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  • 1.
    Al-Smadi, Derar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Carboligation using the aldol reaction: A comparison of stereoselectivity and methods2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The research summarized in this thesis focuses on synthesizing aldehyde and aldol compounds as substrates and products for the enzyme D-fructose-6-aldolase (FSA). Aldolases are important enzymes for the formation of carbon-carbon bonds in nature. In biological systems, aldol reactions, both cleavage and formation play central roles in sugar metabolism. Aldolases exhibit high degrees of stereoselectivity and can steer the product configurations to a given enantiomeric and diastereomeric form. To become truly useful synthetic tools, the substrate scope of these enzymes needs to become broadened.

    In the first project, phenylacetaldehyde derivatives were synthesized for the use as test substrates for E. coli FSA. Different methods were discussed to prepare phenylacetaldehyde derivatives, the addition of a one carbon unit to benzaldehyde derivatives using a homologation reaction was successful and was proven efficient and non-sensitive to the moisture. The analogues were prepared through two steps with 75-80 % yields for both meta- and para-substituted compounds.

    The second project focuses on synthesizing aldol compound using FSA enzymes, both wild type and mutated variants selected from library screening, the assay has been successfully used to identify a hit with 10-fold improvement in an R134V/S166G variant. This enzyme produces one out of four possible stereoisomers.

    The third project focuses on the synthesis of a range of aldol compounds using two different approaches reductive cross-coupling of aldehydes by SmI2 or by organocatalysts using cinchonine. Phenylacetaldehydes were reacted with hydroxy-, dihydroxyacetone and hydroxyacetophenone in presence of cinchonine, the reaction was successful with hydroxyacetophenone in moderate yields and 60-99 % de ratio. On the other hand, the aldehydes reacting with methyl- and phenylglyoxal in the presence of SmI2 resulted in moderate yields and without stereoselectivity.

  • 2.
    Al-Smadi, Derar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry. An Najah Natl Univ, Dept Chem, Fac Sci, Nablus, Palestine.
    Enugala, Thilak Reddy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Biochemistry.
    Kessler, Vadim
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Mol Sci, Box 7015, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Mhasal, Anil Rhanu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Biochemistry.
    Kamerlin, Shina Caroline Lynn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Biochemistry.
    Kihlberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Norberg, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Widersten, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Biochemistry.
    Chemical and Biochemical Approaches for the Synthesis of Substituted Dihydroxybutanones and Di-, and Tri-Hydroxypentanones2019In: Journal of Organic Chemistry, ISSN 0022-3263, E-ISSN 1520-6904, Vol. 84, no 11, p. 6982-6991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Polyhydroxylated compounds are building blocks for the synthesis of carbohydrates and other natural products. Their synthesis is mainly achieved by different synthetic versions of aldol-coupling reactions, catalyzed either by organocatalysts, enzymes or metal-organic catalysts. We have investigated the formation of 1,4-substituted 2,3-dihydroxybutan-1-one derivatives from para- and meta-substituted phenylacetaldehydes by three distinctly different strategies. The first involved a direct aldol reaction with hydroxyacetone, dihydroxyacetone or 2-hydroxyacetophenone, catalyzed by the cinchona derivative cinchonine. The second was reductive cross-coupling with methyl or phenyl glyoxal promoted by SmI2 resulting in either 5-substituted 3,4-dihydroxypentan-2-ones or 1,4 bis-phenyl substituted butanones, respectively. Finally, in the third case, aldolase catalysis was employed for synthesis of the corresponding 1,3,4-trihydroxylated pentan-2-one derivatives. The organocatalytic route with cinchonine generated distereomerically enriched syn products (de = 60−99 %), with moderate enantiomeric excesses (ee = 43−56%), but did not produce aldols with either hydroxyacetone or dihydroxyacetone as donor ketones. The SmI2-promoted reductive cross-coupling generated product mixtures with diastereomeric and enantiomeric ratios close to unity. This route allowed for the production of both 1-methyl- and 1-phenylsubstituted 2,3-dihydroxybutanones, at yields between 40−60%. Finally, the biocatalytic approach resulted in enantiopure syn (3R,4S) 1,3,4-trihydroxypentan-2-ones.

  • 3.
    al-smadi, Derar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Enugala, Thilak Reddy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Biochemistry.
    Norberg, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Kessler, Vadim
    Kihlberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Widersten, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Biochemistry.
    A Comparison of Synthetic Approaches to Derivatives of 1,4-Substituted 2,3 DihydroxybutanonesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Al-Smadi, Derar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Enugala, Thilak Reddy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Biochemistry.
    Norberg, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Kihlberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Widersten, Mikael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Biochemistry.
    Synthesis of substrates for aldolase-catalyzed reactions: A comparison of methods for the synthesis of substituted phenylacetaldehydes2018In: Synlett: Accounts and Rapid Communications in Synthetic Organic Chemistry, ISSN 0936-5214, E-ISSN 1437-2096, Vol. 29, no 9, p. 1187-1190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods for the synthesis of phenylacetaldehydes (oxidation, one-carbon chain extension) were compared by using the synthesis of 4-methoxyphenylacetaldehyde as a model example. Oxidations of 4-methoxyphenylethanol with activated DMSO (Swern oxidation) or manganese dioxide gave unsatisfactory results; whereas oxidation with 2-iodoxybenzoic add (IBX) produced 4-methoxyphenylacetaldehyde in reasonable (75%) yield. However, Wittig-type one-carbon chain extension with methoxymethylene-triphenylphosphine followed by hydrolysis gave an excellent (81% overall) yield of 4-methoxyphenylacetaldehyde from 4-methoxybenzaldehyde (a cheap starting material). This approach was subsequently used to synthesise a set of 10 substituted phenylacetaldehydes in good to excellent yields.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Hanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Carlsson, Anna-Carin C.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nekoueishahraki, Bijan
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Brath, Ulrika
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Erdélyi, Máté
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Chapter Two - Solvent Effects on Nitrogen Chemical Shifts2015In: Annual Reports on NMR Spectroscopy, Academic Press , 2015, Vol. 86, p. 73-210Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to significant developments in cryogenic probe technology and the easy access to inverse detection pulse programmes (HSQC, HMBC), the sensitivity of nitrogen NMR has lately vastly improved. As a consequence, nitrogen NMR has turned into a useful and commonly available tool for solution studies of molecular structure and properties for small organic compounds likewise biopolymers. The high sensitivity of the nitrogen lone pair to changes in the molecular environment, alterations in intra- and intermolecular interactions, and in molecular conformation along with its wide, up to 1200ppm chemical shift dispersion make nitrogen NMR to an exceptionally sensitive reporter tool. The nitrogen chemical shift has been applied in various fields of chemistry, including for instance the studies of transition metal complexes, chemical reactions such as N-alkylation and N-oxidation, tautomerization, protonation–deprotonation equilibria, hydrogen and halogen bonding, and elucidation of molecular conformation and configuration. The 15N NMR data observed in the investigation of these molecular properties and processes is influenced by the medium it is acquired in. This influence may be due to direct coordination of solvent molecules to transition metal complexes, alteration of tautomerization equilibria, and solvent polarity induced electron density changes of conjugated systems, for example. Thus, the solvent may significantly alter the observed nitrogen NMR shifts. This review aims to provide an overview of solvent effects of practical importance, and discusses selected experimental reports from various subfields of chemistry.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Hanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry. University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gräfenstein, Jürgen
    National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
    Isobe, Minoru
    National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.
    Erdélyi, Máté
    University of Gothenburg, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden; The Swedish NMR Centre, SE-413 96 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sydnes, Magne O
    University of Stavanger, NO-4036 Stavanger, Norway.
    Photochemically Induced Aryl Azide Rearrangement: Solution NMR Spectroscopic Identification of the Rearrangement Product2017In: Journal of Organic Chemistry, ISSN 0022-3263, E-ISSN 1520-6904, Vol. 82, no 3, p. 1812-1816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photolysis of ethyl 3-azido-4,6-difluorobenzoate at room temperature in the presence of oxygen results in the regioselective formation of ethyl 5,7-difluoro-4-azaspiro[2.4]hepta-1,4,6-triene-1-carboxylate, presumably via the corresponding ketenimine intermediate which undergoes a photochemical four-electron electrocyclization followed by a rearrangement. The photorearrangement product was identified by multinuclear solution NMR spectroscopic techniques supported by DFT calculations.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Hanna
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Discovery of inhibitors of insulin-regulated aminopeptidase as cognitive enhancers2012In: International Journal of Hypertension, ISSN 2090-0384, Vol. 2012, p. 789671-Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The hexapeptide angiotensin IV (Ang IV) is a metabolite of angiotensin II (Ang II) and plays a central role in the brain. It was reported more than two decades ago that intracerebroventricular injection of Ang IV improved memory and learning in the rat. Several hypotheses have been put forward to explain the positive effects of Ang IV and related analogues on cognition. It has been proposed that the insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) is the main target of Ang IV. This paper discusses progress in the discovery of inhibitors of IRAP as potential enhancers of cognitive functions. Very potent inhibitors of the protease have been synthesised, but pharmacokinetic issues (including problems associated with crossing the blood-brain barrier) remain to be solved. The paper also briefly presents an overview of the status in the discovery of inhibitors of ACE and renin, and of AT1R antagonists and AT2R agonists, in order to enable other discovery processes within the RAS system to be compared. The paper focuses on the relationship between binding affinities/inhibition capacity and the structures of the ligands that interact with the target proteins.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Sofia E. M.
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Med, Dept Rheumatol & Inflammat Res, Box 480, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Eneljung, Tove
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Med, Dept Rheumatol & Inflammat Res, Box 480, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Tengvall, Sara
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Med, Dept Rheumatol & Inflammat Res, Box 480, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Jirholt, Pernilla
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Med, Dept Rheumatol & Inflammat Res, Box 480, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Stern, Anna
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Med, Dept Rheumatol & Inflammat Res, Box 480, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Henningsson, Louise
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Med, Dept Rheumatol & Inflammat Res, Box 480, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Liang, Bibo
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, Med Inflammat Res, Solna, Sweden.;Southern Med Univ, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Thorarinsdottir, Katrin
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Med, Dept Rheumatol & Inflammat Res, Box 480, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Kihlberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Holmdahl, Rikard
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, Med Inflammat Res, Solna, Sweden.;Southern Med Univ, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Martensson, Inga-Lill
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Med, Dept Rheumatol & Inflammat Res, Box 480, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Gustafsson, Kenth
    UCL, Inst Child Hlth, Mol Immunol Unit, London, England..
    Gjertsson, Inger
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Med, Dept Rheumatol & Inflammat Res, Box 480, SE-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Sahlgrens Univ Hosp, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Collagen epitope expression on B cells is sufficient to confer tolerance to collagen-induced arthritis2016In: Arthritis Research & Therapy, ISSN 1478-6354, E-ISSN 1478-6362, Vol. 18, article id 140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The mechanisms underlying tolerance induction and maintenance in autoimmune arthritis remain elusive. In a mouse model of rheumatoid arthritis, collagen type II (CII)-induced arthritis, we explore the contribution of B cells to antigen-specific tolerance. Methods: To generate expression of the CII-peptide specifically on B-cell major histocompatibility complex type II, lentiviral-based gene therapy including a B-cell-specific Igk promoter was used. Results: Presentation of the CII-peptide on B cells significantly reduced the frequency and severity of arthritis as well as the serum levels of CII -specific IgG antibodies. Further, both frequency and suppressive function of regulatory T cells were increased in tolerized mice. Adoptive transfer of regulatory T cells from tolerized mice to naive mice ameliorated the development of CII-induced arthritis. Conclusion: Our data suggest that endogenous presentation of the CII-peptide on B cells is one of the key contributors to arthritis tolerance induction and maintenance.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Vincent
    et al.
    AstraZeneca R&D, CVMD iMed, SE-43183 Molndal, Sweden..
    Bergström, Fredrik
    AstraZeneca R&D, CVMD iMed DMPK, SE-43183 Molndal, Sweden..
    Branalt, Jonas
    AstraZeneca R&D, CVMD iMed, SE-43183 Molndal, Sweden..
    Grönberg, Gunnar
    AstraZeneca R&D, RIA iMed, SE-43183 Molndal, Sweden..
    Gustafsson, David
    AstraZeneca, AZ Bioventure Hub, Emeriti Pharma AB, S-43183 Molndal, Sweden..
    Karlsson, Staffan
    AstraZeneca R&D, CVMD iMed, SE-43183 Molndal, Sweden..
    Polla, Magnus
    AstraZeneca R&D, CVMD iMed, SE-43183 Molndal, Sweden..
    Bergman, Joakim
    AstraZeneca R&D, CVMD iMed, SE-43183 Molndal, Sweden..
    Kihlberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Macrocyclic Prodrugs of a Selective Nonpeptidic Direct Thrombin Inhibitor Display High Permeability, Efficient Bioconversion but Low Bioavailability2016In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0022-2623, E-ISSN 1520-4804, Vol. 59, no 14, p. 6658-6670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The only oral direct thrombin inhibitors that have reached the market, ximelagatran and dabigatran etexilat, are double prodrugs with low bioavailability in humans. We have evaluated an alternative strategy: the preparation of a nonpeptidic, polar direct thrombin inhibitor as a single, macrocyclic esterase-cleavable (acyloxy)alkoxy prodrug. Two homologous prodrugs were synthesized and displayed high solubilities and Caco-2 cell permeabilities, suggesting high absorption from the intestine. In addition, they were rapidly and completely converted to the active zwitterionic thrombin inhibitor in human hepatocytes. Unexpectedly, the most promising prodrug displayed only moderately higher oral bioavailability in rat than the polar direct thrombin inhibitor, most likely due to rapid metabolism in the intestine or the intestinal wall. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first in vivo ADME study of macrocyclic (acyloxy)alkoxy prodrugs, and it remains to be established if the modest increase in bioavailability is a general feature of this category of prodrugs or not.

  • 10.
    Balamurugan, Kanagasabai
    et al.
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, AlbaNova Univ Ctr, Sch Biotechnol, Div Theoret Chem & Biol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Murugan, Natarajan Arul
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, AlbaNova Univ Ctr, Sch Biotechnol, Div Theoret Chem & Biol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Långström, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Nordberg, Agneta
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Ctr Alzheimer Res,Translat Alzheimer Neurobiol,De, S-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Agren, Hans
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, AlbaNova Univ Ctr, Sch Biotechnol, Div Theoret Chem & Biol, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Siberian Fed Univ, Inst Nanotechnol Spect & Quantum Chem, Svobodny Pr 79, Krasnoyarsk 660041, Russia..
    Effect of Alzheimer Familial Chromosomal Mutations on the Amyloid Fibril Interaction with Different PET Tracers: Insight from Molecular Modeling Studies2017In: ACS Chemical Neuroscience, ISSN 1948-7193, E-ISSN 1948-7193, Vol. 8, no 12, p. 2655-2666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder. Along with an increasing number of elderly worldwide, it poses a great challenge for the society and health care. Although sporadic AD is the common form of AD, 2-3% of the AD cases are expected to be due to mutations in the fi region of the amyloid precursor protein, which is referred to as autosomal dominant AD (ADAD). These mutations may cause changes in the secondary structure of the amyloid fi fibrils and may alter the fibrillization rate leading to changes in the disease development and could also affect the binding to tracers used in diagnosis. In particular, from some recent clinical studies using PET tracers for detection of fibrillar amyloids, it is evident that in ADAD patients with Arctic mutation no amyloid plaque binding can be detected with the "C Pittsburgh Compound B (C-11-PIB). However, for in vitro conditions, significant binding of H-3-PIB has been reported for the amyloid fibrils carrying the Arctic mutation. The aim of the present study is to investigate if there is any mutation specific binding of commonly used amyloid tracers, namely, florbetaben, florbetapir, FPIB, AZD4694, and AZD2184, by means of molecular modeling techniques. Other than Arctic, ADAD mutations, such as the Dutch, Italian, Iowa, and Flemish mutations, are considered in this study. We report that all tracers except florbetapir show reduced binding affinity toward amyloid beta fibrils with the Arctic mutation when compared to the native type. Moreover, florbetapir is the only tracer that binds to all mutants with increased affinity when compared to the native fibril. The results obtained from these studies could increase the understanding of the structural changes caused by mutation and concomitant changes in the interaction pattern of the PET tracers with the mutated variants, which in turn can be useful in selecting the appropriate tracers for the purpose of diagnosis as well as for designing new tracers with desirable properties.

  • 11.
    Balliu, Aleksandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Exploring molecular interactions between polypeptide conjugates and protein targets: Manipulating affinity by chemical modifications2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis molecular interactions between polypeptide conjugates and protein targets were investigated. Polypeptides were derivatized with small organic molecules, peptides and oligonucleotides. New strategies were developed with the aim to increase affinities for proteins of biological interest.

    A 42-residue polypeptide (4-C15L8) conjugated to a small organic molecule 3,5-bis[[bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amino]methyl]benzoic acid (PP1), was shown to bind glycogen phosphorylase a (GPa) in the presence of zinc ions. Under the assumption that hydrophobic interactions dominated the binding energy, the hydrophobic residues of 4-C15L8-PP1 were systematically replaced in order to study their contribution to the affinity enhancement. The replacement of the Nle, Ile and Leu residues by Ala amino acids reduced affinities. The introduction of non-natural L-2-aminooctanoic acid (Aoc) residues into the peptide sequence enhanced the binding affinity for GPa. A decreased KD of 27nM was obtained when Nle5, Ile9 and Leu12 were replaced by Aoc residues, in comparison to the KD value of 280nM obtained for the unmodified 4-C15L8-PP1. It is evident that there are non-obvious hydrophobic binding sites on the surfaces of proteins that could be identified by introducing the more hydrophobic and conformationally flexible Aoc residues. The downsizing of the 42-mer peptide to an 11-mer and the incorporation of three Aoc residues gave rise to a KD of 550 nM, comparable to that of  4-C15L8-PP1 suggesting that bioactive peptides can be downsized by the introduction of Aoc.

    Aiming to improve in vivo stability, the affinity for human serum albumin (HSA) of hydrophobic, positively and negatively charged polypeptide-PP1 conjugates was evaluated. Increased hydrophobicity due to the introduction of Aoc residues did not significantly increase the affinity for HSA. No binding was observed in the case of the most negatively charged polypeptides whereas the slightly negatively and positively charged polypeptides conjugated to PP1 bound HSA with affinities that increased with the positive charge. It was found that polypeptide-PP1 conjugates target the zinc binding site of the HSA. Affinity enhancement was obtained due to the incorporation of PP1 and increased by charge to charge interactions between the positively charged amino acids of the polypeptide and the negatively charged residues of HSA, in close proximity to the HSA zinc binding site. The survival times of the peptide-PP1 conjugates in human serum were extended as a result of binding to HSA. Zn2+ ion chelating agents can be incorporated in potential peptide therapeutics with a short plasma half-life, without increasing their molecular weights.

  • 12.
    Balliu, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Baltzer, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Conjugation of a Dipicolyl Chelate to Polypeptide Conjugates Increases Binding Affinities for Human Serum Albumin and Survival Times in Human Serum2017In: ChemBioChem (Print), ISSN 1439-4227, E-ISSN 1439-7633, Vol. 18, no 14, p. 1408-1414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The affinity for human serum albumin (HSA) of a series of 2–5 kDa peptides covalently linked to 3,5-bis[[bis(2-pyridylmethyl)amino]methyl]benzoic acid, a dipicolyl chelator with micromolar affinity for Zn2+, was found by surface plasmon resonance to increase in the presence of 1 μm ZnCl2 at physiological pH. The dependence on polypeptide hydrophobicity was found to be minor, thus suggesting that the conjugates bound to the metal-binding site and not to the fatty-acid-binding site. The affinity of the conjugates increased strongly with the positive charge of the polypeptides, thus implicating the negatively charged protein surface surrounding the metal-binding site. The survival times of the peptides in human serum were extended as a consequence of stronger binding to HSA, thus suggesting that Zn2+-chelating agents might provide a general route to increased survival time of peptides in serum in therapeutic and diagnostic applications without significantly increasing their molecular weights.

  • 13.
    Balliu, Aleksandra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Baltzer, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Exploring Non-obvious Hydrophobic Binding Pockets on Protein Surfaces: Increasing Affinities in Peptide–Protein Interactions2017In: ChemBioChem (Print), ISSN 1439-4227, E-ISSN 1439-7633, Vol. 18, no 14, p. 1396-1407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A 42-residue polypeptide conjugated to a small-molecule organic ligand capable of targeting the phosphorylated side chain of Ser15 was shown to bind glycogen phosphorylase a (GPa) with a KD value of 280 nm. The replacement of hydrophobic amino acids by Ala reduced affinities, whereas the incorporation of l-2-aminooctanoic acid (Aoc) increased them. Replacing Nle5, Ile9 and Leu12 by Aoc reduced the KD value from 280 to 27 nm. “Downsizing” the 42-mer to an undecamer gave rise to an affinity for GPa an order of magnitude lower, but the undecamer in which Nle5, Ile9 and Leu12 were replaced by Aoc showed a KD value of 550 nm, comparable with that of the parent 42-mer. The use of Aoc residues offers a convenient route to increased affinity in protein recognition as well as a strategy for the “downsizing” of peptides essentially without loss of affinity. The results show that hydrophobic binding sites can be found on protein surfaces by comparing the affinities of polypeptide conjugates in which Aoc residues replace Nle, Ile, Leu or Phe with those of their unmodified counterparts. Polypeptide conjugates thus provide valuable opportunities for the optimization of peptides and small organic compounds in biotechnology and biomedicine.

  • 14.
    Begnini, Fabio
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry. Uppsala University.
    Development of Novel Macrocyclic Inhibitors of Protein-Protein Interactions: Applied to the Keap1-Nrf2 Complex2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Bergman, Hilde-Marlene
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Lindfors, Lina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Palm, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Kihlberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Lanekoff, Ingela
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Metabolite aberrations at early onset of diabetes detected in rat kidney using mass spectrometry imaging2019In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 411, no 13, p. 2809-2816Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diabetic kidney disease is a serious complication of diabetes that can ultimately lead to end-stage renal disease. The pathogenesis of diabetic kidney disease is complex, and fundamental research is still required to provide a better understanding of the driving forces behind it. We report regional metabolic aberrations from an untargeted mass spectrometry imaging study of kidney tissue using an insulinopenic rat model of diabetes. Diabetes was induced by intravenous injection of streptozotocin, and kidneys were harvested 2weeks thereafter. Imaging was performed using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization connected to a high-mass-resolving mass spectrometer. No histopathological changes were observed in the kidney sections; however, mass spectrometry imaging revealed a significant increase in several 18-carbon unsaturated non-esterified fatty acid species and monoacylglycerols. Notably, these 18-carbon acyl chains were also constituents of several increased diacylglycerol species. In addition, a number of short- and long-chain acylcarnitines were found to be accumulated while several amino acids were depleted. This study presents unique regional metabolic data indicating a dysregulated energy metabolism in renal mitochondria as an early response to streptozotocin-induced type I diabetes.

  • 16.
    Chavan, Swapnil
    et al.
    Linnaeus Univ, Linnaeus Univ Ctr Biomat Chem, Dept Chem & Biomed Sci, Bioorgan & Biophys Chem Lab, S-39182 Kalmar, Sweden..
    Abdelaziz, Ahmed
    eADMET GmbH, Lichtenbergstr 8, D-85748 Munich, Germany..
    Wiklander, Jesper G.
    Linnaeus Univ, Linnaeus Univ Ctr Biomat Chem, Dept Chem & Biomed Sci, Bioorgan & Biophys Chem Lab, S-39182 Kalmar, Sweden..
    Nicholls, Ian A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry. Linnaeus Univ, Linnaeus Univ Ctr Biomat Chem, Dept Chem & Biomed Sci, Bioorgan & Biophys Chem Lab, S-39182 Kalmar, Sweden..
    A k-nearest neighbor classification of hERG K+ channel blockers2016In: Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design, ISSN 0920-654X, E-ISSN 1573-4951, Vol. 30, no 3, p. 229-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of 172 molecular structures that block the hERG K+ channel were used to develop a classification model where, initially, eight types of PaDEL fingerprints were used for k-nearest neighbor model development. A consensus model constructed using Extended-CDK, PubChem and Substructure count fingerprint-based models was found to be a robust predictor of hERG activity. This consensus model demonstrated sensitivity and specificity values of 0.78 and 0.61 for the internal dataset compounds and 0.63 and 0.54 for the external (PubChem) dataset compounds, respectively. This model has identified the highest number of true positives (i.e. 140) from the PubChem dataset so far, as compared to other published models, and can potentially serve as a basis for the prediction of hERG active compounds. Validating this model against FDA-withdrawn substances indicated that it may even be useful for differentiating between mechanisms underlying QT prolongation.

  • 17. Chu, Dinh-Toi
    et al.
    Nguyet, Nguyen Thi Minh
    Nga, Vu Thi
    Lien, Nguyen Vu Thai
    Vo, Duc Duy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational Biology and Bioinformatics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Lien, Nguyen
    Ngoc, Vo Truong Nhu
    Son, Le Hoang
    Le, Duc-Hau
    Nga, Vu Bich
    Tu, Pham Van
    To, Ta Van
    Ha, Luu Song
    Vietnam Womens Acad, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    Tao, Yang
    Nanjing Agr Univ, Coll Food Sci & Technol, Nanjing 210095 8, Jiangsu, Peoples R China.
    Pham, Van-Huy
    An update on obesity: Mental consequences and psychological interventions2019In: Diabetes & Metabolic syndrome: clinical Research & Reviews, ISSN 1871-4021, E-ISSN 1878-0334, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 155-160Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Besides physical consequences, obesity has negative psychological effects, thereby lowering human life quality. Major psychological consequences of this disorder includes depression, impaired body image, low self-esteem, eating disorders, stress and poor quality of life, which are correlated with age and gender. Physical interventions, mainly diet control and energy balance, have been widely applied to treat obesity; and some psychological interventions including behavioral therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and hypnotherapy have showed some effects on obesity treatment. Other psychological therapies, such as relaxation and psychodynamic therapies, are paid less attention. This review aims to update scientific evidence regarding the mental consequences and psychological interventions for obesity. (c) 2018 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 18.
    Danelius, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Andersson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Erdélyi, Máté
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Solution ensemble analysis of macrocycles2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Macrocycles are key drug leads for protein targets with large, flat and featureless binding sites, including protein-protein interfaces.  Due to their conformational flexibility macrocycles typically exist as a mixture of interconverting geometries in solution, and hence cannot be represented by a single, averaged conformation.  This flexibility is a result of continuously forming and breaking a number of weak intramolecular interactions.  The yielded conformations in solution vastly impact the bioactivity, solubility and membrane permeability of the macrocycles.  Therefore, describing their conformational ensembles, as well as the impact of conformation stabilizing weak interactions, is of fundamental importance, and the knowledge gained is directly applicable to medicinal chemistry.

    In order to describe macrocycle structure and dynamics, time-averaged solution spectroscopic data has to be deconvoluted into the present conformations along with their respective probability.  We have studied the solution ensembles of a series of macrocycles using the NAMFIS (NMR analysis of molecular flexibility in solution) algorithm.  This combined computational and spectroscopic ensembles analysis deconvolutes time averaged NMR data by identifying the real conformations and assigning them with their molar fractions.  Theoretical ensembles were predicted using Monte Carlo conformational searches with molecular mechanics minimization.  The generated ensembles, typically containing 40-150 conformers, were then used together with experimental NOE-based distances and J-coupling-based dihedral angles to identify the molar fractions of the conformations present in solution.

    We applied this technique to gain understanding of weak chemical interactions in a biologically relevant environment, by analyzing macrocyclic β-hairpin peptides.  The stabilizing effect provided by an interstrand weak interaction, as compared to a reference peptide lacking this interaction, was quantified through ensemble analysis.  We have shown that a single interstrand hydrogen [1,2,3] or halogen bond (Figure 1) [4], can significantly influence the folding, and increase the population of the folded conformation by up to 40%.  The NMR results were corroborated by CD-spectroscopy and MD-calculations.

  • 19.
    Danelius, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Andersson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Jarvoll, Patrik
    Lood, Kajsa
    Gräfenstein, Jürgen
    Erdélyi, Máté
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Halogen bond promoted peptide folding2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed a β-hairpin peptide model system that permits quantitative evaluation of weak interactions in a biologically relevant environment. The influence of a single weak force was measured by detection of the extent to which it modulates peptide folding. Initially we have optimized a β-hairpin model system, using the simpler to synthesize hydrogen bonding analogues of our target system encompassing halogen bond donor and acceptor sites [1,2,3]. Using a combined computational and NMR spectroscopic ensemble analysis, we have quantified the stabilizing effect of a single secondary interaction on the folded β-hairpin conformation. We have demonstrated that a chlorine centered halogen bond, formed between two amino acid side chains in an interstrand manner (Figure 1), provides a conformational stabilization comparable to the analogous hydrogen bond [4]. The negative control, i.e. the peptide containing a noninteracting aliphatic side chain, was ~30% less folded than the hydrogen and halogen bonding analogues, revealing the high impact of the interstrand interaction on folding. The experimental results are corroborated by computation on the DFT level. This is the first report of quantification of a conformation-stabilizing chlorine centered halogen bond in a peptide system.  

  • 20.
    Danelius, Emma
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry. University of Gothenburg, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jarvoll, Patrik
    University of Gothenburg, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lood, Kajsa
    University of Gothenburg, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gräfenstein, Jürgen
    University of Gothenburg, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Erdélyi, Máté
    University of Gothenburg, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Halogen Bonding: A Powerful Tool for Modulation of Peptide Conformation2017In: Biochemistry, ISSN 0006-2960, E-ISSN 1520-4995, Biochemistry, ISSN 0006-2960, Vol. 56, no 25, p. 3265-3272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Halogen bonding is a weak chemical force that has so far mostly found applications in crystal engineering. Despite its potential for use in drug discovery, as a new molecular tool in the direction of molecular recognition events, it has rarely been assessed in biopolymers. Motivated by this fact, we have developed a peptide model system that permits the quantitative evaluation of weak forces in a biologically relevant proteinlike environment and have applied it for the assessment of a halogen bond formed between two amino acid side chains. The influence of a single weak force is measured by detection of the extent to which it modulates the conformation of a cooperatively folding system. We have optimized the amino acid sequence of the model peptide on analogues with a hydrogen bond-forming site as a model for the intramolecular halogen bond to be studied, demonstrating the ability of the technique to provide information about any type of weak secondary interaction. A combined solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic and computational investigation demonstrates that an interstrand halogen bond is capable of conformational stabilization of a β-hairpin foldamer comparable to an analogous hydrogen bond. This is the first report of incorporation of a conformation-stabilizing halogen bond into a peptide/protein system, and the first quantification of a chlorine-centered halogen bond in a biologically relevant system in solution.

  • 21.
    Devaraj, Karthik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Ruthenium-catalyzed C-H Functionalization of (Hetero)arenes2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerned about the Ru-catalyzed C-H functionalizations on the synthesis of 2-arylindole unit, silylation of heteroarenes and preparation of aryne precursor.

    In the first project, we developed the Ru-catalyzed C2-H arylation of N-(2-pyrimidyl) indoles and pyrroles with nucleophilic arylboronic acids under oxidative conditions. Wide variety of arylboronic acids afforded the desired product in excellent yield regardless of the substituents or functional group electronic nature. Electron-rich heteroarenes are well suited for this method than electron-poor heteroarenes. Halides such as bromide and iodide also survived, further derivatisation of the halide is shown by Heck alkenylation. In order to find catalytic on-cycle intermediate extensive mechanistic experiments have been carried out by preparing presumed ruthenacyclic complexes and C-H/D exchange reactions. It suggested that para-cymene ligand is not present in the catalytic on-cycle intermediate and we suspect that metalation occurs with electrophilic ruthenium center via SEAr mechanism.

    In the second project, we developed the Ru-catalyzed silylation of gramine, tryptamine and their congeners using silanes as coupling partner. The transformation worked well with many different silanes. Regarding directing group, nitrogen atom containing directing groups are more favoured than the oxygen containing directing groups. Wide range of gramines and tryptamines also yielded the desired product in poor to excellent yield. At higher temperature, albeit in low yield, undirected silylation occurred. In order to get some insights about the reaction pathway of the silylation C-H/D exchange experiments were performed, and it revealed the possibility of C4-H activation of gramines by an electron rich metal- Si-H/D experiments showed Si-H activation by Ru is easy.

    In the final project, we presented the closely related aryne precursors from arylboronic acids via Ru-catalyzed C-H silylation of arylboronates and their selective oxidation. Worthy of note, the aryne capture products obtained from arylboronic acids in a single purification.

  • 22.
    Devaraj, Karthik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Ingner, Fredric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Sollert, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Gates, Paul J.
    Univ Bristol, Sch Chem, Cantocks Close, Bristol BS8 1TS, Avon, England.
    Orthaber, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Synthetic Molecular Chemistry.
    Pilarski, Lukasz T.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Arynes and Their Precursors from Arylboronic Acids via Catalytic C-H Silylation2019In: Journal of Organic Chemistry, ISSN 0022-3263, E-ISSN 1520-6904, Vol. 84, no 9, p. 5863-5871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new, operationally simple approach is presented to access arynes and their fluoride-activated precursors based on Ru-catalyzed C-H silylation of arylboronates. Chromatographic purification may be deferred until after aryne capture, rendering the arylboronates de facto precursors. Access to various new arynes and their derivatives is demonstrated, including, for the first time, those based on a 2,3-carbazolyne and 2,3-fluorenyne core, which pave the way for novel derivatizations of motifs relevant to materials chemistry.

  • 23.
    Devaraj, Karthik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Sollert, Carina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Gates, P. J.
    Univ Bristol, Sch Chem, Bristol BS8 1TS, Avon, England.
    Pilarski, Lukasz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Ru-Catalysed C-H Silylation of Gramines, Tryptamines and their Congeners2016In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 52, no 34, p. 5868-5871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selective Ru-catalysed C2–H silylation of heteroarenes is presented. The transformation works with or without directing group assistance and requires no protecting groups. Gramines and tryptamines may be converted efficiently whilst avoiding deleterious elimination side-reactions. Mechanistic studies reveal an unusual activation of the indole C4–H bond by an electron-rich metal.

  • 24.
    Diwakarla, Shanti
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Nylander, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Grönbladh, Alfhild
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Reddy Vanga, Sudarsana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational and Systems Biology.
    Shamsudin Khan, Yasmin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational and Systems Biology.
    Gutierrez-de-Teran, Hugo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Computational and Systems Biology.
    Ng, Leelee
    Pham, Vi
    Sävmarker, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Lundback, Thomas
    Jenmalm-Jensen, Annika
    Andersson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Engen, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Rosenström, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Larhed, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Åqvist, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Yeen Chai, Siew
    Hallberg, Mathias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Binding to and Inhibition of Insulin-Regulated Aminopeptidase (IRAP) by Macrocyclic Disulfides Enhances Spine Density2016In: Molecular Pharmacology, ISSN 0026-895X, E-ISSN 1521-0111, Vol. 89, no 4, p. 413-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Angiotensin IV (Ang IV) and related peptide analogues, as well as non-peptide inhibitors of insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP), have previously been shown to enhance memory and cognition in animal models. Furthermore, the endogenous IRAP substrates oxytocin and vasopressin are known to facilitate learning and memory. In this study, the two recently synthesized 13-membered macrocylic competitive IRAP inhibitors HA08 and HA09, which were designed to mimic the N-terminal of oxytocin and vasopressin, were assessed and compared based on their ability to bind to the IRAP active site, and alter dendritic spine density in rat hippocampal primary cultures. The binding modes of the IRAP inhibitors HA08, HA09 and of Ang IV in either the extended or γ-turn conformation at the C-terminal to human IRAP were predicted by docking and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The binding free energies calculated with the linear interaction energy (LIE) method, which are in excellent agreement with experimental data and simulations, have been used to explain the differences in activities of the IRAP inhibitors, both of which are structurally very similar, but differ only with regard to one stereogenic center. In addition, we show that HA08, which is 100-fold more potent than the epimer HA09, can enhance dendritic spine number and alter morphology, a process associated with memory facilitation. Therefore, HA08, one of the most potent IRAP inhibitors known today, may serve as a suitable starting point for medicinal chemistry programs aided by MD simulations aimed at discovering more drug-like cognitive enhancers acting via augmenting synaptic plasticity.

  • 25.
    Doak, Bradley C.
    et al.
    Monash Univ, Dept Med Chem, MIPS, 381 Royal Parade, Parkville, Vic 3052, Australia.
    Kihlberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Cyclophilin Succumbs to a Macrocyclic Chameleon2018In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0022-2623, E-ISSN 1520-4804, Vol. 61, no 21, p. 9469-9472Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Targets that have large and groove-shaped binding sites, such as cyclophilin, are difficult to drug with small molecules. Macrocycles of natural product origin can be ideal starting points for such targets as illustrated by the transformation of sanglifehrin A into an orally bioavailable potential candidate drug. Optimization benefits from development of convergent, modular synthetic routes in combination with structure and property based methods for lead optimization.

  • 26.
    Doak, Bradley C.
    et al.
    Monash Univ, MIPS, Dept Med Chem, Parkville, Vic, Australia..
    Kihlberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Drug discovery beyond the rule of 5-Opportunities and challenges2017In: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery, ISSN 1746-0441, E-ISSN 1746-045X, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 115-119Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Dollevoet, Kim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    C-H activation of indoles catalyzed by a ruthenium-complex: Synthesis of 2-3-hexene-1-(pyrimidin-2-yl)1H-indole2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 28.
    Emanuelsson, Rikard
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Huang, Hao
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Gogoll, Adolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Strömme, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Sjödin, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Nanotechnology and Functional Materials.
    Enthalpic versus Entropic Contribution to the Quinone Formal Potential in a Polypyrrole-Based Conducting Redox Polymer2016In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 120, no 38, p. 21178-21183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A conducting redox polymer (CPR) based on pyrrole with a hydroquinone pendant group was synthesized through electropolymerization of the corresponding monomer. The formal potential (E-0') in aqueous solution at different pH as well as in MeCN containing equal amounts of pyridiniumtriflates and the corresponding free pyridine with different pK(a) was investigated. E-0' could be completely recovered in MeCN, and by utilizing pyridine bases with different donor acceptor strengths, a decrease of 61 meV/pK(a) was found that corresponded exactly to the pH dependence of E-0' in aqueous electrolyte. To separate the entropic and enthalpic contributions to E-0', temperature-dependent electrochemistry was performed. Two different modes of operation with changing pH/pK(a) between the two media were revealed. In MeCN, E-0' varies only because of the enthalpic contribution as the entropic contribution is unaffected by change in pKa. In water, there is primarily an entropic contribution to E-0' with changing pH due to solvation of the proton. The presented results are expected to open up for new design possibilities of CRPs based on ion coordinating redox groups for electrical energy storage.

  • 29. Endale, Milkyas
    et al.
    Alao, John Patrick
    Akala, Hoseah M
    Rono, Nelson K
    Eyase, Fredrick L
    Derese, Solomon
    Ndakala, Albert
    Mbugua, Martin
    Walsh, Douglas S
    Sunnerhagen, Per
    Erdélyi, Máté
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Yenesew, Abiy
    Antiplasmodial quinones from Pentas longiflora and Pentas lanceolata.2012In: Planta Medica, ISSN 0032-0943, E-ISSN 1439-0221, Vol. 78, no 1, p. 31-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dichloromethane/methanol (1:1) extracts of the roots of Pentas longiflora and Pentas lanceolata showed low micromolar (IC(50) = 0.9-3 µg/mL) IN VITRO antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-resistant (W2) and chloroquine-sensitive (D6) strains of PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. Chromatographic separation of the extract of PENTAS LONGIFLORA led to the isolation of the pyranonaphthoquinones pentalongin (1) and psychorubrin (2) with IC(50) values below 1 µg/mL and the naphthalene derivative mollugin (3), which showed marginal activity. Similar treatment of Pentas lanceolata led to the isolation of eight anthraquinones ( 4-11, IC(50) = 5-31 µg/mL) of which one is new (5,6-dihydroxydamnacanthol, 11), while three--nordamnacanthal (7), lucidin-ω-methyl ether (9), and damnacanthol (10)--are reported here for the first time from the genus Pentas. The compounds were identified by NMR and mass spectroscopic techniques.

  • 30. Endale, Milkyas
    et al.
    Ekberg, Annabel
    Akala, Hoseah M
    Alao, John Patrick
    Sunnerhagen, Per
    Yenesew, Abiy
    Erdélyi, Máté
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Busseihydroquinones A-D from the roots of Pentas bussei2012In: Journal of Natural Products, ISSN 0163-3864, E-ISSN 1520-6025, Vol. 75, no 7, p. 1299-1304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Four new naphthohydroquinones, named busseihydroquinones A-D (1-4), along with a known homoprenylated dihydronaphthoquinone (5), were isolated from the CH(2)Cl(2)/MeOH (1:1) extract of the roots of Pentas bussei. Although the genus Pentas is frequently used by traditional healers for the treatment of malaria, only marginal activities against the chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and the chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum were observed for the crude root extract and the isolated constituents of this plant.

  • 31.
    Erdélyi, Máté
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    15N NMR chemical shift in the characterisation of halogen bonding in solution2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    15N NMR chemical shift in the characterisation of halogen bonding in solution  

    Sebastiaan B. Hakkert, Jürgen Gräfenstein and Mate Erdelyi*   

    NMR chemical shift changes induced upon formation of non-covalent interactions have been used as sensitive and specific observables in the evaluation of weak chemical forces in solutions, among others of halogen bonding.1 1H NMR has high sensitivity yet a narrow chemical shift range, ca 10 ppm, resulting in small and thus difficult to measure chemical shift changes upon binding. In contrast, 13C NMR offers a wider shift range, ca 200 ppm, providing larger chemical shift changes upon weak binding to be detected; however, its low sensitivity limits its applicability. 19F NMR provides high sensitivity and a wide chemical shift range, ca 500 ppm, and hence is straightforwardly applicable on substances that possess a fluorine close to the halogen bond donor site,2 but is unfortunately often unavailable for real-life substances applied in medicinal chemistry, for example, typically missing fluorine substitution. 15N NMR despite its low sensitivity, which can be overcome by indirect detection experiments (HMBC), provides several advantages, such as an unusually wide chemical shift range, ca 900 ppm, and most importantly the detectability of halogen and hydrogen bonds directly at the Lewis base involved in the interaction. Accordingly, upon formation of a halogen bond with a nitrogen donor ligand typically 10-20 ppm,3 and for very strong interactions up to 100 ppm,4 15N chemical shift changes have been reported.  

    In this project we have evaluated the capability of 15N NMR to describe halogen bonding interactions with respect to solvent and electronic effects, and the alteration of N-X bond lengths. The observations made for halogen bonds were compared to those obtained for analogous hydrogen bonding systems using the same nitrogen donor halogen/hydrogen bond acceptor. The experimental data obtained on an 800 MHz spectrometer was compared to and interpreted with the help of computational data (DFT).The observed chemical shift changes upon formation of halogen bonds were correlated to various descriptors to understand their origin. Based on the above data the scope and limitations of 15N NMR for detection and understanding of halogen bonding in solution will be discussed.

    References

    1. Bertrán, J. F.; Rodríguez, M. Org. Magn. Reson. 1979, 12, 92, 1980, 14, 244; 1981, 16, 79.

    2. Metrangolo, P.; Panzeri, W.; Recupero F; Resnati, G. J. Fluorine Chem. 2002, 114, 27.

    3. Castro-Fernandez, S.; Lahoz, I. R.; Llamas-Saiz, A. L.; Alonso-Gomez, J. L.; Cid, M. M.; Navarro-Vazquez, A. Org. Lett. 2014, 16, 1136; Puttreddy, R.; Jurcek, O.; Bhowmik, S.; Makela, T.; Rissanen, K. Chem. Commun. 2016, 52, 2338.

    4. Carlsson, A.-C. C.; Grafenstein, J.; Budnjo, A.; Laurila, J. L.; Bergquist, J.; Karim, A.; Kleinmaier, R.; Brath, U.; Erdelyi, M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 5706

  • 32.
    Erdélyi, Máté
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Halogen and hydrogen bonding - computationally supported NMR spectroscopy2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Erdélyi, Máté
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Halogen Bonding: An Alternative Tool to Modulate Peptide Conformation2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Halogen bonding: an alternative tool to modulate peptide conformation

    Emma Danelius(1), Hanna Andersson(1), Patrik Jarvoll(1), Kajsa Lood(1), Jürgen Gräfenstein(1) and  Mate Erdelyi(1,2)

    1) Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden

    2) Department of Chemistry – BMC, Uppsala University, Sweden   

    Halogen bonding is a weak chemical force that resembles hydrogen bonding in many aspects. Despite its potential for use in drug discovery, as a new molecular tool in the direction of molecular recognition events, it has so far rarely been assessed in biopolymers. Motivated by this fact, we have developed a peptide model system that permits the quantitative evaluation of weak forces in a biologically relevant proteinlike environment and have applied it for the assessment of a halogen bond formed between two amino acid side chains. 

    The influence of a single weak force is measured by detection of the extent to which it modulates the conformation of a cooperatively folding system. We have optimized the amino acid sequence of the model peptide on analogues with a hydrogen bond-forming site as a model for the intramolecular halogen bond to be studied, demonstrating the ability of the technique to provide information about any type of weak secondary interaction. 

    A combined solution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic and computational investigation demonstrates that an interstrand halogen bond is capable of conformational stabilization of a β-hairpin foldamer comparable to an analogous hydrogen bond. This is the first report of incorporation of a conformation-stabilizing halogen bond into a peptide/protein system, and the first quantification of a chlorine-centered halogen bond in a biologically relevant system in solution.  

  • 34.
    Erdélyi, Máté
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    ParLig: Paramagnetic Ligand Tagging to Identify Protein Binding Sites2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ParLig: Paramagnetic Ligand Tagging to  Identify Protein Binding Sites

    Ulrika Brath,1 Shashikala I. Swamy,1 Alberte X. Veiga,1 Ching-Chieh Tung,2 Filip Van Petegem,2 Mate Erdelyi1*

    Department of Chemistry & Molecular Biology and the Swedish NMR Centre, University of Gothenburg,Sweden

    Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, Canada  

    Abstract: Identification of the binding site and binding mode of low affinity ligands, such as screening hits, is essential for the development of pharmaceutical leads using rational drug design strategies. We introduce ParLig, a paramagnetic ligand tagging approach that enables localization of protein – ligand binding clefts by detection and analysis of intermolecular protein NMR pseudocontact shifts, invoked by the covalent attachment of a paramagnetic lanthanoid chelating tag to the ligand of interest. Its scope is demonstrated by identification of the low mM volatile anesthetic interaction site of calmodulin. The technique provides an efficient route to rapid screening of protein – ligand systems, and to the identification of the binding site and mode of low affinity complexes.

    References: 

    1. Brath, U., Swami, S.I., Veiga, A.X., Tung, C.-C., Van Petegem, F., Erdelyi, M., J. Am. Chem Soc. 137, 11391-11398 (2015) .

  • 35.
    Erdélyi, Máté
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Pentacoordinate carbonium ions in solution2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Erdélyi, Máté
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Solid-phase methods for the synthesis of heterocycles2006In: Microwave-Assisted  Synthesis of Heterocycles, Topics in Heterocyclic Chemistry, Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany: Springer GmbH & Co KB, Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany , 2006, p. 79-128Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Erdélyi, Máté
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    The three-center halogen bond2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Halonium ions, X+, play important roles in chemistry. In halogenation reactions, they are transferred from a halogen donor, D, to an acceptor, A, in the formally stepwise process D+- X + A →[D-X∙∙∙A]+ → [D∙∙∙X∙∙∙A]+→ [D∙∙∙X-A]  → D + X-A+. The same process takes place when a halogen moves from a halogen bond [1] acceptor to another one within a complex, that has so far mostly been studied in model systems with the two donor sites possessing comparable Lewis basicities (A ~ D) [2-5]. Throughout these processes the halonium ion simultaneously forms bonds to two Lewis bases, with the bonds having varying degrees of covalency and secondary character [2].  Halonium ions are strong halogen bond donors that prefer to form a three-center geometry, [D∙∙∙X∙∙∙D]+, in which both D-X halogen bonds have partial covalent and partial secondary characters [2-6].

    In this talk, the influence of electronic and steric factors, solvent polarity and counterions, and of the type of the halogen on the geometry and reactivity of [D∙∙∙X∙∙∙D]+ halogen bond complexes will be discussed. The symmetric state, [D∙∙∙X∙∙∙D]+, is demonstrated to be strongly preferred over the alternative asymmetric arrangements [D∙∙∙X-D]+. Understanding the three-center halogen bonds provides insights into the fundamentals of the halogen bonding phenomenon and of halonium transfer reactions. The studied complexes are isoelectronic to the transition state of SN2 reactions, and thus may provide model systems for the exploration of fundamental reaction mechanisms.

    The synthesis, and the NMR spectroscopic and computational (DFT) studies of a variety of three-center halogen bond systems [2-6] will be presented focusing on the influence of steric and electronic factors on the geometry and electronic character of the three-center-fourelectron halogen bond.

    References 1. Halogen bonding is the noncovalent interaction of halogen in which they act as electron acceptors. 2. Karim, A.; Reitti, M.; Carlsson, A.-C.C.; Gräfenstein, J.; Erdelyi, M. Chem. Sci. 2014, 5, 3226. 3. Carlsson, A.-C.C.; Mehmeti, K.; Uhrbom, M.; Karim, A.; Bedin, M.; Puttreddy, R.; Kleinmaier, R.; Neverov, A.; Nekoueishahraki, B.; Gräfenstein, J.; Rissanen, K.; Erdelyi, M., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2016, 138, 9853. 4. Carlsson, A.-C.C.; Gräfenstein,J.; Budnjo, A.; Bergquist, J.; Karim, A.; Kleinmaier, R.; Brath, U.; Erdelyi, M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 5706.  5. Hakkert, S.B.; Erdelyi, M. J. Phys. Org. Chem. 2015, 28, 226. 6.Lindblad, S.; Mehmeti, K.; Veiga, A.; Nekoueishahraki, B.; Gräfenstein, J.; Erdelyi, M. J. Am. Chem. Soc.2018, 140, 13503.

  • 38.
    Erdélyi, Máté
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    The three-centered halogen bond2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Erdélyi, Máté
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    d’Auvergne, E.
    Navarro-Vazquez, A.
    Griesinger, C.
    Dynamics of the glycosidic linkage: conformational space of lactose2011In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 17, no 34, p. 9368-9376Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamics of the glycosidic bond of lactose was studied by a paramagnetic tagging‐based NMR technique, which allowed the collection of an unusually large series of NMR data for a single compound. By the use of distance‐ and orientation‐dependent residual dipolar couplings and pseudocontact shifts, the simultaneous fitting of the probabilities of computed conformations and the orientation of the magnetic susceptibility tensor of a series of lanthanide complexes of lactose show that its glycosidic bond samples syn/syn, anti/syn and syn/anti ϕ/ψ regions of the conformational space in water. The analysis indicates a higher reliability of pseudocontact shift data as compared to residual dipolar couplings with the presently available weakly orienting paramagnetic tagging technique. The method presented herein allows for an improved understanding of the dynamic behaviour of oligosaccharides.

  • 40.
    Erdélyi, Máté
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Gogoll, Adolf
    Rapid Microwave-assisted solid-phase peptide synthesis2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Erdélyi, Máté
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Gogoll, Aldof
    Development of a stilbene-type photoswitchable β-hairpin mimetic2005Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Erdélyi, Máté
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Karlén, A.
    Gogoll, Aldolf
    Studies of Photoswitchable β-Hairpin Mimetics2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Erdélyi, Máté
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Langer, V.
    Karlén, A.
    Gogoll, Adolf
    Structural Studies of Diastereomeric β-Hairpin Mimetics2002Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Erdélyi, Máté
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Lindblad, Sofia
    Mehmeti, Krenare
    Veiga, Alberte X
    Nekoueishahraki, Bijan
    Gräfenstein, Jurgen
    The Halogen Bond of Halonium Ions2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Halonium ions, X+ , play important roles in chemistry. In halogenation reactions, they are transferred from a donor, D, to an acceptor, A, in the formally stepwise process D-X + A

    → [D-X∙∙∙A]+ → [D∙∙∙X∙∙∙A][D∙∙∙X - A]+ → D + X - A+. The same process takes place when a halogen moves from a halogen bond donor to an acceptor within a complex, which has been studied so far mostly in model systems in which the donor and the acceptor possess comparable Lewis basicities (A ~ D) [1-4].  Throughout these processes the halonium ion simultaneously forms bonds to two Lewis bases that may possess varying degrees of covalency and secondary character [1]. Halonium ions are strong halogen bond donors that prefer to form a symmetric geometry, [D∙∙∙X∙∙∙D]+, with two D-X bonds of partial covalent and partial secondary character. This symmetric state is much preferred over the asymmetric alternative arrangement, [D∙∙∙X - D]+[1-4].

    We have explored how electronic and steric factors influence the electron density distribution and the geometry of [D∙∙∙X∙∙∙D]+-type complexes. Understanding this provides insights into the fundamental details of halonium transfer reactions, halogen transfer processes within halogen bonded systems as well as into important reaction mechanisms, such as SN2.

    In this talk the synthesis, NMR spectroscopic and computational (DFT) studies of so far undiscussed systems [5] will be presented, and the influence of steric and electronic factors on the geometry and electronic character of the three-center-four-electron halogen bond will be discussed.

  • 45.
    Erdélyi, Máté
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Navarro-Vázquez, Armando
    Pfeiffer, Bernhard
    Kuzniewski, Christian N
    Felser, Andrea
    Widmer, Toni
    Gertsch, Jürg
    Pera, Benet
    Díaz, José Fernando
    Altmann, Karl-Heinz
    Carlomagno, Teresa
    The binding mode of side chain- and C3-modified epothilones to tubulin2010In: ChemMedChem, ISSN 1860-7179, E-ISSN 1860-7187, Vol. 5, no 6, p. 911-920Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The tubulin-binding mode of C3- and C15-modified analogues of epothilone A (Epo A) was determined by NMR spectroscopy and computational methods and compared with the existing structural models of tubulin-bound natural Epo A. Only minor differences were observed in the conformation of the macrocycle between Epo A and the C3-modified analogues investigated. In particular, 3-deoxy- (compound 2) and 3-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-Epo A (3) were found to adopt similar conformations in the tubulin-binding cleft as Epo A, thus indicating that the 3-OH group is not essential for epothilones to assume their bioactive conformation. None of the available models of the tubulin-epothilone complex is able to fully recapitulate the differences in tubulin-polymerizing activity and microtubule-binding affinity between C20-modified epothilones 6 (C20-propyl), 7 (C20-butyl), and 8 (C20-hydroxypropyl). Based on the results of transferred NOE experiments in the presence of tubulin, the isomeric C15 quinoline-based Epo B analogues 4 and 5 show very similar orientations of the side chain, irrespective of the position of the nitrogen atom in the quinoline ring. The quinoline side chain stacks on the imidazole moiety of beta-His227 with equal efficiency in both cases, thus suggesting that the aromatic side chain moiety in epothilones contributes to tubulin binding through strong van der Waals interactions with the protein rather than hydrogen bonding involving the heteroaromatic nitrogen atom. These conclusions are in line with existing tubulin polymerization and microtubule-binding data for 4, 5, and Epo B.

  • 46.
    Erdélyi, Máté
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Pfeiffer, Bernhard
    Hauenstein, Kurt
    Fohrer, Jörg
    Gertsch, Jürg
    Altmann, Karl-Heinz
    Carlomagno, Teresa
    Conformational preferences of natural and C3-modified epothilones in aqueous solution.2008In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0022-2623, E-ISSN 1520-4804, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 1469-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The conformational properties of the microtubule-stabilizing agent epothilone A ( 1a) and its 3-deoxy and 3-deoxy-2,3-didehydro derivatives 2 and 3 have been investigated in aqueous solution by a combination of NMR spectroscopic methods, Monte Carlo conformational searches, and NAMFIS calculations. The tubulin-bound conformation of epothilone A ( 1a), as previously proposed on the basis of solution NMR data, was found to represent a significant fraction of the ensemble of conformations present for the free ligands in aqueous solution.

  • 47.
    Eriksson, Olle
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Wall, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Olsson, Ulf
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Unit Appl Stat & Math, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Marteinsdottir, Ina
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Holstad, Maria
    Univ Uppsala Hosp, Dept Neurosci, Psychiat Unit, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Ågren, Hans
    Univ Gothenburg, Inst Neurosci & Physiol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Hartvig, Per
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Drug Design & Pharmacol, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Långström, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Naessén, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Women with Premenstrual Dysphoria Lack the Seemingly Normal Premenstrual Right-Sided Relative Dominance of 5-HTP-Derived Serotonergic Activity in the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortices - A Possible Cause of Disabling Mood Symptoms2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 9, article id e0159538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Objective To investigate potential quantitative and qualitative differences in brain serotonergic activity between women with Premenstrual Dysphoria (PMD) and asymptomatic controls. Background Serotonin-augmenting drugs alleviate premenstrual mood symptoms in the majority of women with PMD while serotonin-depleting diets worsen PMD symptoms, both indicating intrinsic differences in brain serotonergic activity in women with PMD compared to asymptomatic women. Methods Positron-emission tomography with the immediate precursor of serotonin, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), radiolabelled by 11C in the beta-3 position, was performed in the follicular and luteal phases for 12 women with PMD and 8 control women. Brain radioactivity-a proxy for serotonin precursor uptake and synthesis-was measured in 9 regions of interest (ROIs): the right and left sides of the medial prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, putamen and caudate nucleus, and the single "whole brain". Results There were no significant quantitative differences in brain 5-HTP-derived activity between the groups in either of the menstrual phases for any of the 9 ROIs. However, multivariate analysis revealed a significant quantitative and qualitative difference between the groups. Asymptomatic control women showed a premenstrual right sided relative increase in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex 5-HTP derived activity, whereas PMD women displayed the opposite (p = 0.0001). Menstrual phase changes in this asymmetry (premenstrual-follicular) correlated with changes in self ratings of 'irritability' for the entire group (rs = -0.595, p = 0.006). The PMD group showed a strong inverse correlation between phase changes (pre-menstrual-follicular) in plasma levels of estradiol and phase changes in the laterality (dx/sin) of radiotracer activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal ROI (r(s) = -0.635; 0.027). The control group showed no such correlation. Conclusion Absence of increased premenstrual right-sided relative 5-HTP-derived activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices was found to strongly correlate to premenstrual irritability. A causal relationship here seems plausible, and the findings give further support to an underlying frontal brain disturbance in hormonally influenced serotonergic activity in women with PMD. Because of the small number of subjects in the study, these results should be considered preliminary, requiring verification in larger studies.

  • 48.
    Frick, Andreas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Appel, Lieuwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Jonasson, My
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Wahlstedt, Kurt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bani, Massimo
    GlaxoSmithKline, Verona, Italy.
    Pich, Emilio Merlo
    GlaxoSmithKline, Verona, Italy.
    Bettica, Paolo
    GlaxoSmithKline, Verona, Italy.
    Långström, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Lubberink, Mark
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Fredriksson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reduced serotonin synthesis and regional cerebral blood flow after anxiolytic treatment of social anxiety disorder2016In: European Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0924-977X, E-ISSN 1873-7862, Vol. 26, no 11, p. 1775-1783Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with increased fear-related neural activity in the amygdala and we recently found enhanced serotonin synthesis rate in the same region. Anxiolytic agents like selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and neurokinin-1 receptor (NK1R) antagonists reduce amygdala activity and may attenuate serotonin formation according to animal studies. Here, we examined the effects of SSRI pharmacotherapy, NK1R antagonism, and placebo on serotonin synthesis rate in relation to neural activity, measured as regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), and symptom improvement in SAD. Eighteen SAD patients were randomized to receive daily double-blind treatment for six weeks either with the SSRI citalopram (n=6; 40 mg), the NK1R antagonist GR205171 (n=6; 5 mg; 4 weeks following 2 weeks of placebo), or placebo (n=6). Serotonin synthesis rate at rest and rCBF during stressful public speaking were assessed, before and after treatment, using positron emission tomography with the tracers [11C]5-hydroxytryptophan and [15O]water respectively. The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS-SR) indexed symptom severity. All groups exhibited attenuated amygdala serotonin synthesis rate after treatment, which was associated with reduced amygdala rCBF during public speaking and accompanied by symptom improvement. These results are consistent with the notion that serotonin in the amygdala exerts an anxiogenic influence and, conversely, that anxiolysis is achieved through decreased serotonin formation in the amygdala.

  • 49.
    Furmark, Tomas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Marteinsdottir, Ina
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Ctr Social & Affect Neurosci, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Frick, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Heurling, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Tillfors, Maria
    Univ Orebro, Ctr Hlth & Med Psychol, Orebro, Sweden.
    Appel, Lieuwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Antoni, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Molecular Imaging.
    Hartvig, Per
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Drug Design & Pharmacol, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Långström, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry. Southern Denmark Univ, Odense Univ Hosp, Odense, Denmark.
    Eriksson, Elias
    Gothenburg Univ, Dept Pharmacol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Serotonin synthesis rate and the tryptophan hydroxylase-2: G-703T polymorphism in social anxiety disorder.2016In: Journal of Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0269-8811, E-ISSN 1461-7285, Vol. 30, no 10, p. 1028-1035Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is disputed whether anxiety disorders, like social anxiety disorder, are characterized by serotonin over- or underactivity. Here, we evaluated whether our recent finding of elevated neural serotonin synthesis rate in patients with social anxiety disorder could be reproduced in a separate cohort, and whether allelic variation in the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) G-703T polymorphism relates to differences in serotonin synthesis assessed with positron emission tomography. Eighteen social anxiety disorder patients and six healthy controls were scanned during 60 minutes in a resting state using positron emission tomography and 5-hydroxy-L-[β -(11)C]tryptophan, [(11)C]5-HTP, a substrate of the second enzymatic step in serotonin synthesis. Parametric images were generated, using the reference Patlak method, and analysed using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM8). Blood samples for genotyping of the TPH2 G-703T polymorphism were obtained from 16 social anxiety disorder patients (T carriers: n=5, GG carriers: n=11). A significantly elevated [(11)C]5-HTP accumulation rate, indicative of enhanced decarboxylase activity and thereby serotonin synthesis capacity, was detected in social anxiety disorder patients compared with controls in the hippocampus and basal ganglia nuclei and, at a more lenient (uncorrected) statistical threshold, in the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex. In patients, the serotonin synthesis rate in the amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex was significantly elevated in TPH2 T carriers in comparison with GG homozygotes. Our results support that social anxiety disorder entails an overactive presynaptic serotonergic system that, in turn, seems functionally influenced by the TPH2 G-703T polymorphism in emotionally relevant brain regions.

  • 50.
    Ge, Changrong P
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Sect Med Inflammat Res, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tong, Dongmei R
    Karolinska Inst, Sect Med Inflammat Res, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, Stockholm, Sweden.;Southern Med Univ, Dept Pathophysiol, Key Lab Shock & Microcirculat Res Guangdong, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Liang, Bibo T
    Karolinska Inst, Sect Med Inflammat Res, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, Stockholm, Sweden.;Southern Med Univ, Dept Pathophysiol, Key Lab Shock & Microcirculat Res Guangdong, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Lönnblom, Erik S
    Karolinska Inst, Sect Med Inflammat Res, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Schneider, Nadine K
    Goethe Univ, Fraunhofer Inst Mol Biol & Appl Ecol IME, Project Grp Translat Med & Pharmacol, Frankfurt, Germany.;Goethe Univ, Div Rheumatol, Univ Hosp Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany..
    Hagert, Cecilia U
    Univ Turku, Medicity Res Lab, Turku, Finland.;Natl Doctoral Programme Informat & Struct Biol, Turku, Finland..
    Viljanen, Johan V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Ayoglu, Burcu R
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Biotechnol, Sci Life Lab, Affin Prote, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Stawikowska, Roma T
    Florida Atlantic Univ, Dept Chem & Biochem, Jupiter, FL USA..
    Nilsson, Peter C
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Biotechnol, Sci Life Lab, Affin Prote, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fields, Gregg B
    Florida Atlantic Univ, Dept Chem & Biochem, Jupiter, FL USA..
    Skogh, Thomas A
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Rheumatol, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Kastbom, Alf R
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Rheumatol, Dept Clin & Expt Med, Linkoping, Sweden..
    Kihlberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Organic Chemistry.
    Burkhardt, Harald T
    Goethe Univ, Fraunhofer Inst Mol Biol & Appl Ecol IME, Project Grp Translat Med & Pharmacol, Frankfurt, Germany.;Goethe Univ, Div Rheumatol, Univ Hosp Frankfurt, Frankfurt, Germany..
    Dobritzsch, Doreen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Biochemistry.
    Holmdahl, Rikard K
    Karolinska Inst, Sect Med Inflammat Res, Dept Med Biochem & Biophys, Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Turku, Medicity Res Lab, Turku, Finland.;Natl Doctoral Programme Informat & Struct Biol, Turku, Finland.;Southern Med Univ, Ctr Med Immunopharmacol Res, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies cause arthritis by cross-reactivity to joint cartilage2017In: JCI INSIGHT, ISSN 2379-3708, Vol. 2, no 13, article id e93688Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, it is known that autoimmune diseases start a long time before clinical symptoms appear. Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) appear many years before the clinical onset of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, it is still unclear if and how ACPAs are arthritogenic. To better understand the molecular basis of pathogenicity of ACPAs, we investigated autoantibodies reactive against the C1 epitope of collagen type II (CII) and its citrullinated variants. We found that these antibodies are commonly occurring in RA. A mAb (ACC1) against citrullinated C1 was found to cross-react with several noncitrullinated epitopes on native CII, causing proteoglycan depletion of cartilage and severe arthritis in mice. Structural studies by X-ray crystallography showed that such recognition is governed by a shared structural motif "RG-TG" within all the epitopes, including electrostatic potential-controlled citrulline specificity. Overall, we have demonstrated a molecular mechanism that explains how ACPAs trigger arthritis.

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