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  • 1.
    Abarenkov, Kessy
    et al.
    Univ Tartu, Nat Hist Museum, Tartu, Estonia..
    Adams, Rachel I.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Plant & Microbial Biol, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Irinyi, Laszlo
    Westmead Hosp, Ctr Infect Dis & Microbiol, Mol Mycol Res Lab, Sydney Med Sch, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Univ Sydney, Marie Bashir Inst Infect Dis & Biosecur, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Westmead Inst Med Res, Westmead, NSW, Australia..
    Agan, Ahto
    Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Tartu, Estonia..
    Ambrosio, Elia
    Univ Tartu, Nat Hist Museum, Tartu, Estonia.;Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Tartu, Estonia.;Via Calamandrei 2, I-53035 Siena, Italy..
    Antonelli, Alexandre
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.;Gothenburg Bot Garden, Carl Skottsbergs Gata 22A, S-41319 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Bahram, Mohammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Tartu, Estonia.
    Bengtsson-Palme, Johan
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Infect Dis, Guldhedsgatan 10, S-41346 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Bok, Gunilla
    SP Tech Res Inst Sweden, Box 857, S-50115 Boras, Sweden..
    Cangren, Patrik
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Coimbra, Victor
    Univ Fed Pernambuco UFPE, Dept Micol, CCB, Av Prof Nelson Chaves S-N, BR-50670901 Recife, PE, Brazil..
    Coleine, Claudia
    Univ Tuscia, Dept Ecol & Biol Sci, I-01100 Viterbo, Italy..
    Gustafsson, Claes
    Univ Gothenburg, Herbarium GB, Box 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    He, Jinhong
    Chinese Acad Sci, South China Bot Garden, 723 Xingke Rd, Guangzhou 510650, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Hofmann, Tobias
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Chalmers, Dept Math Sci, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Larsson, Ellen
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Larsson, Tomas
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci, Box 460, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Liu, Yingkui
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Martinsson, Svante
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Meyer, Wieland
    Westmead Hosp, Ctr Infect Dis & Microbiol, Mol Mycol Res Lab, Sydney Med Sch, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Westmead Inst Med Res, Westmead, NSW, Australia..
    Panova, Marina
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci Tjarno, S-45296 Stromstad, Sweden..
    Pombubpa, Nuttapon
    Univ Calif Riverside, Dept Plant Pathol & Microbiol, Riverside, CA 92521 USA.;Univ Calif Riverside, Inst Integrat Genome Biol, Riverside, CA 92521 USA..
    Ritter, Camila
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Ryberg, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Svantesson, Sten
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Scharn, Ruud
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Earth Sci, Box 460, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Svensson, Ola
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Töpel, Mats
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci, Box 460, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Unterseher, Martin
    Ernst Moritz Arndt Univ Greifswald, Inst Bot & Landscape Ecol, Soldmannstr 15, D-17487 Greifswald, Germany..
    Visagie, Cobus
    Agr & Agri Food Canada, Biodivers Mycol, 960 Carling Ave, Ottawa, ON K1A 0C6, Canada.;Univ Ottawa, Dept Biol, 30 Marie Curie, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5, Canada..
    Wurzbacher, Christian
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Taylor, Andy F. S.
    James Hutton Inst, Aberdeen AB15 8QH, Scotland.;Univ Aberdeen, Inst Biol & Environm Sci, Cruickshank Bldg, Aberdeen AB24 3UU, Scotland..
    Köljalg, Urmas
    Univ Tartu, Nat Hist Museum, Tartu, Estonia.;Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Tartu, Estonia..
    Schriml, Lynn
    Univ Maryland, Sch Med, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA.;Univ Maryland, Sch Med, Inst Genome Sci, Baltimore, MD 21201 USA..
    Nilsson, R. Henrik
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Box 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Annotating public fungal ITS sequences from the built environment according to the MIxS-Built Environment standard - a report from a May 23-24, 2016 workshop (Gothenburg, Sweden)2016In: MycoKeys, ISSN 1314-4057, E-ISSN 1314-4049, no 16, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent molecular studies have identified substantial fungal diversity in indoor environments. Fungi and fungal particles have been linked to a range of potentially unwanted effects in the built environment, including asthma, decay of building materials, and food spoilage. The study of the built mycobiome is hampered by a number of constraints, one of which is the poor state of the metadata annotation of fungal DNA sequences from the built environment in public databases. In order to enable precise interrogation of such data - for example, "retrieve all fungal sequences recovered from bathrooms" - a workshop was organized at the University of Gothenburg (May 23-24, 2016) to annotate public fungal barcode (ITS) sequences according to the MIxS-Built Environment annotation standard (http:// gensc.org/ mixs/). The 36 participants assembled a total of 45,488 data points from the published literature, including the addition of 8,430 instances of countries of collection from a total of 83 countries, 5,801 instances of building types, and 3,876 instances of surface-air contaminants. The results were implemented in the UNITE database for molecular identification of fungi (http://unite.ut.ee) and were shared with other online resources. Data obtained from human/animal pathogenic fungi will furthermore be verified on culture based metadata for subsequent inclusion in the ISHAM-ITS database (http:// its. mycologylab.org).

  • 2.
    Abbassi, Nasrollah
    et al.
    Univ Zanjan, Dept Geol, Fac Sci, Zanjan, Iran..
    Kundrat, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Ataabadi, Majid Mirzaie
    Univ Zanjan, Dept Geol, Fac Sci, Zanjan, Iran..
    Ahlberg, Per E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology. Uppsala Univ, Sub Dept Evolut & Dev, Evolutionary Biol Ctr, Dept Organismal Biol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Avian ichnia and other vertebrate trace fossils from the Neogene Red Beds of Tarom valley in north-western Iran2016In: Historical Biology, ISSN 0891-2963, E-ISSN 1029-2381, Vol. 28, no 8, p. 1075-1089Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Neogene Red Beds of the Tarom valley (north-western Iran) include conglomerate, sandstone, marl and gypsum. Avian and mammal footprints were discovered in one of the sandstone layers at the base of a third Miocene stratigraphical unit in the Gilankesheh area located in the east Tarom valley. The avian ichnia include Aviadactyla vialovi, Avipeda filiportatis, Charadriipeda disjuncta, Charadriipeda isp. A and B and cf. Ornithotarnocia lambrechti. Bird feeding traces are preserved as bilobate, loop-shaped, sinusoidal and ring-like traces. We have also identified a reticulate texture of sole scale imprints in some of the avian ichnia. Two mammal footprints of camelid-like artiodactyls are also present with the avian ichno-assemblage.

  • 3. Abrahamson, Alexandra
    et al.
    Andersson, Carin
    Jönsson, Maria E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Fogelberg, Oscar
    Orberg, Jan
    Brunstrom, Bjorn
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Gill EROD in monitoring of CYP1A inducers in fish - A study in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) caged in Stockholm and Uppsala waters2007In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 85, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Adl, Sina M.
    et al.
    Univ Saskatchewan, Dept Soil Sci, Coll Agr & Bioresources, 51 Campus Dr, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A8, Canada.
    Bass, David
    Nat Hist Museum, Dept Life Sci, Cromwell Rd, London SW7 5BD, England;CEFAS, Barrack Rd, Weymouth DT4 8UB, Dorset, England.
    Lane, Christopher E.
    Univ Rhode Isl, Dept Biol Sci, Kingston, RI 02881 USA.
    Lukes, Julius
    Czech Acad Sci, Biol Ctr, Inst Parasitol, Ceske Budejovice 37005, Czech Republic;Univ South Bohemia, Fac Sci, Ceske Budejovice 37005, Czech Republic.
    Schoch, Conrad L.
    Natl Inst Biotechnol Informat, Natl Lib Med, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA.
    Smirnov, Alexey
    St Petersburg State Univ, Fac Biol, Dept Invertebrate Zool, St Petersburg 199034, Russia.
    Agatha, Sabine
    Univ Salzburg, Dept Biosci, Hellbrunnerstr 34, A-5020 Salzburg, Austria.
    Berney, Cedric
    CNRS, UMR 7144 AD2M, Grp Evolut Protistes & Ecosyst Pelag, Stn Biol Roscoff, Pl Georges Teissier, F-29680 Roscoff, France.
    Brown, Matthew W.
    Mississippi State Univ, Dept Biol Sci, Starkville, MS 39762 USA;Mississippi State Univ, Inst Genom Biocomp & Biotechnol, Starkville, MS 39762 USA.
    Burki, Fabien
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Cárdenas, Paco
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Farmakognosi.
    Cepicka, Ivan
    Charles Univ Prague, Dept Zool, Fac Sci, Vinicna 7, CR-12844 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Chistyakova, Lyudmila
    St Petersburg State Univ, Core Facil Ctr Culture Collect Microorganisms, St Petersburg 198504, Russia.
    del Campo, Javier
    CSIC, Inst Ciencies Mar, Passeig Maritim Barceloneta 37-49, E-08003 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Dunthorn, Micah
    Univ Kaiserslautern, Dept Ecol, Erwin Schroedinger St, D-67663 Kaiserslautern, Germany;Univ Duisburg Essen, Dept Eukaryot Microbiol, Univ Str 5, D-45141 Essen, Germany.
    Edvardsen, Bente
    Univ Oslo, Dept Biosci, POB 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway.
    Eglit, Yana
    Dalhousie Univ, Dept Biol, Halifax B3H 4R2, NS, Canada.
    Guillou, Laure
    Univ Paris 06, Sorbonne Univ, Paris 6, CNRS,UMR 7144 AD2M,Stn Biol Roscoff, Pl Georges Teissier,,CS90074, F-29688 Roscoff, France.
    Hampl, Vladimir
    Charles Univ Prague, Dept Parasitol, Fac Sci, BIOCEV, Prumyslov 595, Vestec 25242, Czech Republic.
    Heiss, Aaron A.
    Amer Museum Nat Hist, Dept Invertebrate Zool, New York, NY 10024 USA.
    Hoppenrath, Mona
    DZMB German Ctr Marine Biodivers Res, D-26382 Wilhelmshaven, Germany.
    James, Timothy Y.
    Univ Michigan, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA.
    Karnkowska, Anna
    Univ Warsaw, Dept Mol Phylogenet & Evolut, PL-02089 Warsaw, Poland.
    Karpov, Sergey
    St Petersburg State Univ, Fac Biol, Dept Invertebrate Zool, St Petersburg 199034, Russia;RAS, Lab Parasit Worms & Protistol, Zool Inst, St Petersburg 199034, Russia.
    Kim, Eunsoo
    Amer Museum Nat Hist, Dept Invertebrate Zool, New York, NY 10024 USA.
    Kolisko, Martin
    Czech Acad Sci, Biol Ctr, Inst Parasitol, Ceske Budejovice 37005, Czech Republic.
    Kudryavtsev, Alexander
    St Petersburg State Univ, Fac Biol, Dept Invertebrate Zool, St Petersburg 199034, Russia;RAS, Lab Parasit Worms & Protistol, Zool Inst, St Petersburg 199034, Russia.
    Lahr, Daniel J. G.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Zool, Inst Biosci, Matao Travessa 14 Cidade Univ, BR-05508090 Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
    Lara, Enrique
    Univ Neuchatel, Lab Soil Biodivers, Rue Emile Argand 11, CH-2000 Neuchatel, Switzerland;CSIC, Real Jardim Bot,Plaza Murillo 2, E-28014 Madrid, Spain.
    Le Gall, Line
    Sorbonne Univ, Museum Natl Hist Nat, Inst Systemat Evolut Biodiversit, 57 Rue Cuvier,CP 39, F-75005 Paris, France.
    Lynn, Denis H.
    Univ Guelph, Dept Integrat Biol, Summerlee Sci Complex, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1, Canada;Univ British Columbia, Dept Zool, 4200-6270 Univ Blvd, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada.
    Mann, David G.
    Royal Bot Garden, Edinburgh EH3 5LR, Midlothian, Scotland;Inst Agrifood Res & Technol, C Poble Nou Km 5-5, E-43540 San Carlos de la Rapita, Spain.
    Massana, Ramon
    CSIC, Inst Ciencies Mar, Passeig Maritim Barceloneta 37-49, E-08003 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
    Mitchell, Edward A. D.
    Univ Neuchatel, Lab Soil Biodivers, Rue Emile Argand 11, CH-2000 Neuchatel, Switzerland;Jardin Bot Neuchatel,Chemin Perthuis du Salut 58, CH-2000 Neuchatel, Switzerland.
    Morrow, Christine
    Natl Museums Northern Ireland, Dept Nat Sci, 153 Bangor Rd, Holywood BT18 0EU, England.
    Park, Jong Soo
    Kyungpook Natl Univ, Sch Earth Syst Sci, Dept Oceanog, Daegu, South Korea;Kyungpook Natl Univ, Sch Earth Syst Sci, Kyungpook Inst Oceanog, Daegu, South Korea.
    Pawlowski, Jan W.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Genet & Evolut, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.
    Powell, Martha J.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Biol Sci, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA.
    Richter, Daniel J.
    Univ Pompeu Fabra, CSIC, Inst Biol Evolut, Passeig Maritim Barceloneta 37-49, Barcelona 08003, Spain.
    Rueckert, Sonja
    Edinburgh Napier Univ, Sch Appl Sci, Edinburgh EH11 4BN, Midlothian, Scotland.
    Shadwick, Lora
    Univ Arkansas, Dept Biol Sci, Fayetteville, AR 72701 USA.
    Shimano, Satoshi
    Hosei Univ, Sci Res Ctr, Chiyoda Ku, 2-17-1 Fujimi, Tokyo, Japan.
    Spiegel, Frederick W.
    Univ Arkansas, Dept Biol Sci, Fayetteville, AR 72701 USA.
    Torruella, Guifre
    Univ Paris XI, Lab Evolut & Systemat, F-91405 Orsay, France.
    Youssef, Noha
    Oklahoma State Univ, Dept Microbiol & Mol Genet, Stillwater, OK 74074 USA.
    Zlatogursky, Vasily V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. St Petersburg State Univ, Fac Biol, Dept Invertebrate Zool, St Petersburg 199034, Russia.
    Zhang, Qianqian
    Chinese Acad Sci, Yantai Inst Coastal Zone Res, Yantai 264003, Peoples R China.
    Revisions to the Classification, Nomenclature, and Diversity of Eukaryotes2019In: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, ISSN 1066-5234, E-ISSN 1550-7408, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 4-119Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This revision of the classification of eukaryotes follows that of Adl et al., 2012 [J. Euk. Microbiol. 59(5)] and retains an emphasis on protists. Changes since have improved the resolution of many nodes in phylogenetic analyses. For some clades even families are being clearly resolved. As we had predicted, environmental sampling in the intervening years has massively increased the genetic information at hand. Consequently, we have discovered novel clades, exciting new genera and uncovered a massive species level diversity beyond the morphological species descriptions. Several clades known from environmental samples only have now found their home. Sampling soils, deeper marine waters and the deep sea will continue to fill us with surprises. The main changes in this revision are the confirmation that eukaryotes form at least two domains, the loss of monophyly in the Excavata, robust support for the Haptista and Cryptista. We provide suggested primer sets for DNA sequences from environmental samples that are effective for each clade. We have provided a guide to trophic functional guilds in an appendix, to facilitate the interpretation of environmental samples, and a standardized taxonomic guide for East Asian users.

  • 5. Agerstrand, Marlene
    et al.
    Berg, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Bjorlenius, Berndt
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Fick, Jerker
    Gunnarsson, Lina
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Sumpter, John P.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Ruden, Christina
    Improving Environmental Risk Assessment of Human Pharmaceuticals2015In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, no 9, p. 5336-5345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents 10 recommendations for improving the European Medicines Agency's guidance for environmental risk assessment of human pharmaceutical products. The recommendations are based on up-to-date, available science in combination with experiences from other chemical frameworks such as the REACH-legislation for industrial chemicals. The recommendations concern: expanding the scope of the current guideline; requirements to assess the risk for development of antibiotic resistance; jointly performed assessments; refinement of the test proposal; mixture toxicity assessments on active pharmaceutical ingredients with similar modes of action; use of all available ecotoxicity studies; mandatory reviews; increased transparency; inclusion of emission data from production; and a risk management option. We believe that implementation of our recommendations would strengthen the protection of the environment and be beneficial to society. Legislation and guidance documents need to be updated at regular intervals in order to incorporate new knowledge from the scientific community. This is particularly important for regulatory documents concerning pharmaceuticals in the environment since this is a research field that has been growing substantially in the last decades.

  • 6.
    Agnolin, Federico L.
    et al.
    Museo Argentino Ciencias Nat Bernardino Rivadavia, Lab Anat Comparada & Evoluc Vertebrados, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.; Univ Maimonides, CEBBAD, Dept Ciencias Nat & Antropol, Fundac Hist Nat Felix de Azara, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Powell, Jaime E.
    Inst Miguel Lillo, RA-4000 San Miguel De Tucuman, Tucuman, Argentina.; Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, RA-1033 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Novas, Fernando E.
    Museo Argentino Ciencias Nat Bernardino Rivadavia, Lab Anat Comparada & Evoluc Vertebrados, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.; Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, RA-1033 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.
    Kundrát, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    New alvarezsaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from Latest Cretaceous of North-western Patagonia with associated eggs2012In: Cretaceous research (Print), ISSN 0195-6671, E-ISSN 1095-998X, Vol. 35, p. 33-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Alvarezsauridae represents a branch of peculiar basal coelurosaurs with an increasing representationof their Cretaceous radiation distributed worldwide. Here we describe a new member of the group, Bonapartenykus ultimus gen. et sp. nov. from Campanian-Maastrichtian strata of Northern Patagonia, Argentina. Bonapartenykus is represented by a single, incomplete postcranial skeleton. The morphologyof the known skeletal elements suggests close affinities with the previously described taxon from Patagonia, Patagonykus, and both conform to a new clade, here termed Patagonykinae nov. Two incomplete eggs have been discovered in association with the skeletal remains of Bonapartenykus, andseveral clusters of broken eggshells of the same identity were also found in a close proximity. These belong to the new ooparataxon Arriagadoolithus patagoniensis of the new oofamily Arriagadoolithidae, which provides first insights into unique shell microstructure and fungal contamination of eggs laid by alvarezsaurid theropods. The detailed study of the eggs sheds new light on the phylogenetic position of alvarezsaurids within the Theropoda, and the evolution of eggs among Coelurosauria. We suggest thatplesiomorphic alvarezsaurids survived in Patagonia until the latest Cretaceous, whereas these basal forms became extinct elsewhere.

  • 7.
    Ahi, Ehsan Pashay
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology. Karl Franzens Univ Graz, Inst Biol, Univ Pl 2, A-8010 Graz, Austria.
    Richter, Florian
    Karl Franzens Univ Graz, Inst Biol, Univ Pl 2, A-8010 Graz, Austria.
    Lecaudey, Laurene Alicia
    Karl Franzens Univ Graz, Inst Biol, Univ Pl 2, A-8010 Graz, Austria.
    Sefc, Kristina M.
    Karl Franzens Univ Graz, Inst Biol, Univ Pl 2, A-8010 Graz, Austria.
    Gene expression profiling suggests differences in molecular mechanisms of fin elongation between cichlid species2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 9052Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparative analyses of gene regulation inform about the molecular basis of phenotypic trait evolution. Here, we address a fin shape phenotype that evolved multiple times independently across teleost fish, including several species within the family Cichlidae. In a previous study, we proposed a gene regulatory network (GRN) involved in the formation and regeneration of conspicuous filamentous elongations adorning the unpaired fins of the Neolamprologus brichardi. Here, we tested the members of this network in the blockhead cichlid, Steatocranus casuarius, which displays conspicuously elongated dorsal and moderately elongated anal fins. Our study provided evidence for differences in the anatomy of fin elongation and suggested gene regulatory divergence between the two cichlid species. Only a subset of the 20 genes tested in S. casuarius showed the qPCR expression patterns predicted from the GRN identified in N. brichardi, and several of the gene-by-gene expression correlations differed between the two cichlid species. In comparison to N. brichardi, gene expression patterns in S. casuarius were in better (but not full) agreement with gene regulatory interactions inferred in zebrafish. Within S. casuarius, the dorsoventral asymmetry in ornament expression was accompanied by differences in gene expression patterns, including potential regulatory differentiation, between the anal and dorsal fin.

  • 8.
    Ahi, Ehsan Pashay
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology. Karl Franzens Univ Graz, Inst Biol, Univ Pl 2, A-8010 Graz, Austria.
    Singh, Pooja
    Karl Franzens Univ Graz, Inst Biol, Univ Pl 2, A-8010 Graz, Austria.
    Duenser, Anna
    Karl Franzens Univ Graz, Inst Biol, Univ Pl 2, A-8010 Graz, Austria.
    Gessl, Wolfgang
    Karl Franzens Univ Graz, Inst Biol, Univ Pl 2, A-8010 Graz, Austria.
    Sturmbauer, Christian
    Karl Franzens Univ Graz, Inst Biol, Univ Pl 2, A-8010 Graz, Austria.
    Divergence in larval jaw gene expression reflects differential trophic adaptation in haplochromine cichlids prior to foraging2019In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 19, article id 150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundUnderstanding how variation in gene expression contributes to morphological diversity is a major goal in evolutionary biology. Cichlid fishes from the East African Great lakes exhibit striking diversity in trophic adaptations predicated on the functional modularity of their two sets of jaws (oral and pharyngeal). However, the transcriptional basis of this modularity is not so well understood, as no studies thus far have directly compared the expression of genes in the oral and pharyngeal jaws. Nor is it well understood how gene expression may have contributed to the parallel evolution of trophic morphologies across the replicate cichlid adaptive radiations in Lake Tanganyika, Malawi and Victoria.ResultsWe set out to investigate the role of gene expression divergence in cichlid fishes from these three lakes adapted to herbivorous and carnivorous trophic niches. We focused on the development stage prior to the onset of exogenous feeding that is critical for understanding patterns of gene expression after oral and pharyngeal jaw skeletogenesis, anticipating environmental cues. This framework permitted us for the first time to test for signatures of gene expression underlying jaw modularity in convergent eco-morphologies across three independent adaptive radiations. We validated a set of reference genes, with stable expression between the two jaw types and across species, which can be important for future studies of gene expression in cichlid jaws. Next we found evidence of modular and non-modular gene expression between the two jaws, across different trophic niches and lakes. For instance, prdm1a, a skeletogenic gene with modular anterior-posterior expression, displayed higher pharyngeal jaw expression and modular expression pattern only in carnivorous species. Furthermore, we found the expression of genes in cichlids jaws from the youngest Lake Victoria to exhibit low modularity compared to the older lakes.ConclusionOverall, our results provide cross-species transcriptional comparisons of modularly-regulated skeletogenic genes in the two jaw types, implicating expression differences which might contribute to the formation of divergent trophic morphologies at the stage of larval independence prior to foraging.

  • 9.
    Ahi, Ehsan Pashay
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology. Karl Franzens Univ Graz, Inst Biol, Univ Pl 2, A-8010 Graz, Austria.
    Singh, Pooja
    Karl Franzens Univ Graz, Inst Biol, Univ Pl 2, A-8010 Graz, Austria.
    Lecaudey, Laurene Alicia
    Karl Franzens Univ Graz, Inst Biol, Univ Pl 2, A-8010 Graz, Austria.
    Gessl, Wolfgang
    Karl Franzens Univ Graz, Inst Biol, Univ Pl 2, A-8010 Graz, Austria.
    Sturmbauer, Christian
    Karl Franzens Univ Graz, Inst Biol, Univ Pl 2, A-8010 Graz, Austria.
    Maternal mRNA input of growth and stress-response-related genes in cichlids in relation to egg size and trophic specialization2018In: EvoDevo, ISSN 2041-9139, E-ISSN 2041-9139, Vol. 9, article id 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Egg size represents an important form of maternal effect determined by a complex interplay of long-term adaptation and short-term plasticity balancing egg size with brood size. Haplochromine cichlids are maternal mouthbrooders showing differential parental investment in different species, manifested in great variation in egg size, brood size and duration of maternal care. Little is known about maternally determined molecular characters of eggs in fishes and their relation to egg size and trophic specialization. Here we investigate maternal mRNA inputs of selected growth- and stress-related genes in eggs of mouthbrooding cichlid fishes adapted to different trophic niches from Lake Tanganyika, Lake Malawi, Lake Victoria and compare them to their riverine allies.

    Results: We first identified two reference genes, atf7ip and mid1ip1, to be suitable for cross-species quantification of mRNA abundance via qRT-PCR in the cichlid eggs. Using these reference genes, we found substantial variation in maternal mRNA input for a set of candidate genes related to growth and stress response across species and lakes. We observed negative correlation of mRNA abundance between two of growth hormone receptor paralogs (ghr1 and ghr2) across all haplochromine cichlid species which also differentiate the species in the two younger lakes, Malawi and Lake Victoria, from those in Lake Tanganyika and ancestral riverine species. Furthermore, we found correlations between egg size and maternal mRNA abundance of two growth-related genes igf2 and ghr2 across the haplochromine cichlids as well as distinct clustering of the species based on their trophic specialization using maternal mRNA abundance of five genes (ghr1, ghr2, igf2, gr and sgk1).

    Conclusions: These findings indicate that variations in egg size in closely related cichlid species can be linked to differences in maternal RNA deposition of key growth-related genes. In addition, the cichlid species with contrasting trophic specialization deposit different levels of maternal mRNAs in their eggs for particular growth-related genes; however, it is unclear whether such differences contribute to differential morphogenesis at later stages of development. Our results provide first insights into this aspect of gene activation, as a basis for future studies targeting their role during ecomorphological specialization and adaptive radiation.

  • 10.
    Ahlberg, Per
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Beznosov, Pavel
    Luksevics, Ervins
    Clack, Jennifer
    A very primitive tetrapod from the earliest Famennian of South Timan, Russia2011In: Program and Abstracts: 71st Annual Meeting Society of Vertebrate Paleontology, Paris Las Vegas, Las Vegas, Nevada USA, November 2—5, 2011, Philadelphia: Society of Vertebrate Paleontology , 2011, p. 60-60Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Ahlberg, Per Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Humeral homology and the origin of the tetrapod elbow: a reinterpretation of the enigmatic specimens ANSP 21350 and GSM 1045362011In: Studies on fossil tetrapods / [ed] P. M. Barrett, A. R. Milner, London: The Palaeontological Association , 2011, p. 17-29Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two putative tetrapod humeri of Devonian age, ANSP 21350 from the late Famennian of Pennsylvania and GSM 104536 from the late Frasnian of Scat Craig, Scotland, are reinterpreted in the light of more recent discoveries. The morphology of ANSP 21350 can be more fully homologized with those of elpistostegids and early tetrapods than previously recognized. Unique features include distally displaced dorsal muscle attachments and a ventrally rotated distal face of the bone. This suggests that a weight-bearing ventrally directed forearm was created, not by means of a flexed elbow as in other tetrapods, but by distorting the humerus. The olecranon process on the ulna was probably poorly developed or absent. Primitive characters that are absent in other tetrapods add support to the contention that ANSP 21350 is the least crownward of known tetrapod humeri. Contrary to previous claims, Acanthostega has a characteristic tetrapod ulnar morphology with an olecranon process; it does not resemble an elpistostegid ulna and is not uniquely primitive for tetrapods. This suggests that the flexed tetrapod elbow with ulnar extensor muscles attached to the olecranon evolved simultaneously with the large rectangular entepicondyle typical for early tetrapods, probably as part of a single functional complex. GSM 104536 is denfinitely not a primitive tetrapod humerus, nor a sarcopterygian branchial bone, but cannot be positively identified at present.    

  • 12.
    Ajawatanawong, Pravech
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Mine the Gaps: Evolution of Eukaryotic Protein Indels and their Application for Testing Deep Phylogeny2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Insertions/deletions (indels) are potentially powerful evolutionary markers, but little is known about their evolution and few tools exist to effectively study them. To address this, I developed SeqFIRE, a tool for automated identification and extraction of indels from protein multiple sequence alignments. The program also extracts conserved alignment blocks, thus covering all major steps in preparing multiple sequence alignments for phylogenetic analysis.

    I then used SeqFIRE to build an indel database, using 299 single copy proteins from a broad taxonomic sampling of mainly multicellular eukaryotes. A total of 4,707 indels were extracted, of which 901 are simple (one genetic event) and 3,806 are complex (multiple events). The most abundant indels are single amino acid simple indels. Indel frequency decreases exponentially with length and shows a linear relationship with host protein size. Singleton indels reveal a strong bias towards insertions (2.31 x deletions on average). These analyses also identify 43 indels marking major clades in Plantae and Fungi (clade defining indels or CDIs), but none for Metazoa.

    In order to study the 3806 complex indels they were first classified by number of states. Analysis of the 2-state complex and simple indels combined (“bi-state indels”) confirms that insertions are over 2.5 times as frequent as deletions. Three-quarters of the complex indels had three-nine states (“slightly complex indels”). A tree-assisted search method was developed allowing me to identify 1,010 potential CDIs supporting all examined major branches of Plantae and Fungi.

    Forty-two proteins were also found to host complex indel CDIs for the deepest branches of Metazoa. After expanding the taxon set for these proteins, I identified a total of 49 non-bilaterian specific CDIs. Parsimony analysis of these indels places Ctenophora as sister taxon to all other Metazoa including Porifera. Six CDIs were also found placing Placozoa as sister to Bilateria. I conclude that slightly complex indels are a rich source of CDIs, and my tree-assisted search strategy could be automated and implemented in the program SeqFIRE to facilitate their discovery. This will have important implications for mining the phylogenomic content of the vast resource of protist genome data soon to become available.

  • 13.
    Ajawatanawong, Pravech
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Atkinson, Gemma C.
    Watson-Haigh, Nathan S.
    MacKenzie, Bryony
    Baldauf, Sandra L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    SeqFIRE: a web application for automated extraction of indel regions and conserved blocks from protein multiple sequence alignments2012In: Nucleic Acids Research, ISSN 0305-1048, E-ISSN 1362-4962, Vol. 40, no W1, p. W340-W347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Analyses of multiple sequence alignments generally focus on well-defined conserved sequence blocks, while the rest of the alignment is largely ignored or discarded. This is especially true in phylogenomics, where large multigene datasets are produced through automated pipelines. However, some of the most powerful phylogenetic markers have been found in the variable length regions of multiple alignments, particularly insertions/deletions (indels) in protein sequences. We have developed Sequence Feature and Indel Region Extractor (SeqFIRE) to enable the automated identification and extraction of indels from protein sequence alignments. The program can also extract conserved blocks and identify fast evolving sites using a combination of conservation and entropy. All major variables can be adjusted by the user, allowing them to identify the sets of variables most suited to a particular analysis or dataset. Thus, all major tasks in preparing an alignment for further analysis are combined in a single flexible and user-friendly program. The output includes a numbered list of indels, alignments in NEXUS format with indels annotated or removed and indel-only matrices. SeqFIRE is a user-friendly web application, freely available online at www.seqfire.org/.

  • 14.
    Ajawatanawong, Pravech
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Baldauf, Sandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    An automatable method for high throughput analysis of evolutionary patterns in slightly complex indels and its application to the deep phylogeny of Metazoa2014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insertions/deletions (indels) in protein sequences are potential powerful evolutionary markers. However, these characters have rarely been explored systematically at deep phylogenetic levels. Previous analyses of simple (2-state) clade defining indels (CDIs) in universal eukaryotic proteins found none to support any major animal clade. We hypothesized that CDIs might still be found in the remaining population of indels, which we term complex indels. Here, we propose a method for analyzing the simplest class of complex indels the “slightly complex indels”, and use these to investigate deep branches in animal phylogeny. Complex indels with two states, called bi-state indels, show similar evolutionary patterns to singleton simple indels and confirms that insertion mutations are more common than deletions. Exploration of CDIs in 2- to 9-state complex indels shows strong support for all examined branches of fungi and Archaeplastida. Surprisingly, we also found CDIs supporting major branches in animals, particular in vertebrates. We then expanded the search to non-bilaterial animals (Porifera, Cnidaria and Ctenophora). The phylogenetic tree reconstructed by CDIs places the Ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi as the deepest branch of animals with 6 CDIs support. Trichoplax adhaerens is closely related to the Bilateria. Moreover, the indel phylogeny shows Nematostella vectensis and Hydra magnipapillata are paraphyletic group and position of Cnidarian branches seems to be problematic in the indel phylogeny because of homoplasy. This might be solved if we discover CDIs from animal specific proteins, which emerged after the universal orthologous proteins.Evolutionary Patterns in Slightly Complex Protein Insertions/Deletions (Indels) and Their Application to the Study of Deep Phylogeny in Metazoa

  • 15.
    Ajawatanawong, Pravech
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Baldauf, Sandra L.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Evolution of protein indels in plants, animals and fungi2013In: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 13, p. 140-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Insertions/deletions (indels) in protein sequences are useful as drug targets, protein structure predictors, species diagnostics and evolutionary markers. However there is limited understanding of indel evolutionary patterns. We sought to characterize indel patterns focusing first on the major groups of multicellular eukaryotes. Results: Comparisons of complete proteomes from a taxonically broad set of primarily Metazoa, Fungi and Viridiplantae yielded 299 substantial (>250aa) universal, single-copy (in-paralog only) proteins, from which 901 simple (present/absent) and 3,806 complex (multistate) indels were extracted. Simple indels are mostly small (1-7aa) with a most frequent size class of 1aa. However, even these simple looking indels show a surprisingly high level of hidden homoplasy (multiple independent origins). Among the apparently homoplasy-free simple indels, we identify 69 potential clade-defining indels (CDIs) that may warrant closer examination. CDIs show a very uneven taxonomic distribution among Viridiplante (13 CDIs), Fungi (40 CDIs), and Metazoa (0 CDIs). An examination of singleton indels shows an excess of insertions over deletions in nearly all examined taxa. This excess averages 2.31 overall, with a maximum observed value of 7.5 fold. Conclusions: We find considerable potential for identifying taxon-marker indels using an automated pipeline. However, it appears that simple indels in universal proteins are too rare and homoplasy-rich to be used for pure indel-based phylogeny. The excess of insertions over deletions seen in nearly every genome and major group examined maybe useful in defining more realistic gap penalties for sequence alignment. This bias also suggests that insertions in highly conserved proteins experience less purifying selection than do deletions.

  • 16.
    Allen, Marie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Bjerke, Mia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Karolinska Inst, Dept Lab Med, SE-14186 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Edlund, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Nelander, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Neuro-Oncology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Westermark, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Neuro-Oncology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Origin of the U87MG glioma cell line: Good news and bad news2016In: Science Translational Medicine, ISSN 1946-6234, E-ISSN 1946-6242, Vol. 8, no 354, article id 354re3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human tumor-derived cell lines are indispensable tools for basic and translational oncology. They have an infinite life span and are easy to handle and scalable, and results can be obtained with high reproducibility. However, a tumor-derived cell line may not be authentic to the tumor of origin. Two major questions emerge: Have the identity of the donor and the actual tumor origin of the cell line been accurately determined? To what extent does the cell line reflect the phenotype of the tumor type of origin? The importance of these questions is greatest in translational research. We have examined these questions using genetic profiling and transcriptome analysis in human glioma cell lines. We find that the DNA profile of the widely used glioma cell line U87MG is different from that of the original cells and that it is likely to be a bona fide human glioblastoma cell line of unknown origin.

  • 17. Alstrup, Vagn
    et al.
    Aptroot, Andre
    Divakar, Pradeep K.
    LaGreca, Scott
    Tibell, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Lichens from Tanzania and Kenya III: Macrolichens and calicioid lichens2010In: Cryptogamie Mycologie, ISSN 0181-1584, E-ISSN 1776-100X, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 333-351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    156 species of macrolichens and calicioid lichens are reported from Tanzania and Kenya. 28 species are new for Tanzania and 2 for Kenya. New for Africa are Hypotrachyna novella, H. physcioides, Melanelia panniformis, Physcidia squamulosa, and Xanthoparmelia microspora.

  • 18.
    Alvarez, Jose M.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala BioCtr, Dept Plant Biol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Linnean Ctr Plant Biol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Sohlberg, Joel
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala BioCtr, Dept Plant Biol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Linnean Ctr Plant Biol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Engström, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Physiological Botany.
    Zhu, Tianqing
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala BioCtr, Dept Plant Biol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Linnean Ctr Plant Biol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Englund, Marie
    Linnean Ctr Plant Biol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Uppsala Univ, Dept Organismal Biol, Physiol Bot, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Moschou, Panagiotis N.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala BioCtr, Dept Plant Biol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Linnean Ctr Plant Biol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    von Arnold, Sara
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala BioCtr, Dept Plant Biol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Linnean Ctr Plant Biol, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    The WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 3 gene PaWOX3 regulates lateral organ formation in Norway spruce2015In: New Phytologist, ISSN 0028-646X, E-ISSN 1469-8137, Vol. 208, no 4, p. 1078-1088Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In angiosperms, WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 3 (WOX3) genes are required for the recruitment of founder cells from the lateral domains of shoot meristems that form lateral regions of leaves. However, the regulation of the formation of lateral organs in gymnosperms remains unknown. By using somatic embryos of Norway spruce ( Picea abies) we have studied the expression and function of PaWOX3 during embryo development. The mRNA abundance of PaWOX3 was determined by quantitative real-time PCR, and the spatial expression of PaWOX3 was analysed by histochemical beta-glucuronidase (GUS) assays and in situ mRNA hybridization. To investigate the function of PaWOX3, we analysed how downregulation of PaWOX3 in RNA interference lines affected embryo development and morphology. PaWOX3 was highly expressed in mature embryos at the base of each cotyledon close to the junction between the cotyledons, and in the lateral margins of cotyledons and needles, separating them into an adaxial and an abaxial side. Downregulation of the expression of PaWOX3 caused defects in lateral margin outgrowth in cotyledons and needles, and reduced root elongation. Our data suggest that the WOX3 function in margin outgrowth in lateral organs is conserved among the seed plants, whereas its function in root elongation may be unique to gymnosperms.

  • 19.
    Ament-Velasquez, Sandra Lorena
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Univ Montpellier, Inst Evolutionary Sci, CNRS, IRD,EPHE, Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier, France..
    Figuet, E.
    Univ Montpellier, Inst Evolutionary Sci, CNRS, IRD,EPHE, Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier, France..
    Ballenghien, M.
    Univ Montpellier, Inst Evolutionary Sci, CNRS, IRD,EPHE, Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier, France..
    Zattara, E. E.
    Indiana Univ, Dept Biol, 107 S Indiana Ave, Bloomington, IN 47405 USA.;Smithsonian Inst, Natl Museum Nat Hist, Dept Invertebrate Zool, 10th St & Constitut Ave NW, Washington, DC 20560 USA..
    Norenburg, J. L.
    Smithsonian Inst, Natl Museum Nat Hist, Dept Invertebrate Zool, 10th St & Constitut Ave NW, Washington, DC 20560 USA..
    Fernandez-Alvarez, F. A.
    CSIC Barcelona, Inst Ciencies Mar, Barcelona 08003, Spain..
    Bierne, J.
    Univ Reims, Lab Biol Cellulaire & Mol, 9 Blvd Paix, F-51100 Reims, France..
    Bierne, N.
    Univ Montpellier, Inst Evolutionary Sci, CNRS, IRD,EPHE, Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier, France..
    Galtier, N.
    Univ Montpellier, Inst Evolutionary Sci, CNRS, IRD,EPHE, Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier, France..
    Population genomics of sexual and asexual lineages in fissiparous ribbon worms (Lineus, Nemertea): hybridization, polyploidy and the Meselson effect2016In: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 25, no 14, p. 3356-3369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparative population genetics in asexual vs. sexual species offers the opportunity to investigate the impact of asexuality on genome evolution. Here, we analyse coding sequence polymorphism and divergence patterns in the fascinating Lineus ribbon worms, a group of marine, carnivorous nemerteans with unusual regeneration abilities, and in which asexual reproduction by fissiparity is documented. The population genomics of the fissiparous L. pseudolacteus is characterized by an extremely high level of heterozygosity and unexpectedly elevated pi(N)/pi(S) ratio, in apparent agreement with theoretical expectations under clonal evolution. Analysis of among-species allele sharing and read-count distribution, however, reveals that L. pseudolacteus is a triploid hybrid between Atlantic populations of L. sanguineus and L. lacteus. We model and quantify the relative impact of hybridity, polyploidy and asexuality on molecular variation patterns in L. pseudolacteus and conclude that (i) the peculiarities of L. pseudolacteus population genomics result in the first place from hybridization and (ii) the accumulation of new mutations through the Meselson effect is more than compensated by processes of heterozygosity erosion, such as gene conversion or gene copy loss. This study illustrates the complexity of the evolutionary processes associated with asexuality and identifies L. pseudolacteus as a promising model to study the first steps of polyploid genome evolution in an asexual context.

  • 20.
    Anderson, Jennifer L
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Nieuwenhuis, Bart P. S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology. Division of Evolutionary Biology, Faculty of Biology, Ludwig- Maximilians-Universität München.
    Johannesson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Asexual reproduction and growth rate: independent and plastic lifehistory traits in Neurospora crassa2019In: The ISME Journal, ISSN 1751-7362, E-ISSN 1751-7370, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 780-788Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Andersson, Carin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organism Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organism Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Katsiadaki, Ioanna
    Holt, William V
    Van Look, Katrien J W
    Örberg, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organism Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    A chemometrical approach to study interactions between ethynylestradiol and an AhR-agonist in stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)2010In: Journal of Chemometrics, ISSN 0886-9383, E-ISSN 1099-128X, Vol. 24, no 11-12, p. 768-778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quantifiable responses in fish, such as induction of certain proteins, can be used as indicators of chemical contamination of waterways. In order to evaluate differences in ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) induction capacity of the gill and the liver and effects on organs and biomarker proteins, e.g. gill and liver EROD, hepatosomatic index (HSI), nephrosomatic index (NSI), gonadosomatic index (GSI), spiggin, vitellogenin and sperm motility were analysed in male three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) exposed for 21 days to β-naphthoflavone (βNF) alone (Exp 1) or in combination with 17α-ethynylestradiol (EE2) (Exp 2). The sperm motility variables were studied using computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA).

    Exp 1: Gill EROD activity was significantly induced in fish exposed to ≥1.2 µg/l and hepatic EROD activity in fish exposed to ≥6 µg/l. No significant effect of ßNF on the production of spiggin or vitellogenin or on sperm variables was found.

    Exp 2: A significant additative effect of EE2 + βNF was shown for gill EROD. A significant antagonistic effect of the two compounds was found on NSI where an increased EE2 concentration led to an increase in NSI while an increased concentration of βNF led to a decreased NSI. Interestingly, the results showed that exposure to intermediate concentrations of EE2 and ßNF led to a significant increase in the sperm variables. In the aquatic environment mixtures of numerous chemicals with oestrogenic activity are present, so if the capacity to induce gill EROD activity is a general property of oestrogen-acting chemicals, our findings are important.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Cellular transport and secretion of the cyanobacterial neurotoxin BMAA into milk and egg: Implications for developmental neurotoxicity2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The cyanobacterial amino acid β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is a neurotoxin implicated in the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases. Cyanobacteria are cosmopolitan organisms present in various environments. BMAA can cause long-term neurodegenerative alterations in rats exposed during the neonatal period, a period that corresponds to the last trimester and the first few years of life in humans. As BMAA has been reported to be bioaccumulated in the aquatic food chain and detected in mussels, crayfish and fish used for human consumption, the main aim of this thesis has been to investigate the final step in the mammalian food-chain, i.e. the transfer of BMAA into breast milk.

    Autoradiographic imaging and mass spectrometry analysis showed an enantiomer-selective uptake of BMAA and that the neurotoxin was transferred from lactating mice and rat, via the milk, to the brain of the nursed pups. The results show that transport of BMAA may be disproportional to dose. In addition, BMAA was found present both as free amino acid and tightly associated to proteins in rat brains. Surprisingly, however, no association to milk proteins was found. In vitro studies of murine (HC11) and human (MCF7) mammary epithelial cells suggest that BMAA can pass the human mammary epithelium into milk. Additional transport studies on human intestinal, glioblastoma and neuroblastoma cells showed that L-BMAA was consistently favored over D-BMAA and that the transport was mediated by several amino acid transporters. We also demonstrated that egg-laying quail transfer BMAA to its offspring by deposition in the eggs, particularly in the yolk but also in the albumen. Furthermore, comparative analysis of carboxyl- and methyl-labeled [14C]-BMAA suggested that BMAA was not metabolized to a large degree.

    Altogether, the results indicate that BMAA can be transferred from mothers, via the milk, to the brain of nursed human infants. Determinations of BMAA in mothers’ milk and cows’ milk are therefore warranted. We also propose that birds’ eggs could be an additional source of BMAA exposure in humans. It might therefore be of concern that mussels are increasingly used as feed in commercial egg production.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Marie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Ersson, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Bergström, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Potential transfer of neurotoxic amino acid beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) from mother to infant during breast-feeding: Predictions from human cell lines2017In: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, ISSN 0041-008X, E-ISSN 1096-0333, Vol. 320, p. 40-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    β-N-methylamino-alanine (BMAA) is a non-protein amino acid produced by cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates. BMAA has potential to biomagnify in a terrestrial food chain, and to bioaccumulate in fish and shellfish. We have reported that administration of [14C]l-BMAA to lactating mice and rats results in a mother to off-spring transfer via the milk. A preferential enantiomer-specific uptake of [14C]l-BMAA has also been demonstrated in differentiated murine mammary epithelium HC11 cells. These findings, together with neurotoxic effects of BMAA demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo, highlight the need to determine whether such transfer could also occur in humans. Here, we used four cell lines of human origin to examine and compare the transport of the two BMAA enantiomers in vitro. The uptake patterns of [14C]l- and [14C]d-BMAA in the human mammary MCF7 cell line were in agreement with the results in murine HC11 cells, suggesting a potential secretion of BMAA into human breast milk. The permeability coefficients for both [14C]l- and [14C]d-BMAA over monolayers of human intestinal Caco2 cells supported an efficient absorption from the human intestine. As a final step, transport experiments confirmed that [14C]l-and [14C]d-BMAA can be taken up by human SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cells and even more efficiently by human U343 glioblastoma cells. In competition experiments with various amino acids, the ASCT2 specific inhibitor benzylserine was the most effective inhibitor of [14C]l-BMAA uptake tested here. Altogether, our results suggest that BMAA can be transferred from an exposed mother, via the milk, to the brain of the nursed infant.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Marie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Karlsson, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Ctr Mol Med, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Banack, Sandra
    Inst Ethnomed, POB 3464, Jackson, WY 83001 USA.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Transfer of developmental neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) via milk to nursed offspring: Studies by mass spectrometry and image analysis2016In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 258, p. 108-114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cyanobacterial non-proteinogenic amino acid beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is proposed to be involved in the etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism dementia complex. When administered as single doses to neonatal rats, BMAA gives rise to cognitive and neurodegenerative impairments in the adult animal. Here, we employed mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and autoradiographic imaging to examine the mother-to-pup transfer of BMAA in rats. The results show that unchanged BMAA was secreted into the milk and distributed to the suckling pups. The concentration of BMAA in pup stomach milk and the neonatal liver peaked after 8 h, while the concentration in the pup brain increased throughout the study period. About 1 and 6% of the BMAA recovered from adult liver and brain were released following hydrolysis, suggesting that this fraction was associated with protein. No association to milk protein was observed. Injection of rat pups with [methyl-C-14]-L-BMAA or [carboxyl-C-14]-L-BMAA resulted in highly similar distribution patterns, indicating no or low metabolic elimination of the methylamino- or carboxyl groups. In conclusion, BMAA is transported as a free amino acid to rat milk and suckling pups. The results strengthen the proposal that mothers' milk could be a source of exposure for BMAA in human infants. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Marie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Karlsson, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Bergström, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Brittebo, Eva B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Correction: Maternal Transfer of the Cyanobacterial Neurotoxin β-N-Methylamino-L-Alanine (BMAA) via Milk to Suckling Offspring2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 10, article id e78133Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Andersson, Marie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Karlsson, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Bergström, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Brittebo, Eva B.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Maternal Transfer of the Cyanobacterial Neurotoxin beta-N-Methylamino-L-Alanine (BMAA) via Milk to Suckling Offspring2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 10, p. e78133-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cyanobacterial neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been implicated in the etiology of neurodegenerative disease and proposed to be biomagnified in terrestrial and aquatic food chains. We have previously shown that the neonatal period in rats, which in humans corresponds to the last trimester of pregnancy and the first few years of age, is a particularly sensitive period for exposure to BMAA. The present study aimed to examine the secretion of C-14-labeled L-and D-BMAA into milk in lactating mice and the subsequent transfer of BMAA into the developing brain. The results suggest that secretion into milk is an important elimination pathway of BMAA in lactating mothers and an efficient exposure route predominantly for L-BMAA but also for D-BMAA in suckling mice. Following secretion of [C-14] L-BMAA into milk, the levels of [C-14] L-BMAA in the brains of the suckling neonatal mice significantly exceeded the levels in the maternal brains. In vitro studies using the mouse mammary epithelial HC11 cell line confirmed a more efficient influx and efflux of L-BMAA than of D-BMAA in cells, suggesting enantiomer-selective transport. Competition experiments with other amino acids and a low sodium dependency of the influx suggests that the amino acid transporters LAT1 and LAT2 are involved in the transport of L-BMAA into milk. Given the persistent neurodevelopmental toxicity following injection of L-BMAA to neonatal rodent pups, the current results highlight the need to determine whether BMAA is enriched mother's and cow's milk.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Marie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Karlsson, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Deposition of cyanobacterial neurotoxin beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA) in birds' egg: A potential source of BMAA exposure in humansManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Andersson, Marie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Karlsson, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    The environmental neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (l-BMAA) is deposited into birds' eggs2018In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 147, p. 720-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    C-carboxyl-labeled BMAA were compared. The results revealed a pronounced incorporation of radioactivity in the eggs, predominantly in the yolk but also in the albumen. Imaging analysis showed that the concentrations of radioactivity in the liver decreased about seven times between the 24h and the 72h time points, while the concentrations in egg yolk remained largely unchanged. At 72h the egg yolk contained about five times the concentration of radioactivity in the liver. Both BMAA preparations gave rise to similar distribution pattern in the bird tissues and in the eggs, indicating metabolic stability of the labeled groups. The demonstrated deposition into eggs warrants studies of BMAAs effects on bird development. Moreover, birds' eggs may be a source of human BMAA exposure, provided that the laying birds are exposed to BMAA via their diet.

  • 29.
    Andreasen, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Eremalche2012In: The Jepson manual: vascular plants of California / [ed] Bruce G. Baldwin, Berkeley: University of California Press , 2012, 2nd ed.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Andreasen, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Phylogeny, Hybridization, and Evolution of Habit and Breeding System in Sidalcea and Eremalche (Malvaceae)2012In: International journal of plant sciences, ISSN 1058-5893, E-ISSN 1537-5315, Vol. 173, no 5, p. 532-548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reconstructing the phylogeny of the western North American Sidalcea-Eremalche lineage provides an opportunity to study the evolution of different fundamental traits considered to play an important role in plant evolution. These plants display different life-history strategies, such as annual and perennial habit and hermaphroditic and gynodioecious breeding systems, enabling evolutionary investigation of these traits in a phylogenetic context. Difficult species delimitations have been suggested to be caused by hybridization in combination with polyploidy. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on sequences of the chloroplast intron rpl16 and nuclear ribosomal DNA show that the genera are strongly supported as monophyletic sister lineages, and the polytomy in Sidalcea in both data sets likely represents a rapid radiation event. Coastal California is indicated as ancestral area for Sidalcea, in agreement with earlier biogeographical hypotheses. Hybridization hypotheses gained support from the chloroplast DNA data for the hexaploid Sidalcea lineage and for S. sparsifolia and S. pedata. Sidalcea section Annuae, including the annuals, represents a paraphyletic assemblage. The shift between annual and perennial habit must have happened at least four times, but reversals to perenniality appear unlikely. At least five reversals from the gynodioecious to the hermaphroditic condition are inferred, possibly due to population bottlenecks in some lineages.

  • 31.
    Andreasen, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Potential hybridization in real data sets: complex relationships in young flowering plants2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Andreasen, Katarina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Baldwin, Bruce G.
    Jespon Herbarium, University of California, Berkeley.
    Evolutionary and historical biogeographic perspectives on the genus Arnica (Asteraceae–Madieae): nuclear ribosomal DNA evidence2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Andreasen, Katarina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Manktelow, Mariette
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Sehic, Jasna
    Garkava-Gustavsson, Larisa
    Genetic identity of putative Linnaean plants: Successful DNA amplification of Linnaeus's crab apple Malus baccata2014In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 63, no 2, p. 408-416Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Advancements in molecular techniques enable us to extract DNA from historic herbarium specimens and facilitate genetic comparisons between herbarium material and living plant collections. These recent advances offer an exciting opportunity for identifying extant Linnaean plants by genetic comparisons of Linnaeus's own herbarium specimens with potentially remnant plants from his cultivations. DNA from the lectotype of Malus baccata (L.) Borkh. in the Linnaean Herbarium was successfully extracted and amplified for five of twelve loci of microsatellites. Results of genetic comparisons with M. baccata trees from Linnaeus's Hammarby, Sweden, show that the trees at Hammarby are closely related to each other, but not to the lectotype, which is closer to material from Russia. This suggests that Linnaeus received M. baccata from more than one source. Although not close to the lectotype and not represented by a specimen in the Linnaean Herbarium, the extant M. baccata at Hammarby may still represent Linnaean plants, that were grown by Linnaeus himself, or the descendants to such plants. Future studies on the almost 50 living, potential Linnaean plants may reveal an invaluable biological, scientific and cultural heritage from the era that saw the rise of systematic biology.

  • 34.
    Angthong, Pacharaporn
    et al.
    Chulalongkorn Univ, Program Biotechnol, Fac Sci..
    Roytrakul, Sittiruk
    Natl Sci & Technol Dev Agcy, Natl Ctr Genet Engn & Biotechnol BIOTEC..
    Jarayabhand, Padermsak
    Chulalongkorn Univ, Grad Sch, Interdisciplinary Grad Program Maritime Adm..
    Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Characterization and function of a tachylectin 5-like immune molecule in Penaeus monodon2017In: Developmental and Comparative Immunology, ISSN 0145-305X, E-ISSN 1879-0089, Vol. 76, p. 120-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tachylectin5A and its homolog, tachylectin5B both contain a fibrinogen-related domain (FReD) and have been studied in horseshoe crabs, Tachypleus tridentatus and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda and shown to be involved in host defense. Here, we demonstrate the presence of tachylectin5-like genes in shrimp, Penaeus monodon, designated as Penlectin5-1 (PL5-1) and Penlectin5-2 (PL5-2), which both contain a signal peptide and a single FReD with an acetyl group and a calcium binding sites and they are both structurally similar to horseshoe crab tachylectin/carcinolectin5. The PL5-land PL5-2 transcript were expressed in various shrimp tissues in normal shrimp, and their expression was upregulated in tissues such as hemocytes and hindgut following challenge with pathogenic Vibrio harveyi. The PL5-2 protein was detected in various tissues as well as in cell-free hemolymph. The biological function of the PL5-2 protein is to recognize some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria regardless whether they are non-pathogenic or pathogenic. They have hemagglutination activity on human erythrocyte and bacterial agglutination activity to both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria. Possible binding sites of PL5-2 to bacteria could be at the N-acetyl moiety of the G1cNAc-MurNAc cell wall of the peptidoglycan since the binding could be inhibited by G1cNAc or GaINAC. The presence of PL5-2 protein in both circulating hemolymph and intestine, where host and microbes are usually interacting, may suggest that the physiological function of shrimp tachylectin-like proteins is to recognize and bind to invading bacteria to immobilize and entrap these microbes and subsequently clear them from circulation and the host body, and probably to control and maintain the normal flora in the intestine.

  • 35.
    Angthong, Pacharaporn
    et al.
    Program in Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University..
    Roytrakul, Sittiruk
    National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC); National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA)..
    Jarayabhand, Padermsak
    Interdisciplinary Graduate Program on Maritime Administration, Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University..
    Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Involvement of a tachylectin-like gene and its protein in pathogenesis of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in the shrimp, Penaeus monodon2017In: Developmental and Comparative Immunology, ISSN 0145-305X, E-ISSN 1879-0089, Vol. 76, p. 229-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A shrimp disease, the so-called acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is caused by a specific strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP) and it has resulted in significant losses to the global shrimp farming industry. In our previous study, three of tachylectin-like genes were cloned and characterized from the intestine of Penaeus monodon, designated as Penlectin5-1 (PL5-1), Penlectin5-2 (PL5-2) and Penlectin5-3 (PL5-3). These three genes all contain fibrinogen-related domain (FReD). The expression level of PL5-1, PL5-2 and PL5-3 was elevated in the stomach after oral administration with AHPND-causing V. parahaemolyticus 3HP (VP3HP). A polyclonal antibody to PL5-2 was successfully produced in a rabbit using the purified recombinant P15-2 as an immunogen, and this because only the predominant protein PL5-2 could be successfully purified from shrimp plasma by affinity chromatography using a N-Acetyl-oglucosamine column allowed us to perform functional studies of this lectin. The native purified PL5-2 protein had binding and agglutination activities towards VP3HR To further understand the functions and the involvements of this lectin in response to AHPND in shrimp, RNAi-mediated knockdown of PL5-1, PL5-2 or PL5-3 was performed prior to an oral administration of VP3HP. As a result, Penlectin5-silencing in shrimp challenged with VP3HP showed higher mortality and resulted in more severe histopathological changes in the hepatopancreas with typical signs of AHPND. These results therefore suggest a role for crustacean fibrinogen-related proteins (FRePs) in innate immune response during the development of AHPND, and maybe also during other infections.

  • 36.
    Annas, Anita
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Granberg, A Lizette
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organism Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brittebo, Eva B
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Differential response of cultured human umbilical vein and artery endothelial cells to Ah receptor agonist treatment: CYP-dependent activation of food and environmental mutagens2000In: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, ISSN 0041-008X, E-ISSN 1096-0333, Vol. 169, no 1, p. 94-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-hydroxylase, and covalent binding of H-3-labeled 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (H-3-Trp-P-1) and H-3-DMBA were examined in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human umbilical artery endothelial cells (HUAEC) exposed to the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor agonist beta -naphthoflavone (BNF) or vehicle only. The results revealed a marked induction of enzymatic activity in BNF-treated HUVEC compared with vehicle-treated cells, whereas no similar response was observed in BNF-treated HUAEC. EROD, DMBA hydroxylase, and covalent binding of H-3-Trp-P-1 and H-3-DMBA in BNF-treated HUVEC were reduced in the presence of the CYP1A inhibitor ellipticine. Addition of other CYP1A inhibitors ru-naphthoflavone, miconazole, 1-ethynylpyrene, 1-(1-propynyl)pyrene, or the CYP1A substrate ethoyresorufin to the incubation buffer of BNF-treated HUVEC reduced covalent binding of H-3-Trp-P-1 by 93-98%. Western blot analysis confirmed an induction of CYP1A1 in BNF-treated HUVEC, but not in BNF-treated HUAEC. CYP1A1 was, however, detected in both vehicle- and BNF-treated HUAEC. The results showed that BNF exposure induced CYP1A1 and metabolic activation of xenobiotics in HUVEC, whereas the catalytic activity remained low in BNF-treated HUAEC. Our results suggest that endothelial lining of human veins may be a target for adverse effects of xenobiotics activated into reactive metabolites by Ah receptor-regulated enzymes. Several studies have detected CYP1A1 in endothelial linings, whereas expression of CYP1A2 and CYP1B1 seems to be negligible at this site. This suggests that the metabolic activation and covalent binding of H-3-Trp-P-1 and H-3-DMBA in HUVEC are most likely mediated by CYP1A1.

  • 37.
    Anslan, Sten
    et al.
    Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Tartu, Estonia..
    Bahram, Mohammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Tartu, Estonia.
    Hiiesalu, Indrek
    Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, Tartu, Estonia..
    Tedersoo, Leho
    Univ Tartu, Nat Hist Museum, Tartu, Estonia..
    PipeCraft: Flexible open-source toolkit for bioinformatics analysis of custom high-throughput amplicon sequencing data2017In: Molecular Ecology Resources, ISSN 1755-098X, E-ISSN 1755-0998, Vol. 17, no 6, p. e234-e240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High-throughput sequencing methods have become a routine analysis tool in environmental sciences as well as in public and private sector. These methods provide vast amount of data, which need to be analysed in several steps. Although the bioinformatics may be applied using several public tools, many analytical pipelines allow too few options for the optimal analysis for more complicated or customized designs. Here, we introduce PipeCraft, a flexible and handy bioinformatics pipeline with a user-friendly graphical interface that links several public tools for analysing amplicon sequencing data. Users are able to customize the pipeline by selecting the most suitable tools and options to process raw sequences from Illumina, Pacific Biosciences, Ion Torrent and Roche 454 sequencing platforms. We described the design and options of PipeCraft and evaluated its performance by analysing the data sets from three different sequencing platforms. We demonstrated that PipeCraft is able to process large data sets within 24hr. The graphical user interface and the automated links between various bioinformatics tools enable easy customization of the workflow. All analytical steps and options are recorded in log files and are easily traceable.

  • 38.
    Anslan, Sten
    et al.
    Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, 14A Ravila, EE-50411 Tartu, Estonia..
    Bahram, Mohammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Univ Tartu, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, 14A Ravila, EE-50411 Tartu, Estonia.
    Tedersoo, Leho
    Univ Tartu, Nat Hist Museum, 14A Ravila, EE-50411 Tartu, Estonia..
    Seasonal and annual variation in fungal communities associated with epigeic springtails (Collembola spp.) in boreal forests2018In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 116, p. 245-252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soil fauna mediate nutrient cycling through engineering physical properties and altering microbial commtmities in soil. Collembola is one of the most abundant groups of soil fauna, which regulates microbial communities by consumption and dispersal. The spatial structure of associations between Collembola and soil microbes have been described in several studies, but temporal variation of these associations remains unclear. Using high throughput sequencing, we studied the fungal communities on Collembola (Entomobiya nivalis, Orchesella flavescens, Pogonognathellus longicornis) body surface, gut and their immediate habitat (topsoil samples) in four seasons across three years. The soil samples were characterized by fairly uniform relative abundance of saprotrophic and mycorrhizal fungi, whereas collembolans were associated mostly with saprotrophs. The structure of fungal communities from all substrate types exhibited comparable patterns of temporal distance decay of shnilarity. Unlike in soil, fungal richness and composition in Collembola body and gut samples exhibited seasonal and annual variation, with a significant interaction term, indicating low predictability. These results reflect spatial and temporal plasticity of the fungal communities associated with epigeic Collembola, indicating the high adaptability of collembolans to available conditions. We found that the Collembola associations with fungi (including diet) did not vary among the studied epigeic Collembola species. The detected high diversity of fungi associated with Collembola suggests that dispersal by arthropod vectors may represent a powerful alternative to aerial dispersal of fungal propagules.

  • 39. Anslan, Sten
    et al.
    Bahram, Mohammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Tedersoo, Leho
    Temporal changes in fungal communities associated with guts and appendages of Collembola as based on culturing and high-throughput sequencing2016In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 96, p. 152-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to high abundance and feeding habits, invertebrates are of great importance for shaping microbial communities at the fine scale. Springtails (Collembola) that feed on fungal spores and mycelia may contribute to dispersal through carrying fungal propagules in their guts or on their appendages. The Collembola–fungal associations are mainly investigated by microscopy or culturing techniques, which allow identify only fungi that have distinctive morphological characteristics or that can be cultured in vitro. Here we identified the Collembola-associated fungi on the body surface and in the gut content using both culturing and high-throughput sequencing (HTS) methods. We studied three epigeic Collembola species found on the Norway spruce dominated forest stands throughout the vegetation period – Entomobrya nivalisOrchesella flavescens andPogonognathellus longicornis. We discovered over 1200 fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs), i.e. the proxies for species, based on 97% sequence similarity of the ITS2 subregion of ribosomal DNA. Most of the fungi were saprotrophs, but we detected also mycorrhizal, parasitic and lichenized fungi. Season was the most important factor affecting fungal richness and composition, especially on body surface. Although the data matrix revealed significant effect of substrate, we were unable to detect the significant fungal community differences between body surface and gut samples of conspecifics. There were no significant differences among studied epigeic Collembola species in the preference for fungal diet. Our study demonstrates that collembolans associate with a broader range of fungi than previously observed and thus potentially play an important role in enhancing fungal colonization through dispersal activities.

  • 40.
    Anslan, Sten
    et al.
    Braunschweig Univ Technol, Zool Inst, Mendelssohnstr 4, D-38106 Braunschweig, Germany.
    Nilsson, R. Henrik
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Biol & Environm Sci, Gothenburg Global Biodivers Ctr, Box 461, S-40530 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wurzbacher, Christian
    Tech Univ Munich, Coulombwall 3, D-85748 Garching, Germany.
    Baldrian, Petr
    Czech Acad Sci, Inst Microbiol, Videnska 1083, Prague 14220 4, Czech Republic.
    Tedersoo, Leho
    Tartu Univ, Nat Hist Museum, 14a Ravila, Tartu 50411, Estonia.
    Bahram, Mohammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Tartu Univ, Inst Ecol & Earth Sci, 14a Ravila, EE-50411 Tartu, Estonia;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Ecol, Ulls Vag 16, S-75651 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Great differences in performance and outcome of high-throughput sequencing data analysis platforms for fungal metabarcoding2018In: MycoKeys, ISSN 1314-4057, E-ISSN 1314-4049, no 39, p. 29-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Along with recent developments in high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies and thus fast accumulation of HTS data, there has been a growing need and interest for developing tools for HTS data processing and communication. In particular, a number of bioinformatics tools have been designed for analysing metabarcoding data, each with specific features, assumptions and outputs. To evaluate the potential effect of the application of different bioinformatics workflow on the results, we compared the performance of different analysis platforms on two contrasting high-throughput sequencing data sets. Our analysis revealed that the computation time, quality of error filtering and hence output of specific bioinformatics process largely depends on the platform used. Our results show that none of the bioinformatics workflows appears to perfectly filter out the accumulated errors and generate Operational Taxonomic Units, although PipeCraft, LotuS and PIPITS perform better than QIIME2 and Galaxy for the tested fungal amplicon dataset. We conclude that the output of each platform requires manual validation of the OTUs by examining the taxonomy assignment values.

  • 41.
    Apitanyasai, Kantamas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology. Chulalongkorn Univ, Dept Biochem, Ctr Excellence Mol Biol & Genom Shrimp, Fac Sci, 254 Phayathai Rd, Bangkok 10330, Thailand..
    Noonin, Chadanat
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Tassanakajon, Anchalee
    Chulalongkorn Univ, Dept Biochem, Ctr Excellence Mol Biol & Genom Shrimp, Fac Sci, 254 Phayathai Rd, Bangkok 10330, Thailand..
    Söderhäll, Irene
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Söderhäll, Kenneth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Comparative Physiology.
    Characterization of a hemocyte homeostasis-associated-like protein (HHAP) in the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus2016In: Fish and Shellfish Immunology, ISSN 1050-4648, E-ISSN 1095-9947, Vol. 58, p. 429-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hemocyte homeostasis-associated-like protein (HHAP) in the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus has a distinct role from that of its homolog PmHHAP in the shrimp Penaeus monodon. Knockdown of PIHHAP in vitro using double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) had no effect on the cell morphology of hematopoietic tissue (HPT) cells. The total hemocyte number and caspase activity were unchanged after PIHHAP knockdown in vivo, in contrast to the results found in shrimp. Moreover, suppression of PIHHAP both in vitro and in vivo did not change the mRNA levels of some genes involved in hematopoiesis and hemocyte homeostasis. Interestingly, bacterial count and scanning electron microscope revealed that depletion of PIHHAP in intestine by RNAi resulted in higher number of bacteria in the crayfish intestine. Together, these results suggest that PIHHAP is not involved in hemocyte homeostasis in the crayfish P. leniusculus but appears to affect the bacterial number in the intestine through an unknown mechanism. Since PIHHAP has different functions from PmHHAP, we therefore named it HHAP-like protein.

  • 42. Applequist, Wendy L.
    et al.
    Callmander, Martin W.
    Davidse, Gerrit
    Sennikov, Alexander
    Thulin, Mats
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organism Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Vorster, Piet
    Yatskievych, George
    Apportionment of institutional votes for the Nomenclature Section: A rebuttal to Smith & al.2010In: Taxon, ISSN 0040-0262, E-ISSN 1996-8175, Vol. 59, no 5, p. 1567-1570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smith & al. (2010) have suggested that the apportionment of institutional votes for the Nomenclature Section of the International Botanical Congress based upon taxonomic activity represents a "colonial legacy" that disadvantages developing nations, and that institutional votes should instead be distributed based at least in part upon a country's human population and the size of its flora. While we agree that increasing participation by developing-country taxonomists is an important goal, we believe that Smith & al. fail to support their claim that the current practice of plant nomenclature is harmful to developing nations. No evidence has been offered of regional biases regarding proposals to change the wording of the Code, which represent the vast majority of the votes taken at any Nomenclature Section, nor has the current process of apportionment of institutional votes been shown to be biased. The reform measures proposed by Smith & al. would, as we show, introduce explicit discrimination based on nationality into the International code of botanical nomenclature, undermining the international cooperation among taxonomists that is necessary for the smooth functioning of a universally accepted system of nomenclature. Rather than making hasty and perhaps harmful changes to the current means of voting, we suggest that the international taxonomic community should consider carefully what measures will best facilitate participation without creating new sources of injustice.

  • 43.
    Aresh, Bejan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Developmental Genetics.
    Peuckert, Christiane
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Dissection and Culture of Mouse Embryonic Kidney2017In: Journal of Visualized Experiments, ISSN 1940-087X, E-ISSN 1940-087X, no 123, article id e55715Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this protocol is to describe a method for the dissection, isolation, and culture of mouse metanephric rudiments. During mammalian kidney development, the two progenitor tissues, the ureteric bud and the metanephric mesenchyme, communicate and reciprocally induce cellular mechanisms to eventually form the collecting system and the nephrons of the kidney. As mammalian embryos grow intrauterine and therefore are inaccessible to the observer, an organ culture has been developed. With this method, it is possible to study epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and cellular behavior during kidney organogenesis. Furthermore, the origin of congenital kidney and urogenital tract malformations can be investigated. After careful dissection, the metanephric rudiments are transferred onto a filter that floats on culture medium and can be kept in a cell culture incubator for several days. However, one must be aware that the conditions are artificial and could influence the metabolism in the tissue. Also, the penetration of test substances could be limited due to the extracellular matrix and basal membrane present in the explant. One main advantage of organ culture is that the experimenter can gain direct access to the organ. This technology is cheap, simple, and allows a large number of modifications, such as the addition of biologically active substances, the study of genetic variants, and the application of advanced imaging techniques.

  • 44.
    Asghar, Naveed
    et al.
    Sodertorn Univ, Sch Nat Sci Technol & Environm Studies, Huddinge, Sweden.;Orebro Univ, Sch Med Sci, Orebro, Sweden.;Orebro Univ, Fac Med & Hlth, iRiSC, Orebro, Sweden..
    Pettersson, John H.-O.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol & Modelling, Oslo, Norway.;Natl Vet Inst, Dept Microbiol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Dinnetz, Patrik
    Sodertorn Univ, Sch Nat Sci Technol & Environm Studies, Huddinge, Sweden..
    Andreassen, Ashild
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Div Infect Dis Control, Dept Virol, Oslo, Norway..
    Johansson, Magnus
    Orebro Univ, Sch Med Sci, Orebro, Sweden.;Orebro Univ, Fac Med & Hlth, iRiSC, Orebro, Sweden..
    Deep sequencing analysis of tick-borne encephalitis virus from questing ticks at natural foci reveals similarities between quasispecies pools of the virus2017In: Journal of General Virology, ISSN 0022-1317, E-ISSN 1465-2099, Vol. 98, no 3, p. 413-421Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes severe central nervous system infection in 10 000 to 15 000 people in Europe and Asia. TBEV is maintained in the environment by an enzootic cycle that requires a tick vector and a vertebrate host, and the adaptation of TBEV to vertebrate and invertebrate environments is essential for TBEV persistence in nature. This adaptation is facilitated by the error-prone nature of the virus's RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, which generates genetically distinct virus variants called quasispecies. TBEV shows a focal geographical distribution pattern where each focus represents a TBEV hotspot. Here, we sequenced and characterized two TBEV genomes, JP-296 and JP-554, from questing Ixodes ricinus ticks at a TBEV focus in central Sweden. Phylogenetic analysis showed geographical clustering among the newly sequenced strains and three previously sequenced Scandinavian strains, Toro-2003, Saringe-2009 and Mandal-2009, which originated from the same ancestor. Among these five Scandinavian TBEV strains, only Mandal-2009 showed a large deletion within the 3' non-coding region (NCR), similar to the highly virulent TBEV strain Hypr. Deep sequencing of JP-296, JP-554 and Mandal-2009 revealed significantly high quasispecies diversity for JP-296 and JP-554, with intact 3' NCRs, compared to the low diversity in Mandal-2009, with a truncated 3' NCR. Single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis showed that 40% of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms were common between quasispecies populations of JP-296 and JP-554, indicating a putative mechanism for how TBEV persists and is maintained within its natural foci.

  • 45. Aspenstrom-Fagerlund, Bitte
    et al.
    Tallkvist, Jonas
    Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Medicine.
    Glynn, Anders W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Oleic acid increases intestinal absorption of the BCRP/ABCG2 substrate, mitoxantrone, in mice2015In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 237, no 2, p. 133-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) decrease intestinal absorption of many food toxicants. Oleic acid increases absorption of the specific BCRP substrate mitoxantrone (MXR), and also BCRP gene expression in human intestinal Caco-2 cells, suggesting that oleic acid affect the BCRP function. Here, we investigated the effect of oleic acid on intestinal absorption of MXR in mice. Mice were orally dosed with 2.4 g oleic acid/kg b.w. and 1 mg MXR/kg b.w., and sacrificed 30, 60, 90 or 120 min after exposure, or were exposed to 0.6, 2.4 or 4.8 g oleic acid/kg b.w. and 1mg MXR/kg b.w., and sacrificed 90 min after exposure. Mice were also treated with Ko143 together with MXR and sacrificed after 60 min, as a positive control of BCRP-mediated effects on MXR absorption. Absorption of MXR increased after exposure to oleic acid at all doses, and also after exposure to Ko143. Intestinal BCRP gene expression tended to increase 120 min after oleic acid exposure. Our results in mice demonstrate that oleic acid decreases BCRP-mediated efflux, causing increased intestinal MXR absorption in mice. These findings may have implications in humans, concomitantly exposed to oleic acid and food contaminants that, similarly as MXR, are substrates of BCRP.

  • 46. Aspenström-Fagerlund, Bitte
    et al.
    Tallkvist, Jonas
    Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases.
    Glynn, Anders W.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Oleic acid decreases BCRP mediated efflux of mitoxantrone in Caco-2 cell monolayers2012In: Food and Chemical Toxicology, ISSN 0278-6915, E-ISSN 1873-6351, Vol. 50, no 10, p. 3635-3645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) efflux restricts intestinal absorption of substances like heterocyclic amines, mycotoxins and certain human and veterinary drugs. Fat rich meals seem to increase absorption of drugs which are BCRP substrates or inhibitors. We therefore hypothesize that absorption of toxicants normally effluxed by BCRP are increased by fatty acids in food. Transport across and accumulation of H-3-Mitoxantrone (MXR) in Caco-2 cell monolayers were measured after 60 min exposure to emulsions of H-3-MXR (1 mu M) and oleic acid (0.5-5 mM). In addition, BCRP gene expression (RT-PCR) and the amount of BCRP protein (Western blot) were measured in oleic acid exposed Caco-2 cells. Oleic acid increased transport of MXR in a concentration dependent manner and 2 mM oleic acid or higher increased accumulation of MXR in cells, without any signs of cytotoxicity. Gene expression of BCRP was increased after exposure to oleic acid for 6 h, but the amount of BCRP protein was not increased. In conclusion, oleic acid clearly induced BCRP gene expression and reduced BCRP mediated efflux, although the amount of BCRP in cells was not affected. Consequently, effects of fatty acids on BCRP mediated efflux are important to consider in risk assessment of toxicants in food.

  • 47. Astin, T. R.
    et al.
    Marshall, J.E.A
    Blom, Henning
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organism Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Berry, C.M.
    The sedimentary environment of the Late Devonian EastGreenland tetrapods2010In: Geological Society Special Publication, ISSN 0305-8719, E-ISSN 2041-4927, Vol. 339, p. 93-109Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Atkinson, Gemma
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organism Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Baldauf, Sandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organism Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Evolution of elongation factor G and the origins of mitochondrial and chloroplast forms2011In: Molecular biology and evolution, ISSN 0737-4038, E-ISSN 1537-1719, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 1281-1292Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protein synthesis elongation factor G (EF-G) is an essential protein with central roles in both the elongation and ribosome recycling phases of protein synthesis. Although EF-G evolution is predicted to be conservative, recent reports suggest otherwise. We have characterized EF-G in terms of its molecular phylogeny, genomic context and patterns of amino acid substitution. We find that most bacteria carry a single "canonical" EF-G, which is phylogenetically conservative and encoded in an str operon. However, we also find a number of EF-G paralogs. These include a pair of EF-Gs that are mostly found together and in an eclectic subset of bacteria, specifically delta-proteobacteria, spirochaetes and planctomycetes (the "spd" bacteria). These spdEFGs have also given rise to the mitochondrial factors mtEFG1 and mtEFG2, which probably arrived in eukaryotes before the eukaryotic last common ancestor. Meanwhile, chloroplasts apparently use an α-proteobacterial derived EF-G, rather than the expected cyanobacterial form. The long-term co-maintenance of the spd/mtEFGs may be related to their subfunctionalization for translocation and ribosome recycling. Consistent with this, patterns of sequence conservation and site-specific evolutionary rate shifts suggest that the faster evolving spd/mtEFG2 has lost translocation function, but, surprisingly, the protein also shows little conservation of sites related to recycling activity. On the other hand, spd/mtEFG1, although more slowly evolving, shows signs of substantial remodeling. This is particularly extensive in the GTPase domain, including a highly conserved three amino acid insertion in switch I. We suggest that sub-functionalization of the spd/mtEFGs is not a simple case of specialization for subsets of original activities. Rather the duplication allows the release of one paralog from the selective constraints imposed by dual functionality thus allowing it to become more highly specialized. Thus the potential for fine-tuning afforded by subfunctionalization may explain the maintenance of EF-G paralogs.

  • 49.
    Augstein, Frauke
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Physiological Botany.
    Carlsbecker, Annelie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Physiological Botany.
    Getting to the Roots: A Developmental Genetic View of Root Anatomy and Function From Arabidopsis to Lycophytes2018In: Frontiers in Plant Science, ISSN 1664-462X, E-ISSN 1664-462X, Vol. 9, article id 1410Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Roots attach plants to the ground and ensure efficient and selective uptake of water and nutrients. These functions are facilitated by the morphological and anatomical structures of the root, formed by the activity of the root apical meristem (RAM) and consecutive patterning and differentiation of specific tissues with distinct functions. Despite the importance of this plant organ, its evolutionary history is not clear, but fossils suggest that roots evolved at least twice, in the lycophyte (clubmosses and their allies) and in the euphyllophyte (ferns and seed plants) lineages. Both lycophyte and euphyllophyte roots grow indeterminately by the action of an apical meristem, which is protected by a root cap. They produce root hairs, and in most species the vascular stele is guarded by a specialized endodermal cell layer. Hence, most of these traits must have evolved independently in these lineages. This raises the question if the development of these apparently analogous tissues is regulated by distinct or homologous genes, independently recruited from a common ancestor of lycophytes and euphyllophytes. Currently, there are few studies of the genetic and molecular regulation of lycophyte and fern roots. Therefore, in this review, we focus on key regulatory networks that operate in root development in the model angiosperm Arabidopsis. We describe current knowledge of the mechanisms governing RAM maintenance as well as patterning and differentiation of tissues, such as the endodermis and the vasculature, and compare with other species. We discuss the importance of comparative analyses of anatomy and morphology of extant and extinct species, along with analyses of gene regulatory networks and, ultimately, gene function in plants holding key phylogenetic positions to test hypotheses of root evolution.

  • 50.
    Aydin, Ebru
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Kloos, Dick-Paul
    Gay, Emmanuel
    Jonker, Willem
    Hu, Lijuan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Evolution and Developmental Biology.
    Bullwinkel, Joern
    Brown, Jeremy P.
    Manukyan, Maria
    Giera, Martin
    Singh, Prim B.
    Fundele, Reinald
    A hypomorphic Cbx3 allele causes prenatal growth restriction and perinatal energy homeostasis defects2015In: Journal of Biosciences, ISSN 0250-5991, E-ISSN 0973-7138, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 325-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mammals have three HP1 protein isotypes HP1 beta (CBX1), HPl gamma (CBX3) and HP1 alpha (CBX5) that are encoded by the corresponding genes Cbx1, Cbx3 and Cbx5. Recent work has shown that reduction of CBX3 protein in homozygotes for a hypomorphic allele (Cbx3(hypo)) causes a severe postnatal mortality with around 99% of the homozygotes dying before weaning. It is not known what the causes of the postnatal mortality are. Here we show that Cbx3(hypo/hypo) conceptuses are significantly reduced in size and the placentas exhibit a haplo-insufficiency. Late gestation Cbx3(hypo/hypo) placentas have reduced mRNA transcripts for genes involved in growth regulation, amino acid and glucose transport. Blood vessels within the Cbx3(hypo/hypo) placental labyrinth are narrower than wild-type. Newborn Cbx3(hypo/hypo) pups are hypoglycemic, the livers are depleted of glycogen reserves and there is almost complete loss of stored lipid in brown adipose tissue (BAT). There is a 10-fold reduction in expression of the BAT-specific Ucp1 gene, whose product is responsible for non-shivering themogenesis. We suggest that it is the small size of the ChX3(hypo/hypo) neonates, a likely consequence of placental growth and transport defects, combined with a possible inability to thermoregulate that causes the severe postnatal mortality.

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