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  • 1.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Boesen, Jesper
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Helenius, Ola
    Örebro universitet.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Palm, Torulf
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Palmberg, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Matematikutbildningens mål och undervisningens ändamålsenlighet: grundskolan våren 20092009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Boesen, Jesper
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Helenius, Ola
    Örebro universitet.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Palm, Torulf
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Palmberg, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Matematikutbildningens mål och undervisningens ändamålsenlighet: gymnasiet hösten 20092010Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 3.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Podcasting mathematics2013Ingår i: The International Journal for Technology in Mathematics Education, ISSN 1744-2710, E-ISSN 2045-2519, Vol. 20, nr 4, 147-155 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study podcasts, i.e. short video clips, were analysed to ascertain how mathematical competencies were addressed. We analysed how the mathematical content was presented in the podcasts, and then how these characterizations related to eight students’ interest to learn mathematics. The mathematical presentations was analysed using the Mathematical Competencies Research Framework (Lithner et al., 2010). The results indicate that podcasts that address several mathematical competencies receive overall higher grades by the students in the study.

  • 4.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM).
    What is “strong presence” of a message in a steering document?2012Ingår i: Proceedings of Norma 11, The Sixth Nordic Conference on Mathematics Education in Reykjavík, May 11-14, 2011 / [ed] G. H. Gunnarsdóttir, F. Hreinsdóttir, G. Pálsdóttir, M. Hannula, M. Hannula-Sormunen, E. Jablonka, U. T. Jankvist, A. Ryve, P. Valero & K. Wæge, Reykjavík, Iceland: University of Iceland Press, 2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to discuss what a “strong presence” of a message in a syllabuscould be. The discussion takes a starting point in what we call the reformmessage; that what mathematics is can not only be described in terms of content andprocedures, but must also be defined in terms of competencies, e.g. problem solving,reasoning and communication. The analyzed document is the Swedish syllabus forthe first course at upper secondary school. Different ways, both quantitative andqualitative, of determining what a strong presence of a message could be are presentedand discussed.

  • 5.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå forskningscentrum för matematikdidaktik (UFM). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Mathematical reasoning in teachers' presentations2012Ingår i: Journal of Mathematical Behavior, ISSN 0732-3123, E-ISSN 1873-8028, Vol. 31, nr 2, 31 s.252-269 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of the opportunities presented to students that allow them to learn different types of mathematical reasoning during teachers’ ordinary task solving presentations. The characteristics of algorithmic and creative reasoning that are seen in the presentations are analyzed. We find that most task solutions are based on available algorithms, often without arguments that justify the reasoning, which may lead to rote learning. The students are given some opportunities to see aspects of creative reasoning, such as reflection and arguments that are anchored in the mathematical properties of the task components, but in relatively modest ways.

  • 6.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Bridging the Distance in Teacher Education: Teachers’ Perspectives on Process-Based Assessment2013Ingår i: Transformative Dialogues, ISSN 1918-0853, Vol. 6, nr 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a research project in which a group of teachers in a pre-school teacher education programme based at a 'satellite' study centre in a distant rural area used digital personal development planning (PDP) as a means to bridge the distance. A qualitative approach was taken that aimed to develop a greater understanding of the teacher-student relationship through research questions addressing the student role, the learning process and the assessment process. A didactical design for process-based assessment was developed and structured into three phases involving questions of the students' previous knowledge, reflections and learning. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and a student questionnaire. The material was analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The underpinning principles of power and control were helpful for understanding the social relations in the teacher-student relationship within this online context. The results indicate a conflict between the student-centred curriculum and traditional beliefs in the teacher-student relationship.

  • 7.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Rapport för projektet: ”Indikatorer och instrument för analys av professionsutveckling”2013Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här rapporten återrapporteras en förstudie där ett utvärderingsinstrument konstruerats och utprovats. Instrumentets konstruktion tar utgångspunkt i Bernsteins (2000) teori för symbolisk makt och kontroll. Projektet har två syften. Syftet är dels att med hjälp av ett instrument utvärdera om utbildningen till ingenjör vid TFE är studentcentrerad. Vidare är syftet också att konstruera och utprova ett utvärderingsinstrument utifrån sociologisk teori. Två forskningsfrågor konstruerades som dels fokuserar på hur lärare-student relationen kan förstås i tre olika program samt hur väl utvärderingsinstrumentet fungerar. Resultatet visar att bland de 14 studenter som besvarade enkäten kan lärare-student relationen betraktas som studentcentrerad. Karaktären på utbildningen indikerar en kollegial relation mellan lärare och elev. En vanlig studie form för att lära sig kursinnehållet är genom projektarbeten. En annan slutsats är behovet av fler respondenter för att kunna utvärdera instrumentets tillförlitlighet.  

  • 8.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Den andra rapporten för projektet "Lärmiljön för studerande i masterprogrammet i omvårdnad"2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här rapporten redovisas den andra intervjuomgången av studenter i masterporgrammet i omvårdnad. Det övergripande syftet är att förstå de kunskaper som studenter i masterprogrammet i omvårdnad förvärvar under utbildningen. För att besvara syftet har följande forskningsfrågor formulerats: 1) Hur ser relationen ut mellan praktiska och teoretiska kunskaper ut i masterprogrammet i omvårdnad? 2) Vilka möjligheter och val ges till studenterna i de kurser de läser i masterprogrammet i omvårdnad? 3) På vilka sätt ”studievägleder” studenten sig själv i masterprogrammet i omvårdnad? Under höstterminen 2014 har totalt sex studenter intervjuats. Intervjuerna fokuserade på följande områden: studentens arbete, studentens val av kurser, examensmål i masterutbildningen. Resultatet indikerar från vilka utgångspunkter studenter väljer kurser samt vilka kunskaper de möter. För studenterna föreligger en fara för reproduktion av horisontell kunskap i kontrast till val av kurser där studenterna möter kunskaper som kommuniceras med ett mer abstrakt språk.

  • 9.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Lärmiljön för studerande i masterprogrammet i omvårdnad2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här rapporten sammanfattas den intervjustudie som skett i masterprogrammet i omvårdnad under höstterminen 2013. Programmet sker på distans med 50% studietakt. Projektets målsättning är att studera studentens process genom masterprogrammet. Processen har avgränsats till att dels studera hur studenten själv kan skapa en individuellt anpassad utbildning och dels att studera studenternas lärprocess i de valbara kurserna. Syftet med föreliggande rapport är att förstå hur studenterna uppfattat sin första termin i masterprogrammet i omvårdnad. För att besvara syftet formulerades två forskningsfrågor: 1) Hur beskriver studenterna möjligheterna att individualisera sin utbildning under höstterminen 2013? 2) Vad kännetecknar de valbara eller tillgodoräknade kursernas design och genomförande under höstterminen 2013? Resultatet indikerar tre teman 1) att skapa sin individuella inriktning i programmet 2) Undervisningens utformning 3) Att knäcka koden. Sammanfattningsvis indikerar resultatet att programmets avsikt att skapa självständiga studenter står i relation till att inom de individuellt valda kurserna finns ringa möjligheter till självständighet.

  • 10.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Rapport nr 2: "Indikatorer och instrument för analys av professionsutveckling"2014Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten är skriven för den andra omgången i projektet ”Indikatorer och instrument för professionsutveckling”. I föreliggande projektet studeras undervisningskontexter utifrån Bernsteins (2000) teori för makt och kontroll i den pedagogiska kommunikationen. I studien ingår utbildningarna till högskoleingenjör i programmen Elektronik och datorteknik, Maskinteknik, Medieproducent och civilingenjörsprogrammet i Industriell ekonomi. Syftet är att förstå hur undervisningens reglering påverkar student-lärarrelationen samt hur studenten upplever sin egen möjlighet till inflytande över innehåll, arbetsformer och examination i utbildningen. En forskningsfråga konstruerades för att besvara syftet: Hur påverkar olika undervisningsupplägg student-lärarrelationen? Instrumentet från föregående delrapport (Bergström, 2013) från vt13 distribuerades till fler informanter och program. Resultatet visar att den pedagogiska kommunikationen skiljer sig mellan programmen. Programmen Industriell ekonomi och Maskinteknik har en mer lärarcentrerad kommunikation än programmen Elektronik- och datorteknik och i Medieproducent utbildningen. Dessa skillnader innebär för utbildningarna att det är olika reglering mellan lärare och student i förutsättningarna för lärande.

  • 11.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Shifting the emphasis from teaching to learning: process-based assessment in nurse education2011Ingår i: International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, ISSN 1492-3831, E-ISSN 1492-3831, Vol. 12, nr 5, 108-124 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Shifting from an emphasis on teaching to learning is a complex task for both teachers andstudents. This paper reports on a qualitative study of teachers in a nurse specialist educationprogramme meeting this shift in a distance education course. The study aimed togain a better understanding of the teacher-student relationship by addressing researchquestions in relation to the students’ role, the learning process, and the assessment process.A didactical design comprising three phases focusing on distinct learning outcomesfor the course was adopted. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with teachersand were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The results indicate a shift towardsa problematising and holistic approach to teaching, learning, and assessment. This shifthighlighted a teacher-student relationship with a shared responsibility in the orchestrationof the learning experience. The overall picture outlines a distance education experience ofprocess-based assessment characterised by the imposition of teachers’ rules and a lack ofcreativity due to the limited role of ICT merely as a container of content.

  • 12.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Kommunikation i webbaserad videokonferens: dialog, form och innehåll2006Ingår i: Fyra studier om fortbildning av universitetslärare i Kvarkenområdet / [ed] Gun-Marie Frånberg, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2006, 7-28 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 13.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Designing for the unknown: Didactical design for process-based assessment in technology-rich learning environments2012Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is based on a study of the development of education through theinnovative use of process-based assessment in technology-rich learningenvironments in teacher and nurse education. The study of process-basedassessment addresses the aim of creating a better understanding of the shiftin emphasis from teaching to learning with regard to theory and practice.The research questions address the use of process-based assessment, andhow the social relationships and issues of content can be understood intechnology-rich learning environments. A methodological approachinvolving design-based research was found to be especially applicable. Thestudy was designed in three iterative didactical design cycles for processbasedassessment in which the first and third cycles were analysed. Theempirical material comprises qualitative semi-structured interviews withteachers and students and questionnaires with students. The empiricalmaterial was analysed through inductive thematic analysis. The theoreticalanalyses in the comprising articles are mainly based on Bernstein’stheoretical framework for studying social relationships through concepts ofsymbolic power and control. For understanding change, with regard to theshift in emphasis from teaching to learning, the analysis is taken to a metalevelby applying Bernstein’s concept of pedagogical device.The results outline the shift in emphasis from teaching to learning fromboth a theoretical and practice perspective. Theoretically, the shift inemphasis from teaching to learning is based upon a shift in symbolic powerand control for teachers. In practice, the shift of symbolic power and controlbetween the teacher, student and content outline considerable overlapsbetween teacher-student, teacher-content and student-content. The overlapshighlight the empirical contribution in this thesis through the concept of“process” that is understood as a negotiation between teacher-student,teacher-content and student-content. The weakening symbolic powerrelationship made a multi-dimensional analysis of the teacher-studentcontentrelationship possible. Theoretically, the shift of symbolic poweroutlines a process of recontextualisation of a new discourse for teaching,learning and assessment. The multi-dimensional analysis highlights thetheoretical contributions to understanding the concept of discourse fromBernstein’s perspective through which the content and context create thediscourse. For practice, process-based assessment frames the notion ofdesigning for the unknown. Designing for the unknown is considered as aframework based upon a set of rules through which teachers and studentsadapt to a problematising approach in teaching, learning and assessment

  • 14.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Didactical design for online process-based assessment in teacher education: Making the informal formal2012Ingår i: Cases on Online Learning Communities and Beyond: Investigations and Applications / [ed] Harrison Hao Yang and Shuyan Wang, Hersey: IGI Global, 2012, 403-425 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter reports on a research project in which a group of students in preschoolteacher education participated in an educational intervention based on thedevelopment of process-based assessment. A didactical design was developed andstructured into three phases for supporting students in building formal knowledgefrom their prior informal knowledge. Moreover, the design was implemented in anonline context that facilitated documentation and reflection. A qualitative approachwas taken that aimed to understand the learning environment emerging from thedidactical design through the use of technology by addressing questions about theteacher’s role, the learning process, and the assessment process. Data was collectedthrough in-depth interviews and a questionnaire, which were analyzed through inductivethematic analysis. The concept of variation was used in the analysis of thestudent perspective on the didactical design. The results indicate how the concept ofvariation was helpful in highlighting the underpinning affordances and constraintsof this environment and the associated social relationships.

  • 15.
    Bergström, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Comparative research based on one-to-one computing classroom studies in Sweden and Finland2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The approach to compare Research topic/Aim:

    The aim of this round table is to discuss methodological and theoretical approaches for comparative analysis. In particular, the focus concerns three aspects: 1) approaches to make comparisons of teachers’ teaching with digital technologies (e.g. one-to-one computing) in Swedish and Finnish compulsory school, and 2) what are the possibilities and challenges of making comparative analysis based on qualitative data?, and 3) what is the needs and reasons for making comparative analysis of teachers’ teaching with digital technologies?

    Theoretical frameworks:

    Methodology/research design:

    The quantitative Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) has showed great impact in comparative studies between countries. PISA compares pupil skills in applying knowledge in new situations. Finland has shown great success in such comparisons while in Sweden an educational crisis in media was reported. A growing body of research argue for a need of both qualitative and quantitative studies between countries. Comparative studies are afflicted with a several difficulties based on unclear purposes regarding what it is that shall be compared (Alexander, 2000). In qualitative comparative research there seems to be an emphasis of policy studies that sometimes are complemented with teacher interviews (e.g. Carlgren & Klette, 2008). One problem with interviews concern that the teachers’ narratives demonstrate the teachers’ wish in contrast to how they actually teach. Against this backdrop, in the comparative studies there is a need for systematically analysis of how teachers really teach based on classroom observations as a complement to policy studies and teacher interviews (Alexander, 2000; Phillips & Schweisfurth, 2014).

    Expected conclusions/Findings:

    The session starts with a presentation of two projects about teachers’ didactical design in one-to-one computing classrooms in Sweden and Finland. The Swedish project took place during 2014-2016 and the Finnish project took place during 2015-2016. A possible next step is to make comparative study on the empirical material. The empirical material consists of qualitative data based on 60 classroom observations and 60 teacher interviews and 10 principal interviews collected in compulsory schools in Sweden and Finland. During this session a theoretical framework is presented that possibly can support comparative analysis. Briefly, the theoretical approach is based on Bernstein’s (1990, 2000) concepts for symbolic power (classification) and control (framing). This framework constructs the possibility of a two dimensional analysis. Firstly, the spatial dimension highlights the precondition of the classroom based on the symbolic boarders between different categories such as the relationship between desks, or the symbolic boarders between ICT and other resources. The relative concept of classification indicates privileging features of classroom spatiality, or on whom power is conferred upon. Secondly, the teachers’ teaching is analysed based on the principle of who controls what. The concept of framing indicates who has the right to select content, sequence, pacing, and how assessment is communicated. In the results, an attempt was made to illustrate the relationship between the one-to-one computing classroom spaces in relation to the one-to-one computing teaching practices based on the concepts of classification and framing. After the presentation the floor is open for discussion among the participants.

     

  • 16.
    Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Granberg, Carina
    Umeå universitet, Fakultet för lärarutbildning, Interaktiva medier och lärande.
    Process diaries: formative and summative assessment in e-learning courses2007Ingår i: Advanced Principles of Effective e-learning / [ed] Nicole A. Buzzetto-More, Santa Rosa: Informing Science Press , 2007, 21- s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 17.
    Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Häll, Lars
    Kuuskorpi, Marko
    Jahnke, Isa
    Teacher’s Didactical Design in Finnish 1:1 Tablet Classrooms: Perspectives on Content and Meaning2016Ingår i: Leading Education: The Distinct Contributions of Educational Research and Researchers, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the first year of a two-year study in Finland about Finnish teachers didactical design in one-to-one (1:1) tablet classrooms. In it’s simplest form 1:1 means that each student and teacher is equipped with a computing device. In this study all students and teachers are equipped with an Apple iPad. Compared to other European countries (EUN, 2013) the digitalisation of Finnish schools progress at a slow rate where the ratio of computers per child in year 7-9 is among the lowest, but has started to increase. The project is conducted during the transition from the 2004 national curriculum to the 2016 national curriculum. Researchers indicate that equipping each student with a digital device is a great challenge for the so-called ecology of the classroom (Håkansson Lindqvist, 2015). Aspect of digitalisation concerns wireless Internet access (WiFi) and cloud computing. Such technologies highlight the notion of what content students have access to and how content is shared among teachers and students. Traditionally, teaching have been organised with textbooks while with 1:1 computing students got access to a great number of new resources that possibly challenges the thinking of what represents content. However, it is not the content per se that create students learning experience, it is how the teacher design students’ learning expedition (Jahnke, Norqvist and Olsson, 2014) with the curriculum and the content.

    Aim and research questions

    The aim of this paper is to contribute to knowledge about teachers’ didactical design in schools with one-to-one tablet programs.

    - What characterises the students’ interaction with the content in one-to-one tablet contexts?

    - How can we understand the teachers’ didactical design based on the relationship between the privileging features of the one-to-one tablet context in relation to the teaching practice?

    Theoretical framework

    The theoretical framework attempts to draw upon both didactics and sociology. Didactics is a complex field with great diversity and nuances, mainly because of diversity in school systems (Meyer, 2012). One common core among didacticians is Bildung (Hopmann, 2007). Further, Hopmann positions Bildung within the concepts of “matter and meaning” (Hopmann, 2007 p.116). In classroom practice, the subject matters are guided by the curriculum while the meaning is the result of teachers’ didactical design that creates the unique experience between the student and the content. Further, the concepts “matter and meaning” highlight the relationship between the curriculum and the teachers’ freedom. Teachers’ freedom highlight teachers’ didactical design (Hudson, 2011;Jahnke, Norqvist and Olsson, 2014) thinking when organising the best possible conditions for students acquisition of knowledge. This experience illuminates the concept of Bildung that goes beyond merely content oriented learning. The teachers’ enacted didactical design in practice is analysed through Bernstein’s (Bernstein, 1990; Bernstein, 2000) framework for understanding the relationship between the classroom space and the teaching practice. The relationship between objects in the classroom, its unique privileging features, is analysed through Bernstein’s relative concept of classification. In short, strong classification keeps things apart that indicate strong symbolic power relationship. The opposite is true for weak classification. This analysis contributes to our understanding of how different objects in the classroom are privileging different practices. Further, for analysing teachers’ practice the concept of framing was applied to the analysis. Framing is a relative concept on a scale from strong to weak. Stronger framing indicates that the teacher has more control over the teaching, while weaker framing indicates increased student control. Framing is operationalized in the concept of selection, sequence, pacing, evaluation and sharing. The classification and framing analysis contribute to understanding the preconditions for how meaning is created in the Finnish one-to-one tablet classrooms in relation to the curriculum. 

    Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources UsedThe methodology in this research project has been pre-tested in a Swedish study in 2014 to 2015. It was designed to explore the teachers’ didactical designs in Finnish classrooms in secondary school. Applying purposeful sampling (Patton, 1990), schools were selected where teachers and pupils have been using media tablets longer than six months, preferably within an existing one-to-one computing program in which the pupils can also use the iPads at home. We focused on innovative teachers and early adopters (Rogers, 2003). In total we have conducted 15 classroom observations in two schools in one Finnish municipality. These observations were performed during two week-long visits, one in spring and one in the fall of 2015. Data collection The classroom observations were conducted by 2-3 observers supported by one interpreter. Three types of data were collected during the observations. First, the teachers’ communication in the classroom was audio recorded. After each school visit, the audio files were sent to a chartered translator who first transcribed the files into Finnish text and then translated the text into Swedish. Second, the observers made field notes of what was going on in the classroom with support of a local translator. Third, photos and short video was also part of the documentation. The field notes and photos were elaborated, as soon as possible after the observation, into thick descriptions (Kullberg, 2004). Each lesson lasted about 45 minutes, with some exceptions. The subjects ranged from Native Language, Math, Science, English, Counselling and Home economics. The class sizes ranged from 6 to 25 students in each lesson. The observations were followed up with teacher interviews which were semi-structured by an interview guide divided into four themes: (1) background (age, gender, years as teacher, teaching subjects; first “thought” when implementing iPads); (2) the teachers teaching; (3) Learning (4) Assessment. The interviews were conducted by at least two researchers; audio-recorded and transcribed. Each interview lasted for about 60 minutes.Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or FindingsFindings from innovative tablet classrooms illustrate how the teachers’ arrangements of the classroom space create different privileging teaching practices. The privileging practices are illustrated through teachers’ interaction in situations with students. Such practices indicate how teachers’ design in practice is constrained by the precondition of the classroom space. Further, teachers’ didactical designs include the frequent use of cloud computing services (e.g. Google Drive) for sharing material with the students, and for students’ sharing material with the teacher. A complex image emerges from the students’ meeting with the content, both textbook-based or from diverse resources on the Internet. This highlights who has the right to select content and in which sequence content shall be processed. The students created different products such as movies in geography and mindmaps in religion and Keynote presentations about the learning process in Home economics. An important issue concerns the sociological notion of sharing resources and how it affects pacing. We assume that the analysed categories of selection, sequence, pacing, evaluation and sharing mirrors teachers’ didactical design of students meaning making. ReferencesBernstein, Basil. (1990). Class, Codes and Control: The Structuring of Pedagogic Discourse (Vol. 4). London and New York: Routledge.Bernstein, Basil. (2000). Pedagogy, Symbolic Control and Identity: Theory, Research, Critique (Revised Edition ed.). Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc.European Schoolnet. (2013). One laptop per child in Europe: how near are we?. Briefing papers. (2) Retrieved from http://www.eun.org/c/document_library/get_file?uuid=56f0b01a-844e-479c-994a-419bf2333ded&groupId=43887. Hopmann, Stefan. (2007). Restrain Teaching: the common core of Didaktik. European Educational Research Journal, 6(2), 109-124. doi: 10.2304/eerj.2007.6.2.109Hudson, Brian. (2011). Didactical Design for Technology Enhanced Learning. In B. Hudson & M. Meyer (Eds.), Beyond Fragmentation: Didactics, Learning and Teaching in Europe (pp. 223-238). Opladen and Farmington Hills: Verlag Barbara Budrich.Håkansson Lindqvist, Marcia. J.P. (2015). Gaining and Sustaining TEL in a 1:1 Laptop Initiative: Possibilities and Challenges for Teachers and Students. Computers in the Schools, 32(1), 35-65. doi: 10.1080/07380569.2015.1004274Jahnke, Isa, Norqvist, Lars, & Olsson, Andreas. (2014, September 16-19, 2014 ). Digital Didactical Designs of Learning Expeditions. Paper presented at the 9th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning EC-TEL 2014, Graz, Austria.Kullberg, Birgitta. (2004). Etnography in the classroom [In Swedish: Etnografi i klassrummet] (2 ed.). Lund: Studentlitteratur.Meyer, Meinert. A. (2012). Keyword: Didactics in Europe. Zeitschrift für Erziehungswissenschaft, 15, 449-482. doi: 10.1007/s11618-012-0322-8Patton, M.Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (3 ed.). London: Sage.Rogers, Everett M. (2003). Diffusion of innovations (5 ed.). New York: Free Press.

  • 18.
    Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Häll, Lars. O
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Pedagoginen suunnittelu digitaalisissa oppimisympäristöissä: Kaarina 1:1 tablettikoulut - puolivälin muistiinpanoja2016Ingår i: Opetuksen digitalisaatio, uudet oppimisympäristöt ja uusi pedagogiika / [ed] Marko Kuuskorpi ja Keijo Sipilä, Tampere: Painopaikka: Juvenus Print , 2016, 1, 56-63 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 19.
    Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Maker pedagogy in Swedish tablet-classrooms2015Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 20.
    Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    Swedish teachers' didactical design from students' perspective: perspectives on digital competences2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Research topic/Aim:

    Based on students’ perspective, the aim of this study is to understand teachers’ didactical design in contemporary one-to-one computing classroom in Sweden. The following research questions were formulated:

    1. How do teachers’ organise students’ use of one-to-one computing, and what are the effects?
    2. How are social processes constructed in the one-to-one computing learning environment based on students’ experience and use?

    Theoretical frameworks:

    In a theoretically informed analysis, we applied Bernstein’s (2000) concepts for symbolic power and control: classification and framing. Bernstein’s relative concept of classification indicates the symbolic boarders between categories, for example teachers and students. The concept of framing indicates the locus of control, or who controls what. The concepts of classification and framing is relative, either strong or weak. These concepts are used to understand how teachers’ either keep symbolic power and control, or shift the symbolic power and control towards the students in teaching and learning situations.

    Methodology/research design:

    This study is part of a greater project about the digitalisation of compulsory schools. Based on results from the bigger project, this study focused on a mixed group of students in compulsory school in grade-2, grade-6, grade-7 and grade-8 studying mathematics, arts and sports. The empirical material consists of four classroom observations, 11 focus group interviews with students and a questionnaire. The focus group interviews were based on three themes: 1) students’ basic digital skills, 2) teachers’ teaching, and 3) students’ learning. During the interviews, the approach of stimulated recall (Haglund, 2003) was used for probing students’ experiences of different teaching approaches by showing the focus groups photography’s of different one-to-one computing practices. The focus group interviews lasted between 18 to 35 minutes.

    Expected conclusions/Findings:

    Based on the concepts of classification and framing, three themes were constructed that indicated teachers and students digital competence. The first theme indicated students’ basic digital skills. This theme identified for what and how often the most common activities in which the teachers’ ask students to use one-to-one computing. The second theme indicated a piecework approach, which highlighted students’ use of one-to-one computing in class and out of class. In class use indicated a formal practice based on the teachers’ power and control, while the out of class use indicated practices based on students’ power and control. The third theme indicated the symbolic gesture of raising ones hand. This theme indicated diverse aspects how the teacher either held or dislocated symbolic control.

    Relevance for Nordic Educational Research:

    In the Nordic countries, digital competence is either already introduced or on its way to be introduced in the national steering documents. Few studies have so far focused on understanding students’ perspective of teachers’ didactical design. This study contributes to this field of research and indicates a need for a broader understanding of the concept digital competence beyond basic digital skills. Among other things, this study indicate especially how one-to-one computing constructs a need for diverse digital competences based on students’ use of one-to-one computing in class as well as out of class.

  • 21.
    Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Mårell-Olsson, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Jahnke, Isa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Teachers' Digital Didactical Design: Towards Maker Movement Pedagogies In Tablet Mediated Learning2015Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper illustrates a project about digital didactical designs in one-to-one (1:1) computing classrooms in Sweden. The study focuses on schools in four municipalities with 1:1 media tablet (iPads) programs. In Sweden, there have been two major changes that have led to new situations and new challenges for schools. A new school reform started in 2011, at the same time there was a boom using mobile web-enabled technologies in teaching and learning. With the new national curriculum LGR 11 the main changes involves stronger guidance what teachers teaching should involve at the subject level, a new grading system and specific knowledge's students should achieve in school year 3, 6 and 9. The boom of mobile technologies highlights a shift away from separating Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and education (e.g. computer labs) (Henderson & Yeow, 2012) into co-located settings (De Chiara, Di Matteo, Manno, & Scarano, 2007). Mobile technology becomes part of classrooms; both merged into new spaces for learning – we call them co-expanded spaces. In general, we assume these new situations affect the designs of teaching and learning in different aspects. Results from our previous studies in Denmark indicate a shift in students' learning culture from consumption of content into production of content (Jahnke & Kumar, 2014) similar to what Hatch (2013) addresses as the maker movement culture. In this study, we explore how teachers meet the new challenges by studying the pedagogical communication. Specifically, from a Digital Didactics approach, we explore how the new situation affects didactical designs in such new settings where physical teaching and learning spaces are expanded by mobile technologies.

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to understand the teaching and learning designs-in-practice, especially the facets of such designs in co-expanded spaces. By studying the innovative teachers' didactical designs in media tablet classrooms, a particular focus is on the social relationship as a function of the teacher-student interaction and communication.

    Research questions

    1. How can the teacher-student relationships be described and understood in relation to tablet mediated learning classroom practice?

    2. How can teachers' communication about tablet mediated teaching and learning be described and understood in relation to tablet mediated classroom practice?

    3. How can the forms of teachers’ digital didactical designs be described and understood in relation to the curriculum?

    Theoretical framework

    For understanding the designs of media tablet classroom practices, we used two sets of theories. Firstly, Jahnke, Norqvist, & Olsson's (2014) approach of digital didactical design that is based on learning intentions, learning activities, assessment, and the social relations was applied for framing the analysis. In this paper the social relations constitute the teacher-student communication, which mirrors the teachers' didactical design. For understanding the teacher-student communication, Bernstein’s (2000) theory of classification and framing was applied. The concepts of classification and framing are translated into power and control relations. Classification highlights the relation between different categories. What turns a category into a unique category is its unique relationship to other categories. The uniqueness of a category is based on its specialisation e.g. teacher or student. The degree of specialisation creates boarders and a space between the categories as either strong or weak. The outcome of the classification analysis indicates practices of media tablet classrooms. These practices are further analysed through the relative concept of framing as either strong or weak. The concept of framing contributes to the understanding of the locus of control in the teacher-student relationship. The locus of control relates to several issues in the teacher student relationship, which reflects Bernstein’s concepts of selection, sequence, pacing and evaluation.

    Methodology, Methods, Research Instruments or Sources Used

    The methodology in this research project has been pre-tested in a pilot study in Denmark in 2012 to 2014. The qualitative method has been conducted to explore the teachers' designs in Swedish classrooms ranging from preschool to upper secondary school. Applying a purposeful sampling (Patton, 1990), schools were selected where teachers and pupils have been using media tablets longer than six months, preferably within a one-to-one computing program in which the pupils can also use the iPads at home. We focused on innovative teachers and early adopters (Rogers, 2003). In total we studied schools in four municipalities in Sweden in six clusters: one preschool, one preschool class (children at age 6), and classes in school years 1-3, 4-6, 7-9, and 10-12. The schools have been visited two times during the school year 2014/2015. In total we have conducted 20 classroom observations and teacher interviews. Data collection The classroom observations were conducted of 2-3 observers. The field notes were developed, as close as possible to the observation, into thick descriptions (Kullberg, 2004) that are described as narrative, describing, analysing and interpreted. After the observations the thick descriptions were discussed until an agreement was reached among the researchers. During the observations the observer take notes, photos, short video recordings. Each lesson lasted between 40-60 minutes. The subjects range from Native Language, Math, Science, English, Spanish and Social studies. The class sizes were around 20 to 25 students in each class. The observations were followed up with teacher interviews. For the teacher interviews, a half-structured interview guide were used that is divided into five themes with sub-questions: (1) background (age, gender, years as teacher, teaching subjects; first "thought" when implementing iPads); (2) the teachers teaching; (3) Learning (4) Assessment (5) magic wizard offers three wishes (what would teacher wish). The interviews were conducted by at least two researchers; audio-recorded and transcribed. Each interview lasted for about 60 minutes. Conclusions, Expected Outcomes or FindingsFindings from the innovative media tablet classrooms indicate two sets of didactical designs. The first set of didactical design demonstrates a majority of blurred boarders between categories, ranging from teachers' organisation of desks in the classroom to the software applications used in teaching and learning. The second set of didactical designs illustrates designs based on clear boarders between categories, which indicates strong power relationships. These two sets of relationship between categories create two kinds of social relationship in the classroom. Media tablet classrooms based on weak classification indicates a pedagogical practice that involves students' decision making to a greater extent than in classrooms based on strong classification. The weak classification between categories in the classrooms becomes the underpinning framework for didactical designs where the media tablets are integrated for making products. The making of products demonstrates students' influence regarding the selection and sequence of content, for example when making films. With regard to the learning intentions in the curriculum, in students' creative work, the teachers' support student learning by using explicit and implicit criteria for keeping the right track in students' learning. An important issue concerns the sociological notion of sharing resources involving signs of changed communication and interaction patterns in the classrooms.

  • 22.
    Bergström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Årebrand, Stina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    The student-role in the one-to-one computing classroom: tensions between teacher-centred learning and student-centred learning2013Ingår i: Scaling up Learning for Sustained Impact: 8th European Conference, on Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2013, Paphos, Cyprus, September 17-21, 2013. Proceedings / [ed] Davinia Hernández-Leo, Tobias Ley, Ralf Klamma, Andreas Harrer, Berlin: Springer-Verlag New York, 2013, nr 8, 424-429 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One-to-one (1:1) computing has recently been scaled up andintegrated into learning strategies, but there have been rather few studiesabout it so far. This explorative observation and interview studyaims to gain increased understanding about the student role in the 1:1computing classroom in upper secondary school. The results demonstratea media-rich classroom based on four categories of affordances:students’ note-taking; searching the Internet; social media; and laptopsfor duplication. The four categories of affordances delineate how teachers’behaviour is influencing students and their use of laptops in thedesigned learning activities. The designs of the 1:1 classrooms are basedon technology-enhanced consumption of media as opposed to designs fortechnology-enhanced learning. It is concluded that the student role is diverseand stretched between principles of both teacher-centred learningand student-centred learning.

  • 23.
    Buchem, Ilona
    et al.
    Beuth University of Applied Science Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
    Jahnke, Isa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Pachler, Norbert
    Institute of Education, University of London, London, UK.
    Special Issue on Mobile Learning and Creativity: Current Concepts and Studies2013Ingår i: International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, ISSN 1941-8647, Vol. 5, nr 3Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Internationally, there is a growing body of research related to mobile learning dedicated to the design, implementation and evaluation of mobile learning tools and scenarios (Buchem et al., 2011). However, whilst some studies within the socio-cultural framework address important aspects such as user-generated contexts (Pachler et al., 2010), ownership and changed power relations (Traxler, 2011), the role of mobile learning for fostering creativity is still an under-explored and under-researched area. As such, the relationship between mobile learning and creativity is ambiguous and in need of attention. This Special Issue aims to contribute to this developing area of knowledge and practice while locating mobile learning with a socio-culturally orientated approach proposed by Pachler, Bachmair and Cook (2010). The papers in this volume contribute particularly to the role of mobile learning for fostering creativity. They explore the relationship between learning and creativity in different contexts (for instance, formal education, workplace learning, informal learning), and analyse ways in which mobile media and methods applied to in the design of mobile learning may – or may not – foster creative learning.

  • 24. Campbell, Lorna
    et al.
    Currier, Sarah
    Kraan, Wilbert
    Massart, David
    Paulsson, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Portelli, P
    Summary of expert contributions for the LIFE Learning Object Repository Interoperability workshop2005Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 25. Collet, Mike
    et al.
    Paulsson, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    van Assche, Frans
    Øverby, Erlend
    Curriculum exchange format (CEF): Data model2009Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 26.
    Dunkels, Elza
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Frånberg, Gun-MarieUmeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).Hällgren, CamillaUmeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Interactive media use and youth: Learning, knowledge exchange and behavior2011Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern advancements in technology have changed the way that young people use interactive media. Learning from such methods was not even considered until recently. It is now slowly defining the landscape of contemporary pedagogical practices.

    Interactive Media Use and Youth: Learning, Knowledge Exchange and Behavior provides a comprehensive collection of knowledge based on different perspectives on quantitative and descriptive studies, what goes on in the contemporary media landscape, and pedagogical research on formal and non-formal learning strategies. This book outlines interactive media as an emerging research area, growing around young people and contemporary digital arenas. The field is growing in size, shape and complexity and the need for study is urgent.

  • 27.
    Dunkels, Elza
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Frånberg, Gun-MarieUmeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).Hällgren, CamillaUmeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Youth culture and net culture: Online social practices2011Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The globalization of our society has changed the social culture of young people forever. In this day and age, this online social culture is growing in size, shape, and complexity and the need for further study is imperative.

    Youth Culture and Net Culture: Online Social Practices aims to engage the complex relationship between technology and youth culture, while outlining the details of various online social activities. This book focuses on generational aspects of online social practices, as well as other facets, such as gender and social class. Presenting the views of young people regarding social practices is paramount in a time when the educational system, policymakers and non-governmental organizations are calling for this knowledge.

  • 28.
    Dunkels, Elza
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Frånberg, Gun-Marie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Hällgren, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Young people and online risk2011Ingår i: Youth culture and net culture: online social practices / [ed] Elza Dunkels, Gun-Marie Frånberg and Camilla Hällgren, Hershey, Pennsylvania (USA): IGI Global , 2011Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The authors suspect that the young perspective has been left out when online risk and safety are discussedin contemporary research. The aim of this chapter is to give a critical approach to this matter and questionfear as a driving force for protecting young people online. Interviews with children about their views ofinternet use (Dunkels, 2007) and a study of safe use guides from European countries conducted in 2008(Lüders et al, 2009) form the empirical base. The discussion in the chapter is underpinned by ideas ofchildhood as a social construction, emerging ideas of power relations pertaining to age and theories oftechnology reception. The authors also introduce a metaphor, the layer cake, to better understand howthe same action can be viewed from different vantage points.

  • 29.
    Dunkels, Elza
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Hällgren, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Frånberg, Gun-Marie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    The invisible girl: Ceci n'est pas une fille2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation describes The Invisible Girl, a Swedish multi-disciplinary research project in which power relations, gender, online youth culture and learning are the primary objects of study.

    Many studies on young girls' and boys' internet use have been conducted during the last fifteen years of rapidly developing mass use of the internet. However, the vast bulk of this research has had a top-down, adult perspective, with very little or no intention at all to give voice to the young informants themselves. There have also been tendencies to over-emphasize the generation gap and exoticisize young people's actions. Taking a closer look at this body of research, we find the presence of discomforting gender blindness. This is evident in, for instance, the use of boys' knowledge as a norm in the sense that girls should develop the same interests and competences as boys (ITU, 2008). Furthermore, in the gender blind school, girls' digital competence has been invisible and girls' knowledge is often hidden by their own terminology (Enochsson, 2005). Simmons (2004) also claims that we do not have words to describe girls' aggressions and that the lack of words leads to difficulties in discussing the question.

    As researchers we are concerned about the unequal nature of this research field. When trying to find out what these inequalities consist of we have identified an important blind spot, both from a societal and a research point of view, which has led us to call our project The Invisible Girl. The name is inspired by Ralph Ellison's novel Invisible Man (1952). Just like Ellison portrays black Americans as being invisible, it is possible to view girls as invisible on the internet in the sense that their actions cannot be described with the existing male oriented terminology.

  • 30.
    Eriksson, Henning
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Digitizing curricula: an approach for digital usability2015Ingår i: eChallenges e-2015 Conference Proceedings / [ed] Paul Cunningham and Miriam Cunningham, Dublin: International Information Management Corporation Limited, 2015, 1-9 s.Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Steering documents for school, i.e. curricula, syllabi, subject plans and the Education Act, are not generally available in a digitally usable format. That complicates, for example, the process of building advanced curriculum-based services for schools in which individual elements are traceable. To address this problem, Swedish subject syllabi incorporating knowledge requirements for compulsory school were analyzed in terms of their structure, content type and relationship to the subject, year, and grade level. Markup describing the documents was added using Semantic Web technologies such as RDF and Linked Data to make the documents digitally usable. This paper presents a method for analyzing and marking up national steering documents. Digitally usable steering documents open up for services in which digital learning resources are connected to specific parts of the steering documents or in which steering documents from various countries can be compared, for example concerning PISA results. 

  • 31.
    Frånberg, Gun-Marie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Ambassadörer för kvinnors företagande: en teoribaserad utvärdering2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ambassadörsprojektetsinriktning och utformning riskerar att konservera snarare än ändra bilden av kvinnors företagande.

    Inledning

    Som ett led i regeringens satsning på att främja kvinnors företagande gavs Tillväxtverket 2007 i uppdrag att utse ambassadörer för kvinnors företagande i syfte att lyfta fram före-tagandet som ett möjligt karriärval hos unga genom att företagarna berättar om sitt före-tagande. Projektet skullebidra till att synliggöra kvinnors företagande och bredda bilden av företagare och företagande. Sex miljoner kronor avsattes särskilt för detta ändamålunder perioden 2011–2015. Cirka 800 kvinnor valdes ut som ambassadörer i första omgången. Arbetet utfördes utan ersättning till ambassadörerna. Ambassadörerna har gjort drygt 7000 besök och mött knappt 130 000 personer under perioden 2011–2014. Projektet har i stort uppfyllt målen om uppmärksamhet i media.

    Resultat

    Cirka 14 procent av svenska kvinnor driver företag och cirka sju procent har företagandet som huvudsyssla. Andelen företagare som är kvinnor har legat konstant mellan 25 och 30 procent under de senaste50 åren. Kvinnors företagande är koncentrerat till arbetsintensiva tjänstebranscher, särskilt inom omsorgssektorn. Bilden av företagaren är starkt manligt kodad, i både policy och forskning. Kvinnors företagande beskrivs som fundamentalt annorlunda, drivet av annan rationalitet än mäns företag. Kvinnors företag sysselsätter färre och är mindre lönsamma än företag som drivs av män.

    Slutsatser

    Under programperioden 2011–2014 skulle projektet särskilt uppmärksamma kvinnor som drev innovativa företag i tjänstesektorn. Med tanke på att kvinnor traditionellt driver före-tag inom tjänstesektorn är potentialen att ändra den traditionella bilden av kvinnors företagande liten. Ambassadörerna arbetade ideellt, vilket förstärker bilden av den tjänande kvinnan, som inte drivs av samma ekonomiska intressen som män. Att upprätta en speciell arena för att synliggöra kvinnors företagande förstärker även bilden av kvinnor som fundamentalt annorlunda företagare än män.

    Fortsatt lärande

    Attityder till kvinnors företagande är ett löst definierat begrepp och sambandet mellan attityder i stort och praktiska livsval för individen är indirekt och långsiktigt. Valet av utbildningsinriktning är många gånger centralt för valet av företagande som form för yrkesarbete. Genom att studeraolika attityder till företagande i grupper med olika utbildningsbakgrund, kanske det är möjligt att förstå hur olika aspekter –inklusive attityder –påverkar valet att bli företagare. Denna förståelse kan sedan ligga till grund för mer precist formulerade insatser för att förändra attityder till kvinnors företagande.

  • 32.
    Frånberg, Gun-Marie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Den krympande måttstocken: Om normer och barnsyn i 2000-talets förskola2015Ingår i: Efter barnets århundrade: Utmaningar för 2000-talets förskola / [ed] Frånberg, Gun-Marie, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2015, 13-30 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 33.
    Frånberg, Gun-Marie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Efter barnets århundrade: utmaningar för 2000-talets förskola2015Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 34.
    Frånberg, Gun-Marie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap.
    Dunkels, Elza
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Hällgren, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Youth and contemporary learning2011Ingår i: Interactive media use and youth: Learning, knowledge exchange and behavior / [ed] Elza Dunkels, Gun-Marie Frånberg and Camilla Hällgren, Hershey, Pennsylvania (USA): IGI Global , 2011Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the chapter is to problematize the concept of learning and common views on transformed conditions for learning; have contemporary digital media reformed the processes of learning and if so, how can the educational system benefit from and exploit this?  The chapter highlights changes and reflects on contemporary and future aspects of learning. What is seen as meaningful learning? Is learning more demanding today or does the open and abundant access to information simplify it?

  • 35.
    Frånberg, Gun-Marie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Hällgren, CamillaUmeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).Dunkels, ElzaUmeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Invisible Girl: "Ceci n'est pas une fille"2012Samlingsverk (redaktörskap) (Refereegranskat)
  • 36.
    Frånberg, Gun-Marie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Hällgren, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Dunkels, Elza
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Introductory chapter2012Ingår i: Invisible Girl: "Ceci n'est pas une fille" / [ed] Gun-Marie Frånberg, Camilla Hällgren, Elza Dunkels, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2012, 9-15 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 37.
    Frånberg, Gun-Marie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Wrethander, Marie
    University of Gothenburg.
    The rise and fall of a social problem: critical reflections on educational policy and research issues2012Ingår i: The Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies, ISSN 1740-2743, Vol. 10, nr 2, 345-362 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 38.
    Frånberg, Gun-Marie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Wrethander, Marie
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nelly, the Invisible Girl2012Ingår i: Invisible Girl: "Ceci n'est pas une fille" / [ed] Gun-Marie Frånberg, Camilla Hällgren & Elza Dunkels, Umeå: Umeå University, Sweden , 2012, 145-151 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 39.
    Fällström, Jon
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    En studie i hur gymnasieelever ochlärare upplever att en personligdator påverkar elevernas lärande: med särskild fokus vid upplevda fördelar och nackdelar2010Studentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att ge exempel på hur personliga datorer kan upplevas av eleveroch lärare på gymnasienivå. Metoderna som används är intervju med elever och lärare samtanalys av styrdokument och tidigare forskning inom området. I dag vill man från regeringsoch skolverkets håll förstärka skolans roll som förmedlare av kunskap inom IT-området. Dettalas om digitalkompetens, en färdighet man menar är nödvändig för att idag och i framtidenkunna verka i samhället. Att utrusta elever och lärare med personliga datorer i så kallade entill-en projekt är något som den senaste tiden vunnit mark. I Umeå väljer man hösten 2008och framåt att ge samtliga elever som börjar studera vid någon av de kommunala skolornatillgång till sådana datorer inom vad man benämner som elevdataprojektet. I denna studieintervjuar jag elever och lärare från en av de skolorna i kommunen.Både elever och lärare är i huvudsak positivt inställda till att få tillgång till och arbeta medpersonliga datorer. Lärarna ser bland annat fördelar i kunna anpassa lärandet till enskildaelever, att datorn förenklar inlämningar och spridning av information, att man nu lättare fårtillgång till information/material och att elever i behov av särskilt stöd har stora fördelar.Bland nackdelarna nämns bland annat okoncentration under lektionen att elever med godadatorkunskaper får större fördelar än andra och att personliga datorer ställer krav på elevernaseget ansvar. Eleverna menar att datorn låter gör det lättare att fåt tag på information, att manarbetar effektivare, att det är roligt att arbeta med en personlig dator. Nackdelar man uppleverär bland annat okoncentration under lektionerna, att datorn är tung att bära omkring och attelever med god datorkunskap har större fördelar än andra.Slutsatser som dras är bland annat att lärarens användande och integrerande av datorerna iundervisningen hur stor inverkan på upplevda fördelar och nackdelar samt att den ökadeokoncentrationen bör problematiseras då det i slutändan är osäkert om vad som är ökadokoncentration och vad som synliggjord okoncentration.

  • 40.
    Gaine, Chris
    et al.
    University of Chichester.
    Hällgren, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Pérez Domínguez, Servando
    Universidad de Santiago de Compostela.
    Salazar Noguera, Joana
    University of the Balearic Islands (UIB) .
    Chapter Five: The Reasearch Base of the Project2005Ingår i: Kids in Cyberspace: Teaching Anti-Racism using the Internet in Britain, Spain and Sweden / [ed] Chris Gain and Gaby Weiner, Oxford: Symposium Books , 2005, 75-103 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 41.
    Gaine, Chris
    et al.
    University of Chichester.
    Hällgren, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Salazar Noguera, Joana
    University of the Balearic Islands (UIB) .
    Weiner, Gaby
    Umeå universitet.
    Chapter Seven: Evaluation, Reflections and Conclusions2005Ingår i: Kids in Cyberspace: Teaching Anti-Racism using the Internet in Britain, Spain and Sweden / [ed] Chris Gain and Gaby Weiner, Oxford: Symposium Books , 2005, 125-153 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 42.
    Gaine, Chris
    et al.
    University of Chichester.
    Weiner, Gaby
    Umeå universitet.
    Carroll, Pam
    University of Chichester.
    Hällgren, Camilla
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Pérez Domínguez, Servando
    Universidad de Santiago de Compostela.
    Salazar Noguera, Joana
    Universitat de les Illes Balears.
    Chapter One: The Eurokid Project2005Ingår i: Kids in Cyberspace: Teaching Anti-Racism using the Internet in Britain, Spain and Sweden / [ed] Chris Gaine and Gaby Werner, Oxford: Symposium Books , 2005, 7-31 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 43. Goggins, S.
    et al.
    Jahnke, Isa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Herrmann, T.
    Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning at Work: CSCL@Work - Bridging Learning and Work2013Ingår i: CSCL 2013 conference proceedings volume 2: short papers, panels, posters, demos & community events / [ed] Nikol Rummel, Manu Kapur, Mitchell Nathan, Sadhana Puntambekar, 2013, 436-440 s.Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We created an interdisciplinary workshop to explore principles of computer-supported collaborative learning in work settings. The workshop's theme was, simply CSCL at work. Our first workshop at ACM Group 2010, the 2 nd at ACM Group 2012, and the resulting book, raise an important set of issues and potentials for research, but does not solve the thorny and controversial issues. This workshop wanted to make progress on the identified issues. The CSCL@Work workshop was a half-day workshop devoted to sharing innovative approaches and discussing solutions aimed at understanding studying and designing 'learning at work' supported by digital/mobile technologies. We selected the CSCL conference as an ideal venue for a workshop on this topic because the North American and European communities who participate in the Learning Sciences include leading members of the international CSCL communities. The workshops at ACM group focused more on CSCW whereas this proposed workshop on CSCL2013 included CSCL researchers. It started with contextualizing the current situation. Then, participant questions and proposed solutions aimed at the issues we have raised and begun to recognize. We focused on working groups, an approach, which supports knowledge building. To participate in the workshop, discussants was asked for a position paper of up to 2 pages in standard CSCL conference format. Our edited book was made available to participants in advance, and selected authors provided overviews of their work and perspective in an interleaved way with the more action oriented working sessions.

  • 44.
    Goggins, Sean
    et al.
    College of Information Science and Technology, Drexel University, Philadelphia .
    Jahnke, Isa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    CSCL@Work: Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning at the Workplace: Making Learning Visible in Unexpected Online Places Across Established Boundaries2013Ingår i: Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning at the Workplace: CSCL@Work / [ed] S. P. Goggins, I. Jahnke & V. Wulf, Springer-Verlag New York, 2013, 1-20 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) at the workplace (CSCL@Work) as a conceptual framework for bridging the knowledge of researchers in the field of CSCL to work-based learning. Research in the field of Organizational Learning emerged in 1978, and gathered increased attention beginning in the 1990s when the questions were focused on how to create a culture and practices for sharing existing knowledge within a firm. In addition to managing existing knowledge sharing, managing the creation of new knowledge is important for firms today. But are they able to create new knowledge when the answer to a problem is not available? What cultures of learning exist to support this? Contemporary answers to these questions must recognize that learning is an implicit, often invisible component of work. Some firms even avoid the term “learning.” From the cases presented in this book titled, CSCL@Work, we derived three theses: (1) Learning occurs in unexpected and unusual online learning places through social media. (2) Learning activities incorporate feedback from diverse sources, which are not available within traditional organizational boundaries. (3) Making learning visible across established boundaries is necessary in this new age. Designing explicit construction of new knowledge needs to be integrated into workplace practices today through pedagogical and technological design.

  • 45. Goggins, Sean
    et al.
    Jahnke, Isa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Wulf, Volker
    Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning at the Workplace: CSCL@Work2013Bok (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 46.
    Goggins, Sean P
    et al.
    Drexel University, USA.
    Jahnke, Isa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    CSCL@work: making learning visible in unexpected online places across established boundaries2012Ingår i: International Journal of Sociotechnology and Knowledge Development, ISSN 1941-6253, Vol. 4, nr 3, 17-37 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduce Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) at the workplace (CSCL@Work) as a conceptual framework for bridging the knowledge of researchers in the field of CSCL to work-based learning. Research in the field of Organizational Learning emerged in 1978, and gained further attention in the 1990’s when challenges centered on the creation of organizational cultures to support existing knowledge sharing. In contemporary firms, shepherding the creation of new knowledge is of equal importance, and is driven by two primary research questions. First, how do organizations create new knowledge when the answer to a particular problem is not available within the firm? Second, what cultures of learning must and do exist to support solving problems when the answer is not known within an organization? Contemporary answers to these questions must recognize that learning is an implicit, often invisible component of work, and explicitly decouple the construct of learning from its main western institutionalization, the school. To advance thinking in this area, we undertook a meta analysis of 8 CSCL@Work cases and developed 3 design theses: 1) Learning occurs in unexpected and unusual online learning places, especially through Social Media. 2) Learning activities incorporate feedback from diverse people, who are not available within traditional organizational boundaries; 3) learning must be made visible across established boundaries. Designing explicit construction of new knowledge needs to be integrated into workplace practices today through pedagogical and technological design.

  • 47.
    Granberg, Carina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    The social construction of blended learning design in teacher education – A struggle of discourses.2011Ingår i: Beyond fragmentation: Didactics, learning and teaching in Europe / [ed] Brian Hudson, Meinert Meyer, Opladen and Farmington Hills: Verlag Barbara Budrich , 2011, 1, 123-138 s.Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
  • 48.
    Granberg, Carina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    E-portfolios in teacher education 2002-2009: the social construction ofdiscourse, design and dissemination2010Ingår i: European Journal of Teacher Education, ISSN 0261-9768, E-ISSN 1469-5928, Vol. 33, nr 3, 309-322 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a study of the experiences of teacher educators in the introduction and development of e-portfolios over an eight-year period from 2002 to 2009 at a Swedish university. The study was conducted with 67 teacher educators in order to investigate how e-portfolios have been discussed, designed, used and disseminated during this period. Research methods involved 25 narrative interviews and a questionnaire that was completed by 42 participants. The theoretical framework of Basil Bernstein, particularly his concepts of classification, framing, educational codes and pedagogical devices, was used to analyse the data. The paper presents a discussion of the contextual circumstances in relation to classification, framing and codes that affect the social construction of e-portfolios. The results point to parallel processes resulting in a variety of discourses and designs of e-portfolios and highlighting the importance of the social construction of e-portfolios across the teacher education faculty, rather than merely their implementation

  • 49.
    Granberg, Carina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Social software for reflective dialogue: questions about reflection and dialogue in student teachers' blogs2010Ingår i: Technology, Pedagogy and Education, ISSN 1475-939X, E-ISSN 1747-5139, Vol. 19, nr 3, 345-360 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a study of 57 Swedish pre-school student teachers' experiences and achievements in using blogs for reflective dialogue over the course of 2007–2008. In order to examine the extent to which students engaged in reflective dialogue, text analyses of their blogs were carried out. Furthermore, 13 narrative interviews were conducted to illuminate students' understanding of reflection, and to establish what circumstances influenced their engagement inreflective dialogue. The framework developed by Kreber and Cranton (2000) was used to analyse the blogs in order to determine the level of reflection, while that of Gorsky and Caspi (2005) was used to illuminate students' engagement in dialogue. The article presents a discussion of the circumstances in which students engaged in reflective dialogue. Furthermore, it illuminates the relationship between engagement in dialogue and level of reflection. The importance of students' understanding of reflection, social interaction, and the methods of assessment are highlighted. 

  • 50.
    Granberg, Carina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap, Interaktiva medier och lärande (IML).
    Discovering and addressing errors during mathematics problem-solving — A productive struggle?2016Ingår i: Journal of Mathematical Behavior, ISSN 0732-3123, E-ISSN 1873-8028, Vol. 42, 33-48 s.Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates students' struggles when encountering errors in problem solving. The focus is students' problem-solving activities that lead to productive struggle and what the students might gain therefrom. Twenty-four students between the ages of 16 and 17 worked in pairs to solve a linear function problem using GeoGebra, a dynamic software application. Data in the form of recorded conversations, computer activities and post-interviews were analyzed using Hiebert and Grouws' (2007. Second handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning (Vol. 1). 404) concept of productive struggles and Schoenfeld's (1985. Mathematical problem solving: ERIC) framework for problem-solving. The study showed that all students made errors concerning incorrect prior knowledge and erroneously constructed new knowledge. All participants engaged in superficial, unproductive struggles moving between a couple of Schoenfeld's episodes. However, a majority of the students managed to transform their efforts into productive struggle. They engaged in several of Schoenfeld's episodes and succeeded in reconstructing useful prior knowledge and constructing correct new knowledge i.e., solving the problem.

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