply not able to penetrate the battery module and reach to the seat of the fire. Direct injection of the fire extinguishing agent inside the battery module is necessary. The tests also showed that agents such as water and low-expansion foam, with a high heat capacity, provide rapid cooling and fire extinguishment. The reduced water surface tension associated with low-expansion foam may improve the possibilities for water penetration whilst agents with a high viscosity may not be able to spread to the seat of the fire. Agents with less heat capacity, such as high-expansion foam and nitrogen gas, provide less cooling but fire extinguishment can still be achieved if designed correctly.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Sundström, BjörnRISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Proceedings from 4th International Conference on Fires in Vehicles - FIVE 2016, October 5-6, 2016 Baltimore, USA2016Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Wikman, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Larsson, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Safe introduction of battery propulsion at sea2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric propulsion using batteries as energy storage has the potential to significantly reduce emissions from shipping and thus the environmental impact. The battery type that is currently on the top of the agenda to be used for ship propulsion applications is Li-ion batteries. Li-ion batteries pose different safety issues than e.g. other propulsion technologies and other batteries such as lead-acid batteries. It is essential that the safety level on board, including fire safety, is maintained, when introducing electric propulsion with energy storage in batteries. This report discusses the different regulations and guidelines available today for fire safety of batteries on board in relation to current knowledge about Li-ion batteries. Also fire safety measures available on board ships today and their applicability for Li-ion batteries is discussed, as well as the different test methods available and their applicability. A workshop gathering different stakeholders from Sweden, Norway and Finland identified fire safety as the main challenge for the introduction of battery propulsion at sea. The workshop concluded that future work is desired in order to increase knowledge and to develop publicly available strategies, training and designs.

  • 14.
    Andrea, Anders
    et al.
    Huawei Technologies Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Manzetti, Sergio
    Fjordforsk AS, Norway.
    A theoretical hypothesis of beverage cooling by reverse heating inconsumer microwave ovens by using fullerenol (polyhydroxylatedfullerenes) dissolved in acetone2018In: International Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 2367-9034, Vol. 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooling of beverages is of large interest. Here a theoretical idea of how microwave ovens can be usedfor cooling beverages is presented. The proposed theoretical idea based on heat transfer features a microwavesafe (isoprene rubber) torus shaped rubber ring (MWSR) holding a liquid (L) at room temperature. Fullerenoldissolved in acetone (L) inside MWSR (L) will absorb energy directly from the microwave radiation and therebyincrease its temperature. The liquid to be cooled (B) will also absorb energy from the microwave radiation, butthe net effect is the cooling of B as the heat transfer is faster in L than in B due to L’s lower boiling point andheat of vaporization. The cooling fan of the microwave oven facilitates the heat transfer mechanism. Thebeverage B is theoretically cooled from room temperature (20 °C) to around 4 °C in around 58 seconds. Basedon heat absorption of fullerenol—which could be transformed from liquid phase to vapour phase—a beverageliquid (300 g water) in a glass put inside the microwave oven could be cooled (reversely heated) by the heatgenerated by the microwave oven. The user of the proposed method would be able cool 300 ml of beverage toless than 4 °C in just a minute using consumer microwave ovens.

  • 15.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Brandförsök med boendesprinkler och vattendimma2017Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Funktionskontroll av sprinkler – erfarenheter från uppdrag 2013-20162017Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    The Response Time of Different SprinklerGlass Bulbs in a Residential Room FireScenario2018In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 1265-1282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The response time of fire sprinklers is essential for their performance,especially in applications where life safety protection is desired. The earlier the sprin-kler activates, the smaller the size of the fire. Most commercial residential sprinklersare fitted with 3 mm, 68C glass bulbs. However, thinner sprinkler glass bulbs withlower operating temperatures are available. The aim of this study was to determinethe response time—and the corresponding heat release rate—of different glass bulbsin a residential room fire scenario. A series of tests were conducted inside a compart-ment measuring 3.66 m by 3.66 m having a ceiling height of 2.5 m. The compartmentwas either enclosed or had two walls removed to provide a more ventilated scenario.A propane gas burner was positioned at one of the corners. The mass flow rate ofthe gas was controlled such that either ‘slow’, ‘medium’ or ‘fast’ fire growth rate sce-narios were simulated. In each test, nine Response Time Index (RTI) and operatingtemperature combinations were tested. Each test was replicated three times. In addi-tion, two commercial fire detectors were tested. The results show that the fire is con-siderably smaller upon activation with a combination of a low RTI and a lowoperating temperature, as compared to the 3 mm, 68C glass bulb typically used forresidential sprinklers. The operating temperature proved to have a larger impact onthe results than the RTI. The heat from the fire was typically detected by the firedetectors prior to the activation of the sprinkler glass bulbs, especially for the ‘slow’and ‘medium’ fire growth rate scenarios.

  • 18.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Val av släcksystem: Värdering av brandscenarier, skyddsmål och släcksystem2017Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Bedon, Chiara
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Kozłowski, Marcin
    Silesian University of Technology, Poland; Lund University.
    Vokáč Machalická, Klára
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Santos, Filipe
    CERIS and Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Wüest, Thomas
    Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Switzerland.
    Eliášová, Martina
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Vokáč, Miroslav
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Key Structural Aspects for Adaptive Facades: Activity Progress from the EU-COST Action TU1403 ‘Structural’ Task Group2018In: International Journal of Structural Glass and Advanced Materials Research, ISSN 2616-4507, Vol. 2, p. 135-154Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Bedon, Chiara
    et al.
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Kozłowski, Marcin
    Silesian University of Technology, Poland; Lund University, Sweden.
    Numerical Modelling of Structural Glass Elements under Thermal Exposure2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glass is largely used in engineering applications as a structural material, especially for laminated glass (LG) sections. However, the well-known temperature-dependent behaviour of visco-elastic interlayers for LG sections should be properly accounted for safety purposes, even in ambient conditions. The materials thermo-mechanical degradation with increase of temperature could further severely affect the load-bearing performance of such assemblies. Thermo-mechanical Finite Element (FE) numerical modelling, in this regard, can represent a robust tool and support for designers. Key input parameters and possible limits in FE models, however, should be properly taken into account and calibrated, especially for geometrically simplified models, to enable realistic and reliable estimations of real structural behavior. In this paper, FE simulations are proposed for monolithic (MG) and LG specimens under radiant heating, based on one-dimensional (1D) models. With the use of experimental results from the literature, parametric studies are discussed, indicating limits and issues at several modelling assuptions. Careful consideration is paid for various thermal material properties (conductivity, specific heat), boundary conditions (conductivity, emissivity) as well as geometrical features (thickness tolerances, etc.) and composition of LG sections (interlayer type, thickness). Comparative parametric results are hence discussed in the paper.

  • 21.
    Bedon, Chiara
    et al.
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Kozłowski, Marcin
    Silesian University of Technology, Poland; Lund University, Sweden.
    Eliášová, Martina
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Vokáč Machalická, Klára
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Vokáč, Miroslav
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Santos, Filipe
    NOVA University Lisbon, Portugal.
    Wüest, Thomas
    Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Switzerland.
    An insight on possible classification and metrics, experimental testing and numerical modelling for adaptive facades: Activity report from the ‘Structural’ Task Group2018In: Proceedings of the COST Action TU1403 Adaptive Facades Network Final Conference, 2018, p. 325-336Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Bedon, Chiara
    et al.
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Machalická, Klara
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Eliášová, Martina
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Vokáč, Miroslav
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Kozłowski, Marcin
    Silesian University of Technology, Poland; Lund University, Sweden.
    Wüest, Thomas
    Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Switzerland.
    Santos, Filipe
    LucerneUniversity of Applied Sciences and Arts, Switzerland.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Structural characterisation of adaptive facades in Europe - Part II: Validity of conventional experimental testing methods and key issues2019In: Journal of Building Engineering, E-ISSN 2352-7102, Vol. 25, article id 100797Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given their intrinsic features, adaptive facades are required to satisfy rigid structural performances, in addition to typical insulation, thermal and energy requirements. These include a minimum of safety and serviceability levels under ordinary design loads, durability, robustness, fire resistance, capacity to sustain severe seismic events or other natural hazards, etc. The overall design process of adaptive facades may include further challenges and uncertainties especially in the case of complex assemblies, where multiple combinations of material-related phenomena, kinematic effects, geometrical and mechanical characteristics could take place. In this context, experimental testing at the component and/or at the full-scale assembly level has a fundamental role, to prove that all the expected performance parameters are properly fulfilled. Several standards and guideline documents are available in the literature, and provide recommendations and procedures in support of conventional testing approaches for the certification and performance assessment of facades. These documents, however, are specifically focused on ordinary, static envelopes, and no provisions are given for the experimental testing of dynamic, adaptive skins. In this regard, it is hence expected that a minimum of conventional experimental procedures may be directly extended from static to dynamic facades. However, the validity of standardized procedures for adaptive skins is still an open issue. Novel and specific experimental approaches are then necessarily required, to assess the structural characteristics of adaptive facades, depending on their properties and on the design detailing. In this paper, existing fundamental standards for testing traditional facades are first recalled and commented. Special care is spent for the validity and reliability of conventional testing methods for innovative, adaptive envelopes, including a discussion on selected experimental methods for facade components and systems. Non-conventional testing procedures which may be useful for adaptive skins are then also discussed in the paper, as resulting from the research efforts of the European COST Action TU1403 ‘Adaptive facades network’ - ‘Structural’ Task Group.

  • 23.
    Bedon, Chiara
    et al.
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Machalická, Klára V.
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Eliášová, Martina
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Vokáč, Miroslav
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Kozłowski, Marcin
    Silesian University of Technology, Poland.
    Wüest, Thomas
    Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Switzerland.
    Santos, Filipe
    CERIS, Portugal.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Structural characterisation of adaptive facades in Europe – Part I: Insight on classification rules, performance metrics and design methods2019In: Journal of Building Engineering, E-ISSN 2352-7102, Vol. 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive facades are increasingly used in modern buildings, where they can take the form of complex systems and manifest their adaptivity in several ways. Adaptive envelopes must meet the requirements defined by structural considerations, which include structural safety, serviceability, durability, robustness and fire safety. For these novel skins, based on innovative design solutions, experimentation at the component and / or assembly level is required to prove that these requirements are fulfilled. The definition of appropriate metrics is hence also recommended. A more complex combination of material-related, kinematic, geometrical and mechanical aspects should in fact be properly taken into account, compared to traditional, static facades. Accordingly, specific experimental methods and regulations are required for these novel skins. As an outcome of the European COST Action TU1403 ‘Adaptive facades network’ - ‘Structural’ Task Group, this paper collects some recent examples and design concepts of adaptive systems, specifically including a new classification proposal and the definition of some possible metrics for their structural performance assessment. The aim is to provide a robust background and detailed state-of-the-art information for these novel structural systems, towards the development of standardised and reliable procedures for their mechanical and thermo-physical characterisation.

  • 24.
    Bedon, Chiara
    et al.
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Kozłowski, Marcin
    Lund University, Sweden; Silesian University of Technology, Poland .
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Thermal assessment of glass façade panels under radiant heating: Experimental and preliminary numerical studies2018In: Journal of Facade Design and Engineering, ISSN 2213-302X, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 049-064Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, glass is increasingly being used as a load-bearing material for structural components in buildings and façades. Different structural member solutions (such as panels, beams, columns) and loading conditions were the subjects of several research studies in recent years. Most of them, however, were typically limited to experimental testing and numerical simulations on glass elements and assemblies at room temperature. Thermo-mechanical investigations, inclusive of the temperature-dependent behaviour of visco-elastic interlayers used in laminated glass solutions, as well as the typical thermo-mechanical degradation of glass properties in line with temperature increase, in this regard, are still limited. Such an aspect can be particularly important for adaptive façades, in which the continuous variation of thermal and mechanical boundary conditions should be properly taken into account at all the design stages, as well as during the lifetime of a constructed facility. Given the key role that thermo-mechanical studies of glazing systems can pe use of glass in façades, this paper focuses on Finite Element (FE) numerical modelling of monolithic and laminated glass panels exposed to radiant heating, by taking advantage of past experimental investigations. In the study discussed herein, being representative of some major outcomes of a more extended research project, one-dimensional (1D) FE models are used to reproduce the thermal behaviour of selected glass specimens under radiant heating, as observed in the past experiments. Given the high computational efficiency but very basic assumptions of 1D assemblies, a critical discussion of experimental-to-numerical comparisons is then proposed for a selection of specimens.

  • 25.
    Bedon, Chiara
    et al.
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Zhang, Xidong
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Santos, Filipe
    NOVA University Lisbon, Portugal.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Kozłowski, Marcin
    Silesian University of Technology, Poland; Lund University, Sweden.
    Arrigoni, Michel
    ENSTA Bretagne, France.
    Figuli, Lucia
    University of Žilina, Slovakia.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Performance of structural glass facades under extreme loads – Design methods, existing research, current issues and trends2018In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 163, p. 921-937Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glass has been overwhelmingly used for windows and facades in modern constructions, for many practical reasons, including thermal, energy, light and aesthetics. Nevertheless, due to the relatively low tensile strength and mostly brittle behaviour of glass, compared to other traditional materials, as well as to a multitude of interacting structural and non-structural components, windows/facades are one of the most fragile and vulnerable components of buildings, being representative of the physical line of separation between interior and exterior spaces. As such, multidisciplinary approaches, as well as specific fail-safe design criteria and analysis methods are required, especially under extreme loading conditions, so that casualties and injuries in the event of failure could be avoided and appropriate safety levels could be guaranteed. In this context, this paper presents a review of the state of art on analysis and design methods in use for glass facades, with careful consideration for extreme loading configurations, including natural events, such as seismic events, extreme wind or other climatic exposures, and man-made threats, i.e. blast loads and fire. Major results of available experimental outcomes, current issues and trends are also reported, summarising still open challenges.

  • 26.
    Beyler, C
    et al.
    Jensen Hughes, USA.
    Croce, P
    Factory Mutual Emeritus, USA..
    Dubay, C
    National Fire Protection Association, USA.
    Johnson, P
    Arup, Australia.
    McNamee, Margaret
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Oxygen consumption calorimetry, William Parker: 2016 DiNenno Prize2017In: Fire Science Reviews, Vol. 6, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2016 DiNenno Prize recognizes oxygen consumption calorimetry as a significant technical achievement that has had a major impact on public safety. Oxygen consumption calorimetry has made the measurement of heat release rate of a fire a routine part of fire testing for both research and for regulatory compliance. Heat release rate is a primary metric of fire size which is foundational in modern fire protection engineering. The 2016 Philip J. DiNenno Prize is awarded to Dr. William Parker, with ample commendation to his deceased collaborator, Dr. Clayton Huggett. Others who made contributions to the early development and application of oxygen consumption calorimetry include Peter Hinkley, William Christian, Thomas Waterman, Darryl Sensenig, Ralph Krause, Richard Gann, Vyto Babrauskas, Gunnar Heskestad, Norm Alvares, Donald Beason, and Brady Williamson. This review presents an overview of the background to the technological development and its impact on public safety

  • 27.
    Beyler, Craig
    et al.
    Jensen Hughes, USA.
    Lucht, David
    Worcester Polytechnic Institute, USA.
    McNamee, Margaret
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Johnson, Peter
    Arup, Denmark.
    Dubay, Chris
    National Fire Protection Association, USA.
    The affordable home smoke alarm, Lyman Blackwell- 2015 DiNenno Prize winner2017In: Fire Science Reviews, Vol. 6, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2015 Philip J. DiNenno Prize was awarded for the affordable home smoke alarm. This technology developed and implemented by Lyman L. Blackwell and Duane D. Pearsall paved the way for installation of smoke alarms in all residences. This has had a major impact on the reduction of deaths due to fire. The 2015 Philip J. DiNenno Prize was awarded to Lyman L. Blackwell, with ample commendation to his deceased compatriot, Duane D. Pearsall. Contributions were made by Paul Staby, B. K. Sweeney, Rexford Wilson, Myrle Wise, Gus Degenkolb, Eugene Cray, Jack Rhodes, Dick Bright, and Dick Bukowski. This review presents an overview of the background to the technological development and its impact on public safety.

  • 28.
    Bisschop, Roeland
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Willstrand, Ola
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Amon, Francine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Rosenggren, Max
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Fire Safety of Lithium-Ion Batteries in Road Vehicles2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for lithium-ion battery powered road vehicles continues to increase around the world. As more of these become operational across the globe, their involvement in traffic accidents and fire incidents is likely to rise. This can damage the lithium-ion battery and subsequently pose a threat to occupants and responders as well as those involved in post-crash operations. There are many different types of lithium-ion batteries, with different packaging and chemistries but also variations in how they are integrated into modern vehicles. To use lithium-ion batteries safely means to keep the cells within a defined voltage and temperature window. These limits can be exceeded as a result of crash or fault conditions. This report provides background information regarding lithium-ion batteries and battery pack integration in vehicles. Fire hazards are identified and means for preventing and controlling them are presented. The possibility of fixed fire suppression and detection systems in electric vehicles is discussed.

  • 29.
    Blomfors, Mattias
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Techology, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Larsson Ivanov, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Reliability analysis of corroded reinforced concrete beam with regards to anchorage failure2018In: Life Cycle Analysis and Assessment in Civil Engineering: Towards an Integrated Vision, 2018, p. 337-344Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reinforcement corrosion is a common problem in reinforced concrete infrastructure today, and it is expected to increase in the future. To simply replace the corroded structures with new ones requires large resources, both in financial and environmental terms. Therefore it is important that existing structures are used to their full potential, also after the onset of corrosion. This paper presents a reliability study of the anchorage capacity of a reinforced concrete beam including reinforcement corrosion. The sensitivity of the different input parameters is also studied. As expected, the results show that the reliability is reduced with corrosion; the magnitude depends to a large extent on the modelling uncertainty used for the bond model for corroded reinforcement. The sensitivity analysis shows an influence of corrosion also on the sensitivities of the input parameters, which is expected based on the properties of the underlying bond model. This paper demonstrates that probabilistic evaluations give valuable insight of the reliability, which can be used to prolong the service-life of existing infrastructure and save both money and the environment.

  • 30.
    Blomfors, Mattias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ivanov, Oskar L.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Practical bond model for corroded RC bridges2017In: High Tech Concrete: Where Technology and Engineering Meet - Proceedings of the 2017 fib Symposium, 2017, p. 1793-1803Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corrosion of steel reinforcement is a common cause of deterioration in reinforced concrete bridges and many existing bridges are damaged to varying degrees. The rate of deterioration of the bridge stock has been shown to increase due to climate change. Unsympathetically, the demand for load-carrying capacity is however often increased with time. Therefore there is an increasing need for reliable methods to assess the load-carrying capacity and remaining service-life of existing infrastructure. A simple model for the assessment of Anchorage in corroded Reinforced Concrete structures (ARC) has previously been developed. It was originally based on fib Model Code 1990 and has been verified with experiments and three-dimensional nonlinear finite element (3D NLFE) analyses for both accelerated and natural corrosion as well as for different degrees of corrosion. The model was applied when assessing two road bridges in Sweden. The investigation demonstrated great cost savings but also areas for improvement, in particular regarding (a) applicability to practical cases and (b) incorporation of uncertainties in the assessment. The primary focal point of this paper is to present an overview of the development of the ARC model together with recent verifications against a large bond test database as well as foreseen future developments. It was found that the ARC model represents the physical behaviour reasonably well, and gives conservative values of bond strength compared to the bond tests database. In future works, among others, uncertainties of the input variables will be incorporated by means of probabilistic modelling, making way for implementation of the ARC model into semi-probabilistic safety concepts by extraction of modification factors. Overall, with more accurate and reliable assessment methods for corroded RC structures, environmental and economic savings are imminent as more of the potential of existing structures can be realized.

  • 31.
    Bosi, Umberto
    et al.
    INRIA Bordeaux Sud-Ouest, France.
    Engsig-Karup, Allan P.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eskilsson, Claes
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Ricchiuto, Mario
    INRIA Bordeaux Sud-Ouest, France.
    A spectral/hp element depth-integrated model for nonlinear wave–body interaction2019In: Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, ISSN 0045-7825, E-ISSN 1879-2138, Vol. 348, p. 222-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a depth-integrated Boussinesq model for the efficient simulation of nonlinear wave–body interaction. The model exploits a ‘unified’ Boussinesq framework, i.e. the fluid under the body is also treated with the depth-integrated approach. The unified Boussinesq approach was initially proposed by Jiang (2001) and recently analyzed by Lannes (2017). The choice of Boussinesq-type equations removes the vertical dimension of the problem, resulting in a wave–body model with adequate precision for weakly nonlinear and dispersive waves expressed in horizontal dimensions only. The framework involves the coupling of two different domains with different flow characteristics. Inside each domain, the continuous spectral/hp element method is used to solve the appropriate flow model since it allows to achieve high-order, possibly exponential, convergence for non-breaking waves. Flux-based conditions for the domain coupling are used, following the recipes provided by the discontinuous Galerkin framework. The main contribution of this work is the inclusion of floating surface-piercing bodies in the conventional depth-integrated Boussinesq framework and the use of a spectral/hp element method for high-order accurate numerical discretization in space. The model is verified using manufactured solutions and validated against published results for wave–body interaction. The model is shown to have excellent accuracy and is relevant for applications of waves interacting with wave energy devices.

  • 32.
    Bosi, Umberto
    et al.
    INRIA Bordeaux Sud-Ouest, France.
    Engsig-Karup, Allan P.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eskilsson, Claes
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ricchiuto, Mario
    INRIA Bordeaux Sud-Ouest, France.
    Solai, Elie
    Université de Toulon, France.
    A high-order spectral element unified Boussinesq model for floating point absorbers2018In: Coastal Engineering Proceedings, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nonlinear wave-body problems are important in renewable energy, especially in case of wave energy converters operating in the near-shore region. In this paper we simulate nonlinear interaction between waves and truncated bodiesusing an efficient spectral/hp element depth-integrated unified Boussinesq model. The unified Boussinesq model treatsalso the fluid below the body in a depth-integrated approach. We illustrate the versatility of the model by predictingthe reflection and transmission of solitary waves passing truncated bodies. We also use the model to simulate themotion of a latched heaving box. In both cases the unified Boussinesq model show acceptable agreement with CFDresults – if applied within the underlying assumptions of dispersion and nonlinearity – but with a significant reductionin computational effort.

  • 33.
    Boström, Lars
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Hofmann-Böllinghaus, Anja
    BAM, Germany.
    Colwell, Sarah
    BRE, UK.
    Chiva, Roman
    Efectis, France.
    Toth, Peter
    EMI, Hungary.
    Moder, Istvan
    EMI, Hungary.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Development of a European approach to assess the fire performance of facades2018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this project was to address a request from the Standing Committee of Construction (SCC) to provide EC Member States regulators with a means to regulate the fire performance of façade systems based on a European approach agreed by SCC.

  • 34.
    Boström, Lars
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    Albrektsson, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Johansson, Pär
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Screening test methods for determination of fire spalling of concrete2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The fire resistance of concrete structures is generally good, but for some types of concrete fire spalling can reduce the fire resistance significantly. Therefore, methods are needed to predict whether a concrete will spall when exposed to fire and the severity of spalling.

    The objective of the present project was to develop an intermediate scale test method for the evaluation of the spalling behavior of concrete. The test method shall be cost effective and enable screening of different concretes before a full scale approval test is performed. A number of different intermediate scale test methods have been evaluated regarding the precision to reproduce the spalling behavior of that observed in full scale tests.

    Of the different test specimen shapes and methods, a circular test specimen where the concrete is casted in a steel tube has shown the best correlation to the full scale tests performed. This specimen is easy to produce, and the fire test can be performed on a small furnace.

  • 35.
    Bram, Staffan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Millgård, Ulrika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Degerman, Helene
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Systemperspektiv på brandsäkerhet till sjöss- en studie av organisering och användbarhet i brandskyddetpå RoPax-fartyg2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fires on RoPax ships can be very challenging and may inflict serious damage both to life,environment and property. The SEBRA project explored two different research themesthrough interviews and observations on four larger RoPax ships – firstly, the interactionbetween the crew, installations and environments relevant for fire protection, secondly,what governs the design of fire protective installations and working environmentsonboard.The study shows that proactive fire safety is a continuous process where the crews appliesmany different types of knowledge and experience. Several of the success factors identifiedin the study can be linked to prior research on resilient performance in critical operationsi.e. properties that allow people to deal with problems that are surprising and donot fully match existing routines.Key factors for good performance in the case of fire are good working conditions andeffective training, meaning working environments, systems, organizations and routinesthat fit the needs of the crew. However, the present study shows that a holistic approachis rarely applied to fire safety. Safety Management has a reactive bias, a clear focus oncompliance and pays limited attention to usability as a driver for safety. Observationsresulted in several findings of poor design that could undermine performance in the caseof a real fire.Flaws in fire safety design can be traced to the overall processes of ship design, buildingand revision. Ship design is a processed closely focused on cost and technical demands,rarely concerned with user needs and characteristics. When the fire protection consultantbecomes involved, many important design parameters are normally fixed and thereis little room for user-oriented fire installations and concerns.Future research is needed to strengthen shipping company learning processes and to giveusability a more prominent role in maritime Safety Management. There is also a need ofresearch demonstrating how usability can be integrated as a key value in ship design.

  • 36.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Engineering methods for structural fire design of wood buildings: Structural integrity during a full natural fire2018Report (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Phase 2: Task 4 – Engineering Analysis and Computer Simulations2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent architectural trends include the design and construction of tall buildings with

    visible structural members comprised of mass timber. Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is

    such a mass timber material and is increasingly used for tall buildings because of a

    combination of advantages regarding its structural performance, low environmental

    impact and more. As timber is a combustible material, CLT can become involved in the

    fire if it is not protected against the fire. Previous tests have shown that the

    contribution of the timber possibly leads to sustained fires that do not burn out,

    because of failure of the base layer of gypsum boards, debonding of CLT lamellas

    (delamination) or due to an excess of unprotected timber.

    If it cannot be assumed that the fire brigade or sprinkler activation will suppress a fire,

    it can be needed to design for burn-out without successful fire suppression.

    Engineering methods to limit the impact of gypsum failure, delamination and an excess

    of exposed timber are needed. Additionally, a method for structural design for CLT

    structures considering natural fires is needed. This report proposes and evaluates

    pragmatic design methods using parametric design fires. The methods using

    parametric design fires can only be valid if delamination and failure of the base layer of

    gypsum boards are avoided. Therefore, an additional method to predict gypsum fall-off

    is presented. A method to avoid delamination is presented in other work.

    The parametric fire design methods proposed, resulted in conservative predictions of

    the damage of exposed CLT and conservative predictions of the occurrence of gypsum

    board fall-off. Parametric design fires can be used for structural predictions of the

    timber building exposed to fire using recently developed methods.

  • 38.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Wind effect on internal and external compartment fire exposure2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes of buildings regulations regarding the allowable height of mass timber structures in North America have been proposed. The proposed changes are to a significant extent based on real scale fire experiments of compartments that have been performed in laboratories in which the influence of wind is negligible. It has, however, been questioned whether the proposed regulations are relevant for realistic scenarios with external wind loads acting on the building during a compartment fire.

    The study discussed in this report involves a review of previous literature, analysis of available test results and single zone modeling to study potential effects of external wind on the internal and external exposure of fires in compartments with exposed CLT.

  • 39.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Fire Safety of CLT Buildings with Exposed Wooden Surfaces2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of tall buildings made of CLT have been built in recent years. Current architectural trends involve having visible timber surfaces in these tall CLT structures. This results in new fire safety challenges, especially because fire service interference is increasingly difficult for increasingly tall buildings.

     

    Recently, a number of research projects involving large scale compartment fire testing studied the development of fires in (1) compartments with a fully encapsulated CLT structure and (2) compartments with exposed CLT surfaces. The studies have shown that sufficient gypsum board protection can avoid the involvement of CLT in a fire. However, fall-off of the base layer of gypsum boards during can result in continuous fires that do not extinguish without fire surface interference, as during fall-off large areas of initially protected timber surfaces start to contribute as fuel to the fire.

     

    If CLT is exposed to a fire, fire induced delamination of CLT (also lamella fall-off or char fall-off) could occur due to weakening of bond lines within the CLT. During fire induced delamination the exposed lamella falls from the CLT and a new relatively cold timber surface becomes exposed to potentially high temperatures, which effectively makes additional fuel suddenly available to a fire.

     

    Very recent studies involved the development of CLT products that are not subject to delamination. The studies indicate that the use of (a) sufficient fire protection, (b) CLT products with thermally resistant adhesives and (c) a limit regarding the surface area of CLT that can be exposed, result in fires that decay and eventually self-extinguish.

    This paper reviews the studies and includes a summary of conclusions.

  • 40.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Mitigation of fire damages in multi-storey timber buildings: Statistical analysis and guidelines for design2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of multi-storey timber buildings has increased during the last twenty years. Recent well-known fires in London, Dubai and Brazil, although not in timber buildings, have increased concerns regarding large fire spread and high damage fires. As timber is a combustible material, concerns have been expressed regarding property safety and it has been questioned whether fire damage is more significant in buildings with timber as the main structural material than in other types of buildings. This report includes a statistical study of data of fires in multi-storey timber buildings in New Zealand and an analysis of high damage fires that occurred in multi-storey timber buildings in the USA. The data from New Zealand showed no significant difference between share of fires that had flame damage out of the compartment of origin in (a) multi-storey timber buildings that were constructed in or later than 1992 and (b) other types of multi-storey buildings that were constructed in or later than 1992. Fires in multi-storey timber buildings that were constructed before 1992 spread more frequently to neighbouring compartments than fires in other multi-storey timber buildings constructed before 1992. Data of high damage fires occurring in multi-storey timber buildings in the USA indicated that outdoor fire spread is the most common cause for large fire spread. Additionally, the data indicates that high water damage is most often caused by fire service interference and is significantly less often related to sprinkler activation.

    Based on the analysis of fire spread of high damage fires in the USA, guidelines are given in the report to limit (1) outdoor fire spread, (2) fire spread through cavities, and (3) fire spread directly from a fire compartment to a neighbouring fire compartment. A number of these guidelines were evaluated using a fire test of a two-storey timber structure.

  • 41.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linne University, Sweden.
    Förslag för brandskydd i flervånings trähus2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport ger förslag på lösningar för brandskydd i höga trähus. De förslag som ges är inte fullständiga och andra åtgärder kan vara aktuella för att få till ett bättre brandskydd i höga trähus. De förslag som presenteras baseras på arbetet i forskningsprojektet

    Brandskydd i höga trähus, som finansierats av Brandforsk (Brandforsk projekt 301-152) och Svenskt Trä och denna rapport är till stora delar en översättning av RISE report 2018:43 "Mitigation of fires in multi-storey timber buildings – statistical analysis and guidelines for design" av Daniel Brandon, Alar Just, Petra Andersson och Birgit Östman.

    Brandnormer inriktas i första hand på personsäkerhet, men i höga och stora byggnader blir egendomsskyddet allt viktigare. De förslag som ges här baseras främst på analys av stora skador i USA. De viktigaste punkterna är att begränsa

    1. Direkt brand- och rökspridning mellan brandceller via:

    a. dörrar, väggar och bjälklag

    b. anslutningar mellan byggnadselement

    c. genomföringar i väggar och bjälklag

    d. installationer i väggar och bjälklag

    2. Brand- och rökspridning genom hålrum:

    a. i brandcellsavskiljande byggnadselement

    b. i fasader och yttertak

    3. Utvändig brand- och rökspridning:

    a. längs fasadens yta

    b. genom fönster

    c. genom ventilationsöppningar (t ex vid takfot)

    d. på vindar

  • 42.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Kagiya, Koji
    Building Research Institute, Japan.
    Hakkarainen, Tuula
    VTT, Finland.
    Performance based design for mass timber structures in fire– A Design Example2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent fires in tall buildings occurring in for example London, Dubai, Sao Paulo and Tehran evidence the risk of high consequences of fires in tall buildings and difficulties for fire service interference in case of large fire spread. In order to reduce the risk of deadly and large damage fires in especially tall buildings it is of importance to limit fire spread and avoid collapse .

    It was previously indicated that prescriptive fire safety regulations are mostly based on experience rather than on scientific facts. Therefore, the application of regulations for less conventional buildings, such as tall timber buildings, is questionable. In contrast with prescriptive requirements, performance based requirements, such as a requirement for a building to withstand a full fire without effective fire service interference, require accounting for the design and the function of the building. Multiple performance based methods for the fire safety design are available for buildings with conventional structural materials, i.e. steel and concrete. For buildings with timber as a structural material performance based structural design is rarely applied due to lack of methods available.

    The number of tall buildings with timber as their main structural material is increasing globally, which involves new fire safety challenges. In contrast with more conventional structural materials for tall buildings, timber can fuel the fire and influence its duration and severity. A number of previous experimental studies have shown that enough contribution of exposed timber to the fuel of a fire can result in continuous fully developed fires. Additionally, events that lead to increased combustion, such as sudden exposure of initially protected timber or bond line failure in glued timber members, can lead to fire regrowth after a period of decay. Without effective sprinkler or fire service interference, these fires would eventually lead to collapse, which can lead to potentially unacceptable consequences in very tall buildings.

  • 43.
    Carlson, Eva-Sara
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Kumm, Mia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Dederich, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Zakirov, Artur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Upphöjda gångbanor i spårtunnlar2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years an increasing amount of elevated platforms in railway tunnels has been designed. The platforms are positioned at the same level as the body of the train or above the rail top in purpose to facilitate off-platform evacuation. The purpose of using elevating platforms has been to increase personal safety, but knowledge on their actual impact on the evacuation is based on very limited experience.

    The purpose of the performed tests was to study human behavior when evacuating along an elevated platform for different scenarios and the overall project objective was to develop guidelines for fire safety design concerning evacuation along elevated platforms. The tests presented in this report aimed to deliver both quantitative and qualitative results as basis for those guidelines.

    The analysis includes flow rate of people, the effect of the width of the elevated walkway, people’s ability to pass others who are walking with lower speed and the possibility for people using wheelchairs to evacuate. The report also includes observations made when processing the video material during the analysis.

    Several large scale experiments were carried out at the subway station at Skarpnäck in Stockholm. Since the existing station platform is wider than is normally the case for elevated tunnel walkway platforms, a temporary walkway was built by using screen walls placed next to the platform edge. There were a total of 111 participants, including three wheelchair users.

    Five evacuation experiments were conducted. In the 1st, 3rd and 5th experiment all the participants walked from one end of the walkway to the other end. The width of the walkway varied between 1.20 m, 1.05 m and 0.90 m. In the 2nd and 4th run the participants were divided into two groups. One group walked, as in the previous experiments, from one end of the walkway to the other, and the second group started in the train that was parked next to the walkway and joined the flow on the walkway as the first group passed the train doors. The width of the walkway in the experiments was 1.2 m and 1.05 m respectively. Reference tests were carried out prior to the main tests in a corridor, which was also built with screen walls on the platform. After the test was completed a survey was conducted to identify parameters that could have affected the decisions and behaviour during the tests.

    The results from the tests show that the flow along the elevated walkway decreased as the walkway was getting narrower. This was true for all the areas where the flow was measured, including the flow out of the train. It is also shown that the entire width of the walkway is used to a larger extent when a train was parked next to the walkway compared to when one side was open to the rail tracks.

    In the survey it appears that almost 50 % of the participants felt that it was a problem passing others who were walking slower then themselves. Some of them passed others, but with difficulties and some wanted to pass, but never got the opportunity to do so.

    Of the three wheelchair users participating in the test, one user experienced discomfort caused by the height and limited width of the elevated walkway. As a consequence the person only took part in experiments 1 and 2.

  • 44.
    Carlson, Eva-Sara
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Zakirov, Artur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Utrymning uppåt i lutande tunnel2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It’s getting more and more common to

    build infrastructures underground, which results in more people using underground facilities in their everyday life. The evacuation routes from this environment often involve long, ascending tunnels. In order to evaluate the evacuation time for these facilities, knowledge about people’s movement in this kind of environment is required. Today the knowledge within this area is limited, why new research within this field is needed.

    The current study included two essential parts; 1) initial literature review where the state of the art within the current research field was mapped and 2) an experiment. The purpose of the experiment was to study people

    ’s walking speed and behaviour during ascending evacuation in inclined tunnels. The aim of the study was to develop data that can be used as basis for guidelines regarding fire safety design in major infrastructure projects and risk and safety assessment of underground facilities.

    The experiment was carried out at the Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory in March 2018. In total 32 persons participated and they were asked to individually walk upwards 907 m in a tunnel with an inclination of 14 %. When walking in the tunnel, the participants

    ’ walking speed, vertical walking speed, pulse and rating of perceived exertion were documented. In addition to the individual tests in the tunnel, the experiment included reference tests and a survey.

    When comparing the walking speeds collected in the current experiment with the walking speeds from previous experiments where people were asked to walk upwards long stairs, it can be seen that the walking speeds in the current experiment are higher. When comparing the vertical walking speeds, the result is reversed. A possible explanation for this is that climbing the stairs requires a larger vertical movement compared to moving in the tunnel where the movement is more horizontal.

    In the current experiment, 59 % of the participants used an identifiable strategy when moving upwards in the tunnel. The strategies have been categorized as follows:

    1) Adjust the walking speed to a pace the participant believe he/she can keep for a longer distance.

    2) Focus on breathing.

    3) Keep a lower walking speed in the beginning.

    4) Concentrate on the surroundings to avoid thinking about how tired he/she is.

    5) Focus on the goal.

    In general, when walking up the tunnel the walking speed was more or less the same during the whole climb, but the participants experienced a considerable increased perceived exertion. This can be the result of Strategy 1 presented above.

    The results of the current experiment show a tendency for walking speed to decrease with increased fatigue. A comparison between the rating of perceived exertion and the normalized walking speed indicates that the walking speed and fatigue stabilized during the movement in the tunnel.

  • 45.
    Debuyser, Michael
    et al.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Sonck, Dolphine
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Belis, Jan
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Behaviour of monolithic and laminated glass exposed to radiant heating2017In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 130, p. 212-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glass is seeing a growing interest as a structural material as a result of its relatively good strength to weight ratio and the obvious aesthetic benefits of its use in buildings. However due to the sensitivity of glass to thermal shock and the considerably temperature-dependent behaviour of interlayer materials as a result of their visco-elastic nature, the mechanical behaviour of laminated glass will be severely influenced by exposure to fire. Relatively little research has been conducted in the past to study the response of load bearing structural glass, and laminated glass in particular to radiant heating. This paper represents an effort to try to understand the effects of through depth radiation absorption and temperature conduction through laminated glass with a view to ultimately developing a model for studying load bearing glass exposed to elevated temperatures, such as those that would be expected in a fire. The paper reports on an experimental research programme in which several monolithic and laminated glass configurations were exposed to a radiant heat flux to study the different phenomena that occur upon exposure to fire conditions, including the ratios of absorbed, transmitted and reflected heat flux to the incident heat flux. The paper then presents a numerical heat transfer model which is developed based on these experimental results and that is able to determine the evolution of the temperature profile as a result of a given incident heat flux. The effectiveness of the heat transfer model is demonstrated through comparison with the temperatures measured during the experimental work.

  • 46.
    Dederichs, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    NFSD Nordic Fire & Safety Days: Book of abstracts from the NFSD Nordic Fire & Safety Days 17-18 August in Copenhagen, Denmark2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is our pleasure to hand over to you this book of abstracts for the Nordic Fire & Safety

    Days 2017 organized by RISE, Research Institutes of Sweden in collaboration with the

    Technical University of Denmark, Lund University, Norwegian University of Science and

    Technology, University of Stavanger, Western Norway University of Applied Sciences,

    Lulea University of Technology and Iceland University as well as VTT Technical Research

    Centre of Finland Ltd, the Danish Institute of Fire and Security Technology and Aalborg

    University in Copenhagen.

    We are very proud to present the abstracts of 62 Nordic and international contributions

    in the present book of abstracts. The work demonstrates a significant scientific depth

    and societal relevance. The conference is a response to the extensive interest in the

    areas of fire and safety engineering in the Nordic countries in the past decades. As the

    programme and the abstracts show, the NFSD follow up on challenges with respect to

    safety dealing with aspects of fire and actions of the rescue service as well as human

    behavior and risk management. This year there is a special focus on fire safe furniture

    and the intervention of the rescue service.

  • 47.
    Dederichs, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Workshop on funding of research and development in the Nordic countries and Europe: report from the Nordic Fire & Safety Days 20182018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Dederichs, Anne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Njå, OveUniversity Stavanger, Norway.Giuliani, LouisaDTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.Zawadowska, AlexandraRISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    BOOK OF PROCEEDINGS Nordic Fire & Safety Days 20182018Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Degerman, Helene
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Bram, Staffan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Systemperspektiv på industriell brandsäkerhet- en studie av organisering och användbarhet i brandskyddet2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial fires are associated with many challenges and potentially large consequencesfor life, environment and property. The SEBRA project aimed to investigate preconditionsfor a well-functioning fire safety system, applying a systems perspective on workand safety. Three main themes were explored through field work on Swedish industrialworkplaces; (1) How do operations and the staff interact with fire safety installations ineveryday work, (2) What is the main focus of fire safety design, how is it conducted andhow do the end results affect fire safety and (3) What are the success factors behind positiveoutcomes from incidents where the personnel alone has dealt with fires.During the course of operations conflicts may occur between production and fire safetysolutions e.g. fire doors, detectors, alarm systems and procedures, sometimes to thepoint where fire protective routines or installations are bypassed. A common answer tosuch issues is to strengthen administrative barriers such as rules, safety information andtraining. However, in an industrial organization where resources are already strained,even more checks and routines will only run the risk of aggravating the problem at hand.When an industrial building is constructed there are no processes or methods that canprotect user needs in the design of fire protection. In construction, the main incitementis to minimize cost. When user adaptation is disregarded, costs are effectively transferredto the operational stage in the forms of more inefficient production and lower safety levels.The industry needs to develop ways of understanding and incorporating long-term operativeneeds in short-term construction projects, so that fire protection can be moreclosely fitted to the circumstances and demands of operative personnel

  • 50.
    Degerman, Helene
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Bram, Staffan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Resilient performance in response to the 2015 refugee influx in the Øresund region2018In: Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World - Proceedings of the 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 2018, p. 1313-1318Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    September 2015 saw a sharp increase in the influx of refugees in the Øresund region. In this study, resilience defined as flexible adaptation was taken as a baseline to guide interviews with societal infrastructure actors and NGOs engaged in managing the situation. Different actors had different organisational preconditions that influenced their ability to adapt to the new situation. Among the strongest drivers behind resilient performance were the organisation’s ways of relating to established rules, regulations, procedures and processes, the way relationships were formed between people and hierarchical layers within the organisations, and the perceived value of the human operator and the human contribution within the organisational whole. These values, in turn, determined how the organisations shaped many of the basic conditions that allowed resilient performance to develop. In the study it was found, for public actors in particular, that the criteria necessary to adapt to the situation were not met by organisational structures and processes.

12345 1 - 50 of 235
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf