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  • 1.
    Agüero, Ramón
    et al.
    University of Cantabria, Spain.
    Berg, Miguel
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Choque, Johnny
    University of Cantabria, Spain.
    Hultell, Johan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Jennen, Ralf
    RWTH Aachen University, Germany.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Muñoz, Luis
    University of Cantabria, Spain.
    Prytz, Mikael
    Ericsson Research.
    Strandberg, Ove
    Nokia, Finland.
    RRM Challenges for Non-Conventional and Low-Cost Networks in Ambient Networks2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an overview of the Radio Resource Management (RRM) functionalities needed for Non-Conventional and Low-Cost Networks. These types of networks are characterized by increased cooperation between different types of networks and providers and they are believed to play a fundamental role for future wireless network networking. The paper describes three specific concepts, which latter is used to identify new RRM challenges. In addition, it identifies the relation between the RRM challenges and the Ambient Networks architecture and functionalities, in particular the multiradio resource management functionality.

  • 2.
    Ahmed, Ashraf Awadelkarim Widaa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Chatzimichail, Konstantinos
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Cavdar, Cicek
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Techno-economics of Green Mobile Networks Considering Backhauling2014In: European Wireless 2014; 20th European Wireless Conference; Proceedings of, Barcelona: VDE Verlag GmbH, 2014, 1-6 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we consider a comparative analysis of different deployment solutions in terms of total cost of ownership (TCO) and impact of energy efficiency as a cost parameter, i.e. mobile operator's electric bill. Different deployment options for the wireless segment of the network are considered: macro only versus heterogeneous networks with femto cells to support indoor traffic demand. In addition to the wireless segment different technologies for the backhauling segment are also considered: microwave versus fiber (10G-PON). Considering different user traffic intensities in an urban area and different environments such as business and residential areas, the impact of energy consumption on the TCO has been analyzed. The scope of the paper is extended to compare different backhaul technologies considering the annual increase in the traffic demand up to year 2020. The obtained results indicate that the impact of electric bill becomes more significant over the TCO especially after year 2018. Moreover, the heterogeneous deployment strategy utilizing indoor femto-cells achieves significant savings in terms of electric bill and TCO compared to the macro only solution. However, the saving ratio varies according to the adopted backhauling technology.

  • 3.
    Ahmed, Ashraf Awadelkarim Widaa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Cavdar, Cicek
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Interplay Between Cost,Capacity and Power Consumption in Heterogeneous Mobile Networks2014In: 2014 21st International Conference on Telecommunications, ICT 2014, Lisbon: IEEE Press, 2014, , 5 p.98-102 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile operators nowadays tend to deploy dense heterogeneous layers of 3G and 4G networks in outdoor and indoor environments by adding more macrocells and small cells (e.g. microcells, picocells and femtocells) in response to the increasing demand for coverage and capacity. Another main driver and enabler behind this tendency is the phenomenon that around 80% of power consumption in mobile communication networks stems from the radio base stations. This situation makes mobile operators opt for the use of lowpower radio base stations to provide better coverage, capacity and an environmentally-friendly operation. In this paper the interplay between the deployment costs, targeted QoS and power consumptions have been studied considering two deployment options for the provisioning of the required mobile broadband coverage and capacity; namely the heterogeneous network (HetNet) option versus the homogenous macrocell deployment option. The main findings indicate that, the perceived saving in the total cost of ownership (TCO) resulting from offloading percentage of network traffic to indoor smallcell, in the case of HetNet, is bounded by the mobile subscriber density per area, their usage patterns, the adopted backhaul solution and the used spectrum resources. In general, a quite paying cost and power saving can be achieved by the heterogonous deployment solution for scenarios with high demand levels especially when there is a need to use the spectrum resources more efficiently.

  • 4.
    Ahmed, Ashraf Awadelkarim Widaa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Cavdar, Cicek
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Study on the effects of backhual solutions on indoor mobile deployment "macrocell vs. femtocell"2013In: 2013 IEEE 24th International Symposium on Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, 2444-2448 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deployment of low cost and low power base stations has been recognized in recent years as a promising cost-efficient solution and energy-efficient strategy. In this paper the femtocell and macrocell deployment options have been compared in the context of indoor mobile broadband deployment, with focus on the effect of different backhauling solutions in power consumption and the total deployment cost. This study has been based on the deployment of mobile broadband services within an area of one square kilometers in a new densely populated business district where the different user demands, spectrum bandwidths, backhaul technologies and radio access technologies are taken into account. Moreover, various deployment scenarios reflecting the business perspectives of mobile operators have been looked into as well. The main findings reached indicate that backhaul solutions contribute differently to cost and power consumption depending on the employed deployment strategy. However, contributions to the total power consumption and to the CapEx and OpEx elements of the total deployment cost elements turned to be more significant in the case of femtocell deployment scenarios than in the case of macrocell ones. It is worthy of notice that the femtocell deployment is more cost-efficient, especially in high demand situation when new macro sites are needed to be deployed.

  • 5.
    Ahmed, Ashraf Awadelkarim Widaa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Evaluation of Spectrum Access Options for Indoor Mobile Network Deployment2013In: 2013 IEEE 24th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC Workshops), IEEE , 2013, 138-142 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The investments in indoor mobile networks are highly related to the spectrum availability and its associated authorization options. The aim of this paper is to discuss the differences in the spectrum demand taking into consideration both wide and local area network deployment requirements and the kind of actor that provides the indoor wireless access. The analysis covers different authorizations options namely licensed, unlicensed, licensed shared access (LSA) and secondary access. A quantitative approach is used to analyze the differences between macrocell and femtocell deployments focusing on deployment cost and spectrum demand. This is complemented by a qualitative study to explore and discuss the strategic business decisions of different actors in view of the available spectrum bands and spectrum authorization options. The main conclusions from this study are; spectrum has more value in macrocell deployment scenarios than in femtocell ones. More spectrum in macrocell deployment scenarios means that operators can deploy less number of new sites and exploit previous infrastructure investments. Femtocell networks are often coverage limited which allows for frequency re-use. As a consequence, the value of spectrum is not the same for mobile network operators (MNOs) and for local network operator (LNOs). MNOs are traditionally confined to macrocell deployment strategies which entail the exclusive usage of licensed bands. While, the use of licensed spectrum by LNOs may incur more cost than the cost of infrastructure deployment. This explains why the use of unlicensed bands is lucrative and viable for LNOs. Furthermore, the LSA scheme may or could soon become an enabler for LNO's business due to the prevailing technical, regulation and policies developments.

  • 6.
    Ahmed, Ashraf Awadelkarim Widaa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Investment strategies for different actors in indoor mobile market: "in view of the emerging spectrum authorization schemes"2013In: 24th European Regional Conference of the International Telecommunication Society, Florence, Italy, 20-23 October 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The regulatory landscape is changing towards more flexible spectrum management schemes. Such schemes are expected to make additional spectrum resources available and lower the spectrum access barriers. Emerging spectrum authorization schemes such as secondary access (TV White Space) and Licensed Shared Access (LSA) are expected to open doors for new actors rather than traditional MNOs to access licensed spectrum resources at reasonable costs. These schemes will allow actors such as Facility Owners (FO), Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNO) and Internet Service Providers (ISPs) to invest in indoor mobile network infrastructure. These actors can act as Local Network Operators (LNO) and build their business models around provisioning of mobile services in locations where there seems to be a hole or lack of service coverage in a particular area within the mobile network operators (MNOs) service footprint. This paper highlights the differences between indoor deployment and outdoor deployment in the light of the available spectrum bands to be used and the possible business models for MNOs and LNOs. In short, the possible investment strategies for provisioning indoor mobile services vary between MNOs and LNOs cases due to economic and regulatory aspects surrounding them. The main finding in this study indicates that the willingness of MNOs to invest in dedicated indoor solutions is driven by the balance between the potential revenues and the deployment cost. Moreover MNOs have more spectrum and investment options compared to LNOs who must bond their investment strategies to the available spectrum resources (i.e. the regulations of spectrum access).

  • 7.
    Ahmed, Ashraf Awadelkarim Widaa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    The Incentives and Challenges of Delivering Linear Broadcasting Services over Cellular Network in Developing Countries: Sudan as Case study2014In: The 25th European Regional Conference of the International Telecommunications Society,Brussels, Belgium, 22nd - 25th June 2014, Brussels: nternational Telecommunications Society , 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Broadcasting sector has been evolved in terms of service production, transmission platform and reception devices in the last few decades. In contrast to cable and satellite platform, which are suitable for fixed reception only, the terrestrial digital platform can support portable, mobile and fixed reception scenarios. In general, there are two options of mobile multimedia service; one is based on a mobile communication network with IP cast known as MBMS (Multimedia Broadcast Multicast Services), while the other is based on broadcast technology. In the context of convergence, the players in the mobile sector argues that unlike traditional mobile  network systems, where the use was restricted to a given application, emerging  mobile networks will be able to carry a variety of services and accordingly separate broadcasting networks will no longer be required. In line with argument, it is not economically viable to roll out dedicated wireless broadband networks by the broadcasters to meet the increasing demand for interactive broadcasting services. That is why the broadcasters may look for innovative mechanism to deliver the broadcast services over mobile broadband network owned by the telecommunication operators.

    The focus on this paper is to investigate the incentives and challenges for such trend in developing countries; taking Sudan as case study. The main conclusion in this paper indicate that a potential economic incentive for delivering the broadcasting service over cellular network in Sudan subject to the deployment of high efficient mobile network. Moreover, the mobile operators may consider support such approach considering the increase demand for additional frequency resource.  However, the key challenges remain in how to develop a suitable regulations landscape to assure fair and competitive business practices on hand while guaranteeing the continuation of the public broadcasting service. In this regard, a new regulation framework needs to be developed to separate the three key functions in digital terrestrial broadcasting value chain (namely the content production and distribution). Further on, the necessary interconnection regulations need to put on place in order to pave the way for rollout of common platform that are necessary for interactive and nonlinear services. 

  • 8.
    Ahmed, Ashraf Awadelkarim Widaa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Toward capacity-efficient, cost-efficient and power-efficient deployment strategy for indoor mobile broadband2013In: 24th European Regional ITS Conference, Florence 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile operators nowadays tend to deploy dense heterogeneous layers of 3G and 4G networks in outdoor and indoor environments by adding more macrocells and smallcells (e.g. microcells, picocells and femtocells) in response to the increasing subscriber demand for coverage and capacity. The main driver and enabler behind this tendency is the phenomenon that around 80% of power consumption in mobile communication networks stems from the radio base stations. This situation makes mobile operators opt for the use low-power radio base stations to provide better coverage, capacity and a more environment-friendly operation. The use of low-power radio base stations leads to reduction of energy consumption in mobile communication networks power. The aim of this study is to conduct a comparative study between homogenous macrocell deployment and indoor smallcell deployments as alternative solutions for provision of the required indoor coverage and capacity. Moreover, the study highlights the importance of backhaul solutions being critical components in the smallcell network deployment. Furthermore, the scope of the study is extended to cover the investigation of the value of the heterogeneous (i.e. hybrid marcocell-femtocell) deployment scenario as a cost and power-efficient solution versus the homogenous marcocell deployment scenario in view of the variations in the mobile network traffic during the day. The main findings indicate that the CapEx and OpEx of the backhaul solution represent the major part of the total deployment cost in the indoor smallcell deployment scenario (i.e. femtocell case) compared to those of the macrocell deployment scenario. Nonetheless, the perceived saving in the total cost of ownership (TCO) resulting from the use of indoor smallcell (i.e. femtocell) remains a satisfactory and convenient motivation considering the traffic variation across the day, traffic distribution between indoor and outdoor locations and the keenness to use the spectrum resources more efficiently.

  • 9.
    Ahsin, Tafzeel Ur Rehman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Ben Slimane, Slimane
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Energy Efficiency using Cooperative Relaying2011In: 2011 IEEE 22nd International Symposium On Personal Indoor And Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC), New York: IEEE , 2011, 1698-1702 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rising demand for the high data rates in the future cellular systems, is directly linked with the power consumption at the transmitting nodes. Due to the various economical and environmental factors, it is becoming difficult to maintain the current rate of power consumption per unit of data, for the upcoming generations of the cellular systems. This has shifted the focus of many researchers towards the energy efficiency aspect of the cellular systems and power consumption has become an important design parameter in the recent works. In this article, we propose the use of cooperative communications using low cost fixed relays, in order to reduce the energy consumption at the transmitting nodes for a given quality of service requirement. It has been investigated that, how different factors, such as cell radius, relay position, number of relays and target data rate effects the area energy consumption for the different relaying schemes. It has been shown that, the cooperative relaying schemes along with adaptive resource allocation provides minimum energy consumption along with the better coverage as compared to the non adaptive cooperative relaying schemes.

  • 10.
    Ahsin, Tafzeel Ur Rehman
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Slimane, Ben
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Energy efficient resource allocation and deployment strategies for wireless networks2012In: 2012 5th International Conference on New Technologies, Mobility and Security - Proceedings of NTMS 2012 Conference and Workshops, IEEE , 2012, 6208715- p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future wireless systems are being designed for extremely high data rates and are directly contributing to the global energy consumption. This trend is undesirable not only due to the environmental concerns, but to cost as well since energy costs are becoming a significant part of the operating expenditures for the telecom operators. Recently, energy efficient wireless systems have become a new research paradigm. Cooperative communication has shown good potential in improving coverage, providing robust radio links, reducing infrastructure cost, and has the possibility to reduce the total system energy consumption. This paper looks at possible deployment strategies for wireless networks that can reduce the energy consumption. We look at the tradeoff between the number of relay nodes and the number of base stations and their implications on the total energy consumption of wireless networks. The obtained results show that adaptive resource allocation between the base station and the relay node is an efficient way of reducing the energy consumption of the system. Furthermore, this reduction in energy consumption increases with increasing the system target spectral efficiency.

  • 11.
    Aidi, Laili
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Huang, Jin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Selvakumar, Ekambar
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Tollmar, Konrad
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Blennerud, Greger
    Ericsson.
    How can Mobile Music Streaming Service Take off in India, China and Indonesia?: Analysis of Drivers and Obstacles2012In: , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Aidi, Laili
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Tollmar, Konrad
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Blennerud, Greger
    Ericsson.
    Competing or Aligning? Assessment for Telecom Operator's strategy to address OTT TV/Video services2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Up until recently, it was rarely direct competition between telecom operators, cable and satellite Pay-TV providers in digital TV/Video, as their business area were different and value chain was well established. However, technology advance has altered digital TV/Video landscape, made these Communication Service Providers (CSPs) cross other’s area and opened door for new actor (OTT player) to enter the market. This triggers second change in the landscape, as it potentially bypasses CSP’s role in digital media value chain.

    There are generic potential options for telecom operator to address OTT service‘s treat, where the trend shows gradual shifts toward allowing or promoting. This study assesses telecom operator’s reaction strategies to react to this digital TV/Video convergence trend. Our analysis reveals two typical relation patterns in the value network, used by telecom operators based on strategy options above, which are ”point-to-point” and ”point-to-multipoint” relation model. We explore the underlining motivations that based these strategies, as well as analysis of the eco-systems: actors identification, business roles and distributed responsibilities among them, where we use ARA (Actors, Resource, Activities) point of view to model these value networks.

  • 13.
    Akhtar, Nadeem
    et al.
    University of Surrey, UK.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Queseth, Olav
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Analysis of Signaling Load and Negotiation Complexity using Network Composition2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In future mobile communications networks using Ambient Networks (AN) technology, users will be able to connect to a multitude of networks operated by different business entities. The technology enablers are advertising of access and service offers, multi-radio access, network selection and roaming support, negotiation of terms and conditions for attachment to networks. In this paper, we investigate the additional load on users and network resources for establishment and management of multiple network connections and business relations. The administrative load is analyzed using commercial uses cases and scenarios with a number of available networks, service providers and payment and ID providers. The signaling load for multiple attachment and negotiation procedures is estimated by modeling signaling sequences for a WLAN system enabled with AN technology. The signaling load is computed for varying numbers of users and for users with varying "willingness to evaluate and negotiate offers". The results show that the most important parameters are the number of attachment attempts per time unit. In the investigated scenarios, the relative load of business related signaling is 0.1 -1.0 % of the transferred user data. Although a large of number of different networks may be used, the number of business agreements and network connections that need to be handled simultaneously will be quite low.

  • 14.
    Alasali, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Beckman, Claes
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    LTE MIMO Performance Measurements on Board Passenger Trains2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing passenger internet on board trains with continuous connectivity at high speeds and over large rural distances is a challenging issue. A frequently used solution to the problem is to use an on board WiFi network connected to the 3G or 4G networks deployed outside the train. In order to be able to provide the capacity and the data rates that tomorrow's business travelers are expecting it has been suggested to use a combination of MIMO and carrier aggregation in the LTE-Advance standard. In this study, we practically investigate the plausibility of using MIMO functionality in an 900 LTE system when the receive antennas are mounted at a train roof about 4m above ground and the base stations antennas are on average placed 2.3km away from the track in towers with an average height of 45m and, hence, most of the time in line of site. It is found that along our test route MIMO is in practice supported by the radio channel at around 70% of the time when the train is travelling with an average speed of 185km/h and the MIMO antennas are mounted 10.5m apart.

  • 15.
    Alasali, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Beckman, Claes
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    LTE MIMO performance measurements on trains2013In: 2013 7th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), New York: IEEE , 2013, 2327-2330 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing passenger internet on board trains with continuous connectivity at high speeds and over large rural distances is a challenging issue. A frequently used solution to the problem is to use an on board WiFi network connected to the 3G or 4G networks deployed outside the train. In order to be able to provide the capacity and the data rates that tomorrow's business travelers are expecting it has been suggested to use a combination of MIMO and carrier aggregation in the LTE-Advance standard. In this study, we practically investigate the plausibility of using MIMO functionality in an 900 LTE system when the receive antennas are mounted at a train roof about 4m above ground and the base stations antennas are on average placed 2.3km away from the track in towers with an average height of 45m and, hence, most of the time in line of site. It is found that along our test route MIMO is in practice supported by the radio channel at around 70% of the time when the train is travelling with an average speed of 185km/h and the MIMO antennas are mounted 10.5m apart.

  • 16.
    Alasali, Mohammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Beckman, Claes
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Karlsson, M.
    Providing internet to trains using MIMO in LTE networks2014In: 2014 International Conference on Connected Vehicles and Expo, ICCVE 2014 - Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2014, 810-814 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Providing broadband passenger internet on board trains with continuous connectivity at high speeds and over large rural distances is a challenging issue. One solution to the problem is to use an onboard WiFi network connected to multiple 3G and 4G networks deployed outside the train and aggregate their combined capacity at the IP protocol level. In order to be able to provide the capacity and the data rates that tomorrow’s travelers are expecting, the future 4G standard (LTE-Advance) uses a combination of high order MIMO and carrier aggregation. In this study we use the Swedish company Icomera’s passenger internet system for our investigation. The system provides aggregation of multiple carrier and handover on an IP level. For about 10 years the system has in Sweden primarily been using multiple 3G communication links. However, here we present analysis and onboard measurements of a 2×2 MIMO channel to fast moving train in a live LTE 900 network. The results indicate that MIMO works surprisingly well and it is discussed that by combining 8×8 MIMO with carrier aggregation in future releases of 4G, it may be possible to bring gigabit internet connections to trains.

  • 17.
    Alvarez Alvarez, Oscar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SMART GRID DEVELOPMENT IN DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the potential opportunities that can be attained with the use of smart devices in order to gather data or automate processes. This type of communications between devices with minimal human intervention is referred to as Machine-to-machine (M2M) communications that can be applied to optimize resources and improve service delivery applications. Smart Grid is one of the M2M communications applications that is attaining more attention during recent years, because of its potential to change the complete energy ecosystem; going from a unidirectional system to a bidirectional one where customers will have an important role in the ecosystem.Depending on the country and its characteristics and situation, Smart Grid development can be very different. This article identifies commonalities and differences in Smart Grid communication development considering the current status in developed and developing countries. The process is done by evaluating the following techno-economic aspects: Technology development, Public initiatives, Regulator policies and Economic situation/Business perspective of the country. The article is concluded by showing that regulator policies regarding the level of liberalization in the energy market are a key element when defining business strategies and different stages of Smart Grid communications development has a critical influence in the definition of business models, as it defines the key activities, partners and value proposition for the business.

  • 18.
    Alvarez Alvarez, Oscar
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Ghanbari, Amirhossein
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Smart Energy: Competitive Landscape and Collaborative Business Models2015In: 2015 18th International Conference on Intelligence in Next Generation Networks, ICIN 2015, IEEE Communications Society, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the recent years several technologies and services based in Internet of Things (IoT) and Machine-to-Machine communications (M2M) have appeared in many different sectors, like healthcare, transport, logistics, media or utilities. When new technologies (like Smart Grid or Smart Energy) appear two types of challenges can be defined: technical and business challenges, therefore innovation has to be applied in both of them. Too often innovation is focus on the technical evolution and underestimated on the business field, however it is a key aspect for new technologies and services to reach commercial success. Traditional business models in the energy sector will suffer big changes in the next years, as the Smart Grid concept is developed.By the advent of new services and applications, horizontal and vertical partnerships with competitors and other actors will take place. In this context collaboration between actors, partnerships and agreements will be of key importance. This paper investigates the different actors involved in a Smart Energy ecosystem, its possible activities and suitable business models for the different Smart Grid building blocks or milestones.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Daniel
    et al.
    Radarbolaget, Gävle.
    Wallin, Kjell
    Radarbolaget, Gävle.
    Javashvili, Otar
    Högskolan i Gävle, Radio Center Gävle.
    Beckman, Claes
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    M-Sequence UWB Radar for Industrial Applications2010In: Program of GigaHertz Symposium 2010, March 9-10, at Lund University, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultra Wideband Radar has the potential of dramatically improving the control and surveillance of industrial processes in confined areas. An example is the application of UWB radar for surveillance of furnaces for heath treatment of steel billets developed by Radarbolaget in Gävle.

    In our installation at AB Sandvik Materials Technology, we have shown that by using a non-destructive UWB Radar technique it is possible to visualize in real-time the ongoing process inside the furnace behind a 0.5 m thick ceramic wall. Since the operating temperature inside the furnace is 1200 °C, there is today no other known method capable of visualizing the process for the operator of the furnace. The system is therefore designed to sustain high temperatures and powerful electromagnetic disturbances while performing measurement with wide dynamics and high stability.

    The design of this radar is based on the idea of transmitting a continuous m-sequence and then detecting the correlated impulse response (see figure below). The wide bandwidth is a requirement for obtaining high spatial accuracy and resolution but puts further requirements on the design of the antennas and the electronics. Our results show that with this technique it is possible to determine the deformation of the steel billets inside the furnace with an accuracy of less than 5 mm. The radar system is also able to detect deformations in the furnace wall

    The m-sequence radar has many advantages over other UWB radar technologies since it e.g. does not require many analogue components. Its performance is a result of the choice of code length, sampling rate and averaging. However, the resolution is still limited by the impulse response of the analogue antenna (ringing).

    In this paper system parameters that affect the overall performance of an m-sequence radar are reviewed and means of enhancing its performance are discussed.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Västberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Devlic, Alisa
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Cavdar, Cicek
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Energy efficient heterogeneous network deployment with cell DTX2016In: 2016 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC),, IEEE, 2016, 1-6 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper evaluates different means of reducing power consumption of macro base stations (BS) and heterogeneous mobile network deployments (HetNet) considering the time dimension. These approaches are based on the same idea of reducing the load of heavily loaded macro cells and putting them to discontinuous transmission (DTX) mode during the time of inactivity by either (1) macro cell densification or (2) offloading traffic to small cells. Activity factor of a BS is defined as the fraction of time the BS is transmitting over a fixed time period. It is shown that by macro cell layer network densification, the average daily area power consumption can be reduced by up to 73 % with the use of cell DTX. However, reducing the activity factor by macro layer densification is not cost effective, as already demonstrated in previous studies. Alternatively, by adding small cells and enabling their DTX capability, power consumption can be reduced by up to 29 %. Adding small cells is especially effective in terms of energy savings, when users are distributed around hot spots, where additional coverage and capacity is required.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Per
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan, Stockholm School of Economics.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Capabilities for Network Operations and Support of Customers’ Working Processes2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work in progress paper we will discuss company capabilities related to telecom services and how they can be developed or acquired in order to increase the compositeness of the firm. Traditionally, the technical infrastructure and platforms are designed and deployed by the vendors and operators and the role of end-users, private persons or enterprises,  is to accept the offered service, pay and use. This may be a sustainable model when the user requirements are limited to connectivity, communication between persons and internet access, and to delivery of media services where the network acts as a channel. However, we argue that the design and deployment process of telecom services must be changed in order to provide flexible support of customers´ working processes. As a supplier you also have to consider how value is added in the working process of the customer. The full paper will include problem formulation, research questions, theoretical analysis and empirical data from case studies. 

  • 22.
    Andersson, Per
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan, Stockholm School of Economics.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Value added services and new business roles for support of mobile professional users and project working processes2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we will discuss services that support the value creation process and the interaction between companies in the supply chain. The value added services for professional users hence should support both the internal working processes within a company and, maybe even more important, the interaction between different market actors.   We will discuss how communication systems and value added services can be designed in order to support professional users.

    We target business users using services supporting work in mobile environments with a temporary project organization. The discussion and some analysis will be based on findings from construction projects and from public safety services.  These “projects” are usually temporary with different duration, highly mobile and geographically distributed organizations with common work processes that require close interaction between multiple users and partners belonging to different organizations.

    The analysis starts with characterization of user behavior, user environments and project organizations.  Communication and mobility patterns are described and possible services and business roles are proposed.

    Analysis of empirical results in identification of different types of organization of the provider network. The position of actors within this network is important. Using these findings we discuss adaptive or adaptable business models that could be configured in different ways depending on the duration and the position of actors within the network. An important aspect is the ability for companies to change perspective and consider new ways to assess business opportunities and/or to organize the value creation activities. 

  • 23.
    Andersson, Per
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan, Stockholm School of Economics.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Mattsson, Lars-Gunnar
    Handelshögskolan, Stockholm School of Economics.
    Global policy networks’ involvement in service innovation. Turning the mobile phone into a wallet by applying NFC technology2011In: The IMP Journal, ISSN 0809-7259, Vol. 5, no 3, 193-211 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mobile phone attracts an increasing number of service applications enabled by technical developments. On-going efforts aim to widen the scope of mobile payments and “turning the mobile phone into a wallet” with the help of Near Field Technology (NFC). A number of industries are involved in this development. To enable large scale commercial application of the new technology for mobile payments, several global industry associations, what we label Global Policy Networks (GPNs), are involved in standard setting, certification, visions and promotion of business applications, etc. The purpose of the paper is to analyze the role of GPNs in establishing global policies to enable business actors to develop and implement local policies applying the new technology for business purposes. The paper focuses on how some yet to be settled global policy issues affect local policies.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Per
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan, Stockholm School of Economics.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Mattsson, Lars-Gunnar
    Handelshögskolan, Stockholm School of Economics.
    Technical development and the formation of new business ventures, The case of new mobile payment and ticketing services2011In: The IMP Journal, ISSN 0809-7259, Vol. 5, no 1, 23-41 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How do new business ventures emerge, and how is their emergence linked to technical development? What are the challenges of forming new business ventures when the business involves the connection of previously unconnected or loosely connected networks? This paper analyses the connections between technical development and the formation of new business ventures.

    A set of case studies is presented that show how existing market structures, business development and associated wireless, technologies and systems are affected by the emergence of new mobile payment and ticketing services. This paper presents result from an on-going research project on near field communication based services in Sweden. In late 2008 the project “Foundation For NFC/Sensor Network B2B2C Services” (FORCE) was initiated by TeliaSonera Mobile Network, KTH Center for Wireless System, and Center for Information and Communication Research at the Stockholm School of Economics.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Per
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan, Stockholm School of Economics.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Mattsson, Lars-Gunnar
    Handelshögskolan, Stockholm School of Economics.
    The formation of new business ventures in networks: creating new intermediary roles and extracting value from the exploitation of technology2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes new business formation connected to the use of established mobile technologies and associated services. The purpose of the paper is to describe how a set of alternative business network situations can emerge when established wireless application technologies are exploited and new value is created and new business ventures are formed. A set of short cases describe how new business can be created based on established SMS applications and services. The paper discusses central aspects of the formation of new business ventures in networks. Here, focus is on opportunities to create value based on the exploitation of existing technology. The technology is used in a new way and is perceived by existing actors as an opportunity to exploit by creating a new intermediary performing a new role. In business practice, technology development is related to formation of new business ventures, they cannot be separated from each other.

  • 26.
    Andersson, Per
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan, Stockholm School of Economics.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Mattsson, Lars-Gunnar
    Handelshögskolan, Stockholm School of Economics.
    Tjänsteinnovationer och marknadsomvandling: fallet mobila betalningar2011In: Morgondagens industri: Att sätta spelregler och flytta gränser  (EFI Yearbook 2011) / [ed] I. Benson, J. Lind, E. Sjögren, F. Wijkström, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Apanasevic, Tatjana
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Barriers to further commercialization of NFC pilots in Western Europe2013In: The Second International Cashless Society Roundtable (ICSR) / [ed] Fergal Carton and Jonas Hedman, 2013, 39-41 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A mobile payment can be performed in various ways. For example, the Near Field Technology (NFC) integrated with mobile devices provides an opportunity of a contactless mobile payment. However, it is not only payment. The NFC can further expand functionality of mobile phones and enrich consumer experience. Indeed, added value services created by the NFC include mobile ticketing, loyalty applications, smart advertisement, informational service, physical and logical access, and other functionalities.

    However, despite NFC potential to create added value we cannot witness its wide penetration and global spread unless some successful solutions are implemented on a national level. The research aims to define the barriers preventing NFC pilots from entering commercialization stage in Western Europe. Commercialization of NFC mobile solutions needs to overcome a range of barriers and obstacles predefined by macro- and micro-environmental conditions, and individual factors related to consumers, which are analized in this research.

  • 28.
    Apanasevic, Tatjana
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Challenges Related to the Introduction of Innovative Services in the Market: Mobile Payment Services in the Swedish Retail Industry2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile payment services are expected to be the next step of the electronic payment evolution. However, the level of penetration in European countries is lower than expected. The focus of most academic research has been in two main areas: (i) mobile payment adoption by consumers and (ii) technical aspects of the service. Consequently, a number of themes remain under-researched. In order to expand knowledge on reasons that affect the wider penetration of mobile payments, challenges related to the introduction of mobile payment services in the market have been explored in this thesis.

    More specifically, this research has addressed two problem areas: (i) why mobile payments have not been widely adopted by merchants; and (ii) what effects that the introduction of mobile payments has had on the business networks of the involved actors. As an example, we use the mobile payment services applied in the Swedish retail industry. The study is focused on the main groups of stakeholders – the mobile payment providers, the retailers, and the consumers.

    First, this study has helped to identify what different stakeholders expect of mobile payments and how these services correspond to their needs. In order to analyse the expectations of stakeholders, we have developed an analysis framework based on the theory of diffusion of innovations, the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), and the theory of network externalities. The analysis highlights the expectations of stakeholders and helps to understand what kind of mobile payment service merchants expect and are willing to adopt. One key finding is that existing mobile payment services for retailing could be further improved in order to ensure an enhanced purchasing process for consumers.

    Second, the research has explored the impact of mobile payment services on the business networks. In order to analyse the relationships and cooperation between business actors, and changes in business strategy and network structure, we used the approach proposed by the Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group. The performed analysis illustrates the following changes in the structure of business networks for the traditional payment solutions (bank cards): (i) emergence of new business actors (i.e. independent mobile payment providers); (ii) new roles and activities of business actors; and (iii) exclusion of traditional business actors (i.e. banks) from the mobile payment systems.

    All these changes lead to increased complexity of relationships and increased level of interdependence between business actors within the networks. The following changes in the strategies of involved actors have been identified: (i) mobile payment providers seek to achieve a control over the business network; (ii) the retailers affect strategies of the mobile payment providers; (iii) the marketing strategies of business actors include cross-marketing in different sectors. All these changes result in additional value and enhanced quality of service for consumers.

    In order to analyse a complex and multidisciplinary area such as mobile payments, it is beneficial to use more than one analysis approach. A combination of different complementing methods helps to explore different aspects of the phenomenon and provides a more comprehensive overview of several research aspects.

    This work contributes to the academic research of mobile payment service adoption by merchants through proposing a theoretical analysis framework. More specifically, the research addresses a new area – expectations of retailers when new solutions are introduced. The framework consists of the following criteria and aspects: technological feasibility, economic benefits, lower service costs, added value of services, network externalities and the problem of critical mass, and finally, ease of use. This framework helps to identify what merchants can expect of mobile payment services.

    Another area of contribution is the analysis of the effect that mobile payments make on the actors and business networks of traditional payment services. The introduction of new services results in emergence of new business actors, a need to establish new relationships, and increased complexity of a business network. Moreover, in order to succeed, cooperation between all network actors is needed. As a result, business actors have to adjust their services and strategies according to needs of others.

  • 29.
    Apanasevic, Tatjana
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Factors Influencing the Slow Rate of Penetration of NFC Mobile Payment in Western Europe2013In: the 12th International Conference on Mobile Business (ICMB2013), Berlin, Germany, June 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The NFC technology implemented on the base of contemporary mobile handsets can provide considerable benefits to end-users. However, despite high level of diffusion of mobile phones in Western Europe, the level of penetration of the NFC based mobile payment is low. A considerable number of trials have been initiated, however, large scale deployment of commercial NFC services cannot be seen. This paper identifies and analyzes different factors that influence the slow rate of penetration of NFC based mobile payment in Western Europe.

    This paper presents a qualitative study based on experience of six NFC pilots implemented in Finland, France, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, and the UK. The research findings confirm that a number of demand and supply barriers negatively affect the rate of the penetration of the NFC payment. The network externalities and the lack of consumer awareness about NFC services were identified as the most important demand side barriers. The most significant supply side barriers are the lack of uniform technological standards, the lack of NFC enabled mobile phones, and the coopetition issue. In addition, the interrelation between mentioned obstacles was identified. This fact means that a delay in the NFC payment’s diffusion is affected not by a single factor, but rather by a set of interrelated factors. The sources of these obstacles are related to the consumer acceptance, the specifics of business environment, and the technology.

  • 30.
    Apanasevic, Tatjana
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Mobile Payments: Main Trends in the Retail Industry2014In: 25th European Regional Conference of the International Telecommunications Society (ITS), Brussels, Belgium, June 22 - 25, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of the ongoing study is to investigate obstacles ans driving forces affecting organization adoption of innovation. In order to that an example of the mobile payments applied in the Swedish retail industry has been used. The main analyzed factors are: adopter characteristics, supplier marketing activity, perceived innovation dcharacteristics, social network, and environmental influences.

    The analysis of case study findings helped to estimate some common trends in the adoption of mobile payment services by retailers. As a result, the analyzed factors were categorized as obstacles or driving forces to adoption of the mobile payments.

  • 31.
    Apanasevic, Tatjana
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Obstacles to investments in mobile payments: The perspective of merchants: Work in progress2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of the ongoing research is to investigate obstacles and driving forces affecting merchants’ decision to invest in mobile payment solutions. The core aim of this paper is to present initial results of a desktop analysis revealing the current market situation, identifying main players, and estimating the structure of investment costs. In order to do that available secondary information was analyzed.

    The conducted analysis served to identify market fragmentation existing in the Swedish market due to existence of a number of competing mobile payment solutions. Another finding allows making conclusion, that retailers select to adopt already existing solutions, rather than developing own. Finally, the size of an organization and financial resources are important when making a decision to invest in a new payment solution.

  • 32.
    Apanasevic, Tatjana
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Organizational Acceptance of Mobile Payments2014In: 30th annual International Marketing and Purchasing Conference (IMP 2014), Bordeaux, France, September 4-5, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Apanasevic, Tatjana
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    The Effect of Innovation on Business Networks2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Apanasevic, Tatjana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Stakeholder’s expectations: Mobile payments in retail in Sweden2014In: 13th International Conference on Mobile Business, 2014 (ICMB 2014), London, June 4-5, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main application areas of mobile payment services in Sweden is retailing. The main stakeholders involved in this service are mobile payment service providers, banks, merchants, and consumers. The main focus of this paper is on the change of expectations of different stakeholders taking part in service provisioning. Analysis has been performed by comparison of the initial expectations before the introduction of a mobile payment service and expectations after practical experience of the service usage. Three cases of mobile payment solutions for retailing have been investigated: BART provided by Swedbank, SEQR provided by Seamless, and a service provided by Payair.

    The analysis indicates that a number of expectations of stakeholders about mobile payment services did not come true. The results for the different cases differ but the main findings are: banks were excluded from direct service provisioning; merchants see some advantaged to deploy mobile payment, but are uncertain which solution will be a dominant in the market; consumer expectations of improved purchasing experience and usefulness are not met. The performed analysis also helps to identify some of the reasons that can be seen as obstacles for a wider penetration of mobile payment services.

  • 35.
    Apanasevic, Tatjana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    The mobile payment in retail: Teaching case summary2013In: The 29th Annual IMP Conference (IMP2013) proceedings: Building and Managing Relationships in a Global Network: Challenges and Necessary Capabilities / [ed] Minna Rollins and Brian Rutherford, IMP Group, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The case is written for master level students from business, commerce, and technical areas having some background in strategic marketing and management. The work over case implies a group work and a discussion of a strategy behind taken decision.

    THE OBJECTIVES OF THE CASE

    The main objective of the case is to gain practical skills in and better understanding of decision making in the circumstances of market uncertainty. The decision making process requires analysis of company’s core competences (Collis and Montgomery, 2008), market forces (Porter, 1996; Porter, 2008), and understanding of consumer needs. Students should apply different analysis frameworks in order to develop a strategy improving company’s competitive advantage and leveraging opportunities provided by a new technology, namely a new mobile payment solution. In addition, a consumer-centered thinking should lead to a suggestion of a bundle of attractive added values services build on top of mobile payment solution.

  • 36.
    Apanasevic, Tatjana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Arvidsson, Niklas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    An exploratory study of consumer attitudes towards mobile ticketing in Sweden2013In: 24th European Regional Conference of the International Telecommunications Society: Technology, Investment and Uncertainty, ITS , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish public transport organizations have set an objective to double usage of the public transport during the next coming five years. This study attempts to investigate if the current ticket solutions support the goal of the public transport companies, and if the available mobile phone solutions can lower barriers for consumers. In order to do that, critical travelling moments for users of different market segments were estimated during a pre-study stage. The following focus group discussions helped to validate problems identified during the pre-study. At the same time, focus groups provided deeper consumer insights on general consumer perception of the transport service, ticketing, mobile payment, quality of service, consumer expectations related to the public transport services, and consumer satisfaction and loyalty.

    The conducted research helped to identify problems existing in public transport ticketing and mobile payment areas, which have the negative impact on the usage of the public transport service and contribute with additional barriers for users. Moreover, this conclusion is supported by multiple examples that clearly illustrate what does not work, and why it does not work. Hence, mentioned solutions do not support the overall objective of the public transport operators. The comprehension of these problems and barriers can contribute to a better understanding of consumer needs and expectations, and help the public transport service providers to improve the service.

  • 37.
    Apanasevic, Tatjana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Arvidsson, Niklas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Stakeholders’ Expectations of Mobile Payment in Retail: Lessons from SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Apanasevic, Tatjana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Arvidsson, Niklas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Stakeholders' expectations of mobile payment in retail: lessons from Sweden2016In: International Journal of Bank Marketing, ISSN 0265-2323, E-ISSN 1758-5937, Vol. 34, no 1, 37-61 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to explore the reasons behind the slow adoption of mobile payment services. The expectations of the main groups of stakeholders – the mobile service providers, the retailers, and the consumers – of the service in the retail industry in Sweden are examined. Design/methodology/approach– The authors use a qualitative case study of stakeholders’ expectations. The conceptual research framework is based on the theory of diffusion of innovations, the technology adoption model, and network externalities. The proposed framework was tested and validated by empirical findings. Findings– One of the key findings of the research highlights that acceptance of a mobile payment service depends on the ability of mobile payment providers to build networks of both retailers and consumers simultaneously. The service will attract these stakeholders if it meets their expectations in the best possible way. Another finding is that mobile payment services do not meet expectations on an enhanced purchasing process. This is the area for future service improvement. Research limitations/implications– The main limitation of this study is that only a few retailers were contacted. Practical implications– First of all, criteria from the developed research framework can be used as a guide for mobile payment service development. Second, when developing and providing a mobile payment service, mobile payment providers need to have a good understanding of the needs and expectations of retailers and consumers. Originality/value– Stakeholders’ expectations have not been a focus for research in previous studies. This is a new research object.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-01-01 09:16
  • 39.
    Apanasevic, Tatjana
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Arvidsson, Niklas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation.
    Stakeholder’s expectations: The case of mobile public transport ticketing in Sweden2014In: 13th International Conference on Mobile Business, 2014 (ICMB 2014), London, June 4-5, 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main areas of mobile payment application in Sweden is mobile public transport ticketing. The main stakeholders involved in this service are mobile network operators, mobile payment service providers, SMS ticket’s “technology solution” providers, public transport companies, and consumers.

    Traditionally, mobile operators have had a strong position in this niche since the mobile phone bill or pre-paid subscriptions were used for end-user billing. Due to financial regulation, this situation was changed in February 2013 when new SMS payment solutions were introduced for all public transport companies in Sweden. A number of new actors entered the scene, and the position of existing actors changed dramatically. At the same time, the Swedish mobile operators formed a joint venture, 4T Sweden, offering a new mobile payment solution – WyWallet.

    The main focus of this paper is on the change of expectations of different stakeholders taking part in provisioning of SMS payment services. Analysis has been performed by comparison of the initial expectations before the introduction of the new SMS payment system and the real outcome in approximately half a year time. Analysis revealed the fact that expectations of a number of stakeholders about mobile payment services did not come true. Moreover, due to barriers set by the mobile payment solution, mobile payment transactions in public transportation is dramatically lower than what SMS payments were before the market changed.

  • 40.
    Arshad, Malik Wahaj
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Västberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Edler, T.
    Energy efficiency gains through traffic offloading and traffic expansion in joint macro pico deployment2012In: 2012 IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC, IEEE Communications Society, 2012, 2203-2208 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The traffic demand in future mobile cellular networks is expected to increase exponentially which would lead to dense base station deployment and eventually higher energy consumption. The current dominant mobile systems including GSM and UMTS were not designed with focus on energy efficiency. This paper investigates the energy saving potential of pico nodes in a heterogeneous network from an incumbent operator consideration. The results show that the number of hotspots and the user distribution in the hotspots strongly effects the power saving. Also, sleep modes in pico base stations have shown to reduce the energy loss to almost half. On a day average with limited utilization of pico base station, the heterogeneous network scenario provides marginal saving. The results also show that if the pico base station resources are fully utilized, premium user case, the heterogeneous network scenario can provide substantial reduction in energy per bit.

  • 41.
    Arshad, Malik Wahaj
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Västberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Edler, T.
    Energy efficiency improvement through pico base stations for a green field operator2012In: IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, WCNC, IEEE Communications Society, 2012, 2197-2202 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile telecommunication operators are now focussing on emerging markets due to the current highly competitive mobile telecommunication sector in established markets. The deployment of wireless mobile infrastructure in these emerging markets or a green field scenario requires an innovative energy efficient approach, which is not feasible in an incumbent operator scenario. This paper describes a combined macro and pico cellular heterogeneous wireless network architecture, and analyses its energy efficiency with respect to variation in inter site distance. The increase in capacity and power saving through sparse network deployment is investigated in terms of area spectral efficiency and area power consumption respectively. The results suggest that the deployment of pico cells along with a traditional cellular network can improve the energy efficiency of the network, as well as provide gains in terms of increased inter site distance. Finally. the indifference curves of Energy Efficiency and number of pico nodes indicate the optimum deployment scheme for multiple area spectral efficiency targets.

  • 42.
    Azari, Amin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Miao, Guowang
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Lifetime-Aware Scheduling and Power Control for M2M Communications in LTE Networks2015In: Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC Spring), 2015 IEEE 81st, IEEE conference proceedings, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the scheduling and transmit powercontrol are investigated to minimize the energy consumptionfor battery-driven devices deployed in LTE networks. To enableefficient scheduling for a massive number of machine-typesubscribers, a novel distributed scheme is proposed to let machinenodes form local clusters and communicate with the base-stationthrough the cluster-heads. Then, uplink scheduling and powercontrol in LTE networks are introduced and lifetime-aware solu-tions are investigated to be used for the communication betweencluster-heads and the base-station. Beside the exact solutions,low-complexity suboptimal solutions are presented in this workwhich can achieve near optimal performance with much lowercomputational complexity. The performance evaluation showsthat the network lifetime is significantly extended using theproposed protocols.

  • 43.
    Beckman, Claes
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Verifying 3G License Coverage Requirements2011In: Advances in Vehicular Networking Technologies / [ed] Miguel Almeida, InTech , 2011, 339-356 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the beginning of the 21’st century, the 3rd generation mobile phone systems, 3G, were introduced all around the world. In most countries, spectrum for this technology was allocated through some kind of licensing procedure. In Europe, the prevailing approach was to allocatespectrum through auctions, a process which led to a situation where the European operators found themselves committed to pay a staggering 130Bilion Euros for their 3G licenses.However, in most European countries, the fee was not the only obligation put on thelicensee: A coverage, “roll-out” requirement was in many cases also connected to the license(Northstream, 2002). Typically, these coverage requirements required that the licenseescover a certain area at a certain point in time after that the licenses had been awarded.In order for the regulators to verify that the licensees had met the coverage requirement and,hence, complied with the regulation, a method for coverage verification was needed. Suchmethods have therefore since then been developed by several European regulators (e.g. PTS2004; ECC 2007). In this book chapter we describe some general underlying consideration for the verification of radio coverage in UMTS systems and in particular we describe the Swedishmethodology developed by the Swedish Telecom regulator Post & Telestyrelsen (PTS).

  • 44.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Karlsson, B.
    The story of Allgon: HF, VHF, cellular and microwave antennas during allmost 60 years2013In: 2013 7th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), IEEE , 2013, 3171-3173 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Allgon, 'The Antenna Specialist', was a leading international design house and manufacturer of antennas for almost 60 years. The company was started in Stockholm in 1947 under the name of 'Antennspecialisten', by the Swedish engineer Torbjörn Cramner and his wife Veronica. In 1951 the company moved to Åkersberga north of Stockholm where its main facilities where located until the late 90's. During its life time the company designed and produced antennas for HF, VHF, Cellular and Microwave frequency bands, and for military, emergency, private and cellular radio systems. The company was in 2004 acquired by the US based company Powerwave but still today many of its original antenna designs are in production and many thousands of its base station antennas for mobile networks are still deployed all around the World.

  • 45.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Lindmark, Björn
    The evolution of base station antennas for mobile communications2007In: International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications: ICEAA 07, IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, 85-92 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper gives a general overview of the design of base station antennas for mobile communications. It explains underlying theoretical and practical implementation aspects in mobile communication networks of today and the future. In the first part the fundamental parameters of a base station antenna are discussed in the context of radio network design. In particular we discuss parameters such as gain, radiation patterns, frequency bands and power handling and put them in the context of cell planning, propagation and capacity. In the final parts of the paper we give an overview of the underlying theory of diversity and MIMO systems.

  • 46.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Smith, Gregory
    Shared Networks: Making Wireless Communications Affordable2005In: IEEE wireless communications, ISSN 1536-1284, E-ISSN 1558-0687, Vol. 12, no 2, 78-85 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the wake of the substantial financial commitments incurred by European and other UMTS network operators in the form of licence fees, licensees have turned to network sharing as a means of reducing the capital requirements needed to bring 3G services to market. The reception from European regulators has been mixed, due to concerns that this inhibits competition, slow buildout, or otherwise result in reduced consumer benefits. The authors believe that the generic product life cycle model provides insights that indicate that network sharing, within an appropriately constructed regulatory framework, is not a threat to vigorous competition in the 3G industry, and in fact is one of the keys to stimulating the development of advanced, ubiquitous, affordable services.

  • 47.
    Beckman, Claes
    et al.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Smith, Gregory
    The Benefits of network Sharing2005In: Radiovetenskap och Kommunikation: RVK 2005, 2005, 147-151 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48. Bentley, F
    et al.
    Tollmar, Konrad
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Dernirdjian, D
    Koile, K
    Darrell, T
    Perceptive presence2003In: IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, ISSN 0272-1716, E-ISSN 1558-1756, Vol. 23, 26-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceptive presence systems automatically convey awareness of user states to a remote location or application without the user having to perform explicit commands or mode selection. The article describes a component-based architecture for creating presence applications using perceptual user interface widgets. Each widget performs a machine perception function, such as tracking a face or monitoring activity in a specific 3D location. Widgets provide an abstraction barrier between the perception algorithms and the needs of application writers. Two example applications developed using this framework are presented: one uses a luminous display to express a user’s availability for communication to a colleague at a remote location, and a second uses activity to control devices in a context-aware environment.

  • 49. Bentley, Frank
    et al.
    Tollmar, Konrad
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS. KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Designing From Data: A Case Study From the Health Mashups Service2013In: Workshop on Informing Future Design via Large-Scale Research Methods and Big Data, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Instrumentation of mobile service interactions now allows for the ability to understand use in new ways and to base the design of system iterations as well as future services on data obtained from use “in the wild”over extended periods of time. This position paper will detail a few specific instances in the Health Mashupsproject where we were able to use usage data to improve the design and to create design implications to increase engagement in new services.

  • 50. Bentley, Frank
    et al.
    Tollmar, Konrad
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Mobile Service Laboratory (MS Lab). KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Centres, Center for Wireless Systems, Wireless@kth.
    Stephenson, Peter
    Levy, Laura
    Jones, Brian
    Robertson, Scott
    Price, Ed
    Catrambone, Richard
    Wilson, Jeff
    Health Mashups: Presenting Statistical Patterns between Wellbeing Data and Context in Natural Language to Promote Behavior Change2013In: ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, ISSN 1073-0516, Vol. 20, no 5, 30- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People now have access to many sources of data about their health and wellbeing. Yet, most people cannot wade through all of this data to answer basic questions about their long-term wellbeing: Do I gain weight when I have busy days? Do I walk more when I work in the city? Do I sleep better on nights after I work out? We built the Health Mashups system to identify connections that are significant over time between weight, sleep, step count, calendar data, location, weather, pain, food intake, and mood. These significant observations are displayed in a mobile application using natural language, for example, "You are happier on days when you sleep more." We performed a pilot study, made improvements to the system, and then conducted a 90-day trial with 60 diverse participants, learning that interactions between wellbeing and context are highly individual and that our system supported an increased self-understanding that lead to focused behavior changes.

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