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  • 1.
    Abdulle, Asha
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Mårsén, Camilla
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Läs- och skrivsvårigheter och psykisk ohälsa: En intervjustudie hur klasslärare resonerar kring elevers psykiska ohälsa och läs- och skrivsvårigheter2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studies syfte är att undersöka hur lärare upplever elevers läs- och skrivsvårigheter, psykiska ohälsa samt hur dessa två faktorer kan påverka varandra. Den ska även beskriva skolans elevhälsoarbete samt lärarnas upplevelser av det stöd de får från elevhälsans olika professioner. Det är en kvalitativ studie med en induktiv ansats och datainsamlingen har skett genom intervjuer med tio lärare på fyra olika skolor och analysen har genomförts med en fenomenografisk ansats. Det innebär att materialet har sammanställts och analyserats genom att uttalanden sammanfördes i olika teman för att förklara informanternas upplevelse av fenomenet. Dessa teman har sedan tolkats för att få fram ett budskap som beskriver deras upplevelse. Resultatet visar att lärare upplever att det finns ett samband mellan läs- och skrivsvårigheter och psykisk ohälsa. Vidare framkommer att lärarna upplever att de inte får det stöd som de förväntar sig från elevhälsan. De upplever brister i samarbetet med elevhälsan då de inte får närvara vid skolans elevhälsomöten. Vidare kan i studien utläsas att lärarna upplever att de genom sin erfarenhet kan identifiera elever med läs- och skrivsvårigheter tidigt i deras skolgång och att screeningar som visar elevers svårigheter sällan kommer som en överraskning utan snarare är en bekräftelse på vad de själva redan upptäckt. Däremot upplever de att det kan ta för lång tid med insatser för dessa elever samt att resursbrist kan bidra till att de inte får den hjälp de borde ha och att detta leder till försämrad psykisk hälsa för dessa elever.

     

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  • 2.
    Abenius, Nina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Fogelberg, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Samspelet mellan fonologi, minne och inlärning hos unga vuxna och vuxna med språkstörning: En systematisk litteraturstudie2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
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  • 3.
    Adams Lyngbäck, Liz
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Dis/ability literacy and allyship2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The following is a section from the dissertation: Experiences, networks and uncertainty: parenting a child who uses a cochlear implant

    Liz Adams Lyngbäck (2016)

     

    Abstract (dissertation)

    The aim of this dissertation project is to describe the ways people experience parenting a deaf child who uses a cochlear implant. Within a framework of social science studies of disability this is done by combining approaches using ethnographic and netnographic methods of participant observation with an interview study. Interpretations are based on the first-person perspective of 19 parents against the background of their related networks of social encounters of everyday life. The netnographic study is presented in composite conversations building on exchanges in 10 social media groups, which investigates the parents’ meaning-making in interaction with other parents with similar living conditions. Ideas about language, technology, deafness, disability, and activism are explored. Lived parenting refers to the analysis of accounts of orientation and what 'gets done' in respect to these ideas in situations where people utilize the senses differently. In the results, dilemmas surrounding language, communication and cochlear implantation are identified and explored. The dilemmas extend from if and when to implant, to decisions about communication modes, intervention approaches, and schools. An important finding concerns the parents’ orientations within the dilemmas, where most parents come up against antagonistic conflicts. There are also examples found of a development process in parenting based on lived, in-depth experiences of disability and uncertainty which enable parents to transcend the conflictive atmosphere. This process is analyzed in terms of a social literacy of dis/ability.

     

    Keywords: parenting, parents, cochlear implant, first-person perspective, lifeworld, netnographic, everyday life, orientation, deaf, disability, sign language, allyship, social literacy

     

    Section from dissertation in focus for paper to be presented:

    Dis/ability literacy and allyship

     

     

    Washington and Evans have examined the process of becoming an ally from a psycho-social theoretical perspective (1991 pp. 195-240). They define ally as “a person who is a member of the ‘dominant’ or ‘majority’ group, and are often more powerful when the supporter is not a member of the oppressed population” (Washington & Evans, 1991 p. 195).  The levels in development in this model are ascending from awareness, knowledge/education, skills and ultimately in action. The concept of being an ally, coming from a social justice perspective in education, includes focus on examining attitude change with the goal of working towards standards of equality, particularly through cultivating coalitions (Adams & Bell, L.A. & Griffin, P., 2007 p. 14; Ayers, Quinn, & Stovall, 2009 p. xiv).

     

    When attitude change is in focus in allyship work it can be concluded that an understanding for how meaning is constructed in sociocultural contexts is based on individuals’ experiences.  The question of which parent encounters with others benefit allyship development can be illuminated by examining the process of change these parents of cochlear implant users undergo. A closer examination of social justice issues with research in everyday life engaging deafness and disability show an opening to interpret the findings thus far as illustrations of how parenting is involved in more encompassing social change. For instance, in New forms of transformative education: Pedagogy for the privileged, education in social justice can be seen to have three pillars: equity, activism and social literacy (Curry-Stevens, 2007). A social literacy brings to mind the development of skills in awareness of one’s own identity and how it is connected with others in structural power relations. Some have come to identify trends in teaching and developing these skills as pedagogy for the privileged or pedagogy of the oppressor (Curry-Stevens, 2007; Kimmel & Sykley, 2010). In both cases there is a goal to educate which relies on processes of moral development in individuals.

     

    Through reviewing literature specifically on being a disability ally and how it has been studied works also to identify what has yet to be investigated in respect to parenting and the process of transformation involved in parallel processes of advocating, activism and allyship in the lives of parents. Reviewing research about disability concepts and becoming an ally show that  actions, awareness and accurate learning led to people becoming allies in disability (Evans, Assadi, & Herriott, 2005p. 72). Ways to be supportive to disabled people were identified through actions such as being helpful and encouraging, and these actions increase people’s awareness and accurate learning about disability which also results in dispelling misconceptions about having a condition or impairment. Literacy of social situations is seen to be accomplished through cognitively linking different forms of oppression, such as racism, ableism and audism to the ideas upon which they rest with the oppression under which different lives are put at risk when excluded from participating in society. Evans, Assadi and Herriott also write of “living in accordance with belief” which they call direct action (Evans, Assadi, & Herriott, 2005 pp. 75-77).

     

    Relevant for the analysis of this study is that there are positive and negative reactions involved in a process of developing allyship when parents advocate for their children and the group they belong to. For instance, what John has accomplished through the help of his family is to have made his way through what can be a painful part of the process of becoming an ally. This has to do with an individual’s own identity development in relation to disability and being in a dominant position as able-bodied. John knew about the attitudes towards disability because of how he has lived and reflected on what others have said about members of the groups his siblings belonged to. This is important in understanding how John seems to transcend conflicts, which is arguably related to how he has processed the anger towards others and the attitudes they hold over a long period of time together with others who understand him. Also John did not have to acknowledge feelings of guilt and shame to the same extent as others concerning belonging to the dominant group and having a child with a disability. These emotions are usually associated with being passive or not actively supportive of the oppressed or stigmatized group resulting in worsening conditions for people with disabilities or in a minority group position. This is in addition to guilt people usually feel for being members of groups who hold negative views. Also John is well aware that his life has been easier in comparison to his siblings and continues to be because of the position he holds as a dominant group member. In this ally development framework, acknowledging privilege is a conscious act at which most adults must put forth great effort. John seems to have internalized values of justice related to differentness in ability.

     

     

    Pending project

     

    During the fall of 2017 an initiative was undertaken to develop a ‘deaf awareness’ online material to improve communication between hearing and deaf groups. A focus on the individual’s development through taking part in others’ lived experiences and work towards actions and commitments for more equal conditions is the main objective of this project. The adult and lifelong learning in focus draws on both transformation as learning frameworks and social justice in education frameworks. The development of theoretical underpinnings for what is termed as allyship may well be drawing on intimate relationships in families and changes occurring during adulthood through these relationships. This paper explores the avenues taken by parents of deaf children and expands the qualities to people who are becoming disability literate in school and work contexts and in particular in teacher training and professional development.

  • 4.
    Adams Lyngbäck, Liz
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Dis/ability literacy through parenting2017Ingår i: Abstract book: NNDR 14th Research Conference, Örebro University, May 3-5. 2017, 2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation introduces qualities of a social literacy in deaf and disability contexts through parenting a child who is deaf or hard of hearing. Following a social justice education framework on privilege studies, social literacies and allyship (Adams & Bell, L.A. & Griffin, P., 2007; DiAngelo, 2012; Evans & Wall, 1991; Evans, Assadi, & Herriott, 2005; Kimmel & Ferber, 2014; Ong-Dean, 2009; Sensoy & DiAngelo, 2012), this collection of qualities held by parents has been compiled from examining empirical material based on the first-person perspective of 19 parents against the background of their related networks of social encounters of everyday life. This analysis departs from examples found of a development process in parenting based on lived, in-depth experiences of disability and uncertainty which enable individuals to exhibit ways of understanding and engaging as allies to individuals and groups who are deaf and hard of hearing.  Through contact with other parents in sensorial differentness, awareness, actions and commitments to goals of more inclusive and equal conditions for the child and others like the child are enacted. Dis/ability literacy is characterized by being able to identify with others who have similar experiences in other types of differentness leading to insight about disability in their relationships. Developing these social literacy qualities is a way parents exhibited perspective-changing through ‘unlearning’ and can be summarized as being interested, concerned, obligated, aware of needs, and willing to accommodate. Important issues to be discussed are the social literacy potentials of uncertainty and the betterment of social relations between individuals and groups in sensorial differentness, building on a care ethic.

  • 5.
    Adams Lyngbäck, Liz
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Hearing Peoples’ Fragility as an Expression of Invulnerability: Deaf Studies and Disability Studies Perspectives2020Ingår i: Kritiska Studier och Intersektionalitet, 2020Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Deaf Studies and Disability Studies have for many years been concerned with societal and cultural questions regarding deaf and hard of hearing children, youth and adults and their primarily hearing families. Innovations in medical technology in regard to deafness have centered on cochlear implants and is presented as containing the possibility of creating or restoring the use of sound in ways which were inconceivable to past generations. At the same time the acknowledgment of the official status of signed languages as vital for the attainment of basic human rights progressed in a growing number of countries.

     

    The findings from a study of hearing parents of deaf children who use cochlear implants provide new insights into how adults, in relation to their child, become involved in social practices which introduce them to how the minority of Deaf sign language users exist, particularly in regard to their life conditions and life chances. The social issues mainly in focus from a very early stage in a hearing adult’s parenting a deaf child concern education, language use and belonging. This together with technological advances have prompted a range of questions regarding the deaf child’s belonging in multiple language communities, particularly regarding the virtues of sign language versus spoken language and available approaches to deaf education.

     

    This paper will address the situation of deaf citizens and how societal structures and individual experiences are involved in social justice struggles and the contribution to scholarship is both empirical and theoretical utilizing the focus on the role of the body in thinking critically. This requires a disruption of how traditional views in education on critical thinking are conceptualized. The Deaf Studies/Disability Studies perspective not only draws on critical theories and intersectionality, it points to the necessity of directing the involvement of both a cultural perspective on being deaf with its interrogation of audism together with the lens of ableism. The development of ‘disability literacy’ about one’s own position in regard to other’s participation is presented as a way to make theoretical advances through the notion of ‘hearing fragility’, an expression of invulnerability to change through learning about how others exist.

     

    Preliminary data from ethnographic field work in situations where adults are confronted with instances of social inequity concerning sign language use is presented from Swedish, Indian and Bangladeshi contexts. Included in the ethnomethodological approach is a comparison between a welfare states’ approach to deaf children and their families and the high involvement of NGOs in education in two Global South contexts, Jaipur, India and Dhaka, Bangladesh. Also, the global trend of rights-based approaches in neoliberal models of provision of social services is examined. The combination of new medical technology being made available, national sign languages being recognized and the marketization of educational systems are producing the space where these inequalities emerge as ethical dilemmas confronting individuals through the uncomfortable awareness of their ‘hearingness’.

  • 6.
    Adams Lyngbäck, Liz
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Uncertainty and disability literacy: Drawing on processes of becoming in parenting a deaf child to inform teachers’ professional development2019Ingår i: Book of Abstracts, 2019Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will explore the role of uncertainty in parenting in spaces of sensorial differentness which envelopes the relationship between a hearing parent and a deaf child. This process of transformation, a becoming process in an adult life builds on coming to know about life conditions of another individual. Lived, in-depth experiences of disability and uncertainty are what seem to enable parents to adopt alternative attitudes going against societal norms and values about what it means to have a disability. They make choices based on how they imagine their adult child’s future belonging and identity. The analysis builds on the findings from the ethnographic material in a study on parenting children who use cochlear implants. Qualities certain parents exhibited and others were in the process of developing are the examples used to show how uncertainty is involved in ‘unlearning’, an orientation which allows new insights about disability and being deaf to guide decisions and actions. It will be argued that this social learning process does not end in complete knowledge but rather as a way of becoming disability literate which can increase and recede because of how it involves the minds and lives of others. Connecting other adults’ becoming processes in teacher education programs to how parents continue arriving as they continue ‘reading their child’ is discussed in terms of embodied critical thinking about ableism and audism. The continuous arrivals which imbue adults’ interactions with oppressed groups is explored drawing on theories on transformation and community.

    The frameworks of disability studies in education and social justice in education drawing on care ethics will serve to employ the term allyship to present how following the paths others formed can be studied to develop one’s own disability literacy. This concept of allyship offers pedagogical hope which bell hooks describes as an integral part of education (hooks, 2003). Allyship in disability contexts is an active, consistent and reflective practice of examining how one holds systemic power over people with disabilities. Pausing to use the idea of reflective practice as an entry to one’s critical thinking is what intended to develop the concept of ‘embodied critical thinking.’ The focus is aimed at how one’s own involvement, as a temporarily able-bodied person seeks to end oppression in solidarity with disabled groups and individuals. The concept of allyship falls under what can be deemed the privilege turn or privilege studies in disability where a disability literacy is a social literacy of consciousness and awareness of the conditions of the lives of disabled individuals and groups and how they are affected by interpersonal relationships (Adams Lyngbäck, 2016). Case examples of classroom activities and discussions centering on ableism will be employed to further develop understandings of allyship in education.

  • 7.
    Adams Lyngbäck, Liz
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Dutt, Khaleda Gani
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Is development even desirable from a disability perspective? Two proposals for replacing ableist assumptions and forming development practices on what works for people with disabilities2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Eliminating the social exclusion of individuals with disabilities and disregard for their human rights continues to be the primary objective of Disability Studies. Disability remains marginalized at all levels in development work from policy to relief efforts (Grech & Soldatic, 2016). Only 5% of overseas development assistance funds are allocated to disability projects and programs and efforts consistently bypass people with disabilities (Ridell, 2010; Grech, 2015). Eliminating ableism in development we are argue must be counteracted in a two-fold approach through theorizing centered on education processes.

    The first is to confront the arguments for dismissing disability as “someone else’s concern” (Grech & Soldatic, 2016) which furthers its invisibility. We propose that programs to increase the disability literacy of policy makers and development workers must be implemented in all development projects just as gender education has been. This major step would serve to increase awareness of what perpetuates disability inequality in development efforts. The second area addresses the lack of disability informed development work. By designing a research project using qualitative social science research methods, the lived reality of people with disabilities will be foregrounded with particular focus on their educational needs on their own terms.

    These two areas draw on critical works in disability studies in education and intergenerational and comparative perspectives on quality inclusive education in a social justice in education framework (Adams Lyngbäck, 2016, Gani Dutt, 2017). This presentation will outline the pending fieldwork on the educational provisions for children with disabilities in locations throughout India in order to contextually inform joint development programs. This will be carried out through newly established cooperation efforts between Stockholm University and higher education and research institutions in India, (The Institute for Adult Education and Lifelong Learning, New Delhi) and in Nepal, (Kathmandu University). The ground work will be laid for addressing how disability inclusive development needs not only to be rethought but reenacted by making disability equality one of the central concerns in sustainable development implementation.

  • 8.
    Adams Lyngbäck, Liz
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Paul, Enni
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Becoming established: a gendered educational effort for learning Swedish2018Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Not knowing Swedish or being a native speaker of Swedish is posed as a problem related to and exacerbating disabilities (SPSM om flerspråkighet). In 2017, the political debate in Sweden lifted the problem of how the immigrant stay- at-home- mother phenomenon was hindering newly arrived women from entering the work force due to what is portrayed as their lack of Swedish skills. Language plurality in this respect is posed as a weakness rather than a resource (Hyltenstam & Milani, 2012). These women are still largely seen “as workers rather than human beings with equal rights” (Skutnabb-Kangas & Phillipson, 1996). There is a general assumption that knowing the target language is paramount in becoming established in society which involves paying taxes. Non-governmental integration efforts draw on these types of descriptions when applying for funding.

    Swedish with Baby is an NGO initiative focusing on organizing group meetings for parents with small children with different ethnic and socio-economic backgrounds. The activities build on the idea of a combined language and baby café which are educational initiatives where language users with small children devote time to conversation practice with native speakers in the target language. The objective is described as promoting parents towards becoming established in society by learning to speak Swedish through language role models.

    We have conducted a year-long fieldwork project in Swedish with Baby with the aim of exploring aspects about language and belonging in families in migration contexts. In this presentation, we will discuss how the very ideas of what is being aimed for, Swedish language knowledge, undermines inclusion.

    We examine our findings in terms of how social justice is linked to tacit, unspoken policy objectives about what counts as appropriate language goals for groups seen as marginalized or in need of being de-marginalized through integration efforts. The groups most disadvantaged by language policies are girls and women, ethnic minority groups and social minority groups (Corson, 1993).

    In our research findings, it became evident that for many of the first-generation immigrants the goal of learning Swedish is secondary or unimportant. A large part of this group expresses that they are attending Swedish with Baby to meet other parents of small children and to exchange ideas on questions and thoughts which have come about through their new role as parents. This is regardless of how much or how little Swedish they previously knew. In fact, most of the parents in this group were communicatively competent in Swedish.

    Situations where not knowing Swedish was described as disabling was in their everyday living, not in looking for employment. The experience of being limited by language had to do with their children, from choosing preschools, schools, contacts with health care and especially if their child was not able to communicate with other children. Our results indicate that the idea of language as a skill for getting a job is missing the mark on what language learners need to actually be successful: a sense of community through social engagement.

  • 9.
    Addensten, Emelie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Abbas, Amal
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Självreflektion avseende inkludering i förskolan: Förskollärares upplevelser av ett självreflektionsverktyg2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
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  • 10. Adolfsson Boman, Marianne
    et al.
    Eriksson, Inger
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Hverven, Mona
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematikämnets och naturvetenskapsämnenas didaktik.
    Jansson, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Tambour, Torbjörn
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematikämnets och naturvetenskapsämnenas didaktik.
    Att introducera likhetstecken i ett algebraiskt sammanhang för elever i årskurs 12013Ingår i: Forskning om undervisning och lärande, ISSN 2000-9674, E-ISSN 2001-6131, nr 10, s. 29-49Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln bygger på data från forsknings- och utvecklingsprojektet (FoU) ”Utveckling av matematiskt tänkande – expanderande uppgifter i nybörjarundervisningen” där lärare från Skärsätra skola tillsammans med forskare från Stockholms universitet genomförde ett undervisningsexperiment i syfte att introducera algebra i nybörjarundervisningen.

  • 11.
    Afram, Mirna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Lärares erfarenheter av elevsamarbete och samlära på gymnasiesärskolans individuella program: En studie om samspel, lärande och interaktion2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
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  • 12.
    Agdahl, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Eklund, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Vägar till specialpedagogiska insatser i förskolan: Att skapa förutsättningar för alla barns lärande - en intervjustudie2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
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  • 13.
    Ageby, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Hellerstedt, Cecilie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Pedagogers inställning till utagerande barn i förskolan2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
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    Specialpedagogik
  • 14.
    Ahlgren, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Humlekil, Linn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    "Alla vill ju kunna läsa": en intervjustudie om speciallärares erfarenheter2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
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  • 15.
    Ahlm, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    ”Språkstimuleringen måste byggas in i vardagen”: Verksamhetsstöd på förskolan och i grundskolans tidigare år för barn och elever med tal- och språksvårigheter.2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien är att undersöka vilket verksamhetsstöd det finns för barn och elever med tal- och språksvårigheter på förskolan och i grundskolans tidigare år. Frågeställningarna handlar om hur en talpedagog arbetar för att stödja barn med tal- och språksvårigheter, hur ett barns svårigheter kartläggs samt hur barns tal och språk stimuleras under den dagliga verksamheten. Som forskningsmetod har jag använt mig av intervju och observation.

    Resultatet visar att det stöd barnen får av talpedagogen är genom olika övningar som valts ut för att stimulera deras tal och språk. Talpedagogen kartlägger även barnens svårigheter med hjälp av Hellqvists fonemtest med vilket hon får kunskap om vad barnet redan kan och vad det behöver öva på. Både på förskolan och i skolan bygger pedagogerna in språkstimuleringen i vardagen på ett naturligt sätt genom att oftast utgå från barnens egna intressen och kunskaper. Detta har visat sig på förskolan genom att pedagogerna främst låter barnen ge förslag på vad de vill göra och utgå från detta, medan lärarna i skolan anpassar material och arbetsböcker utefter elevernas kunskapsnivå.

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    fulltext
  • 16.
    Ahlmark, Jenny
    Stockholms universitet. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Om jag får välja mitt eget stöd: Ungdomars upplevelser av skolans stöd i läsning och skrivning2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att få kunskap om hur elever med läs- och skrivsvårigheter/dyslexi upplever skolans stöd i läsning och skrivning. Sex ungdomar mellan 12 och 20 år har intervjuats. Utsagorna har analyserats tematiskt med en fenomenologisk ansats. Resultatet visar att eleverna vill att lärarna ska lyssna och beakta deras åsikter gällande vilket stöd som de behöver, samt var, hur och när detta ska ges. Eleverna upplever skilda svårigheter i läsning och skrivning, vilket även kan resultera i problem gällande de teoretiska ämnena. Praktiska ämnen beskrivs däremot vara lätta och roliga. Att ha tillgång till läroböcker uppges vara viktig, eftersom dessa beskriver och konkretiserar ämnets innehåll. Vidare upplevs datorn kunna ge stöd för skrivandet. Att undervisningen anpassas inom den vanliga klassen föredras av eleverna, men samtidigt kan det även upplevas positivt att ha tillgång till stöd utanför klassrummet. Att ha kamrater, både bland de som befinner sig i liknande svårigheter och andra, beskrivs också vara viktigt. Sociala relationer och lärarnas kompetens bidrar till stor del gällande inställningen till skolan i allmänhet.  Om skolan anpassar organisationen och utvecklar undervisningen, ökar möjligheten till att kunna beakta varje elevs vilja. Det är också viktigt att olika etiska aspekter lyfts fram och diskuteras i skolan, exempelvis gällande lärarnas förhållningssätt gentemot eleverna. Elevernas röster kan ge oss viktig vägledning i arbetet mot en inkluderande skola, om vi bara tar oss tid att lyssna.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 17.
    Ahlqvist, Göran
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Larsson, Jan‑Olov
    von Rosen, Tatjana
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Westling Allodi, Mara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Rydelius, Per‑Anders
    The Sävsjö-school-project: a cluster-randomized trial aimed at improving the literacy of beginners—achievements, mental health, school satisfaction and reading capacity at the end of grade three using an alternative school curriculum2019Ingår i: Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, ISSN 1753-2000, E-ISSN 1753-2000, Vol. 13, artikel-id 27Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    A curriculum was planned using modern concepts based on the “old” principles to test if such an educational intervention provided pupils with good mental health and a solid basis for good reading and writing skills, as well as generated a positive attitude to learn. These “old” principles were based on previous knowledge derived from school psychiatry (which in Sweden was a branch of child and adolescent psychiatry 1915–1970), educational psychology and the educational approach from the differentiating Swedish School system of 1946–1970 (itself based on the principles of curative education “Heilpädagogie”, which was later renamed mental health care).

    Methods

    All six available schools in the small Swedish city of Sävsjö participated in the study. In these six schools there were eight preschool classes that included every 6-year old child living in the city. In total there were 184 families with 186 children (including 2 pairs of twins) who belonged to these preschool classes and were invited to take part in the study. One family moved just before school-start and 8 decided not to participate, thus 177 children (84 boys and 93 girls, aged 5.6–6.6 years) entered the study. The preschool classes were randomized into an experimental group with four preschool classes and a comparison group with four preschool classes. The experimental group followed a teaching program from the start of the preschool year until the end of grade 3 that was tailored to each student’s individual capacity based on the concepts of school maturation and curative education used in the Swedish schools during the period 1946–1970. The comparison group followed today’s average Swedish school curriculum. The project was planned as an intervention study covering the preschool year and the first 3 years of elementary school, which was to form a basis for a follow-up when the pupils had left senior high, the 12th year in Swedish public school. The outcome and the achievements were measured at end of grade 3 using standardized tests on reading, writing and mathematical skills. Behavior was assessed at school start and at end of grade 3 using the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL-scales) in addition to a questionnaire on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD) with criteria from DSM-IV. The children made a self-evaluation of their attitude towards learning.

    Results

    At the end of school year 3, the children in the experimental group had an improved reading capacity (p = 0.002, effect size(es) = 4.35) and reading comprehension (p = 0.03, es = 0.04). They evaluated their own reading (p = 0.02, es = 0.23), writing (p = 0.007, es = 0.35) and mathematical skills (p = 0.003, es = 0.48) as going “very well” when compared to comparison group. Differences regarding intelligence quotas between the groups at the start of school had disappeared by the end of grade 3. No differences referring to CBCL were found at end of grade 3. One child in the comparison group fulfilled criteria for AD/HD, according to parents and teachers.

    Conclusions

    The alternative curriculum covering the preschool year through the first 3 years of elementary school based on the old principles from curative education (“Heilpädagogie”), educational psychology and school psychiatry gave the children in the experimental group a better reading capacity and reading comprehension.

    Trial registration The study started in 1998. The data were collected longitudinally and prospectively but have not been analyzed until now, with the children having left senior high. A retrospective registration in the ISRCTN is pending.

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  • 18.
    Ahlström, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Man bygger lösningar efter de barn man har: En studie om några pedagogers arbetssätt kring inkluderande undervisningssituationer.2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det huvudsakliga syftet med min studie har varit att undersöka hur några pedagoger tolkar begreppet inkludering samt hur detta begrepp kan komma till uttryck i deras arbete. Data har samlats in genom fokusintervjuer med sex pedagoger från två arbetslag på en F-5 skola i Stockholm. Frågeställningen har handlat om pedagogernas syn på inkludering, vilka tankar de hade kring inkluderande undervisning samt vilka eventuella svårigheter de såg med att arbeta inkluderande. Det framkom genom studien att det rådde delade meningar mellan informanterna om vad ett inkluderande arbetssätt var. Det ena arbetslaget hävdade att det innebar att alla elever skulle befinna sig i klassrummet för att känna sig inkluderade medans det andra arbetslaget menade att det handlade om att eleven skulle känna att den var en del av sammanhanget, oavsett var den befann sig någonstans. Att arbeta inkluderande i undervisningen betydde för många av pedagogerna att eleverna skulle känna att de hade lyckats. Läxor och genomgångar av lektioner anpassades efter elevernas olika nivåer och till sin hjälp tog pedagogerna sig större friheter i sina egna arbetssätt. Pedagogerna använde sig av olika metoder för att arbeta inkluderande i undervisningen och svårigheter de såg med detta arbetssätt handlade om att lyckas hålla alla elever i arbete hela tiden och utmana dem så långt som möjligt. De fann även svårigheter med att finna balansen mellan de elever som behövde mycket hjälp och de elever som var mer självgående.

     

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 19.
    Akbaryian, Hoda
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Kahlin, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Traumatiserade barn från krig: -        En studie om vad två pedagoger och en psykolog berättar om sina möten med dessa barn2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta examensarbete har vi valt att forska om krigets inverkan på barn vilket blev vår utgångspunkt till syftet. Syftet blev att undersöka vad två pedagoger och en psykolog berättar om krigets inverkan på traumatiserade barn från krig. Vi har i litteraturöversikten presenterat olika faktorer som kan påverka barnens utveckling som exempelvis trauma, posttraumatisk stress och kris. Vi har även valt att presentera olika pedagogiska och psykologiska metoder som visar på hur man kan bearbeta barnens traumatiska upplevelser. Vi valde att intervjua två lärare och en psykolog för att ta del av deras erfarenheter kring arbetet med traumatiserade barn från krig. Vi började med att läsa mycket litteratur om krigets påföljder och dess effekter för barnen. Sedan bestämde vi oss för att intervjua två pedagoger och en psykolog för att få en bild av verkligheten. Litteraturen stämde överens med praktiken men vi upptäckte en ny viktig aspekt som människor tidigare kan ha förbisett. Den nya viktiga aspekten visade sig vara pedagogers personliga behov i arbetet med traumatiserade barn. Pedagogerna går in i en nära personlig relation till barnen. Psykologen lägger tonvikt på det psykiska medan pedagogerna visar sina erfarenheter som bygger på ett pedagogiskt synsätt.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 20.
    Ala i´-Rosales, Shahla
    et al.
    University of North Texas.
    Roll-Pettersson, Lise
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    University Training for Behavior Analysts Specializing in Autism Interventions2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing number of children diagnosed with autism and the demand for evidence-based interventions has lead to an increase in the need for well-trained behavior analysts.  There are only a small handful of programs that are accredited by ABAI and have course sequences approved by the BACB.  Even fewer of these programs have formal institutional course approval for classes in autism.  The purpose of this paper is to describe a training summit that was held in September of 2009.  The purpose of the summit was to consider and discuss a wide range of issues involved in higher education and autism intervention and to produce a special volume of the European Journal of Behavior Analysis that would explore these issues.

  • 21.
    Ala í- Rosales, Shahla
    et al.
    University of North Texas.
    Roll-Pettersson, Lise
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Pinkelman, Sarah
    University of Oregon.
    Emerging Opportunities in Higher Education: Applied Behavior Analysis and Autism2010Ingår i: European Journal of Behavior Analysis, ISSN 1502-1149, Vol. 11, nr 2, s. 207-216Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

     

    The growing number of children diagnosed with autism and the recognized importance of evidence-based interventions has substantially increased the need for well-trained applied behavior analysts. Relative to public/consumer demand, there are very few higher education programs that are equipped to train behavior analysts specializing in autism. Worldwide, there are only a few programs accredited by Association for Behavior Analysis International (ABAI), that have course sequences approved by the Behavior Analysis Certification Board (BACB), and have formal institutional course approval for classes in autism and behavior analysis. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a series of expert commentary on the context, content and systems required to build quality higher education programs in autism and applied behavior analysis. Together the articles in this special section of the European Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis form a resource for faculty and university administrators interested in the development of innovative and socially relevant training programs in higher education.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 22.
    Aldenklint, Lina
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Åhlén, Lise-Lotte
    Ordförrådsinterventioner för barn och elever med språkstörning: En systematisk litteraturstudie om insatser som främjar semantisk och lexikal utveckling hos barn och elever med språkstörning.2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett välutvecklat språk är ett viktigt redskap för att kunna förstå, lära och delta i både skola och samhälle. I skolsammanhang ställs höga krav på förståelse av abstrakta ord och begrepp inom samtliga ämnen. Barn och elever med språkstörning har svårare att koppla ord till dess underliggande betydelse, än vad jämnåriga kamrater med typisk språkutveckling har.

    Syftet med denna systematiska litteraturstudie var att undersöka vilka språkliga interventioner som främjar semantisk och lexikal utveckling hos barn och elever med språkstörning. Utifrån sökorden ordförrådsintervention (vocabulary intervention), språkstörning (SLI/DLD) semantik (semantic) och lexikal (lexical) valdes vetenskapliga artiklar ut för analys.

    Resultatet visar att det finns ett antal språkliga interventioner som givit positiva utslag hos barn och elever med språkstörning. En gemensam nämnare i flertalet studier var att interventionerna genomfördes i en-till-en-situationer med utbildad personal. Annat gynnsamt som framträdde var vikten av att ge flera förklaringar till ett ords betydelse: exempelvis genom bildstöd, genom att få ordet presenterat i en kontext eller förklarat med hjälp av synonymer. Det framkom också att individer med språkstörning behöver få höra ord upprepade gånger för att befästa orden och dess betydelser.

    Språkliga och kognitiva begränsningar som framträdde hos barn och elever med språkstörning var bland annat svårigheter med berättarförmåga, läsförståelse och att göra inferenser under läsning. Vi fann även att barn och elever med språkstörning kan ha svårt med det fonologiska korttidsminnet, ordproduktion, ordmobilisering, ordvariation och mentalisering. Jämfört med jämnåriga kamrater med typisk språkutveckling visade vår studie att barn och elever med språkstörning har en svagare språkutveckling generellt.

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    Ordförrådsinterventioner vid språkstörning Aldenklint Åhlén
  • 23.
    Aldskogius, Suzanne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Persson, Katja
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Play Time/Social Time: ett sätt att främja inkludering i svensk förskola?2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning visar att barn i behov av särskilt stöd inte deltar i lek med kamrater i samma utsträckning som sina kamrater och därmed riskerar att missa viktiga delar i sin utveckling såsom samspel och delaktighet. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka möjligheter och hinder med det evidensbaserade materialet Play Time/social Time som metod för att utveckla sociala färdigheter och samspel i lek hos barn i behov av särskilt stöd och deras kamrater. Studien belyser ett sociokulturellt perspektiv där lärande och utveckling sker genom samspel med andra. Det empiriska materialet har samlats in genom fyra observationer på två förskoleavdelningar och fem fokussamtal med två förskollärare. Ett framträdande resultat visar att förskollärarna ser positivt på att använda sig av ett evidensbaserat material för att träna lek och samspel med barnen då de kan se att det skulle gagna alla barn på flera plan. Att synliggöra leken och lekfärdigheter för både barn och pedagoger som en demokratisk rättighet i förskolans verksamhet ses också som en vinst med programmet. Ett dilemma deltagarna uppmärksammar handlar bland annat om hur kamrater kan motiveras att vara rollmodeller i leken. Diskussionens tyngdpunkt ligger i resultatets synliggörande av miljöns betydelse för sociala möten och kamraternas roll i programmet.

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    fulltext
  • 24.
    Aldskogius, Suzanne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Persson, Katja
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Play Time/Social Time: Ett sätt att främja inkludering i svensk förskola?2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 25. Alfredsson Ågren, Kristin
    et al.
    Kjellberg, Anette
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Access to and use of the Internet among adolescents and young adults with intellectual disabilities in everyday settings2020Ingår i: Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, ISSN 1366-8250, E-ISSN 1469-9532, Vol. 45, nr 1, s. 89-98Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The aim of this study was to explore and describe access to the Internet and how it is used among adolescents and young adults with mild and moderate intellectual disabilities in their everyday settings.

    Method: Data were collected through observations of and interviews with 15 participants with intellectual disabilities, aged 13–25 years, on access and use of the Internet in school or work and at home or in their free time. A qualitative content analysis was used.

    Results: Main findings were categorised into: access to the Internet in different settings, challenges when using the Internet and strategies to handle the digital environment and take part in Internet activities.

    Conclusions: This study revealed that participants had access to Internet connections and to a high number of Internet-enabled devices. Participants used the Internet through strategies when doing Internet activities, for example using pictures and reducing the number of Internet-enabled devices used in their everyday settings.

  • 26. Alfredsson Ågren, Kristin
    et al.
    Kjellberg, Anette
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Digital participation? Internet use among adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities: A comparative study2019Ingår i: New Media and Society, ISSN 1461-4448, E-ISSN 1461-7315Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet use is an integrated part of everyday life, especially among young people. However, knowledge of this for young people with disabilities is scarce. This study investigates digital participation of adolescents with intellectual disabilities by comparing aspects of Internet use among adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities. Cross-sectional comparative design was used and a national survey from the Swedish Media Council was cognitively adapted for adolescents with intellectual disabilities aged 13-20 years. The results reveal that a significantly lower proportion of the 114 participating adolescents with intellectual disabilities had access to Internet-enabled devices and performed Internet activities, except for playing games, than the reference group (n = 1161). The greatest difference was found in searching for information. Analyses indicate that adolescents with intellectual disabilities are following a similar pattern of Internet use as the reference group, but a digital lag is prevalent, and a more cognitively accessible web could be beneficial.

  • 27. Alfredsson Ågren, Kristin
    et al.
    Kjellberg, Anette
    Hemmingsson, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Internet-use among adolescents with intellectual disabilities in Sweden2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 28.
    Allodi,
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Amnå,
    Eriksson,
    Johansson,
    Theodorsson,
    Munck,
    Zetterberg,
    Ekman,
    Ungas demokratiskolor i internationell belysning2007Ingår i: Resultatdialog, forskning inom utbildningsvetenskap, Vetenskapsrådet , 2007, s. 7-13Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 29.
    Allodi, Mara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Specialpedagogiska insatser internationellt och i det svenska utbildningssystemet2017Ingår i: Dyslexi, ISSN 1401-2480, Vol. 1, s. 6-10Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Tillsammans med studenter i mastersprogrammet genomfördes en analys av specialpedagogiskt stöd i några utbildningssystem som var möjliga att jämföra med det svenska systemet och som verkade framgångsrika eller åtminstone intressanta. Från en jämförelse av dessa olika modeller identifieras några komponenter som jag föreslår att vi skulle inspireras av för att kunna genomföra mer effektiva specialpedagogiska insatser i det svenska skolsystemet. En undersökning av vad som görs i andra sammanhang kan göra det tydligare för oss vad det är som saknas i specialpedagogisk praxis och ge indikationer om vilka uppfattningar som ligger bakom dessa val.

  • 30.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Byråkrati, marknad eller lotteri?: Organisation och styrning av utbildning: effekter och risker för specialpedagogiska verksamheter2009Ingår i: Offentlig sektor och komplexitet: Om hantering av mål, strategier och professioner / [ed] Petra Adolfsson och Rolf Solli, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2009, s. 199-225Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 31.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Emerging themes in the meeting between teachers and parents: when the children have special needs disabilites or are at risk2011Ingår i: Educazione familiare e servizi per l'infanzia: Education familiale et services pour l'enfance. XIII Congresso Internazionale. Firenze, 17-19 novembre 2010 / [ed] Catarsi, Enzo; Pourtois, Jean Pierre, Firenze: Firenze University Press , 2011, s. 99-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Relations characterised by collaboration and alliance between staff and parents of children with particular needs, experiencing developmental challenges or disabilities are necessary conditions of a favourable educational situation. Several studies testimony the protective role of positive educational experiences for children at risk, but the educational experiences of these children are not always satisfactory and propitious for their future development. Studies on the experiences of the meetings between parents and educational staff describe which difficulties may arise in the form of conflicts, communication problems, loss of trust and reciprocal devaluation and critique. The meetings between families and the services are not just personal encounters; they are also influenced by the characteristics and structures of the surrounding educational context. The themes emerging from several studies can be related for instance to the fight for the support and the resources, and to the definition of the child’s needs, potential and of what is the best for the child. The analysis and reflection on these themes and their motives should help the teachers to understand and prevent these risks, changing the responses to the parents adequately.

  • 32.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Goals and values in school: A model developed for describing, evaluating and changing the social climate of learning environments2010Ingår i: Social Psychology of Education, ISSN 1381-2890, E-ISSN 1573-1928, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 207-235Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper defines a broad model of the psychosocial climate in educational settings. The model was developed from a general theory of learning environments, on a theory of human values and on empirical studies of children's evaluations of their schools. The contents of the model are creativity, stimulation, achievement, self-efficacy, creativity, safety, control, helpfulness, participation, responsibility and influence; they are hypothesised to be structured in a circular model. The contents are defined and related to existing theories and research in education, special education, educational psychology and sociology, on the basis of reviews of literature. The model underlies the Goals, Attitudes and Values in School questionnaire, developed to assess the characteristics ofeducational settings. The model can be a practical tool in understanding and appreciating differences between learning environments in research and assessment and it could represent a guideline for interventions aimed to analyse and improve the social climate of learning environments.

  • 33.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Lärarens val: att göra motstånd mot en förtryckande organisation eller mot elever som inte passar in2010Ingår i: Pedagogik som motstånd / [ed] Gunilla Alba & Ylva Wibaeus, Stockholm: Svenska Korczaksällskapet , 2010, 1, s. 77-84Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att få möjlighet att utbilda sig är en grundläggande mänsklig rättighet. Skolan ska bidra till att barnets personlighet samt fysiska och mentala förmågor utvecklas till dess fulla potential. Men när är skolan verkligen en rättighet och när blir den i stället en belastning för barnet? Kapitlet analyserar villkoren för att utbildningen ska upplevas som en rättighet av alla elever och hinder som finns på vägen dit, samt reflekterar kring vad det kan innebära för lärarna att välja att ta ansvar för sina elever.

  • 34.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Perché dare voce alle esperienze dei bambini a scuola e perché no: Motivi e sfide per la ricerca pedagogica2009Ingår i: Infanzia Rivista di studi ed esperienze sull'educazione 0-6, ISSN 0390-2420, Vol. 1, nr 4, s. 269-272Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [it]

    L'ascolto e l'osservazione delle esperienze dei bambini è uno dei motivi che caratterizzano la ricerca pedagogica, ma nella pratica bisogna affrontare anche sfide e difficoltà a cui è bene essere preparati e su cui è opportuno riflettere.

  • 35.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Stoccolma: dove la questione dei bambini non è solo una questione privata2011Ingår i: Infanzia, ISSN 0390-2420, nr 5, s. 371-372Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [it]

    In Svezia, ancor oggi, persiste un sistema di Welfare che dedica molte risorse alle politiche per l'infanzia e al sostegno delle famiglie. Ció si traduce sia sul piano politico, sia su quello della produzione culturale, consolidando un diffuso atteggiamento di tutela e cura dei minori, ampiamente dimostrato nella dimensione quotidiana.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Stoccolma_Infanzia
  • 36.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Temi emergenti negli incontri tra genitori e personale nel contesto educativo svedese2011Ingår i: Educazione familiare e servizi per l'infanzia: Education familiale et services pour l'enfance.  XIII Congresso Internazionale. Firenze, 17-19 novembre 2010 / [ed] di Catarsi Enzo, Pourtois Jean Pierre, Firenze (Italia): Firenze University Press , 2011, s. 237-242Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [it]

    In questo testo vengono presentate riflessioni sui rapporti tra genitori ed educatori e sui programmi di prevenzione per genitori, sulla base di studi condotti personalmente, di studi di colleghi e su sintesi e ricerche compiute da enti nazionali svedesi, valutazioni di ricerche e rapporti di commissioni parlamentari

  • 37.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    The experiences of mental health and well-being of Swedish children and youth with a focus on educational situations: Some results and reflections from a review of qualitative studies2010Ingår i: Trender i barns och ungdomars psykiska hälsa: Program & abstracts 12-14 april 2010, Stockholm: Kungliga vetenskapsakademien , 2010, s. 17-18Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The practice of including in reviews people’s experiences and perceptions, which are collected with non-experimental and qualitative studies, has been developed recently in the field of mental health studies. These approaches and methodologies have inspired the review of research on Swedish children and adolescents experiences of mental health and well being, with a focus on their educational situation, that was conducted as a part of a systematic review of research on School Learning and Mental health, performed by appointment of the Royal Academy of Sciences. The aim of the review was to gather testimonies that can give indications of the experiences of mental health and well being in this specific context. The results from the studies that were relevant for the aims of the review are structured in four themes: general views, protective factors, risk factors, individual factors. They are presented in a narrative synthesis, giving a particular weight to the direct and indirect report of children’s and adolescents’ own views. The adolescents defined mental health as emotional experiences, seen both as internal feelings and as relational feelings. Family, friends and educational environments as social and physical environments were perceived as determinants of mental health. A great number of feelings were related to school, both related to satisfaction and pain, in particular when the school attendance is presented as an obligation. Harassment and rejection at school, performance stress, worries about grades and future prospects could be threats against self-worth and self-esteem, while teachers that do not care could generate negative experiences. Various kind of stress could be described and various strategies to resist stressful situations: for instance emotional support, safety and involvement. The educational environments can be an arena for social, cognitive and emotional experiences, relationships and accomplishments that are enriching the individuals and increase their well being. General structural characteristics of the educational environments may also affect well being in different directions: performance, evaluation and feedback, freedom of choice and responsibility for the future may be perceived as a burden. The following reflections can be made: the experiences of children and adolescents change when they grow older, go through developmental processes and encounter different educational situations; the studies reporting views of younger children on the matters of this review were less well represented; the negative experiences may be expressed in rather cautious and non dramatic terms by younger children; there are unique contribution of the review of qualitative studies, but also several interesting correspondences with the results of the review of quantitative studies.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 38.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    The meaning of social climate of learning environments: some reasons why we do not care enough about it.2010Ingår i: Learning Environments Research, ISSN 1387-1579, E-ISSN 1573-1855, Vol. 13, nr 2, s. 89-104Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse reasons underlying the neglect of social climate in education. It discusses the relevance of the concept of social climate in learning environments: presenting evidence of its effects; its importance in special needs and inclusive education; presenting existing differences between settings; discussing the contribution of social climate to teachers’ professional autonomy. The arguments support the view that social climate is an essential factor in educational processes and make incomprehensible the scarce attention reserved to it in educational policy, research and teacher programs. Indications of neglect in the Swedish context are presented. The resistance towards the concept of social climate is related to a) dualistic and hierarchic views; b) characteristics of bureaucratic systems; c) reductionist interpretations; d) difficulties in handling and evaluating social values and goals; e) post-modern criticism of scientific knowledge and psychology. Implications for counteracting reductive interpretations and meeting resistance and criticism are discussed.

  • 39.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Vad gör skolan för utsatta barn?2010Ingår i: Se de tidiga tecknen: Forskare reflekterar över sju berättelser från förskola och skola, Stockholm: Elanders AB , 2010, s. 101-121Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 40.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Bölte, Sven
    Danielsson, Henrik
    Granlund, Mats
    Wilder, Jenny
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Discussing Projects in Special Education Directed Towards Early Interventions in Childhood Education in the Swedish Context2019Ingår i: Research to Practice in Early Intervention: An International Perspective, 2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, Early Childhood Education and Care is a right for every child and children in need of special support have access to these provisions in inclusive mainstream settings. National evaluations show great quality variations in special educational support in preschools and schools across the country. A Multicenter Research School with 10 PhD students from four Universities and international partners has been funded (2018- 2021) by the Swedish Research Council to develop knowledge in early intervention. Preschool/school environments are assessed and tailored interventions at unit or child level are developed. The projects are built on previous research and identified needs in research and practice. The theoretical framework for the Research School will be described, results from a systematic review of previous research and specific plans for various topics (engagement, early literacy, expressive language development, socio- emotional development, self-regulation) will be presented and linked to the theoretical framework.

  • 41.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Fischbein, Siv
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Job engagement and perceptions of work environment in Swedish junior-high school teachers2009Ingår i: Theory construction and multivariate analysis: Applications of Facet approach, Bar-Ilan University: FTA Publications , 2009, s. 231-241Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 42.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Fischbein, Siv
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Organisational characteristics of educational environments: the contribution of teachers' assessment2010Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore the organisational characteristics of educational environments, to identify typologies of work environments and to investigate the relationships between the type of work environment and the school’s functioning.

    The Swedish version of the Organizational Checkup survey (Leiter & Maslach, 2000) is a general and expanded version of the Maslach burnout inventory. This study analyses the 16 items concerning Energy, Involvement and Accomplishment (Relation to work) and 29 items concerning Workload, Control, Reward, Community, Fairness and Values (Fields of work).

    The sample consists of 749 Swedish high school teachers from a stratified selection of 31 schools.

    The means of the answers from teachers from the same school were dichotomized and analysed with POSAC (Partial Order Scalogram Analyses). The polarizing variables contributing to the identification of four main profiles are Reward and Workload.

    The answers are also analysed with a SEM (Structural Equation Modelling) approach.

    The results show that there are differences in the work environment of teachers and that the variables from the Organizational Checkup survey that contribute most to these differences are Workload and Reward. The results are discussed in relation to the effort-reward imbalance theory. The results can contribute to a better understanding of significant differences in school’s organisational functioning, as they are perceived by the teachers, and they can be employed in planning adequate interventions.

  • 43.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Siljehag, Eva
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Persson, Katja
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Leroy Odom, Samuel
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA.
    Observation of Social Participation in Play: adaptation and test of an instrument to observe play and interaction in a peer-mediated intervention targeting social skills and play in inclusive preschools2019Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. The aim of this presentation is to describe: - the process that we adopted in order to develop an instrument to observe play and social interaction recorded in natural preschool settings; - the contents of the instrument.

    The instrument will be used in a peer-mediated intervention based on Play Time/Social Time (Odom et al. 1997), where we need a reliable and valid measure of children’s play behaviour and social skill, which would make the external observers able to detect possible changes after the intervention and as a complement to other instruments, as teachers’ impressions ratings (TIS) and structured classroom observations (ICP).

    Background. The program PTST was translated to Swedish. The contents of the interventions were discussed with students and practitioners and tested in small scale studies, showing a good social validity (Siljehag & Allodi, 2017). A pilot study was conducted in four preschools. The analysis of data from the trial is currently ongoing.

    Procedure. We obtained an observation instrument that has been used in previous research on friendship for children with autism, the Friendship Observation Scale (FOS) (Bauminger, Aviezer & Rogers, 2004). Its contents matched fairly well our interventions’ contents.  We made a translation and adaptation. The contents of Social Participation Observation in Play (SPOP) were discussed with an expert educator from our team who tested it in field observations in preschool. After her feedback we reduced the number of behaviours to observe, retaining behaviours that were more likely to happen with young children, and that were targeted by the program. Simple Video Coder (Barto, Bird, Hamilton et al., 2017) or other available software will be used to code the videorecorded interactions. It will be used in the study: Social Interaction in play time and language activities (2018-00018) funded by  Skolforskningsinstitutet /Swedish Institute for Educational Research.

  • 44.
    Allodi Westling, Mara
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Zappaterra, Tamara
    Users' needs on play for children with disabilities2017Ingår i: Handicap, Reconnaissance et “Vivreensemble” [Recognition and “Community living”]: Diversité des pratiques et pluralité des valeurs Disability [Diversity of practices and plurality of values], European Society for Disability Research , 2017, s. 10-10Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The COST Action ”LUDI-Play for Children with Disabilities” is devoted to the enhancement of play for children with disabilities. In order to develop policies, practices and professional training on the topic of play for children with disabilities, it is necessary to take account of the users’ needs. Aim. The aim of the study is to investigate the users’ needs on play for children with disabilities. Method. Surveys directed to disability associations and parents, developed by the COST Action ”LUDI-Play for Children with Disabilities” were distributed to 31 coordinators and translated into 23 languages. 75 answers were collected from association in 24 countries and 129 from parents in 26 countries. Results from Associations. Play for play sake is important and essential for a wide range of reasons. Play conduces to an array of positive outcome for the child, even if it is experienced as a free activity without specific objectives. Results from parents. Play is an activity that fulfil essential needs for the child. The child’s needs were to have friends and peers, adapted and specialized toys, a knowledgeable adult; improved skills necessary to play; accessible outdoor environments; available time; societal attitudes, policy and resources. The children’s experiences of play were reported. Play is an engaging activity in which the children observe, communicate, share and experience participation. Play means positive emotions as joy, happiness, relax, excitement and fun. The children experience agency when they play. The children wanted to play for more time, to have more options, adaptions, and to overcome barriers.

  • 45.
    Almroth, Jessica
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Knuts, Anette
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    ”Man måste kriga för att få bra betyg”: En kvalitativ studie om elever i läs- och skrivsvårigheter och deras upplevelser av betygsystemet i Lgr11 med fokus på ämnet svenska2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska skolan har genom historien haft flera olika betygssystem. 1994 infördes mål- och kriterierelaterade betyg och 2011 fick Sverige en ny läroplan Lgr11. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur elever, vilka är i läs- och skrivsvårigheter, i årskurs 6-9 upplever kunskapskraven, bedömningsprocess och betygssättning enligt Lgr11 i ämnet svenska. Arbetet byggdes på fokusgruppsintervjuer med totalt 15 elever, verksamma vid en grundskola i Mellansverige våren 2016.  

    Studien har en fenomenologisk ansats där vi genom halvstrukturerade fokusgruppintervjuer ville ta reda på hur elever i läs- och skrivsvårigheter upplevde kunskapskraven samt bedömningsprocessen enligt Lgr11. De teoretiska perspektiv som har använts för att analysera vårt empiriska material är Husserls livsvärldsteori, det situerade perspektivet på lärande och bedömning samt det relationella perspektivet på specialpedagogik. Resultatet visar att eleverna upplever att betyget är viktigt för sin framtid och de ser det som ett kvitto på sitt lärande. Vidare lägger eleverna det största ansvaret för sitt betyg på sig själva och de upplever nuvarande betygsystem som svårt att förstå. Vi ser också att de uttrycker en osäkerhet kring vilka kunskaper som bedöms i skolan. Eleverna ger också uttryck för upplevelser av oro, besvikelse, stress, uppgivenhet, vanmakt, ilska, osmarthet och glädje. Vår tolkning av resultatet är att eleverna upplever att lärarnas bedömningspraktik och läroplanens kunskapskrav kan utgöra hinder för dem i sin strävan att nå ett högre betyg.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 46.
    Al-Naib, Zahra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Blomgren, Jessica
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Hagström, Tåve
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    "Närmare varandra": - hur den fysiska lärmiljön kan främja delaktighet och acceptans2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utformandet av våra klassrum och fysiska lärmiljöer har i stort sett varit detsamma i flera hundra år, trots att villkoren och syftet med undervisningen har förändrats. För att “en skola för alla” verkligen ska kunna tillgodose allas rätt till likvärdig utbildning måste delaktigheten öka i den pedagogiska, sociala och fysiska lärmiljön. Denna studie tar till vara specialpedagogikens tvärvetenskapliga ambitioner och har för avsikt att få en ökad förståelse för hur vi i skolan kan ändra de traditionella klassrummen och göra dem mer inkluderande. Vi lutar oss också mot Vygotskij och den sociokulturella teorin samt det relationella perspektivet. Studien kommer att svara på hur elever och lärare upplever att deras klassrum främjar delaktighet och vad det har för betydelse. I detta arbete har vi i forskning samt med en etnografiskt inspirerad forskningsansats undersökt hur alternativa fysiska lärmiljöer kan främja ökad delaktighet. Vi presenterar forskning kring delaktighet och lärmiljöer, och lyfter de hinder och framgångsfaktorer som framkommer där. Vi har tolkat observationer, fokusgruppssamtal och enskilda intervjuer. I våra resultat blev tre teman tydliga: Samspel, gemenskap och relationer; Arbetsro och motivation samt Acceptans av olikheter. Alla teman leder till begreppet delaktighet, varav det sista temat är det med störst specialpedagogisk relevans. Resultaten bekräftar att de elever och lärare som hade tillgång till ett klassrum med alternativ lärmiljö upplever att detta främjar delaktigheten, både den pedagogiska och den sociala. De alternativa fysiska lärmiljöerna är mer flexibla och inkluderande och erbjuder eleverna anpassningar utan att dessa blir utmärkande. Vidare framkommer att lärarna reflekterar mer över sin undervisning och sitt ledarskap i dessa miljöer, samt att de alternativa lärmiljöerna generellt bidrar till en känsla av arbetsro, kreativitet, sammanhållning och acceptans för olikheter, samt att man kommer närmare varandra på olika plan.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 47.
    Anderbalk, Elin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    En förskola för alla barn: Förutsättningar för en lyckad integrering2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete handlar om integrering av barn i behov av särskilt stöd och vilka förutsättningar som är viktiga för att integreringen ska bli lyckad. Syftet med arbetet var att genom litteraturstudier och intervjuer med verksamma pedagoger ta reda på några viktiga förutsättningar som påverkar själva integreringen. Studien genomfördes med kvalitativa intervjuer där fyra pedagoger med olika lång erfarenhet deltog. Resultatet av arbetet visar på att en viktig förutsättning för en lyckad integrering är pedagogers förhållningssätt och attityder till barn i behov av särskilt stöd men även för integreringen i stort. Vidare framkom även vikten av stöd från ledningen, betydelsen av handledning i arbetet, behovet av en extra resurs och ett gott samarbete med föräldrarna.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 48.
    Andersson, Anne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet.
    Stenberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet.
    Att anpassa undervisningen efter individens förutsättningar och behov: en studie om individualisering och individanpassning2009Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Syftet med denna studie är att lyfta fram hur specialpedagoger och klasslärare arbetar med individualisering och individanpassning för alla elever och tydliggöra vilka strategier yrkesgrupperna använder sig av för att individualisera och individanpassa. I Lpo 94 står det att: ”Undervisningen skall anpassas till varje elevs förutsättningar och behov” (s.4). Genom att ha gjort sju kvalitativa intervjuer, med fyra specialpedagoger och tre klasslärare, och studerat olika författares teorier om individualisering har vi försökt att se över goda strategier i att individualisera och även problematiserat dem. Goda strategier som framkom var bland annat att arbeta multisensoriskt, se över elevens styrkor samt att ha tillgång och använda sig av rätt hjälpmedel. Genom ledande frågor har vi undersökt ifall författarnas teorier förekommer i pedagogernas arbete, vilket de gjort i olika former. Resultat visar på att individualisering ger möjligheten att nå alla elever, men att denna möjlighet påverkas av bland annat gruppstorlek, ekonomi och tid. Vi ville också se ifall det finns resurser för att individualisera för alla elever i den kommunala skolan eller om det behövs specifika skolor för exempelvis elever med läs- och skrivsvårigheter och dyslexi. Utifrån denna studie kom vi fram till att resurserna finns, men att det handlar om att förvalta dem rätt.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 49.
    Andersson, Fia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Det osynliga har blivit synligt - att bringa klarhet2010Ingår i: Etik i specialpedagogisk verksamhet / [ed] Rolf Helldin, Birgitta Sahlin, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, 1, s. 175-188Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 50.
    Andersson, Fia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Berthén, Diana
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Specialpedagogiska institutionen.
    Challenging assessing practice in schools for students with intellectual disabilities2017Ingår i: Book of Abstracts, 2017, s. 13-13Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the Swedish special school for children with intellectual disability (ID) issues concerning the improvement and formative assessment of knowledge appropriation are largely unexplored. The teaching practice has generally been organized by means of simple, repetitive tasks with a minimum of variation and a tempo that tends to inhibit, fragmentize and simplify the whole. Thereby contemplated knowledge remains inaccessible and to a simpler assessment practice. However, new demands from the government make teachers face requirements to create more complex assessment practices. This presentation is based upon data from seven case studies focusing teachers experiences from teaching and assessing literacy. The case studies were designed as research-circles, focus groups interviews, or as research and development projects. 120 teachers from different special schools together with researchers were involved. Theoretically, the projects are framed within the Cultural-Historical Activity Theory and focus on two main issues: What is the object of teachers´ assessment work concerning literacy? How do teachers handle a changed teaching assignment – from a simpler to a more complex practice? Results indicate that teachers seem to be hindered by their taken-for-granted assumptions about assessing, i.e. to shift perspective from focusing on what simply could be assessed to what would be worth assessing.  By challenging these assumptions, potential changes in assessment practices could be discussed.

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