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  • 1.
    Ahlberg, Anton
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Perceived audio quality of compressed audio in game dialogue2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A game could have thousands of sound assets, to fit all of those files to a manageable storage space it is often necessary to reduce the size of the files to a more manageable size so they have to be compressed. One type of sound that often takes up a lot of disc space (because there is so much of it) is dialogue. In the popular game engine Unreal Engine 4 (UE4) the the audio is compressed to Ogg Vorbis and has as default the bit rate is set to 104 kbit/s. The goal of this paper is to see if untrained listeners find dialogue compressed in Ogg Vorbis 104 kbit/s good enough for dialogue or if they prefer higher bit rates. A game was made in UE4 that would act as a listening test. Dialogue audio was recorded with a male and a female voice-actor and was compressed in UE4 in six different bit rates. 24 untrained subjects was asked to play the game and identify the two out of six robots with the dialogue audio they thought sound the best. The results show that the subjects prefer the higher bit rates that was tested. The results was analyzed with a chi-squared test which showed that the null-hypothesis can be rejected. Only 21% of the answers were towards UE4s default bit rate of 104 kbit/s or lower. The result suggest that the subjects prefer dialogue in higher bit rates and UE4 should raise the default bit rate.

  • 2.
    Ahlqvist-Juhlin, Maria
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Guermouche, Oscar
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Koblanck, Maria
    Konstnärliga utbildningar och vetenskap: ett exempel från Luleå Tekniska Universitet2014In: NU 2014: Umeå 8-10 oktober : abstracts, Umeå: Umeå universitet. Pedagogiska institutionen , 2014, p. 179-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Aho, Seppo
    et al.
    University of Lapland.
    Ananyina, Anastasia N.
    Petrozavodsk State University.
    Espiritu, Aileen
    Barents Institute, Kirkenes.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Gerashchenko, Ludmila
    Murmansk State Humanities University.
    Kiselev, Alexey
    Murmansk State Humanities University.
    Kotyrlo, Elena
    Umeå university.
    Mulina, Tatiana
    Murmansk State Humanities University.
    Pavlova, Ella N.
    Petrozavodsk State University.
    Ryzhkova, Inna
    Murmansk State Humanities University.
    Shestova, Yulia
    Murmansk State Humanities University.
    Silinskaya, Tatiana
    Agency for Tourism and International Cooperation of the Arkhangelsk Region.
    Skupchenko, Julia
    Syktyvkar State University.
    Viken, Arvid
    Tromsø University.
    Tourism: history2016In: Encyclopedia of the Barents Region: Vol. 2, N-Y / [ed] editor-in-chef: Mats-Olov Olsson ; co-editors: Fredrick Backman ... [et al.] ; assistant and graphics editor: Lars Elenius, Oslo: Pax Forlag, 2016, p. 401-400Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Aho, Seppo
    et al.
    University of Lapland.
    Ananyina, Anastasia N.
    Petrozavodsk State University.
    Espiritu, Aileen
    Barents Institute, Kirkenes.
    Gelter, Hans
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Gerashchenko, Ludmila
    Murmansk State Humanities University.
    Kiselev, Alexey
    Murmansk State Humanities University.
    Kotyrlo, Elena
    Umeå university.
    Mulina, Tatiana
    Murmansk State Humanities University.
    Pavlova, Ella N.
    Petrozavodsk State University.
    Ryzhkova, Inna
    Murmansk State Humanities University.
    Shestova, Yulia
    Murmansk State Humanities University.
    Silinskaya, Tatiana
    Agency for Tourism and International Cooperation of the Arkhangelsk Region.
    Skupchenko, Julia
    Syktyvkar State University.
    Viken, Arvid
    Tromsø University.
    Tourism in the Barents Region2016In: Encyclopedia of the Barents Region: Vol. 2, N-Y / [ed] editor-in-chef: Mats-Olov Olsson ; co-editors: Fredrick Backman ... [et al.] ; assistant and graphics editor: Lars Elenius, Oslo: Pax Forlag, 2016, p. 395-400Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Alakärppä, Ismo
    et al.
    University of Lapland.
    Riekki, Jukka
    University of Oulu.
    Larsson, Sofia
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Jaakkola, Elisa
    University of Lapland.
    Sound aided interface of a pervasive pain monitoring system2011In: 5th International Symposium on Medical Information and Communication Technology: ISMICT 2011, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed a new version of a pervasivesystem for monitoring and recording subjective painexperiences. The most important service the system offers to itsusers is real-time delivery of reported pain values from patientsto nurses. Pain experiences are expressed on a six-value scalefrom "no pain" to "worst possible pain". The system was testedin four sessions with 23 test users from Finland and Sweden. Themain goal of this study was to evaluate user experience of thepatient application and the sounds we designed for the userinterface. We tested four sound options; spoken, synthetic,xylophone and mute. The material was collected through groupdiscussions and questionnaires. Familiarity, the extent to whicha sound can be identified, and the quality and the pleasantnessof the sound were found to have an effect on forming a positiveexperience. Sounds describing pain levels have to be convincing.The context of use has to be taken into account as a primarydesign driver in a sound design process.

  • 6.
    Allan, Jon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Emil och Ida i Lönneberga2016Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En tecknad film skapad av Pennfilm med Per Åhlin, Alicja Björk och Lasse Persson som regissörer. Filmen består av tre historier av Astrid Lindgren med karaktärerna Emil och Ida i Lönneberga. Astrids egen röst används. 

    Filmen är producerad av Filmlance International AB och fick 8 miljoner i produktionsstöd från Svenska Filminstitutet. Den distribueras av SF Film och finns tillgänglig på flera plattformar. Första gången var biopremiär 25 december 2013. Den senaste plattformen var visning i SVT med påföljande tid tillgänglig i SVT Play under hösten 2016. Både tecknandet och inspelningen av musiken gjordes på ett äldre traditionellt sätt. D.v.s. alla bildrutor har tecknats för hand. Musiken har spelats in i akustisk studio under Georg Riedels ledning med hjälp musiker och musiktekniker. Till den större delen har musikernas insatser skett tillsammans och utan pålägg. Därefter har musiktekniker och Georg Riedel mixat materialet för filmmediet. 

    Georg Riedel - musik

    Jon Allan - ljudproducent/ljudtekniker

    Filmlance International AB - producent

    Pennfilm - teckning av film

    SF film - distributör

  • 7.
    Allan, Jon
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Evaluation of Live Loudness Meters2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Discrepancies in loudness (i.e. sensation of audio intensity) has been of great concern within the broadcast community. For television broadcast, disparities in audio levels have been rated the number one cause to annoyance by the audience. Another problem area within the broadcast and music industry is the loudness war. The phenomenon is about the strive to produce audio content to be at least as loud or louder to any other audio content that it can easily be compared with. This mindset, when deciding for audio level treatment, inevitably leads to an increase in loudness over time, and also, as a technical consequence, a decrease of utilized dynamics. The effects of the loudness war is present in both terrestrial radio transmissions as well as in music production and in music distribution platforms.

    The two problems, discrepancies in loudness and the loudness war, both emanate from the same source; regulations of audio levels and the design of measurement gear have not been amended to cope with modern production techniques. At the time when the work on this thesis started, the ruling technical recommendations for audio level alignment were based on peak measurement. This measured entity has poor correspondence to loudness. To counter the above described problems, the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) and the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has developed new recommendations for audio alignment, EBU R 128 and ITU-R BS.1770. The new definitions for loudness measurement constitutes simplified models on the human perception of audio intensity. When using the new recommendations in production, the problems have been shown to diminish.

    For an engineer in a live broadcast scenario, measurement equipment also need to be updated in real-time to illustrate a time-variant loudness of the signal. EBU and ITU also has regulated how this type of measurement gear should behave. EBU Tech 3341 and ITU-R BS.1771 define properties for live loudness meters. These recommendations has since the time of publication been implemented in measurement equipment from manufacturers and become available in production facilities.

    This thesis investigates the conceptions that have led up to the present recommendations for live loudness meters. It maps out the (at the time) present ways to evaluate the same. Emanating from this knowledge, a new methodology to evaluate loudness meters is proposed that combines qualities from former methods to achieve an alternative balance between ecological validity and control in the experiment design. The methodology includes a procedure to capture data from engineers’ actions and the resulting audio levels from simulated broadcast scenarios. The methodology also incorporates a way to process this type of data into different parameters to be more accessible for interpretation. It presents an approach to model the data, by the use of linear mixed models, to describe different effects in the parameters as the result of the meters’ characteristics. In addition, a review on publications that examine the engineers’ own requests for beneficial qualities in a loudness meter has been condensed and revised into a set of meter criteria that specifically is designed to be applied on the outcome of the mixed models. The outcome of the complete evaluation yields statements on meter quality that are different and complementary to formerly proposed methods for meter evaluation.

    The methodology has been applied in two different studies, which also are accounted for in the thesis. The conclusions from these studies has led to an increased understanding of how to design live loudness meters to be satisfactory tools to the engineer. Examples of findings are: the effect of the speed of the meter, as being controlled by one or several time constants, on the readability of the meter and the dispersion in output levels – some tested candidates, with higher speed than the present recommended ones, has been shown to be adequate as tools; the three-second integration time has been shown to generate a smaller dispersion in output levels than the 400 ms integration time; the effect of the gate in BS.1771 on the resulting output levels– the gate generally leading to an increase in output levels. The acquired knowledge may be used to improve the present recommendations for audio level alignment, from EBU and ITU.

  • 8.
    Allan, Jon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Audio level alignment: Evaluation method and performance of EBU R 128 by analyzing fader movements2013In: 134th Audio Engineering Society Convention 2013: Rome; Italy; 4 May 2013 - 7 May 2013, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2013, p. 724-735Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method is proposed for evaluating audio meters in terms of how the engineer acts with the fader as dependent on the meter and corresponding recommendation at hand. The proposed method is used to evaluate different meter implementations, three conforming to the recommendation EBU R 128 and one conforming to EBU Tech 3205-E. In an experiment, engineers participated in a simulated live broadcast show and the resulting fader movements were recorded. The movements were analyzed in terms of different characteristics: Mean fader level, Fader variability and Fader movement. Significant effects were found showing that engineers do act differently depending on the meter and recommendation at hand. The method was found useful and may complement other methods to give more perspectives when evaluating audio meters

  • 9.
    Allan, Jon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Evaluating Live Loudness Meters from Engineers' Actions and Resulting Output Levels2018In: Journal of The Audio Engineering Society, ISSN 0004-7554, Vol. 66, no 7-8, p. 556-577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Qualities of loudness meters were investigated by running a simulated live broadcast show, mixed by subjects with different degrees of audio engineering experience. The subject-induced fader movements and the resulting output levels were analyzed using a general linear mixed model and then interpreted according to a proposed set of quality criteria for live loudness meters. The results show that, for subparts of the program. meters with slower integration lime caused less dispersion of the resulting output levels and a smaller error to a given target level. The varying integration tunes of the meters did not cause any significant differences in reaction time. It is concluded that this type of data may be used in evaluation of loudness meters and the specific study provides insight into the effect of time scales and meter implementation for EBU R 128-compliant meters.

  • 10.
    Allan, Jon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Evaluation criteria for live loudness meters2015In: 137th Audio Engineering Society Convention 2014: Los Angeles, California, USA 9-12 October 2014., Red Hook: Curran Associates, Inc., 2015, p. 866-878Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a response to discrepancies in loudness levels in broadcast, the recommendations of the International Telecommunication Union and the European Broadcasting Union state that audio levels should be regulated based on loudness measurement. These recommendations differ regarding the definition of meter ballistics for live loudness meters, and this paper seeks to identify possible additional information, needed to attain a higher conformity between the recommendations. This work suggests that the qualities we seek in a live loudness meter could be more differentiated for different time scales (i.e. Momentary and Short-term that is defined by two different integration times), and therefore also should be evaluated by different evaluation criteria.

  • 11.
    Allan, Jon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Evaluation of loudness meters using parameterization of fader movements2014In: Audio Engineering Society Convention 135, Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2014, p. 652-662Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EBU recommendation R 128 regarding loudness normalization, is now generally accepted and countries in Europe are adopting the new recommendation. There is now need to know more about how and when to use the different meter modes, Momentary and Short term, proposed in R 128, as well as to understand how different implementations of R 128 in audio level meters affect the engineers' actions. A method is tentatively proposed for evaluating the performance of audio level meters in live broadcasts. The method was used to evaluate different meter implementations, three of them conforming to the recommendation from EBU, R 128. In an experiment, engineers adjusted audio levels in a simulated live broadcast show and the resulting fader movements were recorded. The movements were parameterized into "Fader movement", "Adjustment time", "Overshoot", etc. Results show that the proposed parameters produced significant differences caused by the meters and that the experience of the engineer operating the fader is a significant factor

  • 12.
    Allan, Jon
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Evaluation of the Momentary Time Scale for Live Loudness Metering2019In: Journal of The Audio Engineering Society, ISSN 0004-7554Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Alsér, Marie
    et al.
    Bergström, Fanny
    Nordström, Caroline Stenbacka
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Development and integration of brand promises in the backstage experience room: a case study of Norrgavel2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Altenstedt, Johanna Parikka
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater. Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Den sociala offentligheten: en mediepedagogisk studie av den reflexiva familjen och internet2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med avhandling är att på ett övergripande plan studera modernismens förändringspotentialer utifrån ett familjeperspektiv. På den teoretiska nivån är syftet att studera familjen som en mediepedagogisk kontext utifrån ett senmodernistiskt förändringsperspektiv. På en mer specifik nivå studeras familjen empiriskt som en domän för medierade relationer och medierad kommunikation beträffande familjens inre dynamik, samt familjens egen konstruktion av sin representation i förhållande till andra aktörer i samhället via hemsidor på internet. Det finns även ett metodologiskt syfte inbyggt i studien genom ett försök att utveckla ett synsätt som tillåter att se internet som ett epistemologiskt fält - en sorts social offentlighet där även privatheten blir synlig och där relationerna konstrueras och reproduceras. Detta sker utifrån en ansats som tar fasta på kritisk metodologi för att på ett reflekterande sätt kunna fånga den vetenskapliga validiteten utan att kompromissa på att se det oväntade i förändringsprocesserna. Avhandlingens första forskningsfråga kretsar kring familjen och internet. Den handlar om hur ungdomar använder internet hemma och om hur väl deras föräldrar är insatta i detta, t ex hur kunskapsauktoriteten respektive relationsauktoriteten ser ut i hemmen. Frågan ställdes år 2000 till cirka hundra svarspersoner och utifrån denna empiriska explorativa undersökning fortsatte forskningsprocessen mot den andra forskningsfrågan, som i sin tur handlade om hur familjer presenterar och representerar sig själva via "familjesidor" på internet, och om det var möjligt att se "olika typer" av familjer utifrån deras självkonstruerade webbsidor. Genom en webbsidestudie söker man sedan svaret på om det är möjligt att upptäcka hur singelfamiljer, kärnfamiljer och familjer med avlidna barn, s k änglafamiljer, konstruerade sina representationer på nätet samt hur innehållet med speciell inriktning på internet, och i belysningen av begrepp som auktoritet, relation och tradition skilde sig på dessa sidor beroende på vilken "kategori av familj" det handlade om. Den här delen av licentiat thesis består av en diskursstudie, där främst Foucaults begrepp används. Dessa empiriska forskningsfrågor tillsammans med den teoretiska basen försöker att hjälpa oss att förstå en del av modernismens förändringsprocesser. En slutsats är att familjer har blivit reflexiva processer och bör studeras som sådana, medan internet och de nya medierna skapar ett relationsteknologiskt landskap som jag benämner i denna studie "den sociala offentligheten" för att betona skillnaden till Habermas "borgerlig offentlighet" eller den senare synlighetsbaserade offentligheten. De metodologiska funderingarna löper som en röd tråd igenom hela studien och en tredje forskningsfråga handlar således om hur den kritiska samhällsvetenskapliga metodologin kan tillämpas inom mediepedagogik, och då särskilt för internetstudier. Mediepedagogiken är disciplinen som kan hantera mediesamhällets medieinnehåll och medietexter utan att förlora sitt fokus på människor som skapar relationer mellan varandra med hjälp av dessa medier. I denna studie har man lagt tonvikten på familjerna, men kunskaperna kan hjälpa oss även att studera andra sociala fenomen och processer där relationer skapas eller upprätthålls med hjälp av medier och relationsteknologin.

  • 15.
    Aspegren, Emil
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Mastering Engineers, Loudness and Hyper-Compression: A survey about practises, application goals and ideas about how they impact quality2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The loudness wars have been a frequently debated topic in the audio industry. Earlier research has been done on the technical and perceptual effects of loudness and so called hyper- compression but little research has been done to investigate the opinions of the mastering engineers, those who are applying the processing. This research is set out to understand the practise and goals of mastering engineers relating to loudness and hyper-compression, trying to broaden the subject with the viewpoint of those responsible for applying this loudness processing. The goal was to find commonalities amongst the engineers regarding the topic and to investigate the reasoning of the engineers. The study is based of five semi-structured interviews with professional mastering engineers. The interviews were conducted over Skype and the analysis was of a grounded method, originating from three main categories; commercial, technical and aesthetic, and subcategories were generated by the interviews. The research showed that the use of loudness and hyper-compression is multifaceted, with different goals depending on who the user is. There seems to be a strong connection between the loudness processing and genre, that genre often dictates how the processing is used. The research also found that there is a common opinion towards a standardisation of loudness normalisation in streaming services. 

  • 16.
    Begnert, Fabian
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Ekman, Håkan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Difference between the EBU R-128 meter recommendation and human subjective loudness perception2012In: 131st Audio Engineering Society convention 2011: New York, New York, USA, 20 - 23 October 2011, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2012, Vol. 1, p. 40-49Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The vast loudness span of broadcast sound can be reduced by the use of loudness meters. In an ideal case, the measured and the perceived loudness would be equal. A loudness meter fulfilling the EBU R-128 recommendation was investigated for its correspondence with perceived loudness. Several sound stimuli with large loudness differences representing five different types of broadcast program material were normalized to have equal meter measured loudness level. Subjects listened to pairwise presentations of the normalized stimuli, which they subsequently set to have equal perceived loudness. The settings were recorded and analyzed. The results show that the normalization yields both equal as well as different perceived loudness between program types. The maximum difference was ±2.8 dB

  • 17.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Evaluation of perceived spatial audio quality2005In: Proceedings 2005: July 10 - 13, 2005, Orlando, Florida, USA / [ed] Nagib Callaos, Orlando, Fla: IIIS , 2005, Vol. 1, p. 216-221Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased use of audio applications capable of conveying enhanced spatial quality puts focus on how such a quality should be evaluated. Different approaches to evaluation of perceived quality are briefly discussed and a new technique is introduced. In a series of experiment, attributes were elicited from subjects, tested and subsequently used for derivation of evaluation scales that were feasible for subjective evaluation of the spatial quality of certain multichannel stimuli. The findings of these experiments led to the development of a novel method for evaluation of spatial audio in surround sound systems. Parts of the method were subsequently implemented in the OPAQUE software prototype designed to facilitate the elicitation process. The prototype was successfully tested in a pilot experiment. The experiments show that attribute scales derived from subjects' personal constructs are functional for evaluation of perceived spatial audio quality. Finally, conclusions on the importance of spatial quality evaluation of new applications are made.

  • 18.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Evaluation of perceived spatial audio quality2006In: Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, ISSN 1690-4524, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 10-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased use of audio applications capable of conveying enhanced spatial quality puts focus on how such a quality should be evaluated. Different approaches to evaluation of perceived quality are briefly discussed and a new technique is introduced. In a series of experiment, attributes were elicited from subjects, tested and subsequently used for derivation of evaluation scales that were feasible for subjective evaluation of the spatial quality of certain multichannel stimuli. The findings of these experiments led to the development of a novel method for evaluation of spatial audio in surround sound systems. Parts of the method were subsequently implemented in the OPAQUE software prototype designed to facilitate the elicitation process. The prototype was successfully tested in a pilot experiment. The experiments show that attribute scales derived from subjects' personal constructs are functional for evaluation of perceived spatial audio quality. Finally, conclusions on the importance of spatial quality evaluation of new applications are made.

  • 19.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Lyssningstester: ett experimentellt sätt att fånga en upplevelse2012In: På tal om musikproduktion: elva bidrag till ett nytt kunskapsområde, Göteborg: Bo Ejeby förlag, 2012, p. 197-210Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    OPAQUE: a tool for the elicitation and grading of audio quality attributes2005In: AES 118th Convention: Preprints, Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2005, Vol. nr 6480Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evaluation of different aspects of audio quality can be realised by means of attribute scales. Studies have shown that the attributes selected are of great importance for the evaluation result. Consequently, the process whereby these attributes are generated has to be given careful consideration. It was previously shown that elements from the repertory grid technique facilitated the elicitation and grading of quality attributes, which resulted in a new audio quality evaluation method. The result from this work has now been implemented as a software prototype aimed to support listening tests. This paper reports on the results from a pilot experiment involving the OPAQUE software

  • 21.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Software-aided elicitiation and grading of audio quality attributes2006In: Proceedings: International Audio Convention / VDT / [ed] Günther Theile, Bergisch-Gladbach: Verband Deutscher Tonmeister , 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Audio quality evaluation can be accomplished by means of attribute scales and selection of the attributes is of great importance for the evaluation result. Hence, the process generating these attributes has to be given careful consideration. Previous research has shown that elements from the repertory grid technique facilitated the elicitation and grading of quality attributes. To simplify such an attribute generation process, a software-aided solution was utilised. The software was tested in an experiment where listeners considered differently processed audio samples. The results show that attributes relevant for describing the quality differences of the audio samples were generated.

  • 22.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Systematic evaluation of perceived spatial quality in surround sound systems2002Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to elaborate a method for the evaluation of perceived spatial quality in surround systems with emphasis on how to find and validate relevant attribute scales originating from verbal elicitation of personal constructs. The main question raised in this work was: Could a method utilising elicited personal constructs be used for finding a set of attributes with sufficient common meaning, thus enabling a group of experienced listeners to make significant judgements of spatial quality in surround sound systems? To investigate this, a method comprising a number of steps was employed. Initially, an elicitation experiment employing elements of the Repertory Grid Technique was performed. In the experiment, verbal data in the form of personal constructs were elicited from experienced listeners considering sounds reproduced through loudspeakers. Each listener rated the sounds on his/her personal constructs. The ratings and the constructs were structured by means of multivariate techniques and Verbal Protocol Analysis to find principal structures in the data set. These structures were examined for their meaning and they were subsequently used for deriving attributes on which scales were defined. The scales were verified in a validation experiment where a new group of experienced listeners considered a number of sound stimuli, which were rated on the attribute scales. The ratings were analysed for statistically significant differences between the stimuli. A new experiment was performed using a 5-channel surround sound system, on a new set of stimuli, in which refined attributes from the previous experiment supplemented by attributes from a new elicitation were utilised. The results showed that Personal constructs could be elicited from listeners in the context of reproduced audio A common perceptual pattern existed, expressed as attributes A list of attributes could be successfully derived Attribute scales derived from personal constructs enabled a group of listeners to make statistically significant judgements of spatial quality on reproduced sounds. It is concluded that a method utilising elicited personal constructs can be used for finding a set of attributes with sufficient common meaning, thus enabling a group of experienced listeners to make significant judgements of spatial quality in surround sound systems.

  • 23.
    Berg, Jan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    The contrasting and conflicting definitions of envelopment2009In: 126th Audio Engineering Society convention 2009: Munich, Germany, 7 - 10 May 2009, Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., 2009, Vol. 2, article id 7808Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In spatial audio, the term envelopment is not unambiguously defined and the different de facto definitions both overlap and contradict one another. This unclarity may pose a problem where the sensation of being surrounded by sound is subject for investigation and analysis. This paper reviews the different concepts of envelopment in order to point to where possible problems may occur. A tentative suggestion for a terminology that can serve the different contexts of enveloping sounds is also given.

  • 24.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Allan, Jon
    Effect of minimizing spatial separation and melodic variations in simultaneously presented two-syllable words2008In: Audio Engineering Society Convention 124th: Audio Engineering Society Convention Papers, Curran Associates, Inc., 2008, article id 7409Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study will examine two important factors for the conception Auditory Streaming defined by Bregman, pitch and localization. By removing one or two of these factors as possible identifiers to separate sound sources, the importance of each of them and the effect of reducing both of them will be studied. Stimuli with combinations of two-syllable words will be presented simultaneously in speakers to subjects and the number of correct identifications will be measured. In one category of stimuli speech melody will be removed and replaced with a monotonous pitch, equal for all words. One category will have all words presented from one speaker only. A significant effect was found for pitch as a factor for successful segregation of words. Conclusions will be related to earlier studies and common theories, the Cocktail party effect among others.

  • 25.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Bustad, Christofer
    Sveriges Radio.
    Jonsson, Lars
    Sveriges Radio.
    Mossberg, Lars
    Sveriges Radio.
    Nyberg, Dan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Perceived audio quality of realistic FM and DAB+ radio broadcasting systems2013In: A E S, ISSN 1549-4950, Vol. 61, no 10, p. 755-777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The perceived audio quality of a digital broadcasting system such as DAB+ is dependent on what type of coding and bit rates are applied. Due to bandwidth constraints, audio quality is prone to be in conflict with other service demands such as the number of channels and the transfer of ancillary data. Compared to DAB+, several other audio services have superior bit rates that challenge the audio quality of DAB+. This paper reviews audio-quality criteria and investigates how the perceived audio quality of different broadcasting systems complies with the criteria. Two studies were conducted: Test 1 where DAB+ codecs were tested at bit rates between 96 and 192 kbit/s and Test 2 where DAB+ systems between 48 and 192 kbit/s as well as FM systems were tested. The systems in Test 2 were designed to as far as possible model a realistic broadcasting signal chain including commonly used dynamic processors. The studies were realized through two listening experiments using the ITU-R recommendations BS.1116 and BS.1534 (MUSHRA) followed by a closing interview. The results showed that the currently highest available subchannel bit rate for DAB+ (192 kbit/s) was insufficient for attaining perceptually transparent quality for critical items, whereas it enabled a quality comparable to or in some instances better than a modern FM system. Extrapolation of data indicates that critical items may need to be coded at even higher bit rates to reach perceptually transparent quality. From the interviews, auditory features important for the subjects’ assessment of quality were observed. This study concludes that when making decisions on broadcasting systems, it is important to have well-founded and clearly defined criteria for minimum acceptable quality and/or perceptually transparent quality.

  • 26.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Ekman, Håkan
    Difference between musicians and sound engineers in estimation of egocentric source distance in a concert hall stereophonic recording2006In: The Future of Audio Technology - Surround and Beyond: Proceedings of the AES 28th International Conference, Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2006, Vol. Paper Number: 8-2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In sound recording, an important dimension is the perceived distance to the sound sources. This study investigates if there is a difference between sound engineers and musicians when they consider the perceived distance to sound sources recorded in a concert hall and reproduced by means of a two-channel stereo system. Also which distance is preferred is investigated for different instruments. The result shows that sound engineers perceive a greater distance to sources and that they prefer more close microphone distance than musicians.

  • 27.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Ekman, Håkan
    The three-dimensional acoustic environment as depth cue in sound recordings2005In: AES 118th Convention: Preprints, Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2005, Vol. nr 6513Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The research on the perceived depth in a sound image mainly concerns the distance to the source. Observations on the three-dimensional environment, is generally of an anecdotal nature. In order to enhance the perceived spatial quality of reproduced sound, it is important to know more about how depth in recordings is perceived and generated. The aim of this study is to put focus on the concept of depth, i.e. define what sound engineers mean by depth in recordings. This has been studied through interviews with sound engineers. The most common thought is that depth is equal to the distance to the sound sources. This definition is still not enough to encompass the whole concept of depth. The experienced environment in front of the listener may also affect the perceived depth.

  • 28.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Johannesson, Tomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Löfdahl, Magnus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    Nykänen, Arne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Operation, Maintenance and Acoustics.
    In-ear vs. loudspeaker monitoring for live Sound and the effect on audio quality attributes and musical performance2017In: 142nd Audio Engineering Society International Convention 2017, AES 2017, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A successful performance of live music is dependent on how well musicians can hear themselves and the other members of the ensemble. Sound reinforcement systems can offer monitoring either by on-stage loudspeakers or in-ear headphones. These two monitoring conditions were compared to search for perceived auditory differences that affect parts of musical performance. Four jazz/pop/rock bands made live performances where monitor sound was provided to the musicians. Each band repeated their performance, changing from one monitoring condition to the other. After every performance, the musicians responded to questionnaires covering musical performance and audio quality. Experts also assessed recordings of the performances. Results show that perceived differences exist in audio quality and musical performance between loudspeaker monitors and in-ear headphone monitors.

  • 29.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Jullander, Sverker
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music and dance.
    Sundkvist, Petter
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music and dance.
    Kjekshus, Helge
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music and dance.
    The influence of room acoustics on musical performance and interpretation: A pilot study2016In: 140th Audio Engineering Society International Convention 2016, AES 2016, New York, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concert hall acoustics is an important factor that influences musical performance. Different acoustics lead to different musical results. For a musical performer, the artistic impression of a performance is paramount. Therefore, it is essential to study the relation between concert hall acoustics and musical performance. Such studies might also be relevant for architects and acousticians. A pilot study was devised, enabled by a unique concert hall with mechanically variable acoustics. A musician played the grand piano at four trials, each having a distinctive acoustic condition. The trials were recorded for later analysis. The performances were assessed by experts and the pianist himself. The results show that clear as well as subtle differences in interpretation and performance between the trials existed.

  • 30.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Lefford, Nyssim
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Adapting audio quality assessment procedures for engineering practice2016In: 139th Audio Engineering Society International Convention: AES 2015, Jacob Javits Center New York, United States, 29 October - 1 November 2015, New York: Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Audio quality is of concern up and down the production chain from content creation to distribution. The technologies employed at each step - equipment, processors like codecs, downmix algorithms and loudspeakers - all are scrutinized for their impact. The now well-established field of audio quality research has developed robust methods for assessments. To form a basis for this work, research has investigated how perceptual dimensions are formed and expressed. The literature includes numerous sonic attributes that may be used to evaluate audio quality. All together, these findings have provided benchmarks and guidelines for improving audio technology, setting standards in the manufacture of sound and recording equipment, and furthering the design of reproduction systems and spaces. They are, however, by comparison rarely used to inform recording and mixing practice. In this paper quality evaluation and mixing practice are compared on selected counts and observations are made on what points these fields may mutually inform one another

  • 31.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Nyberg, Dan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    A qualitative approach to evaluation of perceived qualities of audio and video in a distance education context2014In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 100, no 1, p. 154-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a qualitative method for collecting and analysing data to describe audio and video quality. Used in the social sciences, arts, and humanities, this approach relies on phenomenology and hermeneutics and uses interviews and questionnaires to assess the audio and video quality of master classes in classical music taught via the Internet. Although this study is only exploratory, it provides evidence that the method could successfully be used to gather descriptions of perceived qualities.

  • 32.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Nyberg, Dan
    Listener envelopment: what has been done and what future research is needed?2008In: 124th Audio Engineering Society Convention 2008: Audio Engineering Society Convention Papers, Curran Associates, Inc., 2008, article id 7379Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In concert hall acoustics, the perceived spatial impression and/or spaciousness are characterized by the two attributesapparent source width (ASW) and listener envelopment (LEV). For LEV there are no clear consensus across theresults of previous work. This paper aims to discuss the research performed on LEV and how these research resultsare confirming or contradicting each other. There is a consensus on the arrival angle of the later sound energy and itsinfluence on LEV, whereas there is no clear agreement on the delay time and frequency content of the latereflections.

  • 33.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Rumsey, Francis
    Correlation between Emotive, Descriptive and Naturalness Attributes in Subjective Data Relating to Spatial Sound Reproduction2000In: 109th AES Convention: Preprints, Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2000, Vol. Preprint 5206Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In an experiment, inspired by aspects of the Repertory Grid Technique, to find the dimensions forming the perceived spatial impression of a sound reproducing system, subjects frequently described their experiences as being either natural or artificial. These results are analyzed using multivariate methods to investigate the correlation between attributes relating to naturalness and other more descriptive attributes.

  • 34.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Rumsey, Francis
    Identification of Perceived Spatial Attributes of Recordings by Repertory Grid Technique and Other Methods1999In: 106th AES Convention: Preprints, Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 1999, Vol. Preprint 4924Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When assessing the spatial performance of sound reproducing systems, various research methods from the fields of psychology and the behavioural sciences may be considered. Selected approaches are briefly reviewed, with particular emphasis on the Repertory Grid Technique (RGT). Further analysis of a pilot experiment relating to spatial parameters, inspired by RGT, is described

  • 35.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Rumsey, Francis
    Institute of Sound Recording, University of Surrey.
    Identification of quality attributes of spatial audio by repertory grid technique2006In: A E S, ISSN 1549-4950, Vol. 54, no 5, p. 365-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evaluation of the perceived spatial quality of an audio system has become more important as the technical possibilities to render spatial information increase. In recent years the field of spatial quality evaluation has been the subject of more thorough investigations than previously, one of the problems being the development of attribute scales appropriate for this purpose. The generation of attributes of spatial audio by means of elements from the repertory grid technique is investigated. In an experiment personal constructs in the form of verbal descriptors were elicited. The constructs were classified by verbal protocol analysis and reduced to a limited number of attributes by cluster analysis. The results show that the repertory grid technique enables a number of attributes of spatial sound quality to be extracted from a group of subjects and that these attributes correspond well with attributes found in other studies. The results also indicate the importance of a definition of the part-the whole or a subset-of the auditory scene to which a specific attribute is referring.

  • 36.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Rumsey, Francis
    In Search of the Spatial Dimensions of Reproduced Sound: cluster analysis and verbal protocol analysis of scaled verbal descriptors2000In: Proceedings of AES 108th Convention, Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2000, Vol. Preprint 5139Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When assessing the spatial performance of a sound reproducing system, knowledge of the dimensions forming the perceived spatial impression is important. In this search, methods from the behavioral sciences have to be considered. This paper describes an analysis of an earlier experiment, inspired by aspects of the Repertory Grid Technique, which focuses on finding common patterns among a group of subjects.

  • 37.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Rumsey, Francis
    Spatial Attribute Identification and Scaling by Repertory Grid Technique and Other Methods1999In: Spatial Sound Reproduction: Proceedings of the AES 16th International Conference, Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 1999, Vol. Paper Number: 16-005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the search for suitable ways to assess the spatial performance of sound reproducing systems, various research methods from the fields of psychology and the behavioral sciences may be considered. Selected approaches are reviewed, with a particular emphasis on the Repertory Grid Technique (RGT). A pilot experiment relating to spatial parameters, inspired by RGT, is described.

  • 38.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Rumsey, Francis
    Systematic evaluation of perceived spatial quality2003In: Multichannel Audio, The New Reality: Proceedings of the AES 24th International Conference, Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2003, p. 184-198Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The evaluation of perceived spatial quality calls for a method that is sensitive for changes in the constituent dimensions of that quality. In order to devise a method accounting for these changes, several processes have to be performed. This paper shows the development of scales by elicitation and structuring of verbal data, followed by validation of the resulting attribute scales.

  • 39.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Rumsey, Francis
    Institute of Sound Recording, University of Surrey.
    Validity of Selected Spatial Attributes in the Evaluation of 5-channel Microphone Techniques2002In: 112th AES Convention, Audio Engineering Society, Inc., 2002, Vol. Paper 5593Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Assessment of the spatial quality of reproduced sound is becoming more important as the number of techniques and systems affecting such quality increases. The presence of dimensions forming spatial quality has been indicated in earlier experiments by using attributes as descriptors for the dimensions. These attributes have been found relevant for describing the spatial quality of stimuli subjected to different modes of reproduction. In this paper, new attributes are elicited and the applicability of these and previously encountered attributes for assessment of spatial quality is tested in the context of new stimuli, recorded by means of 5-channel microphone techniques and reproduced through a 5.0 system.

  • 40.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Wingstedt, Johnny
    Perceived properties of parameterised music for interactive applications2006In: Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, ISSN 1690-4524, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 65-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional implementations of sound and music in interactive contexts have their limitations. One way to overcome these and to expand the possibilities of music is to handle the music in a parameterised form. To better understand the properties of the musical parameters resulting from parameterisation, two experiments were carried out. The first experiment investigated selected parameters' capability to change the music; the second experiment examined how the parameters can contribute to express emotions. From these experiments, it is concluded that users without musical training perform differently from musicians on some of the parameters. There is also a clear association between the parameters and the expressed basic emotions. The paper is concluded with observations on how parameterisation might be used in interactive applications.

  • 41.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Wingstedt, Johnny
    Relations between selected musical parameters and expressed emotions: extending the potential of computer entertainment2005In: Proceedings of the 2005 ACM SIGCHI International Conference on Advances in computer entertainment technology, IEEE Communications Society, 2005, p. 164-171Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental aspect of music is its ability to express emotions. To develop and extend the potential of music in computer entertainment, a deeper understanding of music's emotional aspects is essential. An experiment was designed to explore the suitability of a specially designed interface (REMUPP) as a means to investigate how musical parameters can contribute to expressing the emotions of 'happiness' and 'sadness'. In the experiment, a number of subjects listened to music examples where the musical performance was governed by a set of musical parameters that were controlled by the subject. The subjects adjusted the parameter settings to best express a given emotion. These settings were recorded and analyzed. The experiment verifies the REMUPP tool as a valid means for the investigation of musical parameters and emotion. Issues of importance for realization of music in the computer entertainment context are also addressed.

  • 42.
    Berg, Jan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Wingstedt, Johnny
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Music and dance.
    Liljedahl, Mats
    Sonic Studio, Interactive Institute.
    Lindberg, Stefan
    Sonic Studio, Interactive Institute.
    Perceived properties of parameterised music for interactive applications2005In: Proceedings 2005: July 10 - 13, 2005, Orlando, Florida, USA / [ed] Nagib Callaos, Orlando, Fla: IIIS , 2005, Vol. 1, p. 409-414Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional implementations of sound and music in interactive contexts have their limitations. One way to overcome these and to expand the possibilities of music is to handle the music in a parameterised form. To better understand the properties of the musical parameters resulting from parameterisation, two experiments were carried out. The first experiment investigated selected parameters' capability to change the music; the second experiment examined how the parameters can contribute to express emotions. From these experiments, it is concluded that users without musical training perform differently from musicians on some of the parameters. There is also a clear association between the parameters and the expressed basic emotions. The paper is concluded with observations on how parameterisation might be used in interactive applications.

  • 43.
    Book, Malin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Konsumtionsideologi i REA: En undersökning om konsumtion från ett ideologiskt perspektiv i tv-barnprogrammet REA2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The consumer society in which we reside is constantly telling us to consume more and that our materialistic belongings determine our social status. Materialism can be considered a consumer trait where gadgets are of an utter importance in life, happiness and the construction of ones social status. REA is a tv-programme for children from the Swedish public service channel Barnkanalen about ”your money, gadgets and rights” which aims to make the children critical consumers.

    In this thematic textual analysis trough consumer society and ideology theories it has been found that discourses of consumption and materialistism are present in REA and has been divided into three themes; the joy of consumption, the critical consumer and the unfair consumer society. In these themes it is found that consuming is fun and that the products are a means for fun but that you as a consumer have to be critical and more aware. It is also expressed that it is an unfair type of society, where it is considered strange and an embarrassment to be unable to consume due to the consumer society norms and that it is desirable to fit into these norms by consuming. The children unable to consume express a more social view of consumption.

  • 44.
    Brihage, Filip
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Comparison between binaural reproduction methods for auditory distance perception in virtual reality2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, virtual reality (VR) has become more common within the media industry and with its increasing popularity, spatial audio reproduction methods such as ambisonics have got more attention. But how humans perceive auditory events in VR is an ongoing research topic and there is a need for keep evaluating the reproduction methods used for it.

    Even though humans’ auditory distance perception in natural and laboratory conditions has been investigated in many previous studies, little has been made in VR environments. Thus, there is a need for keep investigating how humans estimate sound source distances in VR and which recording techniques that results in most accurate estimations.

    This study aimed to investigate human’s accuracy in sound source distance estimations in VR, when sound sources have been recorded with an artificial head or first-order ambisonic (FOA) microphone. Three different reproductions methods were used in the study: artificial head, FOA-tracked binaural and FOA-static binaural. In a VR environment, twenty-three subjects were asked to position a virtual loudspeaker at the same position as a sound source. The results showed no significant differences between the three reproduction methods. In the results it was also shown that the subjects clearly overestimated the sound source distances. A possible reason is that the subjects underestimated the size of the virtual environment.                      

  • 45.
    Bélteky, Markus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Emotion in video game audio: Can sound effects be perceived to contain positive emotional content?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sound is an important part of almost all media. In games, sounds are used to evoke intense emotions in players. Studies has showed that music on its own can induce emotions. Soundeffects is another type of sounds that appear in games. However, do they contribute to the emotional experience? Understanding this will help sound designers enhance scenes in future video games. In this study, 23 participants were asked to conduct a test divided into two part. In the first part they were tasked to listen to four sound effects of fire and choose attributes from a predetermined list that they thought suited. Among these physical attributes were two emotional attributes. In the second part, the subjects were tasked with choosing one of the fours sound effects for a scenario with a positive emotion and motivate their choice. The results show that no sound had neither positive nor negative as an emotional attribute. Of the four sounds, two showed significance that emotion alone was an attribute for the sound. The results from the second part showed that the subjects were divided in what motivated them to choose a sound. More than a third of the subjects based their choice only on if the sound matched the emotion of the scenario presented while slightly less than a third based it only on to fit the location. The last third based it on both emotion and location.

  • 46.
    Caldeborn, Daniel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Ågren, Johan
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Operation Fasad: En studie om hur barn skapar sig en identitet på det sociala mediet Snapchat2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien har undersökt hur barn i åldrarna 10-13 använder sig utav det sociala mediet Snapchat. Författarna av studien har genomfört två stycken fokusgruppsintervjuer där grupperna har varit indelade i kön. Båda grupperna har bestått av totalt fem stycken informanter. Studien undersöker hur barn väljer att se på Snapchat som socialt medium och plats för identitetsutveckling. Teorierna som studien har utgått ifrån är identitet, privat/offentligt och genus.

    Det framgår att barnen använder Snapchat som en virtuell lekplats för spel och kommunikation. Detta i kombination med en plats där identitet byggs, samt att könsskillnader speglas. Det framgår även att det som är mest attraktivt att porträttera, oavsett kön är en aktiv fritid i kombination med socialt umgänge.

  • 47.
    Danielsson, Felicia
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Moradi, Vivianne
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Army of Lovers: Hur facebookgruppen #jagärhär har gått till väga för att inbjuda till samtalet mot hatkultur online2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has focused on how the Facebook group #jagärhär has been working on inviting people to participate in the conversation against hate culture online. To examine this, we have conducted qualitative interviews with members and administrators from the group, and made a rhetorical text analysis on posts made in the group. The theoretical concepts used in the analysis are: convergence, participatory culture and democracy, collective intelligence, collective identity and doxa. By using these theoretical concepts, certain strategies in the group could be seen. Some of the most important strategies and tactics that could be seen were that the group had a strict structure - to facilitate engagement and participation - and that there was great focus on being encouraging and motivating in their language. It was also seen that it was important for the group to be visible in traditional media, and to be noticed by public figures - like celebrities - in order to be more visible and to inspire more people to participate

  • 48.
    Edin, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and theater.
    Celebritetspolitikens ordning, eller: Den ultimata celebritetspolitikern i medialiseringskulturen2017In: Celebritetsskapande från Strindberg till Asllani / [ed] Forslid, T, Lundell, P, Ohlsson, A, Olsson, T, Lund: Mediehistoriskt arkiv, Lunds universitet , 2017, p. 219-239Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Edin, Anna
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Tillbaka till framtiden: om publiken som public service-problem2015In: Massmedieproblem: Mediestudiets formering, Lund: Mediehistoria, Lunds universitet , 2015, p. 105-122Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Edin, Anna
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Media, audio technology and experience production and theater.
    Hyvönen, Mats
    Uppsala University.
    Imagined Audiences: discourse analysis of Swedish public service broadcasting institution2016Conference paper (Refereed)
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