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  • 1.
    Aartsen, M. G.
    et al.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Abraham, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, Dept Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Ackermann, M.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Adams, J.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 1, New Zealand..
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Ahlers, M.
    Ahrens, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Altmann, D.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Andeen, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Milwaukee, WI 53201 USA..
    Anderson, T.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Ansseau, I.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Anton, G.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Archinger, M.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Arguelles, C.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Arlen, T. C.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Auffenberg, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Bai, X.
    South Dakota Sch Mines & Technol, Dept Phys, Rapid City, SD 57701 USA..
    Barwick, S. W.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Baum, V.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Bay, R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Beatty, J. J.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 174 W 18Th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Becker, K. -H
    BenZvi, S.
    Univ Rochester, Dept Phys & Astron, Rochester, NY 14627 USA..
    Berghaus, P.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Berley, D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Bernardini, E.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bernhard, A.
    Tech Univ Munich, Dept Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Besson, D. Z.
    Univ Kansas, Dept Phys & Astron, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA..
    Binder, G.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Bindig, D.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Bissok, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Blaufuss, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Blot, S.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Boersma, David J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Bohm, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Boerner, M.
    Bos, F.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Bose, D.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Boeser, S.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Botner, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Braun, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    Brayeur, L.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Bretz, H. -P
    Burgman, Alexander
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Buzinsky, N.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Casey, J.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Casier, M.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Cheung, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Chirkin, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    Christov, A.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Clark, K.
    Univ Toronto, Dept Phys, 60 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 1A7, Canada..
    Classen, L.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Coenders, S.
    Tech Univ Munich, Dept Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Collin, G. H.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Conrad, J. M.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Cowen, D. F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.;Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, 525 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Silva, A. H. Cruz
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Daughhetee, J.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Davis, J. C.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Day, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    de Andre, J. P. A. M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    De Clercq, C.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    del Pino Rosendo, E.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Dembinski, H.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    De Ridder, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Desiati, P.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    de Vries, K. D.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    de Wasseige, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    de With, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    DeYoung, T.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Diaz-Velez, J. C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    di Lorenzo, V.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Dujmovic, H.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Dumm, J. P.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Dunkman, M.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Eberhardt, B.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Ehrhardt, T.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Eichmann, B.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Euler, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Evenson, P. A.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Fahey, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    Fazely, A. R.
    Feintzeig, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    Felde, J.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Filimonov, K.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Finley, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Flis, S.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Foesig, C. -C
    Fuchs, T.
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Gaior, R.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Gallagher, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Astron, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Gerhardt, L.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Ghorbani, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    Gladstone, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    Glagla, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Gluesenkamp, T.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Golup, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Gonzalez, J. G.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Gora, D.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Grant, D.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Griffith, Z.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    Ha, C.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Haack, C.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Ismail, A. Haj
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Halzen, F.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    Hansen, E.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Hansmann, B.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Hansmann, T.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Hanson, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    Hebecker, D.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Heereman, D.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Helbing, K.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Hellauer, R.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hickford, S.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Hignight, J.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Hill, G. C.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Hoffman, K. D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hoffmann, R.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Holzapfel, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, Dept Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Homeier, A.
    Univ Bonn, Phys Inst, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany..
    Hoshina, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA.;Univ Tokyo, Earthquake Res Inst, Bunkyo Ku, Tokyo 1130032, Japan..
    Huang, F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Huber, M.
    Tech Univ Munich, Dept Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Huelsnitz, W.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hultqvist, K.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    In, S.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Ishihara, A.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Jacobi, E.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Japaridze, G. S.
    Clark Atlanta Univ, CTSPS, Atlanta, GA 30314 USA..
    Jeong, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Jero, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    Jones, B. J. P.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Jurkovic, M.
    Tech Univ Munich, Dept Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Kappes, A.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Karg, T.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Karle, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    Katz, U.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kauer, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA.;Yale Univ, Dept Phys, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Keivani, A.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Kelley, J. L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    Kemp, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Kheirandish, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    Kim, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Kintscher, T.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kiryluk, J.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Klein, S. R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Kohnen, G.
    Univ Mons, B-7000 Mons, Belgium..
    Koirala, R.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Kolanoski, H.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Konietz, R.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Koepke, L.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Kopper, C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Kopper, S.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Koskinen, D. J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Kowalski, M.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany.;Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Krings, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, Dept Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Kroll, M.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Kruckl, G.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Krueger, C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    Kunnen, J.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Kunwar, S.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kurahashi, N.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Kuwabara, T.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Labare, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Lanfranchi, J. L.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Larson, M. J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Lennarz, D.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Lesiak-Bzdak, M.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Leuermann, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Leuner, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Lu, L.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Luenemann, J.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Madsen, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Maggi, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Mahn, K. B. M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Mancina, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    Mandelartz, M.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Maruyama, R.
    Yale Univ, Dept Phys, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Mase, K.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Matis, H. S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Maunu, R.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    McNally, F.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    Meagher, K.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Medici, M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Meier, M.
    Meli, A.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Menne, T.
    Merino, G.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    Meures, T.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Miarecki, S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Middell, E.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Mohrmann, L.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Montaruli, T.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Nahnhauer, R.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Naumann, U.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Neer, G.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Niederhausen, H.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Nowicki, S. C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Nygren, D. R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Pollmann, A. Obertacke
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Olivas, A.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Omairat, A.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    O'Murchadha, A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Palczewski, T.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Pandya, H.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Pankova, D. V.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Penek, O.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Pepper, J. A.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    de los Heros, Carlos Perez
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Pfendner, C.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Pieloth, D.
    Pinat, E.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Posselt, J.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Price, P. B.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Quinnan, M.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Raab, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Raedel, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Rameez, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Rawlins, K.
    Univ Alaska Anchorage, Dept Phys & Astron, 3211 Providence Dr, Anchorage, AK 99508 USA..
    Reimann, R.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Relich, M.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Resconi, E.
    Tech Univ Munich, Dept Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Rhode, W.
    Richman, M.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Riedel, B.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Robertson, S.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rongen, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Rott, C.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Ruhe, T.
    Ryckbosch, D.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Sabbatini, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    Sandrock, A.
    Sandroos, J.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Sarkar, S.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.;Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, 1 Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3NP, England.;NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Satalecka, K.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schimp, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Schlunder, P.
    Schmidt, T.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Schoenen, S.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Schoeneberg, S.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schoenwald, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schumacher, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Seckel, D.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Seunarine, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Soldin, D.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Song, M.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Spiering, C.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Stahlberg, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Stamatikos, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Stanev, T.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Stasik, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Steuer, A.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Stezelberger, T.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Stossl, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ström, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Strotjohann, N. L.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Sullivan, G. W.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Sutherland, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Taavola, Henric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Taboada, I.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Tatar, J.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Ter-Antonyan, S.
    Terliuk, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Tesic, G.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Tilav, S.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Toale, P. A.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Tobin, M. N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    Toscano, S.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Tosi, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    Tselengidou, M.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Turcati, A.
    Tech Univ Munich, Dept Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Unger, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Usner, M.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Vallecorsa, S.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    van Eijndhoven, N.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Vanheule, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    van Rossem, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    van Santen, J.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Veenkamp, J.
    Tech Univ Munich, Dept Phys, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Vehring, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Voge, M.
    Univ Bonn, Phys Inst, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany..
    Vraeghe, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Walck, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wallace, A.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Wallraff, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Wandkowsky, N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    Weaver, Ch
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Wendt, C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    Westerhoff, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    Whelan, B. J.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Whitehorn, N.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Wickmann, S.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Wiebe, K.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Wille, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    Williams, D. R.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Wills, L.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Wissing, H.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Wolf, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wood, T. R.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Woschnagg, K.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Xu, D. L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI USA..
    Xu, X. W.
    Xu, Y.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Yanez, J. P.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Yodh, G.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Yoshida, S.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Zoll, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lowering Icecube'S Energy Threshold For Point Source Searches In The Southern Sky2016In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 824, no 2, article id L28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Observation of a point source of astrophysical neutrinos would be a "smoking gun" signature of a cosmic-ray accelerator. While IceCube has recently discovered a diffuse flux of astrophysical neutrinos, no localized point source has been observed. Previous IceCube searches for point sources in the southern sky were restricted by either an energy threshold above a few hundred TeV or poor neutrino angular resolution. Here we present a search for southern sky point sources with greatly improved sensitivities to neutrinos with energies below 100 TeV. By selecting charged-current nu(mu) interacting inside the detector, we reduce the atmospheric background while retaining efficiency for astrophysical neutrino-induced events reconstructed with sub-degree angular resolution. The new event sample covers three years of detector data and leads to a factor of 10 improvement in sensitivity to point sources emitting below 100 TeV in the southern sky. No statistically significant evidence of point sources was found, and upper limits are set on neutrino emission from individual sources. A posteriori analysis of the highest-energy (similar to 100 TeV) starting event in the sample found that this event alone represents a 2.8 sigma deviation from the hypothesis that the data consists only of atmospheric background.

  • 2.
    Aartsen, M. G.
    et al.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Abraham, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Ackermann, M.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Adams, J.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand..
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Ahlers, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Ahrens, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Altmann, D.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Anderson, T.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Ansseau, I.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Anton, G.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Archinger, M.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Arguelles, C.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Arlen, T. C.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Auffenberg, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Bai, X.
    South Dakota Sch Mines & Technol, Dept Phys, Rapid City, SD 57701 USA..
    Barwick, S. W.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Baum, V.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Bay, R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Beatty, J. J.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 174 W 18Th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Becker, K. -H
    Beiser, E.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    BenZvi, S.
    Univ Rochester, Dept Phys & Astron, Rochester, NY 14627 USA..
    Berghaus, P.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Berley, D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Bernardini, E.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bernhard, A.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Besson, D. Z.
    Univ Kansas, Dept Phys & Astron, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA..
    Binder, G.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Bindig, D.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Bissok, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Blaufuss, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Blumenthal, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Boersma, David J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Bohm, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Boerner, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Bos, F.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Bose, D.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
    Boeser, S.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Botner, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Braun, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Brayeur, L.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Bretz, H. -P
    Buzinsky, N.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Casey, J.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Casier, M.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Cheung, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Chirkin, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Christov, A.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Clark, K.
    Univ Toronto, Dept Phys, Toronto, ON M5S 1A7, Canada..
    Classen, L.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Coenders, S.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Collin, G. H.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Conrad, J. M.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Cowen, D. F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, 525 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.;Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Silva, A. H. Cruz
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Danninger, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ British Columbia, Dept Phys & Astron, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1, Canada..
    Daughhetee, J.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Davis, J. C.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Day, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    de Andre, J. P. A. M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    De Clercq, C.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Rosendo, E. del Pino
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Dembinski, H.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    De Ridder, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Desiati, P.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    de Vries, K. D.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    de Wasseige, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    de With, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    DeYoung, T.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Diaz-Velez, J. C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    di Lorenzo, V.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Dumm, J. P.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Dunkman, M.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Eberhardt, B.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Edsjo, J.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ehrhardt, T.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Eichmann, B.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Euler, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Evenson, P. A.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Fahey, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Fazely, A. R.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Feintzeig, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Felde, J.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Filimonov, K.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Finley, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Flis, S.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Foesig, C. -C
    Fuchs, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Gaior, R.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Gallagher, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Astron, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Gerhardt, L.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Ghorbani, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Gier, D.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Gladstone, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Glagla, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Gluesenkamp, T.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Golup, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Gonzalez, J. G.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Gora, D.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Grant, D.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Griffith, Z.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Gross, A.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Ha, C.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Haack, C.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Ismail, A. Haj
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Halzen, F.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Hansen, E.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Hansmann, B.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Hanson, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Hebecker, D.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Heereman, D.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Helbing, K.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Hellauer, R.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hickford, S.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Hignight, J.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Hill, G. C.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Hoffman, K. D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hoffmann, R.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Holzapfel, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Homeier, A.
    Univ Bonn, Phys Inst, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany..
    Hoshina, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Tokyo, Earthquake Res Inst, Bunkyo Ku, Tokyo 1130032, Japan..
    Huang, F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Huber, M.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Huelsnitz, W.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hulth, P. O.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hultqvist, K.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    In, S.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
    Ishihara, A.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Jacobi, E.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Japaridze, G. S.
    Clark Atlanta Univ, CTSPS, Atlanta, GA 30314 USA..
    Jeong, M.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
    Jero, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Jones, B. J. P.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Jurkovic, M.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Kappes, A.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Karg, T.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Karle, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Katz, U.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kauer, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Yale Univ, Dept Phys, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Keivani, A.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Kelley, J. L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Kemp, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Kheirandish, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Kiryluk, J.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Klein, S. R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Kohnen, G.
    Univ Mons, B-7000 Mons, Belgium..
    Koirala, R.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Kolanoski, H.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Konietz, R.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Koepke, L.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Kopper, C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Kopper, S.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Koskinen, D. J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Kowalski, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.;DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Krings, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Kroll, G.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Kroll, M.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Krueckl, G.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Kunnen, J.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Kurahashi, N.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Kuwabara, T.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Labare, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Lanfranchi, J. L.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Larson, M. J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Lesiak-Bzdak, M.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Leuermann, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Leuner, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Lu, L.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Lunemann, J.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Madsen, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Maggi, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Mahn, K. B. M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Mandelartz, M.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Maruyama, R.
    Yale Univ, Dept Phys, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Mase, K.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Matis, H. S.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Maunu, R.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    McNally, F.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Meagher, K.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Medici, M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Meier, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Meli, A.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Menne, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Merino, G.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Meures, T.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Miarecki, S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Middell, E.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Mohrmann, L.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Montaruli, T.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Morse, R.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Nahnhauer, R.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Naumann, U.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Neer, G.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Niederhausen, H.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Nowicki, S. C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Nygren, D. R.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Pollmann, A. Obertacke
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Olivas, A.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Omairat, A.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    O'Murchadha, A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Palczewski, T.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Pandya, H.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Pankova, D. V.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Paul, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Pepper, J. A.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    de los Heros, Carlos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Pfendner, C.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Pieloth, D.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Pinat, E.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Posselt, J.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Price, P. B.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Quinnan, M.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Raab, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Raedel, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Rameez, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Rawlins, K.
    Univ Alaska Anchorage, Dept Phys & Astron, 3211 Providence Dr, Anchorage, AK 99508 USA..
    Reimann, R.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Relich, M.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Resconi, E.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Rhode, W.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Richman, M.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Richter, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Riedel, B.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Robertson, S.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rongen, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Rott, C.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
    Ruhe, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Ryckbosch, D.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Sabbatini, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Sander, H. -G
    Sandrock, A.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Sandroos, J.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Sarkar, S.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.;Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, 1 Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3NP, England..
    Savage, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Schatto, K.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Schimp, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Schlunder, P.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Schmidt, T.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Schoenen, S.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Schoeneberg, S.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schoenwald, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schulte, L.
    Univ Bonn, Phys Inst, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany..
    Schumacher, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Scott, P.
    Imperial Coll London, Dept Phys, London SW7 2AZ, England..
    Seckel, D.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Seunarine, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Silverwood, H.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand.;Univ Amsterdam, GRAPPA Inst, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Soldin, D.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Song, M.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Spiering, C.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Stahlberg, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Stamatikos, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Stanev, T.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Stasik, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Steuer, A.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Stezelberger, T.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Stoessl, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ström, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Strotjohann, N. L.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Sullivan, G. W.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Sutherland, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Taavola, Henric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Taboada, I.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Tatar, J.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Ter-Antonyan, S.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Terliuk, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Tesic, G.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Tilav, S.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Toale, P. A.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Tobin, M. N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Toscano, S.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Tosi, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Tselengidou, M.
    Friedrich Alexander Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Turcati, A.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Unger, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Usner, M.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Vallecorsa, S.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    van Eijndhoven, N.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Vanheule, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    van Santen, J.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Veenkamp, J.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Vehring, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Voge, M.
    Univ Bonn, Phys Inst, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany..
    Vraeghe, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Walck, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wallace, A.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Wallraff, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Wandkowsky, N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Weaver, Ch.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Wendt, C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Westerhoff, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Whelan, B. J.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Wiebe, K.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Wille, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Williams, D. R.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Wills, L.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Wissing, H.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Wolf, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wood, T. R.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Woschnagg, K.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Xu, D. L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Xu, X. W.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Xu, Y.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Yanez, J. P.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Yodh, G.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Yoshida, S.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Zoll, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Improved limits on dark matter annihilation in the Sun with the 79-string IceCube detector and implications for supersymmetry2016In: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, ISSN 1475-7516, E-ISSN 1475-7516, no 4, article id 022Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an improved event-level likelihood formalism for including neutrino telescope data in global fits to new physics. We derive limits on spin-dependent dark matter-proton scattering by employing the new formalism in a re-analysis of data from the 79-string IceCube search for dark matter annihilation in the Sun, including explicit energy information for each event. The new analysis excludes a number of models in the weak-scale minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) for the first time. This work is accompanied by the public release of the 79-string IceCube data, as well as an associated computer code for applying the new likelihood to arbitrary dark matter models.

  • 3.
    Aartsen, M. G.
    et al.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Abraham, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Ackermann, M.
    DESY, D-13735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Adams, J.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Christchurch 1, New Zealand..
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Ahlers, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Ahrens, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Altmann, D.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Anderson, T.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Ansseau, I.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Archinger, M.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Arguelles, C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Arlen, T. C.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Auffenberg, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Bai, X.
    South Dakota Sch Mines & Technol, Dept Phys, Rapid City, SD 57701 USA..
    Barwick, S. W.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Baum, V.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Bay, R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Beatty, J. J.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Becker, K. -H
    Beiser, E.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    BenZvi, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Berghaus, P.
    DESY, D-13735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Berley, D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Bernardini, E.
    DESY, D-13735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bernhard, A.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.;Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Besson, D. Z.
    Univ Kansas, Dept Phys & Astron, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA..
    Binder, G.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Bindig, D.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Bissok, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Blaufuss, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Blumenthal, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Boersma, David J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Bohm, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Boerner, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Bos, F.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Bose, D.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
    Boeser, S.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Botner, Olga
    Braun, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Brayeur, L.
    Univ Mons, B-7000 Mons, Belgium..
    Bretz, H. -P
    Buzinsky, N.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Casey, J.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Casier, M.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Cheung, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Chirkin, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Christov, A.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Clark, K.
    Univ Toronto, Dept Phys, Toronto, ON M5S 1A7, Canada..
    Classen, L.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Coenders, S.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Cowen, D. F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.;Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Silva, A. H. Cruz
    DESY, D-13735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Daughhetee, J.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Davis, J. C.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Day, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    de Andre, J. P. A. M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    De Clercq, C.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Rosendo, E. del Pino
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Dembinski, H.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    De Ridder, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Desiati, P.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    de Vries, K. D.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    de Wasseige, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    de With, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    De Young, T.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Diaz-Velez, J. C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    di Lorenzo, V.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Dumm, J. P.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Dunkman, M.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Eagan, R.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Eberhardt, B.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Ehrhardt, T.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Eichmann, B.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Euler, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Evenson, P. A.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Fadiran, O.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Fahey, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Fazely, A. R.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Fedynitch, A.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Feintzeig, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Felde, J.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Filimonov, K.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Finley, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fischer-Wasels, T.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Flis, S.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Foesig, C. -C
    Fuchs, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Gaior, R.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Gallagher, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Astron, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Gerhardt, L.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Ghorbani, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Gier, D.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Gladstone, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Glagla, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Gluesenkamp, T.
    DESY, D-13735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Golup, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Gonzalez, J. G.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Gora, D.
    DESY, D-13735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Grant, D.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Groh, J. C.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Gross, A.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Ha, C.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Haack, C.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Ismail, A. Haj
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Halzen, F.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Hansen, E.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Hansmann, B.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Hanson, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Hebecker, D.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Heereman, D.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Helbing, K.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Hellauer, R.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hickford, S.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Hignight, J.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Hill, G. C.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Hoffman, K. D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hoffmann, R.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Holzapfel, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Homeier, A.
    Univ Bonn, Inst Phys, D-53115 Bonn, Germany..
    Hoshina, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Tokyo, Earthquake Res Inst, Bunkyo Ku, Tokyo 1130032, Japan..
    Huang, F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Huber, M.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Huelsnitz, W.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hulth, P. O.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hultqvist, K.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    In, S.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
    Ishihara, A.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Jacobi, E.
    DESY, D-13735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Japaridze, G. S.
    Clark Atlanta Univ, CTSPS, Atlanta, GA 30314 USA..
    Jero, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Jurkovic, M.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Kappes, A.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Karg, T.
    DESY, D-13735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Karle, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Kauer, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Yale Univ, Dept Phys, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Keivani, A.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Kelley, J. L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Kemp, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Kheirandish, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Kiryluk, J.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Klaes, J.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Klein, S. R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Kohnen, G.
    Univ Mons, B-7000 Mons, Belgium..
    Koirala, R.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Kolanoski, H.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Konietz, R.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Koepke, L.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Kopper, C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Kopper, S.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Koskinen, D. J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Kowalski, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.;DESY, D-13735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Krings, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Kroll, G.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Kroll, M.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Kunnen, J.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Kurahashi, N.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Kuwabara, T.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Labare, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Lanfranchi, J. L.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Larson, M. J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Lesiak-Bzdak, M.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Leuermann, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Leuner, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Lu, L.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Luenemann, J.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Madsen, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Maggi, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Mahn, K. B. M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Maruyama, R.
    Yale Univ, Dept Phys, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Mase, K.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Matis, H. S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Maunu, R.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    McNally, F.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Meagher, K.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Medici, M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Meli, A.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Menne, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Merino, G.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Meures, T.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Miarecki, S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Middell, E.
    DESY, D-13735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Middlemas, E.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Mohrmann, L.
    DESY, D-13735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Montaruli, T.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Morse, R.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Nahnhauer, R.
    DESY, D-13735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Naumann, U.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Neer, G.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Niederhausen, H.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Nowicki, S. C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Nygren, D. R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Obertacke, A.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Olivas, A.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Omairat, A.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    O'Murchadha, A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Palczewski, T.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Pandya, H.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Pankova, D. V.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Paul, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Perez de Los Heros, Carlos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Pfendner, C.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Pieloth, D.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Pinat, E.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Posselt, J.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Price, P. B.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Puetz, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Quinnan, M.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Raab, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Raedel, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Rameez, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Rawlins, K.
    Univ Alaska Anchorage, Dept Phys & Astron, Anchorage, AK 99508 USA..
    Reimann, R.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Relich, M.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Resconi, E.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Rhode, W.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Richman, M.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Richter, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Riedel, B.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Robertson, S.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rongen, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Rott, C.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
    Ruhe, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Ryckbosch, D.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Saba, S. M.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Sabbatini, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Sander, H. -G
    Sandrock, A.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Sandroos, J.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Sarkar, S.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.;Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Oxford OX1 3NP, England..
    Schatto, K.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Scheriau, F.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Schimp, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Schmidt, T.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Schmitz, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Schoenen, S.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Schoeneberg, S.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schoenwald, A.
    DESY, D-13735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schulte, L.
    Univ Bonn, Inst Phys, D-53115 Bonn, Germany..
    Seckel, D.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Seunarine, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Smith, M. W. E.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Soldin, D.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Song, M.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Spiering, C.
    DESY, D-13735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Stahlberg, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Stamatikos, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Univ Tokyo, Earthquake Res Inst, Bunkyo Ku, Tokyo 1130032, Japan.;NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Stanev, T.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Stanisha, N. A.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Stasik, A.
    DESY, D-13735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Stezelberger, T.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Stoessl, A.
    DESY, D-13735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ström, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Strotjohann, N. L.
    DESY, D-13735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Sullivan, G. W.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Sutherland, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Taavola, Henric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Taboada, I.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Tatar, J.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Ter-Antonyan, S.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Terliuk, A.
    DESY, D-13735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Tesic, G.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Tilav, S.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Toale, P. A.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Tobin, M. N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Toscano, S.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Tosi, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Tselengidou, M.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Turcati, A.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Unger, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Usner, M.
    DESY, D-13735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Vallecorsa, S.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    van Eijndhoven, N.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Vanheule, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    van Santen, J.
    DESY, D-13735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Veenkamp, J.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Vehring, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Voge, M.
    Univ Bonn, Inst Phys, D-53115 Bonn, Germany..
    Vraeghe, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Walck, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wallace, A.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Wallraff, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Wandkowsky, N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Weaver, Ch.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Wendt, C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Westerhoff, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Whelan, B. J.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Whitehorn, N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Wiebe, K.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Phys Inst 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Wille, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Williams, D. R.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Wissing, H.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Wolf, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wood, T. R.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Woschnagg, K.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Xu, D. L.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Xu, X. W.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Xu, Y.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Yanez, J. P.
    DESY, D-13735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Yodh, G.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Yoshida, S.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Zoll, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Search for astrophysical tau neutrinos in three years of IceCube data2016In: Physical Review D, ISSN 1550-7998, E-ISSN 1550-2368, Vol. 93, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory has observed a diffuse flux of TeV-PeVastrophysical neutrinos at 5.7 sigma significance from an all-flavor search. The direct detection of tau neutrinos in this flux has yet to occur. Tau neutrinos become distinguishable from other flavors in IceCube at energies above a few hundred TeV, when the cascade from the tau neutrino charged current interaction becomes resolvable from the cascade from the tau lepton decay. This paper presents results from the first dedicated search for tau neutrinos with energies between 214 TeV and 72 PeV in the full IceCube detector. The analysis searches for IceCube optical sensors that observe two separate pulses in a single event-one from the tau neutrino interaction and a second from the tau decay. No candidate events were observed in three years of IceCube data. For the first time, a differential upper limit on astrophysical tau neutrinos is derived around the PeV energy region, which is nearly 3 orders of magnitude lower in energy than previous limits from dedicated tau neutrino searches.

  • 4.
    Aartsen, M. G.
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    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Abraham, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Ackermann, M.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Adams, J.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 1, New Zealand..
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Univ Tokyo, Earthquake Res Inst, Bunkyo Ku, Tokyo 1130032, Japan..
    Ahlers, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Ahrens, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Altmann, D.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Anderson, T.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Ansseau, I.
    Univ Tokyo, Earthquake Res Inst, Bunkyo Ku, Tokyo 1130032, Japan..
    Archinger, M.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Arguelles, C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Arlen, T. C.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Auffenberg, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Bai, X.
    South Dakota Sch Mines & Technol, Dept Phys, Rapid City, SD 57701 USA..
    Barwick, S. W.
    Baum, V.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Bay, R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Beatty, J. J.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Becker, K. -H
    Beiser, E.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Berghaus, P.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Berley, D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Bernardini, E.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bernhard, A.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Besson, D. Z.
    Univ Kansas, Dept Phys & Astron, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA..
    Binder, G.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Bindig, D.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Bissok, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Blaufuss, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
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    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Boersma, David J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Bohm, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Boerner, M.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Bos, F.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Bose, D.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
    Boeser, S.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Botner, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Braun, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Brayeur, L.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Bretz, H. -P
    Buzinsky, N.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Casey, J.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Casier, M.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Cheung, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Chirkin, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Christov, A.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpulsculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Clark, K.
    Univ Toronto, Dept Phys, Toronto, ON M5S 1A7, Canada..
    Classen, L.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Coenders, S.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Collin, G. H.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Conrad, J. M.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Cowen, D. F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.;Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Silva, A. H. Cruz
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Daughhetee, J.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Davis, J. C.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Day, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    de Andre, J. P. A. M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    De Clercq, C.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Rosendo, E. del Pino
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Dembinski, H.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    De Ridder, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Desiati, P.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    de Vries, K. D.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    de wasseige, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    de With, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    De Young, T.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Diaz-Velez, J. C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    di Lorenzo, V.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Dumm, J. P.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Dunkman, M.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Eberhardt, B.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Ehrhardt, T.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Eichmann, B.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Euler, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Evenson, P. A.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Fahey, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Fazely, A. R.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Feintzeig, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Felde, J.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Filimonov, K.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Finley, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Flis, S.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Foesig, C. -C
    Fuchs, T.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Gaior, R.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Gallagher, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Astron, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Gerhardt, L.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Ghorbani, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Gier, D.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Gladstone, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Glagla, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Gluesenkamp, T.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Golup, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Gonzalez, J. G.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Gora, D.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Grant, D.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Griffith, Z.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Gross, A.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Ha, C.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Haack, C.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Ismail, A. Haj
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Halzen, F.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Hansen, E.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Hansmann, B.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Hanson, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Hebecker, D.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Heereman, D.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Helbing, K.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Hellauer, R.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hickford, S.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Hignight, J.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Hill, G. C.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Hoffman, K. D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hoffmann, R.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Holzapfel, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Homeier, A.
    Univ Bonn, Inst Phys, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany..
    Hoshina, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Tokyo, Earthquake Res Inst, Bunkyo Ku, Tokyo 1130032, Japan..
    Huang, F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Huber, M.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Huelsnitz, W.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hulth, P. O.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hultqvist, K.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    In, S.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
    Ishihara, A.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Jacobi, E.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Japaridze, G. S.
    Clark Atlanta Univ, CTSPS, Atlanta, GA 30314 USA..
    Jeong, M.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
    Jero, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Jones, B. J. P.
    MIT, Dept Phys, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA..
    Jurkovic, M.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Kappes, A.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Karg, T.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Karle, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Kauer, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Yale Univ, Dept Phys, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Keivani, A.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Kelley, J. L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Kemp, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Kheirandish, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Kiryluk, J.
    Klein, S. R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Kohnen, G.
    Univ Mons, B-7000 Mons, Belgium..
    Koirala, R.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Kolanoski, H.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Konietz, R.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Koepke, L.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Kopper, C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Kopper, S.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Koskinen, D. J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Kowalski, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.;DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Krings, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Kroll, G.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Kroll, M.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Krueckl, G.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Kunnen, J.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Kurahashi, N.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Kuwabara, T.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Labare, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Lanfranchi, J. L.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Larson, M. J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Lesiak-Bzdak, M.
    Leuermann, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Leuner, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Lu, L.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Luenemann, J.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Madsen, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Maggi, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Mahn, K. B. M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Mandelartz, M.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Maruyama, R.
    Yale Univ, Dept Phys, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Mase, K.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Matis, H. S.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Maunu, R.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    McNally, F.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Meagher, K.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Medici, M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Meli, A.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Menne, T.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Merino, G.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Meures, T.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Miarecki, S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Middell, E.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Mohrmann, L.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Montaruli, T.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpulsculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Morse, R.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Nahnhauer, R.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Naumann, U.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Neer, G.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Niederhausen, H.
    Nowicki, S. C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Nygren, D. R.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Pollmann, A. Obertacke
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Olivas, A.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Omairat, A.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    O'Murchadha, A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Palczewski, T.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Pandya, H.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Pankova, D. V.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Paua, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Pepper, J. A.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    de los Heros, Carlos Perez
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Pfendner, C.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Pieloth, D.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Pinat, E.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Posselt, J.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Price, P. B.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Quinnan, M.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Raab, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Raedel, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Rameez, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpulsculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Rawlins, K.
    Univ Alaska Anchorage, Dept Phys & Astron, 3211 Providence Dr, Anchorage, AK 99508 USA..
    Reimann, R.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Relich, M.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Resconi, E.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Rhode, W.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Richman, M.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Richter, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Riedel, B.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Robertson, S.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rongen, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Rott, C.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
    Ruhe, T.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Ryckbosch, D.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Sabbatini, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Sander, H. -G
    Sandrock, A.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Sandroos, J.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Sarkart, S.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.;Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, 1 Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3NP, England..
    Schatto, K.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Schimp, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Schmidt, T.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Schoenen, S.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Schoeneberg, S.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schoenwald, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schulte, L.
    Univ Bonn, Inst Phys, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany..
    Schumacher, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Seckel, D.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Seunarine, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Soldin, D.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Song, M.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Spiering, C.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Stahlberg, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Stamatikos, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Stanev, T.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Stasik, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Steuer, A.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Stezelberger, T.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Stoessl, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ström, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Strotjohann, N. L.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Sullivan, G. W.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Sutherland, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Taavola, Henric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Taboada, I.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Tatar, J.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Ter-Antonyan, S.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Terliuk, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Tesic, G.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Tilav, S.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Toale, P. A.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Tobin, M. N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Toscano, S.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Tosi, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Tselengidou, M.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Turcati, A.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Unger, Lisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Usner, M.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Vallecorsa, S.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpulsculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    van Eijndhoven, N.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Vanheule, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    van Santen, J.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Veenkamp, J.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Vehring, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Voge, M.
    Univ Bonn, Inst Phys, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany..
    Vraeghe, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Walck, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wallace, A.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Wallraff, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Wandkowsky, N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Weaver, Ch.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Wendt, C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Westerhoff, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Whelan, B. J.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Wiebe, K.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Wille, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Williams, D. R.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Wills, L.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Wissing, H.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Wolf, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wood, T. R.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Woschnagg, K.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Xu, D. L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Xu, X. W.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Xu, Y.
    Yanez, J. P.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Yodh, G.
    Yoshida, S.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Zoll, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Neutrino oscillation studies with IceCube-DeepCore2016In: Nuclear Physics B, ISSN 0550-3213, E-ISSN 1873-1562, Vol. 908, p. 161-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IceCube, a gigaton-scale neutrino detector located at the South Pole, was primarily designed to search for astrophysical neutrinos with energies of PeV and higher. This goal has been achieved with the detection of the highest energy neutrinos to date. At the other end of the energy spectrum, the DeepCore extension lowers the energy threshold of the detector to approximately 10 GeV and opens the door for oscillation studies using atmospheric neutrinos. An analysis of the disappearance of these neutrinos has been completed, with the results produced being complementary with dedicated oscillation experiments. Following a review of the detector principle and performance, the method used to make these calculations, as well as the results, is detailed. Finally, the future prospects of IceCube-DeepCore and the next generation of neutrino experiments at the South Pole (IceCube-Gen2, specifically the PINGU sub-detector) are briefly discussed.

  • 5.
    Aartsen, M. G.
    et al.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Abraham, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Ackermann, M.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Adams, J.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 1, New Zealand..
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Ahlers, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Ahrens, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Altmann, D.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Anderson, T.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Ansseau, I.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Archinger, M.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Arguelles, C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Arlen, T. C.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Auffenberg, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Bai, X.
    South Dakota Sch Mines & Technol, Dept Phys, Rapid City, SD 57701 USA..
    Barwick, S. W.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Baum, V.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Bay, R.
    Beatty, J. J.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astro Particle Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 174 W 18Th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Becker, K-H
    Beiser, E.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Berghaus, P.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Berley, D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Bernardini, E.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bernhard, A.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Besson, D. Z.
    Univ Kansas, Dept Phys & Astron, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA..
    Binder, G.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Bindig, D.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Bissok, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Blaufuss, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Blumenthal, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Boersma, David J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Bohm, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Boerner, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Bos, F.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Bose, D.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
    Boeser, S.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Botner, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Braun, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Brayeur, L.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Bretz, H-P
    Buzinsky, N.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Casey, J.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Casier, M.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Cheung, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Chirkin, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Christov, A.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Clark, K.
    Univ Toronto, Dept Phys, 60 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 1A7, Canada..
    Classen, L.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Coenders, S.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Cowen, D. F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, 525 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.;Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Silva, A. H. Cruz
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 174 W 18Th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Daughhetee, J.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Davis, J. C.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astro Particle Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Day, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    de Andre, J. P. A. M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    De Clercq, C.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Rosendo, E. del Pino
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Dembinski, H.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    De Ridder, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Desiati, P.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    de Vries, K. D.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    de Wasseige, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    de With, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    DeYoung, T.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Diaz-Velez, J. C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    di Lorenzo, V.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Dumm, J. P.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Dunkman, M.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Eberhardt, B.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Ehrhardt, T.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Eichmann, B.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Euler, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Evenson, P. A.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Fahey, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Fazely, A. R.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Feintzeig, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Felde, J.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Filimonov, K.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Finley, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fischer-Wasels, T.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Flis, S.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Foesig, C-C
    Fuchs, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Gaior, R.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Gallagher, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Astron, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Gerhardt, L.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Ghorbani, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Gier, D.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Gladstone, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Glagla, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Gluesenkamp, T.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Golup, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.;CNEA UNCuyo CONICET, Ctr Atom Bariloche, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina.;CNEA UNCuyo CONICET, Inst Balseiro, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina..
    Gonzalez, J. G.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Gora, D.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Grant, D.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Griffith, Z.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Gross, A.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Ha, C.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Haack, C.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Ismail, A. Haj
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Halzen, F.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Hansen, E.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Hansmann, B.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Hanson, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Hebecker, D.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Heereman, D.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Helbing, K.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Hellauer, R.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hickford, S.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Hignight, J.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Hill, G. C.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia.;Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Hoffman, K. D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hoffmann, R.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Holzapfel, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Homeier, A.
    Univ Bonn, Inst Phys, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany..
    Hoshina, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Tokyo, Earthquake Res Inst, Bunkyo Ku, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 113, Japan..
    Huang, F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Huber, M.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Huelsnitz, W.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hulth, P. O.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hultqvist, K.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    In, S.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
    Ishihara, A.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Jacobi, E.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Japaridze, G. S.
    Clark Atlanta Univ, CTSPS, Atlanta, GA 30314 USA..
    Jeong, M.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
    Jero, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Jurkovic, M.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Kappes, A.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Karg, T.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Karle, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Kauer, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Yale Univ, Dept Phys, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Keivani, A.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Kelley, J. L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Kemp, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Kheirandish, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Kiryluk, J.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Klaes, J.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Klein, S. R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Kohnen, G.
    Univ Mons, B-7000 Mons, Belgium..
    Koirala, R.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Kolanoski, H.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Konietz, R.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Koepke, L.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Kopper, C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Kopper, S.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Koskinen, D. J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Kowalski, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.;DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Krings, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Kroll, G.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Kroll, M.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Krueckl, G.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Kunnen, J.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Kurahashi, N.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Kuwabara, T.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Labare, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Lanfranchi, J. L.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Larson, M. J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Lesiak-Bzdak, M.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Leuermann, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Leuner, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Lu, L.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Luenemann, J.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Madsen, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Maggi, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Mahn, K. B. M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Mandelartz, M.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Maruyama, R.
    Yale Univ, Dept Phys, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Mase, K.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Matis, H. S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Maunu, R.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    McNally, F.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Meagher, K.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Medici, M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Meli, A.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Menne, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Merino, G.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Meures, T.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Miarecki, S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Middell, E.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Mohrmann, L.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Montaruli, T.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Morse, R.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Nahnhauer, R.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Naumann, U.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Neer, G.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Niederhausen, H.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Nowicki, S. C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Nygren, D. R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Pollmann, A. Obertacke
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Olivas, A.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Omairat, A.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    O'Murchadha, A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Palczewski, T.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Pandya, H.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Pankova, D. V.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Paul, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Pepper, J. A.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    de Los Heros, Carlos Perez
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Pfendner, C.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astro Particle Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Pieloth, D.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Pinat, E.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Posselt, J.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Price, P. B.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Quinnan, M.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Raab, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Raedel, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Rameez, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Rawlins, K.
    Univ Alaska Anchorage, Dept Phys & Astron, 3211 Providence Dr, Anchorage, AK 99508 USA..
    Reimann, R.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Relich, M.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Resconi, E.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Rhode, W.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Richman, M.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Richter, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Riedel, B.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Robertson, S.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rongen, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Rott, C.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
    Ruhe, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Ryckbosch, D.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Sabbatini, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Sander, H-G
    Sandrock, A.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Sandroos, J.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Sarkar, S.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.;Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Oxford OX1 3NP, England..
    Schatto, K.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Schimp, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Schmidt, T.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Schoenen, S.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Schoeneberg, S.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schoenwald, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schulte, L.
    Univ Bonn, Inst Phys, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany..
    Schumacher, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Seckel, D.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Seunarine, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Soldin, D.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Song, M.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Spiering, C.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Stahlberg, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Stamatikos, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astro Particle Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Stanev, T.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Stasik, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Steuer, A.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Stezelberger, T.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Stoessl, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ström, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Strotjohann, N. L.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Sullivan, G. W.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Sutherland, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astro Particle Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Taavola, Henric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Taboada, I.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Tatar, J.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Ter-Antonyan, S.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Terliuk, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Tesic, G.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Tilav, S.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Toale, P. A.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Tobin, M. N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Toscano, S.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Tosi, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Tselengidou, M.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Turcati, A.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Unger, E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Usner, M.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Vallecorsa, S.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    van Eijndhoven, N.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Vanheule, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    van Santen, J.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Veenkamp, J.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Vehring, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Voge, M.
    Univ Bonn, Inst Phys, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany..
    Vraeghe, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Walck, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wallace, A.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Wallraff, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Wandkowsky, N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Weaver, Ch.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Wendt, C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Westerhoff, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Whelan, B. J.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Wiebe, K.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Wille, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Williams, D. R.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Wissing, H.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Wolf, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wood, T. R.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Woschnagg, K.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Xu, D. L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Xu, X. W.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Xu, Y.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Yanez, J. P.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Yodh, G.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Yoshida, S.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan.;Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, 1-33 Yayoi Cho, Chiba 260, Japan..
    Zoll, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Aab, A.
    Univ Siegen, Fachbereich Phys Expt Teilchenphys 7, D-57068 Siegen, Germany..
    Abreu, P.
    Univ Lisbon, Lab Instrumentacao Fis Expt Particulas LIP, Lisbon, Portugal.;Univ Lisbon, IST, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Aglietta, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy.;Osservatorio Astrofis Torino INAF, Turin, Italy..
    Ahn, E. J.
    Fermilab Natl Accelerator Lab, Batavia, IL 60510 USA..
    Al Samarai, I.
    Univ Paris 06, LPNHE, F-75252 Paris 05, France.;Univ Paris 07, CNRS, IN2P3, F-75221 Paris 05, France..
    Albuquerque, I. F. M.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis, CP 20516, BR-01498 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Allekotte, I.
    CNEA UNCuyo CONICET, Ctr Atom Bariloche, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina.;CNEA UNCuyo CONICET, Inst Balseiro, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina..
    Allison, P.
    Ohio State Univ, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Almela, A.
    CNEA UNCuyo CONICET, Inst Balseiro, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina.;UNSAM, CONICET, Inst Tecnol Detecc & Astroparticulas,CNEA, Ctr Atom Constituyentes,Comis Nacl Engergia Atom, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.;Univ Tecnol Nacl, Fac Reg Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Castillo, J. Alvarez
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City 04510, DF, Mexico..
    Alvarez-Muniz, J.
    Univ Santiago Compostela, Santiago De Compostela, Spain..
    Batista, R. Alves
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Theoret Phys 2, Hamburg, Germany..
    Ambrosio, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Naples, Italy..
    Aminaei, A.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, IMAPP, NL-6525 ED Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Anchordoqui, L.
    CUNY, Lehman Coll, Dept Phys & Astron, New York, NY USA..
    Andrada, B.
    UNSAM, CONICET, Inst Tecnol Detecc & Astroparticulas,CNEA, Ctr Atom Constituyentes,Comis Nacl Engergia Atom, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Andringa, S.
    Univ Lisbon, Lab Instrumentacao Fis Expt Particulas LIP, Lisbon, Portugal.;Univ Lisbon, IST, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Aramo, C.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Naples, Italy..
    Arqueros, F.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Arsene, N.
    Univ Bucharest, Dept Phys, Bucharest, Romania..
    Asorey, H.
    CNEA UNCuyo CONICET, Ctr Atom Bariloche, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina.;CNEA UNCuyo CONICET, Inst Balseiro, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina.;Univ Ind Santander, Santander, Spain..
    Assis, P.
    Univ Lisbon, Lab Instrumentacao Fis Expt Particulas LIP, Lisbon, Portugal.;Univ Lisbon, IST, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Aublin, J.
    Univ Paris 06, LPNHE, F-75252 Paris 05, France.;Univ Paris 07, CNRS, IN2P3, F-75221 Paris 05, France..
    Avila, G.
    Observ Pierre Auger, Mendoza, Argentina.;Comis Nacl Energia Atom, RA-1429 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Awal, N.
    New York Univ, New York, NY USA..
    Badescu, A. M.
    Univ Politehn Bucuresti, Bucharest, Romania..
    Baus, C.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IEKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Becker, K. H.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Fachbereich Phys C, Wuppertal, Germany..
    Bellido, J. A.
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Berat, C.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IN2P3, LPSC, St Martin Dheres, France..
    Bertaina, M. E.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy.;Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, I-10124 Turin, Italy..
    Bertou, X.
    CNEA UNCuyo CONICET, Ctr Atom Bariloche, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina.;CNEA UNCuyo CONICET, Inst Balseiro, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina..
    Biermann, P. L.
    Max Planck Inst Radioastron, Hugel 69, D-53121 Bonn, Germany..
    Billoir, P.
    Univ Paris 06, LPNHE, F-75252 Paris 05, France.;Univ Paris 07, CNRS, IN2P3, F-75221 Paris 05, France..
    Blaess, S. G.
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Blanco, A.
    Univ Lisbon, Lab Instrumentacao Fis Expt Particulas LIP, Lisbon, Portugal.;Univ Lisbon, IST, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Blanco, M.
    Univ Paris 06, LPNHE, F-75252 Paris 05, France.;Univ Paris 07, CNRS, IN2P3, F-75221 Paris 05, France..
    Blazek, J.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys FZU, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Bleve, C.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Lecce, Lecce, Italy.;Univ Salento, Dipartimento Matemat & Fis E De Giorgi, Lecce, Italy..
    Bluemer, H.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IEKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany.;Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Bohacova, M.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys FZU, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Boncioli, D.
    INFN Lab Gran Sasso, Gran Sasso, Italy..
    Bonifazi, C.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Inst Fis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil..
    Borodai, N.
    Inst Phys Nucl PAN, Krakow, Poland..
    Botti, A. M.
    UNSAM, CONICET, Inst Tecnol Detecc & Astroparticulas,CNEA, Ctr Atom Constituyentes,Comis Nacl Engergia Atom, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Brack, J.
    Brancus, I.
    Horia Hulubei Natl Inst Phys & Nucl Engn, Bucharest 077125, Romania..
    Bretz, T.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3A, Aachen, Germany..
    Bridgeman, A.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Briechle, F. L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3A, Aachen, Germany..
    Buchholz, P.
    Univ Siegen, Fachbereich Phys Expt Teilchenphys 7, D-57068 Siegen, Germany..
    Bueno, A.
    Univ Granada, E-18071 Granada, Spain..
    Buitink, S.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, IMAPP, NL-6525 ED Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Buscemi, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Catania, Catania, Italy.;Univ Catania, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, I-95124 Catania, Italy..
    Caballero-Mora, K. S.
    Univ Autonoma Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Mexico..
    Caccianiga, B.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Milano, Milan, Italy..
    Caccianiga, L.
    Univ Paris 06, LPNHE, F-75252 Paris 05, France.;Univ Paris 07, CNRS, IN2P3, F-75221 Paris 05, France..
    Candusso, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy..
    Caramete, L.
    Inst Space Sci, Bucharest, Romania..
    Caruso, R.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Catania, Catania, Italy.;Univ Aquila, Dipartimento Chim & Fis, I-67100 Laquila, Italy..
    Castellina, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy.;Osservatorio Astrofis Torino INAF, Turin, Italy..
    Cataldi, G.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Lecce, Lecce, Italy..
    Cazon, L.
    Univ Lisbon, Lab Instrumentacao Fis Expt Particulas LIP, Lisbon, Portugal.;Univ Lisbon, IST, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Cester, R.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy.;Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, I-10124 Turin, Italy..
    Chavez, A. G.
    Univ Michoacana, Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico..
    Chiavassa, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy.;Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, I-10124 Turin, Italy..
    Chinellato, J. A.
    Univ Estadual Campinas UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brazil..
    Diaz, J. C. Chirinos
    Michigan Technol Univ, Houghton, MI 49931 USA..
    Chudoba, J.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys FZU, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Clay, R. W.
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Colalillo, R.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Naples, Italy.;Univ Naples Federico II, Dipartimento Fis, Naples, Italy..
    Coleman, A.
    Penn State Univ, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Collica, L.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy..
    Coluccia, M. R.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Lecce, Lecce, Italy.;Univ Salento, Dipartimento Matemat & Fis E De Giorgi, Lecce, Italy..
    Conceicao, R.
    Univ Lisbon, Lab Instrumentacao Fis Expt Particulas LIP, Lisbon, Portugal.;Univ Lisbon, IST, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Contreras, F.
    Observ Pierre Auger, Mendoza, Argentina..
    Cooper, M. J.
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Cordier, A.
    Univ Paris 11, CNRS, IN2P3, LAL, Orsay, France..
    Coutu, S.
    Penn State Univ, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Covault, C. E.
    Case Western Reserve Univ, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA..
    Dallier, R.
    Stn Radioastron Nancay, Nancay, France.;Univ Nantes, CNRS, IN2P3, Ecole Mines Nantes,SUBATECH, F-44035 Nantes, France..
    D'Amico, S.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Lecce, Lecce, Italy.;Univ Salento, Dipartimento Ingn, Lecce, Italy..
    Daniel, B.
    Univ Estadual Campinas UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brazil..
    Dasso, S.
    Univ Buenos Aires, Dept Fis, FCEyN, RA-1053 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.;CONICET UBA, IAFE, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Daumiller, K.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Dawson, B. R.
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    de Almeida, R. M.
    Univ Fed Fluminense, BR-24220000 Niteroi, RJ, Brazil..
    de Jong, S. J.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, IMAPP, NL-6525 ED Nijmegen, Netherlands.;NIKHEF, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    De Mauro, G.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, IMAPP, NL-6525 ED Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    de Mello Neto, J. R. T.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Inst Fis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil..
    De Mitri, I.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Lecce, Lecce, Italy.;Univ Salento, Dipartimento Matemat & Fis E De Giorgi, Lecce, Italy..
    de Oliveira, J.
    Univ Fed Fluminense, BR-24220000 Niteroi, RJ, Brazil..
    de Souza, V.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil..
    Debatin, J.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    del Peral, L.
    Univ Alcala de Henares, E-28871 Alcala De Henares, Spain..
    Deligny, O.
    Univ Paris 11, CNRS, IN2P3, IPNO, Orsay, France..
    Dhital, N.
    Michigan Technol Univ, Houghton, MI 49931 USA..
    Di Giulio, C.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.;Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento Fis, I-00173 Rome, Italy..
    Di Matteo, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Aquila, Laquila, Italy.;Univ Aquila, Dipartimento Chim & Fis, I-67100 Laquila, Italy..
    Castro, M. L. Diaz
    Univ Estadual Campinas UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brazil..
    Diogo, F.
    Univ Lisbon, Lab Instrumentacao Fis Expt Particulas LIP, Lisbon, Portugal.;Univ Lisbon, IST, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Dobrigkeit, C.
    Univ Estadual Campinas UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brazil..
    Docters, W.
    Univ Groningen, KVI Ctr Adv Radiat Technol, NL-9700 AB Groningen, Netherlands..
    D'Olivo, J. C.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City 04510, DF, Mexico..
    Dorofeev, A.
    dos Anjos, R. C.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil.;Univ Fed Parana, Palotina, PR, Brazil..
    Dova, M. T.
    Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, RA-1033 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.;Univ Nacl La Plata, IFLP, RA-1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina..
    Dundovic, A.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Theoret Phys 2, Hamburg, Germany..
    Ebr, J.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys FZU, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Engel, R.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Erdmann, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3A, Aachen, Germany..
    Erfani, M.
    Univ Siegen, Fachbereich Phys Expt Teilchenphys 7, D-57068 Siegen, Germany..
    Escobar, C. O.
    Univ Estadual Campinas UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brazil.;Fermilab Natl Accelerator Lab, Batavia, IL 60510 USA..
    Espadanal, J.
    Univ Lisbon, Lab Instrumentacao Fis Expt Particulas LIP, Lisbon, Portugal.;Univ Lisbon, IST, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Etchegoyen, A.
    UNSAM, CONICET, Inst Tecnol Detecc & Astroparticulas,CNEA, Ctr Atom Constituyentes,Comis Nacl Engergia Atom, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.;Univ Tecnol Nacl, Fac Reg Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Falcke, H.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, IMAPP, NL-6525 ED Nijmegen, Netherlands.;NIKHEF, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Stichting Astron Onderzoek Nederland ASTRON, Dwingeloo, Netherlands..
    Fang, K.
    Univ Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Farrar, G.
    New York Univ, New York, NY USA..
    Fauth, A. C.
    Univ Estadual Campinas UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brazil..
    Fazzini, N.
    Fermilab Natl Accelerator Lab, Batavia, IL 60510 USA..
    Ferguson, A. P.
    Case Western Reserve Univ, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA..
    Fick, B.
    Michigan Technol Univ, Houghton, MI 49931 USA..
    Figueira, J. M.
    UNSAM, CONICET, Inst Tecnol Detecc & Astroparticulas,CNEA, Ctr Atom Constituyentes,Comis Nacl Engergia Atom, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Filevich, A.
    UNSAM, CONICET, Inst Tecnol Detecc & Astroparticulas,CNEA, Ctr Atom Constituyentes,Comis Nacl Engergia Atom, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Filipi, A.
    Jozef Stefan Inst, Expt Particle Phys Dept, Ljubljana, Slovenia.;Univ Nova Gorica, Lab Astroparticle Phys, Nova Gorica, Slovenia..
    Fratu, O.
    Univ Politehn Bucuresti, Bucharest, Romania..
    Freire, M. M.
    UNR, CONICET, Inst Fis Rosario IFIR, Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina.;UNR, Fac Ciencias Bioquim & Farmaceut, Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina..
    Fujii, T.
    Univ Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 USA.;Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Fuster, A.
    UNSAM, CONICET, Inst Tecnol Detecc & Astroparticulas,CNEA, Ctr Atom Constituyentes,Comis Nacl Engergia Atom, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.;Univ Tecnol Nacl, Fac Reg Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Gallo, F.
    UNSAM, CONICET, Inst Tecnol Detecc & Astroparticulas,CNEA, Ctr Atom Constituyentes,Comis Nacl Engergia Atom, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.;Univ Tecnol Nacl, Fac Reg Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Garcia, B.
    UNSAM, CONICET, CNEA, Inst Tecnol Detecc & Astroparticulas, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.;Univ Tecnol Nacl, Fac Reg Mendoza, CONICET, CNEA, Mendoza, Argentina..
    Garcia-Gamez, D.
    Univ Paris 11, CNRS, IN2P3, LAL, Orsay, France..
    Garcia-Pinto, D.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Gate, F.
    Univ Nantes, CNRS, IN2P3, Ecole Mines Nantes,SUBATECH, F-44035 Nantes, France..
    Gemmeke, H.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IPE, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Gherghel-Lascu, A.
    Horia Hulubei Natl Inst Phys & Nucl Engn, Bucharest 077125, Romania..
    Ghia, P. L.
    Univ Paris 06, LPNHE, F-75252 Paris 05, France.;Univ Paris 07, CNRS, IN2P3, F-75221 Paris 05, France..
    Giaccari, U.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Inst Fis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil..
    Giammarchi, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Milano, Milan, Italy..
    Giller, M.
    Univ Lodz, PL-90131 Lodz, Poland..
    Glas, D.
    Univ Lodz, PL-90131 Lodz, Poland..
    Glaser, C.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3A, Aachen, Germany..
    Glass, H.
    Fermilab Natl Accelerator Lab, Batavia, IL 60510 USA..
    Gomez Berisso, M.
    CNEA UNCuyo CONICET, Ctr Atom Bariloche, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina.;CNEA UNCuyo CONICET, Inst Balseiro, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina..
    Gomez Vitale, P. F.
    Observ Pierre Auger, Mendoza, Argentina.;Comis Nacl Energia Atom, RA-1429 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Gonzalez, N.
    UNSAM, CONICET, Inst Tecnol Detecc & Astroparticulas,CNEA, Ctr Atom Constituyentes,Comis Nacl Engergia Atom, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Gookin, B.
    Gordon, J.
    Ohio State Univ, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Gorgi, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy.;Osservatorio Astrofis Torino INAF, Turin, Italy..
    Gorham, P.
    Univ Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA..
    Gouffon, P.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis, CP 20516, BR-01498 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Griffith, N.
    Ohio State Univ, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Grillo, A. F.
    INFN Lab Gran Sasso, Gran Sasso, Italy..
    Grubb, T. D.
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Guarino, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Naples, Italy.;Univ Naples Federico II, Dipartimento Fis, Naples, Italy..
    Guedes, G. P.
    Univ Estadual Feira de Santana, Feira de Santana, BA, Brazil..
    Hampel, M. R.
    UNSAM, CONICET, Inst Tecnol Detecc & Astroparticulas,CNEA, Ctr Atom Constituyentes,Comis Nacl Engergia Atom, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Hansen, P.
    Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, RA-1033 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.;Univ Nacl La Plata, IFLP, RA-1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina..
    Harari, D.
    CNEA UNCuyo CONICET, Ctr Atom Bariloche, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina.;CNEA UNCuyo CONICET, Inst Balseiro, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina..
    Harrison, T. A.
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Harton, J. L.
    Hasankiadeh, Q.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Haungs, A.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Hebbeker, T.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3A, Aachen, Germany..
    Heck, D.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Heimann, P.
    Univ Siegen, Fachbereich Phys Expt Teilchenphys 7, D-57068 Siegen, Germany..
    Herve, A. E.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IEKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Hojvat, C.
    Fermilab Natl Accelerator Lab, Batavia, IL 60510 USA..
    Hollon, N.
    Univ Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Holt, E.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Homola, P.
    Inst Phys Nucl PAN, Krakow, Poland..
    Hoerandel, J. R.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, IMAPP, NL-6525 ED Nijmegen, Netherlands.;NIKHEF, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Horvath, P.
    Palacky Univ, RCPTM, Olomouc, Czech Republic..
    Hrabovsksy, M.
    Palacky Univ, RCPTM, Olomouc, Czech Republic..
    Huege, T.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Insolia, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Catania, Catania, Italy.;Univ Catania, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, I-95124 Catania, Italy..
    Isar, P. G.
    Inst Space Sci, Bucharest, Romania..
    Jandt, I.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Fachbereich Phys C, Wuppertal, Germany..
    Jansen, S.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, IMAPP, NL-6525 ED Nijmegen, Netherlands.;NIKHEF, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Jarne, C.
    Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, RA-1033 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.;Univ Nacl La Plata, IFLP, RA-1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina..
    Johnsen, J. A.
    Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    Josebachuili, M.
    UNSAM, CONICET, Inst Tecnol Detecc & Astroparticulas,CNEA, Ctr Atom Constituyentes,Comis Nacl Engergia Atom, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Kaeaepae, A.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Fachbereich Phys C, Wuppertal, Germany..
    Kambeitz, O.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IEKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Kampert, K. H.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Fachbereich Phys C, Wuppertal, Germany..
    Kasper, P.
    Fermilab Natl Accelerator Lab, Batavia, IL 60510 USA..
    Katkov, I.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IEKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Keilhauer, B.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Kemp, E.
    Univ Estadual Campinas UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brazil..
    Kieckhafer, R. M.
    Michigan Technol Univ, Houghton, MI 49931 USA..
    Klages, H. O.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Kleifges, M.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IPE, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Kleinfeller, J.
    Observ Pierre Auger, Mendoza, Argentina..
    Krause, R.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3A, Aachen, Germany..
    Krohm, N.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Fachbereich Phys C, Wuppertal, Germany..
    Kuempel, D.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3A, Aachen, Germany..
    Mezek, G. Kukec
    Univ Nova Gorica, Lab Astroparticle Phys, Nova Gorica, Slovenia..
    Kunka, N.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IPE, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Awad, A. Kuotb
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    LaHurd, D.
    Case Western Reserve Univ, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA..
    Latronico, L.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy..
    Lauer, R.
    Univ New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 USA..
    Lauscher, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3A, Aachen, Germany..
    Lautridou, P.
    Univ Nantes, CNRS, IN2P3, Ecole Mines Nantes,SUBATECH, F-44035 Nantes, France..
    Lebrun, D.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IN2P3, LPSC, St Martin Dheres, France..
    Lebrun, P.
    Fermilab Natl Accelerator Lab, Batavia, IL 60510 USA..
    Leigui de Oliveira, M. A.
    Univ Fed Abc, Santo Andre, Brazil..
    Letessier-Selvon, A.
    Univ Paris 06, LPNHE, F-75252 Paris 05, France.;Univ Paris 07, CNRS, IN2P3, F-75221 Paris 05, France..
    Lhenry-Yvon, I.
    Univ Paris 11, CNRS, IN2P3, IPNO, Orsay, France..
    Link, K.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IEKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Lopes, L.
    Univ Lisbon, Lab Instrumentacao Fis Expt Particulas LIP, Lisbon, Portugal.;Univ Lisbon, IST, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Lopez, R.
    BUAP, Puebla, Mexico..
    Lopez Casado, A.
    Univ Santiago Compostela, Santiago De Compostela, Spain..
    Lucero, A.
    UNSAM, CONICET, Inst Tecnol Detecc & Astroparticulas,CNEA, Ctr Atom Constituyentes,Comis Nacl Engergia Atom, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Malacari, M.
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Mallamaci, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Milano, Milan, Italy.;Univ Milan, Dipartimento Fis, I-20122 Milan, Italy..
    Mandat, D.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys FZU, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Mantsch, P.
    Fermilab Natl Accelerator Lab, Batavia, IL 60510 USA..
    Mariazzi, A. G.
    Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, RA-1033 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.;Univ Nacl La Plata, IFLP, RA-1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina..
    Marin, V.
    Univ Nantes, CNRS, IN2P3, Ecole Mines Nantes,SUBATECH, F-44035 Nantes, France..
    Maris, I. C.
    Univ Granada, E-18071 Granada, Spain..
    Marsella, G.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Lecce, Lecce, Italy.;Univ Salento, Dipartimento Matemat & Fis E De Giorgi, Lecce, Italy..
    Martello, D.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Lecce, Lecce, Italy.;Univ Salento, Dipartimento Matemat & Fis E De Giorgi, Lecce, Italy..
    Martinez, H.
    CINVESTAV, Ctr Invest & Estudios Avanzados IPN, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Bravo, O. Martinez
    BUAP, Puebla, Mexico..
    Meza, J. J. Masias
    Univ Buenos Aires, Dept Fis, FCEyN, RA-1053 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Mathes, H. J.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Mathys, S.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Fachbereich Phys C, Wuppertal, Germany..
    Matthews, J.
    Louisiana State Univ, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 USA..
    Matthews, J. A. J.
    Univ New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 USA..
    Matthiae, G.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.;Univ Roma Tor Vergata, Dipartimento Fis, I-00173 Rome, Italy..
    Maurizio, D.
    CBPF, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil..
    Mayotte, E.
    Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    Mazur, P. O.
    Fermilab Natl Accelerator Lab, Batavia, IL 60510 USA..
    Medina, C.
    Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    Medina-Tanco, G.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City 04510, DF, Mexico..
    Mello, V. B. B.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Inst Fis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil..
    Melo, D.
    UNSAM, CONICET, Inst Tecnol Detecc & Astroparticulas,CNEA, Ctr Atom Constituyentes,Comis Nacl Engergia Atom, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Menshikov, A.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IPE, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Messina, S.
    Univ Groningen, KVI Ctr Adv Radiat Technol, NL-9700 AB Groningen, Netherlands..
    Micheletti, M. I.
    UNR, CONICET, Inst Fis Rosario IFIR, Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina.;UNR, Fac Ciencias Bioquim & Farmaceut, Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina..
    Middendorf, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3A, Aachen, Germany..
    Minaya, I. A.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Miramonti, L.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Milano, Milan, Italy.;Univ Milan, Dipartimento Fis, I-20122 Milan, Italy..
    Mitrica, B.
    Horia Hulubei Natl Inst Phys & Nucl Engn, Bucharest 077125, Romania..
    Molina-Bueno, L.
    Univ Granada, E-18071 Granada, Spain..
    Mollerachl, S.
    CNEA UNCuyo CONICET, Ctr Atom Bariloche, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina.;CNEA UNCuyo CONICET, Inst Balseiro, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina..
    Montanet, F.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IN2P3, LPSC, St Martin Dheres, France..
    Morello, C.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy.;Osservatorio Astrofis Torino INAF, Turin, Italy..
    Mostafa, M.
    Penn State Univ, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Moura, C. A.
    Univ Fed Abc, Santo Andre, Brazil..
    Mueller, G.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3A, Aachen, Germany..
    Muller, M. A.
    Univ Estadual Campinas UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brazil.;Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil..
    Mueller, S.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Naranjo, I.
    CNEA UNCuyo CONICET, Ctr Atom Bariloche, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina.;CNEA UNCuyo CONICET, Inst Balseiro, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina..
    Navas, S.
    Univ Granada, E-18071 Granada, Spain..
    Necesal, P.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys FZU, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Nellen, L.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City 04510, DF, Mexico..
    Nelles, A.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, IMAPP, NL-6525 ED Nijmegen, Netherlands.;NIKHEF, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Neuser, J.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Fachbereich Phys C, Wuppertal, Germany..
    Nguyen, P. H.
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Niculescu-Oglinzanu, M.
    Horia Hulubei Natl Inst Phys & Nucl Engn, Bucharest 077125, Romania..
    Niechcio, M.
    Univ Siegen, Fachbereich Phys Expt Teilchenphys 7, D-57068 Siegen, Germany..
    Niemietz, L.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Fachbereich Phys C, Wuppertal, Germany..
    Niggemann, T.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3A, Aachen, Germany..
    Nitz, D.
    Michigan Technol Univ, Houghton, MI 49931 USA..
    Nosek, D.
    Univ Prague, Inst Particle & Nucl Phys, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Novotny, V.
    Univ Prague, Inst Particle & Nucl Phys, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Nozka, H.
    Palacky Univ, RCPTM, Olomouc, Czech Republic..
    Nunez, L. A.
    Univ Ind Santander, Santander, Spain..
    Ochilo, L.
    Univ Siegen, Fachbereich Phys Expt Teilchenphys 7, D-57068 Siegen, Germany..
    Oikonomou, F.
    Penn State Univ, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Olinto, A.
    Univ Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 USA..
    Pacheco, N.
    Univ Alcala de Henares, E-28871 Alcala De Henares, Spain..
    Selmi-Dei, D. Pakk
    Univ Estadual Campinas UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brazil..
    Palatka, M.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys FZU, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Pallotta, J.
    CITEDEF, Ctr Invest Laseres & Aplicaciones, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina.;Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, RA-1033 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Papenbreer, P.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Fachbereich Phys C, Wuppertal, Germany..
    Parente, G.
    Univ Santiago Compostela, Santiago De Compostela, Spain..
    Parra, A.
    BUAP, Puebla, Mexico..
    Pau, T.
    CUNY, Lehman Coll, Dept Phys & Astron, New York, NY USA.;Northeastern Univ, Boston, MA USA..
    Pech, M.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys FZU, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Pekala, J.
    Inst Phys Nucl PAN, Krakow, Poland..
    Pelayo, R.
    UPIITA IPN, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Pena-Rodriguez, J.
    Univ Ind Santander, Santander, Spain..
    Pepe, I. M.
    Univ Fed Bahia, BR-41170290 Salvador, BA, Brazil..
    Perrone, L.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Lecce, Lecce, Italy.;Univ Salento, Dipartimento Matemat & Fis E De Giorgi, Lecce, Italy..
    Petermann, E.
    Peters, C.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3A, Aachen, Germany..
    Petrera, S.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Aquila, Laquila, Italy.;Univ Aquila, Dipartimento Chim & Fis, I-67100 Laquila, Italy..
    Phuntsok, J.
    Penn State Univ, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Piegaia, R.
    Univ Buenos Aires, Dept Fis, FCEyN, RA-1053 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Pierog, T.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Pieroni, P.
    Univ Buenos Aires, Dept Fis, FCEyN, RA-1053 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Pimenta, M.
    Univ Lisbon, Lab Instrumentacao Fis Expt Particulas LIP, Lisbon, Portugal.;Univ Lisbon, IST, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Pirronello, V.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Catania, Catania, Italy.;Univ Catania, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, I-95124 Catania, Italy..
    Platino, M.
    UNSAM, CONICET, Inst Tecnol Detecc & Astroparticulas,CNEA, Ctr Atom Constituyentes,Comis Nacl Engergia Atom, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Plum, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3A, Aachen, Germany..
    Porowski, C.
    Inst Phys Nucl PAN, Krakow, Poland..
    Prado, R. R.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil..
    Privitera, P.
    Inst Phys Nucl PAN, Krakow, Poland..
    Prouza, M.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys FZU, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Quell, E. J.
    CITEDEF, Ctr Invest Laseres & Aplicaciones, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina.;Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, RA-1033 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Querchfeld, S.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Fachbereich Phys C, Wuppertal, Germany..
    Quinn, S.
    Case Western Reserve Univ, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA..
    Rautenberg, J.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Fachbereich Phys C, Wuppertal, Germany..
    Ravel, O.
    Univ Nantes, CNRS, IN2P3, Ecole Mines Nantes,SUBATECH, F-44035 Nantes, France..
    Ravignani, D.
    UNSAM, CONICET, Inst Tecnol Detecc & Astroparticulas,CNEA, Ctr Atom Constituyentes,Comis Nacl Engergia Atom, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Reinert, D.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3A, Aachen, Germany..
    Revenu, B.
    Univ Nantes, CNRS, IN2P3, Ecole Mines Nantes,SUBATECH, F-44035 Nantes, France..
    Ridky, J.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys FZU, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Risse, M.
    Univ Siegen, Fachbereich Phys Expt Teilchenphys 7, D-57068 Siegen, Germany..
    Ristori, P.
    CITEDEF, Ctr Invest Laseres & Aplicaciones, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina.;Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, RA-1033 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Rizi, V.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Aquila, Laquila, Italy.;Univ Aquila, Dipartimento Chim & Fis, I-67100 Laquila, Italy..
    Rodrigues de Carvalho, W.
    Univ Santiago Compostela, Santiago De Compostela, Spain..
    Rodriguez Rojo, J.
    Observ Pierre Auger, Mendoza, Argentina..
    Rodriguez-Frias, M. D.
    Univ Alcala de Henares, E-28871 Alcala De Henares, Spain..
    Rogozin, D.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Rosado, J.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Roth, M.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Roulet, E.
    CNEA UNCuyo CONICET, Ctr Atom Bariloche, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina.;CNEA UNCuyo CONICET, Inst Balseiro, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina..
    Rovero, A. C.
    CONICET UBA, IAFE, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Saffil, S. J.
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Saftoiu, A.
    Horia Hulubei Natl Inst Phys & Nucl Engn, Bucharest 077125, Romania..
    Salazar, H.
    CONICET UBA, IAFE, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.;Observ Pierre Auger, Mendoza, Argentina..
    Saleh, A.
    Univ Nova Gorica, Lab Astroparticle Phys, Nova Gorica, Slovenia..
    Greus, F. Salesa
    Penn State Univ, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Salina, G.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy..
    Sanabria Gomez, J. D.
    Univ Ind Santander, Santander, Spain..
    Sanchez, F.
    UNSAM, CONICET, Inst Tecnol Detecc & Astroparticulas,CNEA, Ctr Atom Constituyentes,Comis Nacl Engergia Atom, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Sanchez-Lucas, P.
    Univ Granada, E-18071 Granada, Spain..
    Santos, E. M.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Inst Fis, CP 20516, BR-01498 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Santos, E.
    Univ Estadual Campinas UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brazil..
    Sarazin, F.
    Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    Sarkar, B.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Fachbereich Phys C, Wuppertal, Germany..
    Sarmento, R.
    Univ Lisbon, Lab Instrumentacao Fis Expt Particulas LIP, Lisbon, Portugal.;Univ Lisbon, IST, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Sarmiento-Cano, C.
    Univ Ind Santander, Santander, Spain..
    Sato, R.
    Observ Pierre Auger, Mendoza, Argentina..
    Scarso, C.
    Observ Pierre Auger, Mendoza, Argentina..
    Schauer, M.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Fachbereich Phys C, Wuppertal, Germany..
    Scherini, V.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Lecce, Lecce, Italy.;Univ Salento, Dipartimento Matemat & Fis E De Giorgi, Lecce, Italy..
    Schieler, H.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Schmidt, D.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Scholtene, .
    Univ Groningen, KVI Ctr Adv Radiat Technol, NL-9700 AB Groningen, Netherlands.;Vrije Univ Brussel, Brussels, Belgium..
    Schoorlemmer, H.
    Univ Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA..
    Schovanek, P.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys FZU, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Schroeder, F. G.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Schulz, A.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Schulz, J.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, IMAPP, NL-6525 ED Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Schumacher, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3A, Aachen, Germany..
    Segreto, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Ist Astrofis Spaziale & Fis Cosm Palermo, Palermo, Italy.;Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Catania, Catania, Italy..
    Settimo, M.
    Univ Paris 06, LPNHE, F-75252 Paris 05, France.;Univ Paris 07, CNRS, IN2P3, F-75221 Paris 05, France..
    Shadkam, A.
    Louisiana State Univ, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 USA..
    Shellard, R. C.
    CBPF, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil..
    Sigl, G.
    Univ Hamburg, Inst Theoret Phys 2, Hamburg, Germany..
    Sima, O.
    Univ Bucharest, Dept Phys, Bucharest, Romania..
    Smialkowski, A.
    Univ Lodz, PL-90131 Lodz, Poland..
    Smida, R.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Snow, G. R.
    Sommers, P.
    Penn State Univ, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Sonntag, S.
    Univ Siegen, Fachbereich Phys Expt Teilchenphys 7, D-57068 Siegen, Germany..
    Sorokin, J.
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Squartini, R.
    Observ Pierre Auger, Mendoza, Argentina..
    Stanca, D.
    Horia Hulubei Natl Inst Phys & Nucl Engn, Bucharest 077125, Romania..
    Stanic, S.
    Univ Nova Gorica, Lab Astroparticle Phys, Nova Gorica, Slovenia..
    Stapleton, J.
    Ohio State Univ, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Stasielak, J.
    Inst Phys Nucl PAN, Krakow, Poland..
    Stephan, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3A, Aachen, Germany..
    Strafella, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Lecce, Lecce, Italy.;Univ Salento, Dipartimento Matemat & Fis E De Giorgi, Lecce, Italy..
    Stutz, A.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IN2P3, LPSC, St Martin Dheres, France..
    Suarez, F.
    UNSAM, CONICET, Inst Tecnol Detecc & Astroparticulas,CNEA, Ctr Atom Constituyentes,Comis Nacl Engergia Atom, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.;Univ Tecnol Nacl, Fac Reg Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Duran, M. Suarez
    Univ Ind Santander, Santander, Spain..
    Suomijarvi, T.
    Univ Paris 11, CNRS, IN2P3, IPNO, Orsay, France..
    Supanitsky, A. D.
    CONICET UBA, IAFE, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Sutherland, M. S.
    Ohio State Univ, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Swain, J.
    Northeastern Univ, Boston, MA USA..
    Szadkowski, Z.
    Univ Lodz, PL-90131 Lodz, Poland..
    Taborda, O. A.
    CNEA UNCuyo CONICET, Ctr Atom Bariloche, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina.;CNEA UNCuyo CONICET, Inst Balseiro, San Carlos De Bariloche, Rio Negro, Argentina..
    Tapia, A.
    UNSAM, CONICET, Inst Tecnol Detecc & Astroparticulas,CNEA, Ctr Atom Constituyentes,Comis Nacl Engergia Atom, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Tepe, A.
    Univ Siegen, Fachbereich Phys Expt Teilchenphys 7, D-57068 Siegen, Germany..
    Theodoro, V. M.
    Univ Estadual Campinas UNICAMP, Campinas, SP, Brazil..
    Timmermans, C.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, IMAPP, NL-6525 ED Nijmegen, Netherlands.;NIKHEF, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Todero Peixoto, C. J.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Escola Engn Lorena, BR-05508 Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Toma, G.
    Horia Hulubei Natl Inst Phys & Nucl Engn, Bucharest 077125, Romania..
    Tomankova, L.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Tome, B.
    Univ Lisbon, Lab Instrumentacao Fis Expt Particulas LIP, Lisbon, Portugal.;Univ Lisbon, IST, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Tonachini, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Torino, Turin, Italy.;Univ Turin, Dipartimento Fis, I-10124 Turin, Italy..
    Elipe, G. Torralba
    Univ Santiago Compostela, Santiago De Compostela, Spain..
    Torres Machado, D.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Inst Fis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil..
    Travnicek, P.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys FZU, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Trini, M.
    Univ Nova Gorica, Lab Astroparticle Phys, Nova Gorica, Slovenia..
    Ulrich, R.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Unger, M.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany.;New York Univ, New York, NY USA..
    Urban, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3A, Aachen, Germany..
    Galicia, J. F. Valdes
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City 04510, DF, Mexico..
    Valino, I.
    Univ Santiago Compostela, Santiago De Compostela, Spain..
    Valore, L.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Naples, Italy.;Univ Naples Federico II, Dipartimento Fis, Naples, Italy..
    van Aar, G.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, IMAPP, NL-6525 ED Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    van Bodegom, P.
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    van den Berg, A. M.
    Univ Groningen, KVI Ctr Adv Radiat Technol, NL-9700 AB Groningen, Netherlands..
    van Vliet, A.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, IMAPP, NL-6525 ED Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Varela, E.
    BUAP, Puebla, Mexico..
    Vargas Cardenas, B.
    Univ Nacl Autonoma Mexico, Mexico City 04510, DF, Mexico..
    Varner, G.
    Univ Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA..
    Vasquez, R.
    Univ Fed Rio de Janeiro, Inst Fis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil..
    Vazquez, J. R.
    Univ Complutense Madrid, E-28040 Madrid, Spain..
    Vazquez, R. A.
    Univ Santiago Compostela, Santiago De Compostela, Spain..
    Veberic, D.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Verzi, V.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy..
    Vicha, J.
    Acad Sci Czech Republic, Inst Phys FZU, Prague, Czech Republic..
    Videla, M.
    UNSAM, CONICET, Inst Tecnol Detecc & Astroparticulas,CNEA, Ctr Atom Constituyentes,Comis Nacl Engergia Atom, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Villasenor, L.
    Univ Michoacana, Morelia, Michoacan, Mexico..
    Vorobiov, S.
    Univ Nova Gorica, Lab Astroparticle Phys, Nova Gorica, Slovenia..
    Wahlberg, H.
    Consejo Nacl Invest Cient & Tecn, RA-1033 Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.;Univ Nacl La Plata, IFLP, RA-1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina..
    Wainberg, O.
    UNSAM, CONICET, Inst Tecnol Detecc & Astroparticulas,CNEA, Ctr Atom Constituyentes,Comis Nacl Engergia Atom, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina.;Univ Tecnol Nacl, Fac Reg Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Walz, D.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3A, Aachen, Germany..
    Watson, A. A.
    Univ Leeds, Sch Phys & Astron, Leeds, W Yorkshire, England..
    Weber, M.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IPE, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Weidenhaupt, K.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3A, Aachen, Germany..
    Weindl, A.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IKP, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Wiencke, L.
    Colorado Sch Mines, Golden, CO 80401 USA..
    Wilczynski, H.
    Inst Phys Nucl PAN, Krakow, Poland..
    Winchen, T.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Fachbereich Phys C, Wuppertal, Germany..
    Wittkowski, D.
    Berg Univ Wuppertal, Fachbereich Phys C, Wuppertal, Germany..
    Wundheiler, B.
    UNSAM, CONICET, Inst Tecnol Detecc & Astroparticulas,CNEA, Ctr Atom Constituyentes,Comis Nacl Engergia Atom, Buenos Aires, DF, Argentina..
    Wykes, S.
    Radboud Univ Nijmegen, IMAPP, NL-6525 ED Nijmegen, Netherlands..
    Yang, L.
    Univ Nova Gorica, Lab Astroparticle Phys, Nova Gorica, Slovenia..
    Yapici, T.
    Michigan Technol Univ, Houghton, MI 49931 USA..
    Yushkov, A.
    Univ Siegen, Fachbereich Phys Expt Teilchenphys 7, D-57068 Siegen, Germany..
    Zas, E.
    Univ Santiago Compostela, Santiago De Compostela, Spain..
    Zavrtanik, D.
    Jozef Stefan Inst, Expt Particle Phys Dept, Ljubljana, Slovenia.;Univ Nova Gorica, Lab Astroparticle Phys, Nova Gorica, Slovenia..
    Zavrtanik, M.
    Jozef Stefan Inst, Expt Particle Phys Dept, Ljubljana, Slovenia.;Univ Nova Gorica, Lab Astroparticle Phys, Nova Gorica, Slovenia..
    Zepeda, A.
    CINVESTAV, Ctr Invest & Estudios Avanzados IPN, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Zimmermann, B.
    Karlsruhe Inst Technol, IPE, D-76021 Karlsruhe, Germany..
    Ziolkowski, M.
    Univ Siegen, Fachbereich Phys Expt Teilchenphys 7, D-57068 Siegen, Germany..
    Zong, Z.
    Univ Paris 11, CNRS, IN2P3, IPNO, Orsay, France..
    Zuccarello, F.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Catania, Catania, Italy.;Univ Catania, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, I-95124 Catania, Italy..
    Abbasi, R. U.
    Univ Utah, High Energy Astrophys Inst, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Abe, M.
    Saitama Univ, Grad Sch Sci & Engn, Saitama 3388570, Japan..
    Abu-Zayyad, T.
    Univ Utah, High Energy Astrophys Inst, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Allen, M.
    Univ Utah, High Energy Astrophys Inst, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Azuma, R.
    Tokyo Inst Technol, Grad Sch Sci & Engn, Tokyo 152, Japan..
    Barcikowski, E.
    Univ Utah, High Energy Astrophys Inst, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Belz, J. W.
    Univ Utah, High Energy Astrophys Inst, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Bergman, D. R.
    Univ Utah, High Energy Astrophys Inst, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Blake, S. A.
    Univ Utah, High Energy Astrophys Inst, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Cady, R.
    Univ Utah, High Energy Astrophys Inst, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Chae, M. J.
    Ewha Womans Univ, Dept Phys, Seoul, South Korea.;Ewha Womans Univ, Inst Early Univ, Seoul, South Korea..
    Cheon, B. G.
    Hanyang Univ, Dept Phys, Seoul 133791, South Korea.;Hanyang Univ, Res Inst Nat Sci, Seoul 133791, South Korea..
    Chiba, J.
    Tokyo Univ Sci, Dept Phys, Noda, Chiba 278, Japan..
    Chikawa, M.
    Kinki Univ, Dept Phys, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577, Japan..
    Cho, W. R.
    Yonsei Univ, Dept Phys, Seoul 120749, South Korea..
    Fukushima, M.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan.;Univ Tokyo, Todai Inst Adv Study, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Gotoll, T.
    Osaka City Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Osaka 558, Japan..
    Hanlon, W.
    Univ Utah, High Energy Astrophys Inst, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Hayashi, Y.
    Osaka City Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Osaka 558, Japan..
    Hayashida, N.
    Kanagawa Univ, Fac Engn, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan..
    Hibino, K.
    Kanagawa Univ, Fac Engn, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan..
    Honda, K.
    Yamanashi Univ, Interdisciplinary Grad Sch Med & Engn, Kofu, Yamanashi 400, Japan..
    Ikeda, D.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Inoue, N.
    Saitama Univ, Grad Sch Sci & Engn, Saitama 3388570, Japan..
    Ishii, T.
    Yamanashi Univ, Interdisciplinary Grad Sch Med & Engn, Kofu, Yamanashi 400, Japan..
    Ishimori, R.
    Tokyo Inst Technol, Grad Sch Sci & Engn, Tokyo 152, Japan..
    Ito, H.
    RIKEN, Astrophys Big Bang Lab, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Ivanov, D.
    Univ Utah, High Energy Astrophys Inst, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Jui, C. C. H.
    Univ Utah, High Energy Astrophys Inst, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Kadota, K.
    Tokyo City Univ, Dept Phys, Setagaya Ku, Tokyo, Japan..
    Kakimoto, F.
    Tokyo Inst Technol, Grad Sch Sci & Engn, Tokyo 152, Japan..
    Kalashev, O.
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res, Moscow 117312, Russia..
    Kasahara, K.
    Waseda Univ, Adv Res Inst Sci & Engn, Shinjuku Ku, Tokyo, Japan..
    Kawail, H.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, 1-33 Yayoi Cho, Chiba 260, Japan..
    Kawakami, S.
    Osaka City Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Osaka 558, Japan..
    Kawana, S.
    Saitama Univ, Grad Sch Sci & Engn, Saitama 3388570, Japan..
    Kawata, K.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Kido, E.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Kim, H. B.
    Hanyang Univ, Dept Phys, Seoul 133791, South Korea.;Hanyang Univ, Res Inst Nat Sci, Seoul 133791, South Korea..
    Kim, J. H.
    Univ Utah, High Energy Astrophys Inst, Salt Lake City, UT USA.;UNIST Gil, Ulsan Natl Inst Sci & Technol, Sch Nat Sci, Dept Phys, Ulsan, South Korea..
    Kitamura, S.
    Tokyo Inst Technol, Grad Sch Sci & Engn, Tokyo 152, Japan..
    Kitamura, Y.
    Tokyo Inst Technol, Grad Sch Sci & Engn, Tokyo 152, Japan..
    Kuzmin, V.
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res, Moscow 117312, Russia..
    Kwon, Y. J.
    Yonsei Univ, Dept Phys, Seoul 120749, South Korea..
    Lan, J.
    Univ Utah, High Energy Astrophys Inst, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Lim, S. I.
    Ewha Womans Univ, Dept Phys, Seoul, South Korea.;Ewha Womans Univ, Inst Early Univ, Seoul, South Korea..
    Lundquist, J. P.
    Univ Utah, High Energy Astrophys Inst, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Machida, K.
    Yamanashi Univ, Interdisciplinary Grad Sch Med & Engn, Kofu, Yamanashi 400, Japan..
    Martens, K.
    Univ Tokyo, Todai Inst Adv Study, Kavli Inst Phys & Math Universe WPI, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Matsuda, T.
    KEK, Inst Particle & Nucl Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan..
    Matsuyama, T.
    Osaka City Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Osaka 558, Japan..
    Matthews, J. N.
    Univ Utah, High Energy Astrophys Inst, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Minamino, M.
    Osaka City Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Osaka 558, Japan..
    Mukai, Y.
    Yamanashi Univ, Interdisciplinary Grad Sch Med & Engn, Kofu, Yamanashi 400, Japan..
    Myers, I.
    Univ Utah, High Energy Astrophys Inst, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Nagasawa, K.
    Saitama Univ, Grad Sch Sci & Engn, Saitama 3388570, Japan..
    Nagataki, S.
    RIKEN, Astrophys Big Bang Lab, Wako, Saitama, Japan..
    Nakamura, T.
    Kochi Univ, Fac Sci, Kochi 780, Japan..
    Nonaka, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Nozato, A.
    Kinki Univ, Dept Phys, Higashiosaka, Osaka 577, Japan..
    Ogioll, S.
    Osaka City Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Osaka 558, Japan..
    Ogura, J.
    Tokyo Inst Technol, Grad Sch Sci & Engn, Tokyo 152, Japan..
    Ohnishi, M.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Ohoka, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Oki, K.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Okuda, T.
    Ritsumeikan Univ, Dept Phys Sci, Kusatsu, Shiga, Japan..
    Ono, M.
    Kyushu Univ, Dept Phys, Fukuoka 812, Japan..
    Oshima, A.
    Chubu Univ, Engn Sci Lab, Kasugai, Aichi 487, Japan..
    Ozawa, S.
    Waseda Univ, Adv Res Inst Sci & Engn, Shinjuku Ku, Tokyo, Japan..
    Park, I. H.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon, South Korea..
    Pshirkov, M. S.
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res, Moscow 117312, Russia.;Moscow MV Lomonosov State Univ, Sternberg Astron Inst, Moscow 119992, Russia..
    Rodriguez, D. C.
    Univ Utah, High Energy Astrophys Inst, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Rubtsov, G.
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res, Moscow 117312, Russia..
    Ryu, D.
    UNIST Gil, Ulsan Natl Inst Sci & Technol, Sch Nat Sci, Dept Phys, Ulsan, South Korea..
    Sagawa, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Sakurai, N.
    Osaka City Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Osaka 558, Japan..
    Scott, L. M.
    Rutgers State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Piscataway, NJ USA..
    Shah, P. D.
    Univ Utah, High Energy Astrophys Inst, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Shibata, F.
    Yamanashi Univ, Interdisciplinary Grad Sch Med & Engn, Kofu, Yamanashi 400, Japan..
    Shibata, T.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Shimodaira, H.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Shins, B. K.
    Hanyang Univ, Dept Phys, Seoul 133791, South Korea.;Hanyang Univ, Res Inst Nat Sci, Seoul 133791, South Korea..
    Shin, H. S.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Smith, J. D.
    Univ Utah, High Energy Astrophys Inst, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Sokolsky, P.
    Univ Utah, High Energy Astrophys Inst, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Springer, R. W.
    Univ Utah, High Energy Astrophys Inst, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Stokes, B. T.
    Univ Utah, High Energy Astrophys Inst, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Stratton, S. R.
    Univ Utah, High Energy Astrophys Inst, Salt Lake City, UT USA.;Rutgers State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Piscataway, NJ USA..
    Stroman, T. A.
    Univ Utah, High Energy Astrophys Inst, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Suzawa, T.
    Saitama Univ, Grad Sch Sci & Engn, Saitama 3388570, Japan..
    Takamura, M.
    Tokyo Univ Sci, Dept Phys, Noda, Chiba 278, Japan..
    Takeda, M.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Takeishi, R.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Taketa, A.
    Univ Tokyo, Earthquake Res Inst, Bunkyo Ku, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 113, Japan..
    Takita, M.
    Univ Tokyo, Inst Cosm Ray Res, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan..
    Tameda, Y.
    Kanagawa Univ, Fac Engn, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan..
    Tanaka, H.
    Osaka City Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Osaka 558, Japan..
    Tanaka, K.
    Hirosaki City Univ, Grad Sch Informat Sci, Hiroshima, Japan..
    Tanaka, M.
    KEK, Inst Particle & Nucl Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan..
    Thomas, S. B.
    Univ Utah, High Energy Astrophys Inst, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Thomson, G. B.
    Univ Utah, High Energy Astrophys Inst, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Tinyakov, P.
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res, Moscow 117312, Russia.;Univ Libre Bruxelles, Serv Phys Theor, Brussels, Belgium..
    Tkachev, I.
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res, Moscow 117312, Russia..
    Tokuno, H.
    Tokyo Inst Technol, Grad Sch Sci & Engn, Tokyo 152, Japan..
    Tomida, T.
    Shinshu Univ, Dept Comp Sci & Engn, Nagano, Japan..
    Troitsky, S.
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Nucl Res, Moscow 117312, Russia..
    Tsunesada, Y.
    Tokyo Inst Technol, Grad Sch Sci & Engn, Tokyo 152, Japan..
    Tsutsumi, K.
    Tokyo Inst Technol, Grad Sch Sci & Engn, Tokyo 152, Japan..
    Uchihori, Y.
    Natl Inst Radiol Sci, Chiba 260, Japan..
    Udo, S.
    Kanagawa Univ, Fac Engn, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan..
    Urban, F.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Serv Phys Theor, Brussels, Belgium..
    Vasiloff, G.
    Univ Utah, High Energy Astrophys Inst, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Wong, T.
    Univ Utah, High Energy Astrophys Inst, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Yamane, R.
    Osaka City Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Osaka 558, Japan..
    Yamaoka, H.
    KEK, Inst Particle & Nucl Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan..
    Yamazaki, K.
    Univ Tokyo, Earthquake Res Inst, Bunkyo Ku, 7-3-1 Hongo, Tokyo 113, Japan..
    Yang, J.
    Ewha Womans Univ, Dept Phys, Seoul, South Korea.;Ewha Womans Univ, Inst Early Univ, Seoul, South Korea..
    Yashiro, K.
    Tokyo Univ Sci, Dept Phys, Noda, Chiba 278, Japan..
    Yoneda, Y.
    Osaka City Univ, Grad Sch Sci, Osaka 558, Japan..
    Yoshii, H.
    Ehime Univ, Dept Phys, Matsuyama, Ehime, Japan..
    Zollinger, R.
    Univ Utah, High Energy Astrophys Inst, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Zundel, Z.
    Univ Utah, High Energy Astrophys Inst, Salt Lake City, UT USA..
    Search for correlations between the arrival directions of IceCube neutrino events and ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array2016In: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, ISSN 1475-7516, E-ISSN 1475-7516, no 1, article id 037Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of different searches for correlations between very high-energy neutrino candidates detected by IceCube and the highest-energy cosmic rays measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory and the Telescope Array. We first consider samples of cascade neutrino events and of high-energy neutrino-induced muon tracks, which provided evidence for a neutrino flux of astrophysical origin, and study their cross-correlation with the ultrahigh-energy cosmic ray (UHECR) samples as a function of angular separation. We also study their possible directional correlations using a likelihood method stacking the neutrino arrival directions and adopting different assumptions on the size of the UHECR magnetic deflections. Finally, we perform another likelihood analysis stacking the UHECR directions and using a sample of through-going muon tracks optimized for neutrino point-source searches with sub-degree angular resolution. No indications of correlations at discovery level are obtained for any of the searches performed. The smallest of the p-values comes from the search for correlation between UHECRs with IceCube high-energy cascades, a result that should continue to be monitored.

  • 6.
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem & Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Abraham, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Ackermann, M.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Adams, J.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 1, New Zealand.;Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea. Univ Toronto, Dept Phys, 60 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 1A7, Canada..
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Ahlers, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Ahrens, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Altmann, D.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Anderson, T.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Archinger, M.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Argueelles, C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Arlen, T. C.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Auffenberg, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Bai, X.
    South Dakota Sch Mines & Technol, Dept Phys, Rapid City, SD 57701 USA..
    Barwick, S. W.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Baum, V.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Bay, R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Beatty, J. J.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 174 W 18Th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Becker, K. -H
    Beiser, E.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    BenZvi, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Berghaus, P.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Berley, D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Bernardini, E.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bernhard, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany.;Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Besson, D. Z.
    Univ Kansas, Dept Phys & Astron, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA..
    Binder, G.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Bindig, D.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Bissok, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Blaufuss, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Blumenthal, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Boersma, David J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Bohm, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Boerner, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Bos, F.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Bose, D.
    Boeser, S.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Botner, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Braun, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Brayeur, L.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Bretz, H. -P
    Brown, A. M.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 1, New Zealand.;Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea. Univ Toronto, Dept Phys, 60 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 1A7, Canada..
    Buzinsky, N.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Casey, J.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Casier, M.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Cheung, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Chirkin, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Christov, A.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA.;TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany.;Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland.;Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Christy, B.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Clark, K.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Classen, L.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Coenders, S.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Cowen, D. F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, 525 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.;Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Silva, A. H. Cruz
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Daughhetee, J.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Davis, J. C.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Day, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    de Andre, J. P. A. M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    De Clercq, C.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Dembinski, H.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    De Ridder, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Desiati, P.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    de Vries, K. D.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    de Wasseige, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    de With, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    DeYoung, T.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Diaz-Velez, J. C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Dumm, J. P.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Dunkman, M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Eagans, R.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Eberhardt, B.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Ehrhardt, T.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Eichmann, B.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Euler, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Evenson, P. A.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Fadiran, O.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Fahey, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Fazely, A. R.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Fedynitch, A.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Feintzeig, J.
    Univ Alaska Anchorage, Dept Phys & Astron, 3211 Providence Dr, Anchorage, AK 99508 USA..
    Felde, J.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Filimonov, K.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Finley, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fischer-Wasels, T.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Flis, S.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fuchs, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Glagla, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Gaior, R.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Gallagher, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Astron, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Gerhardth, L.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Ghorbani, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Gier, D.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Gladstone, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Gliisenkamp, T.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Golup, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Gonzalez, J. G.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Gora, D.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Grant, D.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Gretskov, P.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Groh, J. C.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Gross, A.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Ha, C.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Haack, C.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Ismail, A. Haj
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Halzen, F.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Hansmann, B.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Hanson, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Hebecker, D.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Heereman, D.
    Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, 1 Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3NP, England..
    Helbing, K.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Hellauer, R.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hellwig, D.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Hickford, S.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Hignight, J.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Hill, G. C.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem & Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Hoffman, K. D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hoffmann, R.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Holzapfel, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Homeier, A.
    Univ Bonn, Inst Phys, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany..
    Hoshina, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Tokyo, Earthquake Res Inst, Tokyo 1130032, Japan..
    Huang, F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Huber, M.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Huelsnitz, W.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hulth, P. O.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hultqvist, K.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    In, S.
    Ishihara, A.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Jacobi, E.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Japaridze, G. S.
    Clark Atlanta Univ, CTSPS, Atlanta, GA 30314 USA..
    Jero, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Jurkovic, M.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Kaminsky, B.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kappes, A.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Karg, T.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Karle, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Kauer, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Yale Univ, Dept Phys, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Keivani, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Kelley, J. L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Kemp, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Kheirandish, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Kiryluk, J.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Klas, J.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Klein, S. R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Kohnen, G.
    Univ Mons, B-7000 Mons, Belgium..
    Koirala, R.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Kolanoski, H.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Konietz, R.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Koob, A.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Kopke, L.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Kopper, C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Kopper, S.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Koskinen, D. J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Kowalski, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany.;DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Krings, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Kroll, G.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Kroll, M.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Kunnen, J.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Kurahashi, N.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Kuwabara, T.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Labare, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Lanfranchi, J. L.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Larson, M. J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Lesiak-Bzdak, M.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Leuermann, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Leuner, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Lunemann, J.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Madsen, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Maggi, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Mahn, K. B. M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Maruyama, R.
    Yale Univ, Dept Phys, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Mase, K.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Matis, H. S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Maunu, R.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    McNally, F.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Meagher, K.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Medici, M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Meli, A.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Menne, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Merino, G.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Meures, T.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Miarecki, S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Middell, E.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Middlemas, E.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Miller, J.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Mohrmann, L.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Montaruli, T.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Morse, R.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Nahnhauer, R.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Naumann, U.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Niederhausen, H.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Nowicki, S. C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Nygren, D. R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Obertacke, A.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Olivas, A.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Omairat, A.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    O'Murchadha, A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Palczewski, T.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Pandya, H.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Paul, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Pepper, J. A.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Perez de los Heros, Carlos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Pfendner, C.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Pieloth, D.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Pinat, E.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Posselt, J.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Price, P. B.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Putz, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Quinnan, M.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Radel, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Rameez, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Rawlins, K.
    Univ Alaska Anchorage, Dept Phys & Astron, 3211 Providence Dr, Anchorage, AK 99508 USA..
    Redl, P.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Reimann, R.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Relich, M.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Resconi, E.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Rhode, W.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Richman, M.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Richter, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Riedel, B.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Robertson, S.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem & Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rongen, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Rott, C.
    Ruhe, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Ryckbosch, D.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Saba, S. M.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Sabbatini, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Sander, H. -G
    Sandrock, A.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Sandroos, J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Sarkar, S.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium.;Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Schatto, K.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Scheriau, F.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Schimp, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Schmidt, T.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Schmitz, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Schoenen, S.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Schoneberg, S.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schonwald, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schukraft, A.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Schulte, L.
    Univ Bonn, Inst Phys, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany..
    Seckel, D.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Seunarine, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Shanidze, R.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Smith, M. W. E.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Soldin, D.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Spiering, C.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Stahlberg, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Stamatikos, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Stanev, T.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Stanisha, N. A.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Stasik, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Stezelberger, T.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Stossl, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Strahler, E. A.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Ström, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Strotjohann, N. L.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Sullivan, G. W.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Sutherland, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Taavola, Henric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Taboada, I.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Ter-Antonyan, S.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Terliuk, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Tesic, G.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Tilav, S.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Toale, P. A.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Tobin, M. N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Tosi, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Tselengidou, M.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Turcati, A.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Unger, Lisa E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics. Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, Box 516, S-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Usner, M.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Vallecorsa, S.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    van Eijndhoven, N.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    van Santen, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Vanheule, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Veenkamp, J.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Vehring, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Voge, M.
    Univ Bonn, Inst Phys, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany..
    Vraeghe, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Walck, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wallraff, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Wandkowsky, N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Weaver, Ch
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Wendt, C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Westerhoff, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Whelan, B. J.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem & Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Whitehorn, N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Wichary, C.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Wiebe, K.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Wille, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Williams, D. R.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Wissing, H.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Wolf, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wood, T. R.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Woschnagg, K.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Xu, D. L.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Xu, X. W.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Xun, Y.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Yanez, J. P.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Yodh, G.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Yoshida, S.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Zarzhitsky, P.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Zoll, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Characterization of the atmospheric muon flux in IceCube2016In: Astroparticle physics, ISSN 0927-6505, E-ISSN 1873-2852, Vol. 78, p. 1-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Muons produced in atmospheric cosmic ray showers account for the by far dominant part of the event yield in large-volume underground particle detectors. The IceCube detector, with an instrumented volume of about a cubic kilometer, has the potential to conduct unique investigations on atmospheric muons by exploiting the large collection area and the possibility to track particles over a long distance. Through detailed reconstruction of energy deposition along the tracks, the characteristics of muon bundles can be quantified, and individual particles of exceptionally high energy identified. The data can then be used to constrain the cosmic ray primary flux and the contribution to atmospheric lepton fluxes from prompt decays of short-lived hadrons. In this paper, techniques for the extraction of physical measurements from atmospheric muon events are described and first results are presented. The multiplicity spectrum of TeV muons in cosmic ray air showers for primaries in the energy range from the knee to the ankle is derived and found to be consistent with recent results from surface detectors. The single muon energy spectrum is determined up to PeV energies and shows a clear indication for the emergence of a distinct spectral component from prompt decays of short-lived hadrons. The magnitude of the prompt flux, which should include a substantial contribution from light vector meson di-muon decays, is consistent with current theoretical predictions. The variety of measurements and high event statistics can also be exploited for the evaluation of systematic effects. In the course of this study, internal inconsistencies in the zenith angle distribution of events were found which indicate the presence of an unexplained effect outside the currently applied range of detector systematics. The underlying cause could be related to the hadronic interaction models used to describe muon production in air showers.

  • 7.
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    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem & Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Abraham, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Ackermann, M.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Adams, J.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Christchurch 1, New Zealand..
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Ahlers, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Ahrens, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Altmann, D.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Anderson, T.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Archinger, M.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Arguelles, C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Arlen, T. C.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Auffenberg, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Bai, X.
    South Dakota Sch Mines & Technol, Dept Phys, Rapid City, SD 57701 USA..
    Barwick, S. W.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Baum, V.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Bay, R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Beatty, J. J.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Becker, K. -H
    Beiser, E.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    BenZvi, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Berghaus, P.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Berley, D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Bernardini, E.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bernhard, A.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Bessonu, D. Z.
    Univ Kansas, Dept Phys & Astron, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA..
    Binder, G.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Bindig, D.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Bissok, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Blaueuss, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Blumenthal, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Boersma, David. J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics. Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Bohm, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Boerner, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Bos, F.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Bose, D.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
    Boeser, S.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Botner, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Braun, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Brayeur, L.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Bretz, H. -P
    Brown, A. M.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Christchurch 1, New Zealand..
    Buzinsky, N.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Casey, J.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Casier, M.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Cheung, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Chirkin, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Christov, A.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Christy, B.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Clark, K.
    Univ Toronto, Dept Phys, Toronto, ON M5S 1A7, Canada..
    Classen, L.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Coenders, S.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Cowen, D. F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.;Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Silva, A. H. Cruz
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Daughhetee, J.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Davis, J. C.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Day, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    de Andre, J. P. A. M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    De Clercq, C.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Dembinski, H.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    De Ridder, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Desiati, P.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    de Vries, K. D.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    de Wasseige, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    de With, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    DeYoung, T.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Diaz-Velez, J. C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Dumm, J. P.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Dunkman, M.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Eagan, R.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Eberhardt, B.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Ehrhardt, T.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Eichmann, B.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Euler, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Evenson, P. A.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Fadiran, O.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Fahey, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Fazely, A. R.
    Southern Univ, DeVment Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Fedynitch, A.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Feintzeig, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Felde, J.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Filimonov, K.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Finley, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fischer-Wasels, T.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Flis, S.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fuchs, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Glagla, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Gator, R.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Gallagher, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Astron, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Gerhardt, L.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Ghorbani, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Gier, D.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Gladstone, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Gluesenkamp, T.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Golup, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Gonzalez, J. G.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Gora, D.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Grant, D.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Gretskov, P.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Groh, J. C.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Gross, A.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Ha, C.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Haack, C.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Ismail, A. Haj
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics. Uppsala Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, SE-75120 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Halzen, F.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Hansmann, B.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Hanson, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Hebecker, D.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Heereman, D.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Helbing, K.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Hellauer, R.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hellwig, D.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Hickford, S.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Hignight, J.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Hill, G. C.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem & Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Hoffman, K. D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hoffmann, R.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Holzapfe, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Homeier, A.
    Univ Bonn, Inst Phys, D-53115 Bonn, Germany..
    Hoshina, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Tokyo, Earthquake Res Inst, Bunkyo Ku, Tokyo 1130032, Japan..
    Huang, F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Huber, M.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Huelsnitz, W.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hulth, P. O.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hultqvist, K.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    In, S.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
    Ishihara, A.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Jacobi, E.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Japaridze, G. S.
    Clark Atlanta Univ, CTSPS, Atlanta, GA 30314 USA..
    Jero, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Jurkovic, M.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Kaminsky, B.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Kappes, A.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Karg, T.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Karle, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Kauer, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Yale Univ, Dept Phys, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Keivani, A.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Kelley, J. L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Kemp, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Kheirandish, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Kiryluk, J.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Klaes, J.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Klein, S. R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Kohnen, G.
    Univ Mons, B-7000 Mons, Belgium..
    Koirala, R.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Kolanoski, H.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Konietz, R.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Koob, A.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Koepke, L.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Kopper, C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Kopper, S.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Koskinen, D. J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Kowalski, M.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany.;Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Krings, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Kroll, G.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Kroll, M.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Kunnen, J.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Kurahashi, N.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Kuwabara, T.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Labare, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Lanfranchi, J. L.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Larson, M. J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Lesiak-Bzdak, M.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Leuermann, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Leuner, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Luenemann, J.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Madsen, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Maggi, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Mahn, K. B. M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Maruyama, R.
    Yale Univ, Dept Phys, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Mase, K.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Matis, H. S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Maunu, R.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    McNally, F.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Meagher, K.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Medici, M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Meli, A.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Menne, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Merino, G.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Meures, T.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Miarecki, S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Middell, E.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Middlemas, E.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Miller, J.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Mohrmann, L.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Montaruli, T.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Morse, R.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Nahnhauer, R.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Naumann, U.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Niederhausen, H.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Nowicki, S. C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Nygre, D. R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Obertacke, A.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Olivas, A.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Omairat, A.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    O'Murchadha, A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Palczewski, T.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Pandya, H.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Paul, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Pepper, J. A.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    de los Heros, Carlos Perez
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Pfendner, C.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Pieloth, D.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Pinat, E.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Fac Sci, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Posselt, J.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Price, P. B.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Puetz, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Quinnan, M.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Raedel, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Rameez, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Rawlins, K.
    Univ Alaska Anchorage, Dept Phys & Astron, Anchorage, AK 99508 USA..
    Redl, P.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Reimann, R.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Relich, M.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Resconi, E.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Rhode, W.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Richman, M.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Richter, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Riedel, B.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Robertson, S.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem & Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rongen, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Rott, C.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
    Ruhe, T.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Ryckbosch, D.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Saba, S. M.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Sabbatini, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Sander, H. -G
    Sandrock, A.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Sandroos, J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Sarkar, S.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.;Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, Oxford OX1 3NP, England..
    Schatto, K.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Scheriau, F.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Schimp, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Schmidt, T.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Schmitz, M.
    TU Dortmund Univ, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Schoenen, S.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Schoeneberg, S.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schoenwald, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schukraft, A.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Schulte, L.
    Univ Bonn, Inst Phys, D-53115 Bonn, Germany..
    Seckel, D.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Seunarine, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Shanidze, R.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Smith, M. W. E.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Soldin, D.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Ering, C.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Stahlberg, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Stamatikos, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Stanev, T.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Stanisha, N. A.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Stasik, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Stezelberger, T.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Stoessl, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Strahlers, E. A.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Ström, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Strotjohann, N. L.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Suwvan, G. W.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Sutherland, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Taavola, Henric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Taboada, I.
    Ter-Antonyan, S.
    Southern Univ, DeVment Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Terliuk, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Tesic, G.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Tilav, S.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Toale, P. A.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Tobin, M. N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Tosi, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Tselengidou, M.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Turcati, A.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Unger, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Usner, M.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Vallecorsa, S.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    van Eundhoven, N.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    van Santen, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Vanheule, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Veenkamp, J.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Vehring, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Voge, M.
    Univ Bonn, Inst Phys, D-53115 Bonn, Germany..
    Vraeghe, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Walck, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wallraff, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Wandkowsky, N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Weaver, Ch.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Wendt, C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Westerhoff, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Whelan, B. J.
    Univ Adelaide, Sch Chem & Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Whitehorn, N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Wichary, C.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Wiebe, K.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Wille, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Williams, D. R.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Wissing, H.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Wolf, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wood, T. R.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Woschnagg, K.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Xu, D. L.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Xu, X. W.
    Southern Univ, DeVment Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Xu, Y.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Yanez, J. P.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Yodh, G.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Yoshida, S.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Zarzhitsky, P.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Zoll, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ofek, Eran O.
    Weizmann Inst Sci, Dept Particle Phys & Astrophys, IL-76100 Rehovot, Israel..
    Kasliwal, Mansi M.
    Carnegie Inst Sci, Pasadena, CA 91101 USA..
    Nugent, Peter E.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Astronomy, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Arcavi, Iair
    Las Cumbres Observ Global Telescope, Santa Barbara, CA 93111 USA.;Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Kavli Inst Theoret Phys, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA..
    Bloom, Joshua S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Astronomy, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.
    CALTECH, Cahill Ctr Astrophys, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA..
    Perley, Daniel A.
    CALTECH, Cahill Ctr Astrophys, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA..
    Barlow, Tom
    CALTECH, Cahill Ctr Astrophys, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA..
    Horesh, Assaf
    Weizmann Inst Sci, Dept Particle Phys & Astrophys, IL-76100 Rehovot, Israel..
    Gal-Yam, Avishay
    Weizmann Inst Sci, Dept Particle Phys & Astrophys, IL-76100 Rehovot, Israel..
    Howell, D. A.
    Weizmann Inst Sci, Dept Particle Phys & Astrophys, IL-76100 Rehovot, Israel.;Univ Calif Santa Barbara, Dept Phys, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 USA..
    Dilday, Ben
    North Idaho Coll, Coeur Dalene, ID 83814 USA..
    Evans, Phil A.
    Univ Leicester, Dept Phys & Astron, Leicester LE1 7RH, Leics, England..
    Kennea, Jamie A.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Burgett, W. S.
    Univ Hawaii Manoa, Inst Astron, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA..
    Chambers, K. C.
    Univ Hawaii Manoa, Inst Astron, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA..
    Kaiser, N.
    Univ Hawaii Manoa, Inst Astron, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA..
    Waters, C.
    Univ Hawaii Manoa, Inst Astron, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA..
    Flewelling, H.
    Univ Hawaii Manoa, Inst Astron, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA..
    Tonry, J. L.
    Univ Hawaii Manoa, Inst Astron, Honolulu, HI 96822 USA..
    Rest, A.
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Smartt, S. J.
    Queens Univ Belfast, Sch Math & Phys, Astrophys Res Ctr, Belfast BT7 1NN, Antrim, North Ireland..
    The Detection Of A Sn Iin In Optical Follow-Up Observations Of Icecube Neutrino Events2015In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 811, no 1, article id 52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The IceCube neutrino observatory pursues a follow-up program selecting interesting neutrino events in real-time and issuing alerts for electromagnetic follow-up observations. In 2012 March, the most significant neutrino alert during the first three years of operation was issued by IceCube. In the follow-up observations performed by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), a Type IIn supernova (SN IIn) PTF12csy was found 0.degrees 2 away from the neutrino alert direction, with an error radius of 0.degrees 54. It has a redshift of z = 0.0684, corresponding to a luminosity distance of about 300 Mpc and the Pan-STARRS1 survey shows that its explosion time was at least 158 days (in host galaxy rest frame) before the neutrino alert, so that a causal connection is unlikely. The a posteriori significance of the chance detection of both the neutrinos and the SN at any epoch is 2.2 sigma within IceCube's 2011/12 data acquisition season. Also, a complementary neutrino analysis reveals no long-term signal over the course of one year. Therefore, we consider the SN detection coincidental and the neutrinos uncorrelated to the SN. However, the SN is unusual and interesting by itself: it is luminous and energetic, bearing strong resemblance to the SN IIn 2010jl, and shows signs of interaction of the SN ejecta with a dense circumstellar medium. High-energy neutrino emission is expected in models of diffusive shock acceleration, but at a low, non-detectable level for this specific SN. In this paper, we describe the SN PTF12csy and present both the neutrino and electromagnetic data, as well as their analysis.

  • 8.
    Abramenkovs, Andris
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Induction and repair of clustered DNA damage sites after exposure to ionizing radiation2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanisms that maintain genomic stability safeguard cells from constant DNA damage produced by endogenous and external stressors. Therefore, this thesis aimed to specifically address questions regarding the requirement and involvement of DNA repair proteins in the repair of various types of radiation-induced DNA damage.

    The first aim was to determine whether the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs, a major kinase involved in non-homologous end joining pathway, can be utilized to score the DNA double-strand break (DSB) content in cells. DNA-PKcs phosphorylated (pDNA-PKcs) at T2609 was more sensitive to the cellular DSB content than ɣH2AX, as analyzed by flow cytometry. Further, pDNA-PKcs at T2609 could discriminate between DSB repair-compromised and normal cells, confirming that the pDNA-PKcs can be used as a DSB repair marker. In paper II, the DSB repair was assessed in cells with reduced levels of DNA-PKcs. The reduction in DNA-PKcs resulted in decreased cell survival and unaffected DSB repair. These results clearly indicate that DNA-PKcs plays an additional role in promoting cell survival in addition to its function in DSB repair.

    The second part of the thesis focused on the characterization of complex DNA damage. DNA damage was investigated after exposure to α-particles originating from Ra-223. The Ra-223 treatment induced a nonrandom DSB distribution consistent with damage induced by high-linear energy transfer radiation. The exposure to Ra-223 significantly reduced cell survival in monolayers and 3D cell structures. The last paper unraveled the fate of heat-sensitive clustered DNA damage site (HSCS) repair in cells. HSCS repair was independent of DSB repair, and these lesions did not contribute to the generation of additional DSBs during repair. Prolonged heating of DNA at relatively low temperatures induced structural changes in the DNA that contributed to the production of DNA artifacts.

    In conclusion, these results demonstrate that DNA-PKcs can be used to monitor DSB repair in cells after exposure to ionizing radiation. However, the functions of DNA-PKcs are not limited to DSB repair, as it can promote cell survival through other mechanisms. The complexity of the DNA damage produced by high-LET radiation is a major contributor to cell death. However, not all clusters produced in irradiated cells are converted into DSBs during repair.

  • 9.
    Abramenkovs, Andris
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Spiegelberg, Diana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Nilsson, Sten
    Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stenerlöw, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    The α-emitter Ra-223 induces clustered DNA damage and significantly reduces cell survivalManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The bone-seeking radiopharmaceutical Xofigo (Radium-223 dichloride) has demonstrated both extended survival and palliative effects in treatment of bone metastases in patients with prostate cancer. The alpha-particle emitter Ra-223, administered as Ra-223 dichloride, targets regions undergoing active bone remodeling and strongly binds hydroxyapatite found in bone. However, the mechanisms mediating toxicity and properties of Ra-223 binding to hydroxyapatite are not fully understood. In the current study, we show that the alpha-particles originating from the Ra-223 decay chain produce a track-like distribution of the DNA damage response proteins 53BP1 and ɣH2AX and induce high amounts of clustered DNA double-strand breaks in prostate cancer cell nuclei. The Ra-223 treatment inhibited growth of prostate cancer cells, grown in 2D- and 3D- models in vitro, independent of prostate cancer cell type and androgen receptor variant 7 (ARv7) expression. The rapid binding with a high affinity of Ra-223 to bone structures was verified in an in silico assay (KD= 19.2 ± 6.5 e-18) and almost no dissociation was detected within 24 hours. Importantly, there was no significant uptake of Ra-223 in cells. Further, we demonstrate the importance of the local dose-distribution of this treatment; there was more than 100-fold increase in cell killing when Ra-223 was attached to the bone-like hydroxyapatite structure, compared to when the radioactivity was distributed in the cell growth media. However, independent of the exposure condition, the high cell killing efficacy of the Ra-223 was attributed to the clustered DNA damaged sites induced by the released α-particles.

  • 10.
    Abramenkovs, Andris
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Spiegelberg, Diana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery.
    Stenerlöw, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Ra223 induced clustered DNA damage reduces cell survival independently of androgen receptor variant 7 expression2018In: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, ISSN 1619-7070, E-ISSN 1619-7089, Vol. 45, p. S634-S635Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Abramenkovs, Andris
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Stenerlöw, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Measurement of DNA-Dependent Protein Kinase Phosphorylation Using Flow Cytometry Provides a Reliable Estimate of DNA Repair Capacity2017In: Radiation Research, ISSN 0033-7587, E-ISSN 1938-5404, Vol. 188, no 6, p. 597-604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Uncontrolled generation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in cells is regarded as a highly toxic event that threatens cell survival. Radiation-induced DNA DSBs are commonly measured by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, microscopic evaluation of accumulating DNA damage response proteins (e.g., 53BP1 or gamma-H2AX) or flow cytometric analysis of gamma-H2AX. The advantage of flow cytometric analysis is that DSB formation and repair can be studied in relationship to cell cycle phase or expression of other proteins. However, gamma-H2AX is not able to monitor repair kinetics within the first 60 min postirradiation, a period when most DSBs undergo repair. A key protein in non-homologous end joining repair is the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase. Among several phosphorylation sites of DNA-dependent protein kinase, the threonine at position 2609 (T2609), which is phosphorylated by ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) or DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit itself, activates the end processing of DSB. Using flow cytometry, we show here that phosphorylation at T2609 is faster in response to DSBs than gamma-H2AX. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis of T2609 resulted in a better representation of fast repair kinetics than analysis of gamma-H2AX. In cells with reduced ligase IV activity, and wild-type cells where DNA-dependent protein kinase activity was inhibited, the reduced DSB repair capacity was observed by T2609 evaluation using flow cytometry. In conclusion, flow cytometric evaluation of DNA-dependent protein kinase T2609 can be used as a marker for early DSB repair and gives a better representation of early repair events than analysis of gamma-H2AX.

  • 12.
    Abramenkovs, Andris
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Stenerlöw, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Removal of heat-sensitive clustered damaged DNA sites is independent of double-strand break repair2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 12, article id e0209594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most deleterious lesions that can arise in cells after ionizing radiation or radiometric drug treatment. In addition to prompt DSBs, DSBs may also be produced during repair, evolving from a clustered DNA damaged site, which is composed of two or more distinct lesions that are located within two helical turns. A specific type of cluster damage is the heat-sensitive clustered site (HSCS), which transforms into DSBs upon treatment at elevated temperatures. The actual lesions or mechanisms that mediate the HSCS transformation into DSBs are unknown. However, there are two possibilities; either these lesions are transformed into DSBs due to DNA lesion instability, e.g., transfer of HSCS into single-strand breaks (SSBs), or they are formed due to local DNA structure instability, e.g., DNA melting, where two SSBs on opposite strands meet and transform into a DSB. The importance of these processes in living cells is not understood, but they significantly affect estimates of DSB repair capacity. In this study, we show that HSCS removal in human cells is not affected by defects in DSB repair or inhibition of DSB repair. Under conditions where rejoining of prompt DSBs was almost completely inhibited, heat-sensitive DSBs were successfully rejoined, without resulting in increased DSB levels, indicating that HSCS do not transfer into DSB in cells under physiological conditions. Furthermore, analysis by atomic force microscopy suggests that prolonged heating of chromosomal DNA can induce structural changes that facilitate transformation of HSCS into DSB. In conclusion, the HSCS do not generate additional DSBs at physiological temperatures in human cells, and the repair of HSCS is independent of DSB repair.

  • 13.
    Adjeiwaah, Mary
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Dept Radiat Sci, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Bylund, Mikael
    Umea Univ, Dept Radiat Sci, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Lundman, Josef A.
    Umea Univ, Dept Radiat Sci, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Karlsson, Camilla Thellenberg
    Umea Univ, Dept Radiat Sci, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Jonsson, Joakim H.
    Umea Univ, Dept Radiat Sci, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Nyholm, Tufve
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science. Umea Univ, Dept Radiat Sci, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden.
    Quantifying the Effect of 3T Magnetic Resonance Imaging Residual System Distortions and Patient-Induced Susceptibility Distortions on Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning for Prostate Cancer2018In: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics, ISSN 0360-3016, E-ISSN 1879-355X, Vol. 100, no 2, p. 317-324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of magnetic resonance system-and patient-induced susceptibility distortions from a 3T scanner on dose distributions for prostate cancers.

    Methods and Materials: Combined displacement fields from the residual system and patient-induced susceptibility distortions were used to distort 17 prostate patient CT images. VMAT dose plans were initially optimized on distorted CT images and the plan parameters transferred to the original patient CT images to calculate a new dose distribution.

    Results: Maximum residual mean distortions of 3.19 mm at a radial distance of 25 cm and maximum mean patient-induced susceptibility shifts of 5.8 mm were found using the lowest bandwidth of 122 Hz per pixel. There was a dose difference of <0.5% between distorted and undistorted treatment plans. The 90% confidence intervals of the mean difference between the dCT and CT treatment plans were all within an equivalence interval of (-0.5, 0.5) for all investigated plan quality measures.

    Conclusions: Patient-induced susceptibility distortions at high field strengths in closed bore magnetic resonance scanners are larger than residual system distortions after using vendor-supplied 3-dimensional correction for the delineated regions studied. However, errors in dose due to disturbed patient outline and shifts caused by patient-induced susceptibility effects are below 0.5%.

  • 14.
    Adrian-Martinez, S.
    et al.
    Univ Politecn Valencia, Inst Invest Gestio Integrada Zones Costaneres IGI, C Paranimf 1, E-46730 Gandia, Spain..
    Albert, A.
    Univ Haute Alsace, GRPHE, Inst Univ Technol Colmar, 34 Rue Grillenbreit BP, F-50568 Colmar, France..
    Andre, M.
    Tech Univ Catalonia, Lab Appl Bioacoust, E-08800 Barcelona, Spain..
    Anton, G.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Ardid, M.
    Univ Politecn Valencia, Inst Invest Gestio Integrada Zones Costaneres IGI, C Paranimf 1, E-46730 Gandia, Spain..
    Aubert, J. -J
    Baret, B.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,CEA IRFU,APC, F-75205 Paris, France..
    Barrios-Marti, J.
    Univ Valencia, CSIC, IFIC Inst Fis Corpuscular, Edificios Invest Paterna, Apdo Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia, Spain..
    Basa, S.
    LAM Lab Astrophys Marseille, Pole Etoile Site Chateau Gombert, Rue Frederic Joliot Curie 38, F-13388 Marseille, France..
    Bertin, V.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, F-13288 Marseille, France..
    Biagi, S.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Lab Nazl Sud, Via S Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Bormuth, R.
    Nikhef, Sci Pk, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Leiden Univ, Huygens Kamerlingh Onnes Lab, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Bouwhuis, M. C.
    Nikhef, Sci Pk, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Bruijn, R.
    Nikhef, Sci Pk, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Amsterdam, Inst Hoge Energie Fys, Sci Pk 105, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Brunner, J.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, F-13288 Marseille, France..
    Busto, J.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, F-13288 Marseille, France..
    Capone, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma, Ple Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Rome, Italy.;Univ Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento Fis, Ple Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Rome, Italy..
    Caramete, L.
    Inst Space Sci, RO-077125 Bucharest, Magurele, Romania..
    Carr, J.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, F-13288 Marseille, France..
    Chiarusi, T.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6-2, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Circella, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bari, Via E Orabona 4, I-70126 Bari, Italy..
    Coniglione, R.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Lab Nazl Sud, Via S Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Costantini, H.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, F-13288 Marseille, France..
    Coyle, P.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, F-13288 Marseille, France..
    Creusot, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,CEA IRFU,APC, F-75205 Paris, France..
    Dekeyser, I.
    Aix Marseille Univ, Mediterranean Inst Oceanog, F-13288 Marseille 9, France.;Univ Sud Toulon Var, CNRS INSU IRD 110, F-83957 La Garde, France..
    Deschamps, A.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Geoazur, CNRS, Observ Cote Azur,IRD, Sophia Antipolis, France..
    De Bonis, G.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma, Ple Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Rome, Italy.;Univ Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento Fis, Ple Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Rome, Italy..
    Distefano, C.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Lab Nazl Sud, Via S Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Donzaud, C.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,CEA IRFU,APC, F-75205 Paris, France.;Univ Paris 11, F-91405 Orsay, France..
    Dornic, D.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, F-13288 Marseille, France..
    Drouhin, D.
    Univ Haute Alsace, GRPHE, Inst Univ Technol Colmar, 34 Rue Grillenbreit BP, F-50568 Colmar, France..
    Dumas, A.
    Univ Clermont Ferrand, Univ Blaise Pascal, CNRS, Phys Corpusculaire Lab,IN2P3, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont Ferrand, France..
    Eberl, T.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Elsaesser, D.
    Univ Wurzburg, Inst Theoret Phys & Astrophys, Emil Fischer Str 31, D-97074 Wrzburg, Germany..
    Enzenhoefer, A.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Fehn, K.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Felis, I.
    Univ Politecn Valencia, Inst Invest Gestio Integrada Zones Costaneres IGI, C Paranimf 1, E-46730 Gandia, Spain..
    Fermani, P.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma, Ple Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Rome, Italy.;Univ Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento Fis, Ple Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Rome, Italy..
    Folger, F.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Fusco, L. A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6-2, I-40127 Bologna, Italy.;Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Viale Berti Pichat 6-2, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Galata, S.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,CEA IRFU,APC, F-75205 Paris, France..
    Gay, P.
    Univ Clermont Ferrand, Univ Blaise Pascal, CNRS, Phys Corpusculaire Lab,IN2P3, BP 10448, F-63000 Clermont Ferrand, France..
    Geisselsoeder, S.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Geyer, K.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Giordano, V.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, I-95125 Catania, Italy..
    Gleixner, A.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Gracia-Ruiz, R.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,CEA IRFU,APC, F-75205 Paris, France..
    Graf, K.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Hallmann, S.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    van Haren, H.
    Royal Netherlands Inst Sea Res NIOZ, Landsdiep 4, NL-1797 SZ Texel, Netherlands..
    Heijboer, A. J.
    Nikhef, Sci Pk, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Hello, Y.
    Univ Nice Sophia Antipolis, Geoazur, CNRS, Observ Cote Azur,IRD, Sophia Antipolis, France..
    Hernandez-Rey, J. J.
    Univ Valencia, CSIC, IFIC Inst Fis Corpuscular, Edificios Invest Paterna, Apdo Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia, Spain..
    Hoessl, J.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Hofestaedt, J.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Hugon, C.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genoa, Italy.;Univ Genoa, Dipartimento Fis, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genoa, Italy..
    James, C. W.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    de Jong, M.
    Nikhef, Sci Pk, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Leiden Univ, Huygens Kamerlingh Onnes Lab, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Kadler, M.
    Univ Wurzburg, Inst Theoret Phys & Astrophys, Emil Fischer Str 31, D-97074 Wrzburg, Germany..
    Kalekin, O.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Katz, U.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kiessling, D.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Kooijman, P.
    Nikhef, Sci Pk, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Amsterdam, Inst Hoge Energie Fys, Sci Pk 105, NL-1098 XG Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Univ Utrecht, Fac Betawetenschappen, Princetonplein 5, NL-3584 CC Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Kouchner, A.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,CEA IRFU,APC, F-75205 Paris, France..
    Kreter, M.
    Univ Wurzburg, Inst Theoret Phys & Astrophys, Emil Fischer Str 31, D-97074 Wrzburg, Germany..
    Kreykenbohm, I.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Dr Remeis Sternwarte, Sternwartstr 7, D-96049 Bamberg, Germany.;Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, ECAP, Sternwartstr 7, D-96049 Bamberg, Germany..
    Kulikovskiy, V.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Lab Nazl Sud, Via S Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania, Italy.;Moscow MV Lomonosov State Univ, Skobeltsyn Inst Nucl Phys, Moscow 119991, Russia..
    Lahmann, R.
    Lefevre, D.
    Aix Marseille Univ, Mediterranean Inst Oceanog, F-13288 Marseille 9, France.;Univ Sud Toulon Var, CNRS INSU IRD 110, F-83957 La Garde, France..
    Leonora, E.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Catania, Viale Andrea Doria 6, I-95125 Catania, Italy.;Univ Catania, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Viale Andrea Doria 6, I-95125 Catania, Italy..
    Loucatos, S.
    CEA Saclay, Serv Phys Particules, Inst Rech Fondament Univers, Direct Sci Matiere, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Marcelin, M.
    LAM Lab Astrophys Marseille, Pole Etoile Site Chateau Gombert, Rue Frederic Joliot Curie 38, F-13388 Marseille, France..
    Margiotta, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6-2, I-40127 Bologna, Italy.;Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Viale Berti Pichat 6-2, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Marinelli, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Pisa, Largo B Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa, Italy.;Univ Pisa, Dipartimento Fis, Largo B Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa, Italy..
    Martinez-Mora, J. A.
    Univ Politecn Valencia, Inst Invest Gestio Integrada Zones Costaneres IGI, C Paranimf 1, E-46730 Gandia, Spain..
    Mathieu, A.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, F-13288 Marseille, France..
    Michael, T.
    Nikhef, Sci Pk, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Migliozzi, P.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Naples, Italy..
    Moussa, A.
    Univ Mohammed 1, Lab Phys Matter & Radiat, BP 717, Oujda 6000, Morocco..
    Mueller, C.
    Univ Wurzburg, Inst Theoret Phys & Astrophys, Emil Fischer Str 31, D-97074 Wrzburg, Germany..
    Nezri, E.
    LAM Lab Astrophys Marseille, Pole Etoile Site Chateau Gombert, Rue Frederic Joliot Curie 38, F-13388 Marseille, France..
    Pavalas, G. E.
    Inst Space Sci, RO-077125 Bucharest, Magurele, Romania..
    Pellegrino, C.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6-2, I-40127 Bologna, Italy.;Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Viale Berti Pichat 6-2, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Perrina, C.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Roma, Ple Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Rome, Italy.;Univ Roma La Sapienza, Dipartimento Fis, Ple Aldo Moro 2, I-00185 Rome, Italy..
    Piattelli, P.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Lab Nazl Sud, Via S Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Popa, V.
    Inst Space Sci, RO-077125 Bucharest, Magurele, Romania..
    Pradier, T.
    Univ Strasbourg, IPHC, 23 Rue Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg, France.;CNRS, UMR7178, F-67037 Strasbourg, France..
    Racca, C.
    Univ Haute Alsace, GRPHE, Inst Univ Technol Colmar, 34 Rue Grillenbreit BP, F-50568 Colmar, France..
    Riccobene, G.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Lab Nazl Sud, Via S Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Richter, R.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Roensch, K.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Saldana, M.
    Univ Politecn Valencia, Inst Invest Gestio Integrada Zones Costaneres IGI, C Paranimf 1, E-46730 Gandia, Spain..
    Samtleben, D. F. E.
    Nikhef, Sci Pk, Amsterdam, Netherlands.;Leiden Univ, Huygens Kamerlingh Onnes Lab, NL-2300 RA Leiden, Netherlands..
    Sanchez-Losa, A.
    Univ Valencia, CSIC, IFIC Inst Fis Corpuscular, Edificios Invest Paterna, Apdo Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia, Spain..
    Sanguineti, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genoa, Italy.;Univ Genoa, Dipartimento Fis, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genoa, Italy..
    Sapienza, P.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Lab Nazl Sud, Via S Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Schmid, J.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Schnabel, J.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Schussler, F.
    CEA Saclay, Serv Phys Particules, Inst Rech Fondament Univers, Direct Sci Matiere, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Seitz, T.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Sieger, C.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Spurio, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6-2, I-40127 Bologna, Italy.;Univ Bologna, Dipartimento Fis & Astron, Viale Berti Pichat 6-2, I-40127 Bologna, Italy..
    Steijger, J. J. M.
    Nikhef, Sci Pk, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Stolarczyk, Th.
    CEA Saclay, Serv Phys Particules, Inst Rech Fondament Univers, Direct Sci Matiere, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Taiuti, M.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genoa, Italy.;Univ Genoa, Dipartimento Fis, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genoa, Italy..
    Tamburini, C.
    Aix Marseille Univ, Mediterranean Inst Oceanog, F-13288 Marseille 9, France.;Univ Sud Toulon Var, CNRS INSU IRD 110, F-83957 La Garde, France..
    Trovato, A.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Lab Nazl Sud, Via S Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania, Italy..
    Tselengidou, M.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany.;Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Tonnis, C.
    Univ Valencia, CSIC, IFIC Inst Fis Corpuscular, Edificios Invest Paterna, Apdo Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia, Spain..
    Vallage, B.
    CEA Saclay, Serv Phys Particules, Inst Rech Fondament Univers, Direct Sci Matiere, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, France..
    Vallee, C.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, F-13288 Marseille, France..
    Van Elewyck, V.
    Univ Paris Diderot, CNRS, IN2P3, Observ Paris,Sorbonne Paris Cite,CEA IRFU,APC, F-75205 Paris, France..
    Visser, E.
    Nikhef, Sci Pk, Amsterdam, Netherlands..
    Vivolo, D.
    Ist Nazl Fis Nucl, Sez Napoli, Via Cintia, I-80126 Naples, Italy.;Univ Naples Federico II, Dipartimento Fis, Via Cintia, I-80126 Naples, Italy..
    Wagner, S.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, Erwin Rommel Str 1, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Wilms, J.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Dr Remeis Sternwarte, Sternwartstr 7, D-96049 Bamberg, Germany.;Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, ECAP, Sternwartstr 7, D-96049 Bamberg, Germany..
    Zornoza, J. D.
    Univ Valencia, CSIC, IFIC Inst Fis Corpuscular, Edificios Invest Paterna, Apdo Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia, Spain..
    Zuniga, J.
    Univ Valencia, CSIC, IFIC Inst Fis Corpuscular, Edificios Invest Paterna, Apdo Correos 22085, E-46071 Valencia, Spain..
    Aartsen, M. G.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Abraham, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Ackermann, M.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Adams, J.
    Univ Canterbury, Dept Phys & Astron, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch, New Zealand..
    Aguilar, J. A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Ahlers, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Ahrens, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Altmann, D.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Anderson, T.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Ansseau, I.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Archinger, M.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Arguelles, C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Arlen, T. C.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Auffenberg, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Bai, X.
    South Dakota Sch Mines & Technol, Dept Phys, Rapid City, SD 57701 USA..
    Barwick, S. W.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Baum, V.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Bay, R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Beatty, J. J.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Becker, K. -H
    Beiser, E.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Berghaus, P.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Berley, D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Bernardini, E.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany.;DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Bernhard, A.
    Besson, D. Z.
    Univ Kansas, Dept Phys & Astron, Lawrence, KS 66045 USA..
    Binder, G.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Bindig, D.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Bissok, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Blaufuss, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Blumenthal, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Boersma, David J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Bohm, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Boerner, M.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Bos, F.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Bose, D.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
    Boeser, S.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Botner, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Braun, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Brayeur, L.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Bretz, H. -P
    Buzinsky, N.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Casey, J.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Casier, M.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Cheung, E.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Chirkin, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Christov, A.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Clark, K.
    Univ Toronto, Dept Phys, 60 St George St, Toronto, ON M5S 1A7, Canada..
    Classen, L.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Coenders, S.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Cowen, D. F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA.;Penn State Univ, Dept Astron & Astrophys, 525 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Silva, A. H. Cruz
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Daughhetee, J.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Davis, J. C.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Day, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    de Andre, J. P. A. M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    De Clercq, C.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Rosendo, E. del Pino
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Dembinski, H.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    De Ridder, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Desiati, P.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    de Vries, K. D.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    de Wasseige, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    de With, M.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    De Young, T.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Diaz-Velez, J. C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    di Lorenzo, V.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Dumm, J. P.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Dunkman, M.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Eberhardt, B.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Ehrhardt, T.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Eichmann, B.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Euler, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Evenson, P. A.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Fahey, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Fazely, A. R.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Feintzeig, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Felde, J.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Filimonov, K.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Finley, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fischer-Wasels, T.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Flis, S.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Foesig, C. -C
    Fuchs, T.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Gaisser, T. K.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Gaior, R.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Gallagher, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Astron, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Gerhardt, L.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Ghorbani, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Gier, D.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Gladstone, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Glagla, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Gluesenkamp, T.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Goldschmidt, A.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Golup, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Gonzalez, J. G.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Gora, D.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Grant, D.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Griffith, Z.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Gross, A.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Ha, C.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Haack, C.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Ismail, A. Haj
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Halzen, F.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Hansen, E.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Hansmann, B.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Hanson, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Hebecker, D.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Heereman, D.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Helbing, K.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Hellauer, R.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hickford, S.
    Hignight, J.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Hill, G. C.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Hoffman, K. D.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hoffmann, R.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Holzapfel, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Homeier, A.
    Univ Bonn, Inst Phys, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany..
    Hoshina, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Tokyo, Earthquake Res Inst, Bunkyo Ku, Tokyo 1130032, Japan..
    Huang, F.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Huber, M.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Huelsnitz, W.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Hulth, P. O.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hultqvist, K.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    In, S.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
    Ishihara, A.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Jacobi, E.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Japaridze, G. S.
    Clark Atlanta Univ, CTSPS, Atlanta, GA 30314 USA..
    Jeong, M.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
    Jero, K.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Jurkovic, M.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Kappes, A.
    Univ Erlangen Nurnberg, Erlangen Ctr Astroparticle Phys, D-91058 Erlangen, Germany..
    Karg, T.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Karle, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Kauer, M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Yale Univ, Dept Phys, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Keivani, A.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Kelley, J. L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Kemp, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Kheirandish, A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Kiryluk, J.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Klaes, J.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Klein, S. R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Kohnen, G.
    Univ Mons, B-7000 Mons, Belgium..
    Koirala, R.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Kolanoski, H.
    Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Konietz, R.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Koepke, L.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Kopper, C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Kopper, S.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Koskinen, D. J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Kowalski, M.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany.;Humboldt Univ, Inst Phys, D-12489 Berlin, Germany..
    Krings, K.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Kroll, G.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Kroll, M.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Krueckl, G.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Kunnen, J.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Kurahashi, N.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Kuwabara, T.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Labare, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Lanfranchi, J. L.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Larson, M. J.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Lesiak-Bzdak, M.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Leuermann, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Leuner, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Lu, L.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Lunemann, J.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Madsen, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Maggi, G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Mahn, K. B. M.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Mandelartz, M.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Maruyama, R.
    Yale Univ, Dept Phys, New Haven, CT 06520 USA..
    Mase, K.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Matis, H. S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Maunu, R.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    McNally, F.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Meagher, K.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Medici, M.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Meli, A.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Menne, T.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Merino, G.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Meures, T.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Miarecki, S.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Middell, E.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Mohrmann, L.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Montaruli, T.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Morse, R.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Nahnhauer, R.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Naumann, U.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Neer, G.
    Michigan State Univ, Dept Phys & Astron, E Lansing, MI 48824 USA..
    Niederhausen, H.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Nowicki, S. C.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Nygren, D. R.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Pollmann, A. Obertacke
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Olivas, A.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Omairat, A.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    O'Murchadha, A.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Palczewski, T.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    Pandya, H.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Pankova, D. V.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Paul, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Pepper, J. A.
    Univ Alabama, Dept Phys & Astron, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 USA..
    de los Heros, Carlos Perez
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Pfendner, C.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Pieloth, D.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Pinat, E.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Posselt, J.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Price, P. B.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Przybylski, G. T.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Puetz, J.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Quinnan, M.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Raab, C.
    Univ Libre Bruxelles, Sci Fac CP230, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Raedel, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Rameez, M.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Rawlins, K.
    Univ Alaska Anchorage, Dept Phys & Astron, 3211 Providence Dr, Anchorage, AK 99508 USA..
    Reimann, R.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Relich, M.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Resconi, E.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Rhode, W.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Richman, M.
    Drexel Univ, Dept Phys, 3141 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Richter, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Riedel, B.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Robertson, S.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Rongen, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Rott, C.
    Sungkyunkwan Univ, Dept Phys, Suwon 440746, South Korea..
    Ruhe, T.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Ryckbosch, D.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Sabbatini, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Sander, H. -G
    Sandrock, A.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Sandroos, J.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Sarkar, S.
    Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100 Copenhagen, Denmark.;Univ Oxford, Dept Phys, 1 Keble Rd, Oxford OX1 3NP, England..
    Schatto, K.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Scheriau, F.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Schimp, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Schmidt, T.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Schmitz, M.
    Tech Univ Dortmund, Dept Phys, D-44221 Dortmund, Germany..
    Schoenen, S.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Schoeneberg, S.
    Ruhr Univ Bochum, Fak Phys & Astron, D-44780 Bochum, Germany..
    Schoenwald, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Schulte, L.
    Univ Bonn, Inst Phys, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany..
    Schumacher, L.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Seckel, D.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Seunarine, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Soldin, D.
    Univ Wuppertal, Dept Phys, D-42119 Wuppertal, Germany..
    Song, M.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Spiczak, G. M.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Spiering, C.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Stahlberg, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Stamatikos, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;NASA, Goddard Space Flight Ctr, Greenbelt, MD 20771 USA..
    Stanev, T.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Stasik, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Steuer, A.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Stezelberger, T.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Stokstad, R. G.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Lawrence Berkeley Natl Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Stoessl, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Ström, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Strotjohann, N. L.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Sullivan, G. W.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Sutherland, M.
    Ohio State Univ, Dept Astron, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Taavola, Henric
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Taboada, I.
    Georgia Inst Technol, Sch Phys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA.;Georgia Inst Technol, Ctr Relativist Astrophys, Atlanta, GA 30332 USA..
    Tatar, J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics. Ohio State Univ, Dept Phys, 174 W 18th Ave, Columbus, OH 43210 USA.;Ohio State Univ, Ctr Cosmol & Astroparticle Phys, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Ter-Antonyan, S.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Terliuk, A.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Tesic, G.
    Penn State Univ, Dept Phys, 104 Davey Lab, University Pk, PA 16802 USA..
    Tilav, S.
    Univ Delaware, Bartol Res Inst, Newark, DE 19716 USA.;Univ Delaware, Dept Phys & Astron, Newark, DE 19716 USA..
    Toale, P. A.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Tobin, M. N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Toscano, S.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Tosi, D.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Turcati, A.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Unger, Lisa E.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Usner, M.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Vallecorsa, S.
    Univ Geneva, Dept Phys Nucl & Corpusculaire, CH-1211 Geneva, Switzerland..
    Vandenbroucke, J.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    van Eijndhoven, N.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Dienst ELEM, B-1050 Brussels, Belgium..
    Vanheule, S.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    van Santen, J.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Veenkamp, J.
    Tech Univ Munich, D-85748 Garching, Germany..
    Vehring, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Voge, M.
    Univ Bonn, Inst Phys, Nussallee 12, D-53115 Bonn, Germany..
    Vraeghe, M.
    Univ Ghent, Dept Phys & Astron, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium..
    Walck, C.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wallace, A.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Wallraff, M.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Wandkowsky, N.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Weaver, Ch.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Wendt, C.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Westerhoff, S.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Whelan, B. J.
    Univ Adelaide, Dept Phys, Adelaide, SA 5005, Australia..
    Wiebe, K.
    Johannes Gutenberg Univ Mainz, Inst Phys, Staudinger Weg 7, D-55099 Mainz, Germany..
    Wiebusch, C. H.
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Inst Phys 3, D-52056 Aachen, Germany..
    Wille, L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Williams, D. R.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, River Falls, WI 54022 USA..
    Wissing, H.
    Univ Maryland, Dept Phys, College Pk, MD 20742 USA..
    Wolf, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wood, T. R.
    Univ Alberta, Dept Phys, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E1, Canada..
    Woschnagg, K.
    Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Xu, D. L.
    Univ Wisconsin, Dept Phys, 1150 Univ Ave, Madison, WI 53706 USA.;Univ Wisconsin, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophys Ctr, Madison, WI 53706 USA..
    Xu, X. W.
    Southern Univ, Dept Phys, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 USA..
    Xu, Y.
    SUNY Stony Brook, Dept Phys & Astron, Stony Brook, NY 11794 USA..
    Yanez, J. P.
    DESY, D-15735 Zeuthen, Germany..
    Yodh, G.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Phys & Astron, Irvine, CA 92697 USA..
    Yoshida, S.
    Chiba Univ, Dept Phys, Chiba 2638522, Japan..
    Zoll, M.
    Stockholm Univ, Oskar Klein Ctr, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Phys, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    The First Combined Search For Neutrino Point-Sources In The Southern Hemisphere With The Antares And Icecube Neutrino Telescopes2016In: Astrophysical Journal, ISSN 0004-637X, E-ISSN 1538-4357, Vol. 823, no 1, article id 65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the results of searches for point-like sources of neutrinos based on the first combined analysis of data from both the ANTARES and IceCube neutrino telescopes. The combination of both detectors, which differ in size and location, forms a window in the southern sky where the sensitivity to point sources improves by up to a factor of 2 compared with individual analyses. Using data recorded by ANTARES from 2007 to 2012, and by IceCube from 2008 to 2011, we search for sources of neutrino emission both across the southern sky and from a preselected list of candidate objects. No significant excess over background has been found in these searches, and flux upper limits for the candidate sources are presented for E-2.5 and E-2 power-law spectra with different energy cut-offs.

  • 15.
    Adrian-Martinez, S.
    et al.
    Univ Politecn Valencia, Inst Invest Gestio Integrada Zones Costaneres IGI, C Paranimf 1, Gandia 46730, Spain.
    Boersma, David J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Botner, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Euler, Sebastian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Hallgren, Allan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Perez de los Heros, Carlos
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ström, Rickard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Zweizig, J.
    CALTECH, LIGO, Pasadena, CA 91125 USA.
    High-energy neutrino follow-up search of gravitational wave event GW150914 with ANTARES and IceCube2016In: PHYSICAL REVIEW D, ISSN 2470-0010, Vol. 93, no 12, article id 122010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the high-energy-neutrino follow-up observations of the first gravitational wave transient GW150914 observed by the Advanced LIGO detectors on September 14, 2015. We search for coincident neutrino candidates within the data recorded by the IceCube and ANTARES neutrino detectors. A possible joint detection could be used in targeted electromagnetic follow-up observations, given the significantly better angular resolution of neutrino events compared to gravitational waves. We find no neutrino candidates in both temporal and spatial coincidence with the gravitational wave event. Within +/- 500 s of the gravitational wave event, the number of neutrino candidates detected by IceCube and ANTARES were three and zero, respectively. This is consistent with the expected atmospheric background, and none of the neutrino candidates were directionally coincident with GW150914. We use this nondetection to constrain neutrino emission from the gravitational-wave event.

  • 16.
    Ahlgren, Sara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Fondell, Amelie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    Gedda, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science. Swedish Radiat Safety Author, Res Unit, Solna Strandvag 96, SE-17116 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Edwards, Katarina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry.
    EGF-targeting lipodisks for specific delivery of poorly water-soluble anticancer agents to tumour cells2017In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 7, no 36, p. 22178-22186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns regarding poor aqueous solubility, high toxicity and lack of specificity impede the translation of many hydrophobic anticancer agents into safe and effective anticancer drugs. The application of colloidal drug delivery systems, and in particular the use of lipid-based nanocarriers, has been identified as a promising means to overcome these issues. PEG-stabilized lipid nanodisks (lipodisks) have lately emerged as a novel type of biocompatible, nontoxic and adaptable drug nanocarrier. In this study we have explored the potential of lipodisks as a platform for formulation and tumour targeted delivery of hydrophobic anticancer agents. Using curcumin as a model compound, we show that lipodisks can be loaded with substantial amounts of hydrophobic drugs (curcumin/lipid molar ratio 0.15). We demonstrate moreover that by deliberate choice of preparation protocols the lipodisks can be provided with relevant amounts of targeting proteins, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF). Data from in vitro cell studies verify that such EGF-decorated curcumin-loaded lipodisks are capable of EGF-receptor specific targeting of human A-431 tumour cells, and strongly suggest that the interaction between the lipodisks and the tumour cells results in receptor-mediated internalization of the disks and their cargo.

  • 17.
    Ahnesjö, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Patient Dose Computation2014In: Comprehensive Biomedical Physics: Volume 9: Radiation Therapy Physics and Treatment Optimization / [ed] Anders Brahme, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2014, p. 235-247Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various dose calculation methods have been proposed to serve the needs in treatment planning of radiotherapy. Common to these are that they need a patient model to describe the interaction properties of the irradiated tissues, and a sufficiently accurate description of the incident radiation. This chapter starts with a brief review of the contexts in which patient dose calculations may serve, followed by a description of common methods for patient modelling and beam characterization. The focus is on external beam photon, but also partly covers particle beams like electrons and protons. The last section describes common approaches of varying complexity for dose calculations ranging from simple factor based models, more elaborate pencil and point kernel models, and finally summarizes some aspects of Monte Carlo and grid based methods.

  • 18.
    Ahnesjö, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    van Veelen, Bob
    Elekta Brachytherapy, NL-3905 TH Veenendaal, Netherlands..
    Tedgren, Asa Carlsson
    Linkoping Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Med & Hlth Sci IMH, Radiat Phys, SE-58185 Linkoping, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Med Phys, Sect Radiotherapy Phys & Engn, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Collapsed cone dose calculations for heterogeneous tissues in brachytherapy using primary and scatter separation source data2017In: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, ISSN 0169-2607, E-ISSN 1872-7565, Vol. 139, p. 17-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objective: Brachytherapy is a form of radiation therapy using sealed radiation sources inserted within or in the vicinity of the tumor of, e.g., gynecological, prostate or head and neck cancers. Accurate dose calculation is a crucial part of the treatment planning. Several reviews have called for clinical software with model-based algorithms that better take into account the effects of patient individual distribution of tissues, source-channel and shielding attenuation than the commonly employed TG-43 formalism which simply map homogeneous water dose distributions onto the patient. In this paper we give a comprehensive and thorough derivation of such an algorithm based on collapsed cone point-kernel superposition, and describe details of its implementation into a commercial treatment planning system for clinical use. Methods: A brachytherapy version of the collapsed-cone algorithm using analytical raytraces of the primary photon radiation followed by successive scattering dose calculation for once and multiply scattered photons is described in detail, including derivation of the corresponding set of recursive equations for energy transport along cone axes/transport lines and the coupling to clinical source modeling. Specific implementation issues for setting up of the calculation grid, handling of intravoxel gradients and voxels partly containing non patient applicator material are given. Results: Sample runs for two clinical cases are shown, one being a gynecological application with a tungsten-shielded applicator and one a breast implant. These two cases demonstrate the impact of improved dose calculation versus TG-43 formalism. Conclusions: Use of model-based dose calculation algorithms for brachytherapy taking the three-dimensional treatment geometry into account increases the dosimetric accuracy in planning and follow up of treatments. The comprehensive description and derivations provided gives a rigid background for further clinical, educational and research applications.

  • 19.
    Alhuseinalkhudhur, Ali
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Lubberink, Mark
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Velikyan, Irina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preparative Medicinal Chemistry.
    Tolmachev, Vladimir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Frejd, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Feldwisch, Joachim
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Lindman, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Sörensen, Jens
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Kinetic Analysis of the HER2-binding ABY-025 Affibody Using Dynamic PET in Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer2018In: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, ISSN 1619-7070, E-ISSN 1619-7089, Vol. 45, p. S457-S457Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Almhagen, Erik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science. The Skandion Clinic, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Boersma, David J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science. ACMIT Gmbh, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt, Austria.
    Nyström, H.
    Skandion Clin, Uppsala, Sweden;DCPT, Aarhus, Denmark.
    Ahnesjö, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    A beam model for focused proton pencil beams2018In: Physica medica (Testo stampato), ISSN 1120-1797, E-ISSN 1724-191X, Vol. 52, p. 27-32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: We present a beam model for Monte Carlo simulations of the IBA pencil beam scanning dedicated nozzle installed at the Skandion Clinic. Within the nozzle, apart from entrance and exit windows and the two ion chambers, the beam traverses vacuum, allowing for a beam that is convergent downstream of the nozzle exit. Materials and methods: We model the angular, spatial and energy distributions of the beam phase space at the nozzle exit with single Gaussians, controlled by seven energy dependent parameters. The parameters were determined from measured profiles and depth dose distributions. Verification of the beam model was done by comparing measured and GATE acquired relative dose distributions, using plan specific log files from the machine to specify beam spot positions and energy. Results: GATE-based simulations with the acquired beam model could accurately reproduce the measured data. The gamma index analysis comparing simulated and measured dose distributions resulted in > 95% global gamma index pass rates (3%/2 mm) for all depths. Conclusion: The developed beam model was found to be sufficiently accurate for use with GATE e.g. for applications in quality assurance (QA) or patient motion studies with the IBA pencil beam scanning dedicated nozzles.

  • 21.
    Al-Ramadan, Afkar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Mortensen, Anja
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Carlsson, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Nestor, Marika V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Analysis of radiation effects in two irradiated tumor spheroid models2018In: Oncology Letters, ISSN 1792-1074, E-ISSN 1792-1082, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 3008-3016Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multicellular spheroids have proven suitable as three-dimensional in vivo-like models of non-vascularized micrometastases. Unlike monolayer-based models, spheroids mirror the cellular milieu and the pathophysiological gradients inside tumor nodules. However, there is limited knowledge of the radiation effects at the molecular level in spheroids of human origin. The present study is a presentation of selected cell biological processes that may easily be analyzed with methods available at routine pathology laboratories. Using gamma irradiated pancreatic neuroendocrine BON1 and colonic adenocarcinoma HCT116 spheroids as model systems, the present study assessed the radiobiological response in these models. Spheroid growth after irradiation was followed over time and molecular responses were subsequently assessed with immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining for descriptive analyses and semi-automatic grading of apoptosis, G(2)-phase and senescence in thin sections of the spheroids. Growth studies demonstrated the BON1 spheroids were slower growing and less sensitive to radiation compared with the HCT116 spheroids. IHC staining for G2-phase was primarily observed in the outer viable P-cell layers of the spheroids, with the 6 Gy irradiated HCT116 spheroids demonstrating a very clear increase in staining intensity compared with unirradiated spheroids. Apoptosis staining results indicated increased apoptosis with increasing radiation doses. No clear association between senescence and radiation exposure in the spheroids were observed. The present results demonstrate the feasibility of the use of multicellular spheroids of human origin in combination with IHC analyses to unravel radiobiological responses at a molecular level. The present findings inspire further investigations, including other relevant IHC-detectable molecular processes in time-and radiation dose-dependent settings.

  • 22.
    Altai, Mohamed
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Leitao, Charles Dahlsson
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Prot Sci, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rinne, Sara S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Theranostics.
    Vorobyeva, Anzhelika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Atterby, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Ståhl, Stefan
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Prot Sci, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tolmachev, Vladimir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Löfblom, John
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Prot Sci, Sch Engn Sci Chem Biotechnol & Hlth, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Orlova, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Theranostics. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Influence of Molecular Design on the Targeting Properties of ABD-Fused Mono- and Bi-Valent Anti-HER3 Affibody Therapeutic Constructs2018In: CELLS, ISSN 2073-4409, Vol. 7, no 10, article id 164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor type 3 (HER3) is associated with tumour cell resistance to HER-targeted therapies. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting HER3 are currently being investigated for treatment of various types of cancers. Cumulative evidence suggests that affibody molecules may be appropriate alternatives to mAbs. We previously reported a fusion construct (3A3) containing two HER3-targeting affibody molecules flanking an engineered albumin-binding domain (ABD 035) included for the extension of half-life in circulation. The 3A3 fusion protein (19.7 kDa) was shown to delay tumour growth in mice bearing HER3-expressing xenografts and was equipotent to the mAb seribantumab. Here, we have designed and explored a series of novel formats of anti-HER3 affibody molecules fused to the ABD in different orientations. All constructs inhibited heregulin-induced phosphorylation in HER3-expressing BxPC-3 and DU-145 cell lines. Biodistribution studies demonstrated extended the half-life of all ABD-fused constructs, although at different levels. The capacity of our ABD-fused proteins to accumulate in HER3-expressing tumours was demonstrated in nude mice bearing BxPC-3 xenografts. Formats where the ABD was located on the C-terminus of affibody binding domains (3A, 33A, and 3A3) provided the best tumour targeting properties in vivo. Further development of these promising candidates for treatment of HER3-overexpressing tumours is therefore justified.

  • 23.
    Altai, Mohamed
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Liu, H.
    KTH, Div Prot Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Orlova, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Molecular Imaging.
    Tolmachev, Vladimir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Gräslund, T.
    KTH, Div Prot Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Improving of molecular design of a novel Affibody-fused HER2-recognising anticancer toxin using radionuclide-based techniques2016In: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, ISSN 1619-7070, E-ISSN 1619-7089, Vol. 43, p. S178-S178Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Altai, Mohamed
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Liu, Hao
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Prot Sci, Roslagstullsbacken 21, S-11417 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ding, Haozhong
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Prot Sci, Roslagstullsbacken 21, S-11417 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mitran, Bogdan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Theranostics.
    Edqvist, Per-Henrik D
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Experimental and Clinical Oncology.
    Tolmachev, Vladimir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Orlova, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Gräslund, Torbjorn
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Dept Prot Sci, Roslagstullsbacken 21, S-11417 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Affibody-derived drug conjugates: Potent cytotoxic molecules for treatment of HER2 over-expressing tumors2018In: Journal of Controlled Release, ISSN 0168-3659, E-ISSN 1873-4995, Vol. 288, p. 84-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with HER2-positive tumors often suffer resistance to therapy, warranting development of novel treatment modalities. Affibody molecules are small affinity proteins which can be engineered to bind to desired targets. They have in recent years been found to allow precise targeting of cancer specific molecular signatures such as the HER2 receptor. In this study, we have investigated the potential of an affibody molecule targeting HER2, Z(HER2:2891), conjugated with the cytotoxic maytansine derivate MC-DM1, for targeted cancer therapy. Z(HER2:2891) was expressed as a monomer (Z(HER2:2891)), dimer ((Z(HER2:2891)) 2) and dimer with an albumin binding domain (ABD) for half-life extension ((Z(HER2:2891)) 2-ABD). All proteins had a unique C-terminal cysteine that could be used for efficient and site-specific conjugation with MC-DM1. The resulting affibody drug conjugates were potent cytotoxic molecules for human cells over-expressing HER2, with sub-nanomolar IC50-values similar to trastuzumab emtansine, and did not affect cells with low HER2 expression. A biodistribution study of a radiolabeled version of (Z(HER2:2891))(2)-ABD-MC-DM1, showed that it was taken up by the tumor. The major site of off-target uptake was the kidneys and to some extent the liver. (Z(HER2:2891)) 2-ABD-MC-DM1 was found to have a half-life in circulation of 14 h. The compound was tolerated well by mice at 8.5 mg/kg and was shown to extend survival of mice bearing HER2 over-expressing tumors. The findings in this study show that affibody molecules are a promising class of engineered affinity proteins to specifically deliver small molecular drugs to cancer cells and that such conjugates are potential candidates for clinical evaluation on HER2-overexpressing cancers.

  • 25.
    Altai, Mohamed
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Liu, Hao
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Biotechnol, Div Prot Technol, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Orlova, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Molecular Imaging.
    Tolmachev, Vladimir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Gräslund, Torbjörn
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Biotechnol, Div Prot Technol, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Influence of molecular design on biodistribution and targeting properties of an Affibody-fused HER2-recognising anticancer toxin2016In: International Journal of Oncology, ISSN 1019-6439, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 1185-1194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Targeted delivery of toxins is a promising way to treat disseminated cancer. The use of monoclonal antibodies as targeting moiety has provided proof-of-principle for this approach. However, extravasation and tissue penetration rates of antibody-based immunotoxins are limited due to antibody bulkiness. The use of a novel class of targeting probes, Affibody molecules, provides smaller toxin-conjugated constructs, which may improve targeting. Earlier, we have demonstrated that affitoxins containing a HER2-targeting Affibody moiety and a deimmunized and truncated exotoxin A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, PE38X8, provide highly selective toxicity to HER2-expressing cancer cells. To evaluate the influence of molecular design on targeting and biodistribution properties, a series of novel affitoxins were labelled with the residualizing radionuclide 111In. In this study, we have shown that the novel conjugates are more rapidly internalized compared with the parental affitoxin. The use of a (HE)3 purification tag instead of a hexahistidine tag enabled significant (p<0.05) reduction of the hepatic uptake of the affitoxin in a murine model. Fusion of the affitoxin with an albumin-binding domain (ABD) caused appreciable extension of the residence time in circulation and several-fold reduction of the renal uptake. The best variant, 111In-(HE)3-ZHER2-ABD-PE38X8, demonstrated receptor-specific accumulation in HER2-expressing SKOV-3 xenografts. In conclusion, a careful molecular design of scaffold protein based anticancer targeted toxins can appreciably improve their biodistribution and targeting properties.

  • 26.
    Altai, Mohamed
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Membreno, Rosemery
    CUNY Hunter Coll, Dept Chem, New York, NY 10021 USA.;CUNY, Grad Ctr, PhD Program Chem, New York, NY USA.;Mem Sloan Kettering Canc Ctr, Dept Radiol, 1275 York Ave, New York, NY 10021 USA..
    Cook, Brendon
    CUNY Hunter Coll, Dept Chem, New York, NY 10021 USA.;CUNY, Grad Ctr, PhD Program Chem, New York, NY USA.;Mem Sloan Kettering Canc Ctr, Dept Radiol, 1275 York Ave, New York, NY 10021 USA..
    Tolmachev, Vladimir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Zeglis, Brian M.
    CUNY Hunter Coll, Dept Chem, New York, NY 10021 USA.;CUNY, Grad Ctr, PhD Program Chem, New York, NY USA.;Mem Sloan Kettering Canc Ctr, Dept Radiol, 1275 York Ave, New York, NY 10021 USA..
    Pretargeted Imaging and Therapy2017In: Journal of Nuclear Medicine, ISSN 0161-5505, E-ISSN 1535-5667, Vol. 58, no 10, p. 1553-1559Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In vivo pretargeting stands as a promising approach to harnessing the exquisite tumor-targeting properties of antibodies for nuclear imaging and therapy while simultaneously skirting their pharmacokinetic limitations. The core premise of pretargeting lies in administering the targeting vector and radioisotope separately and having the 2 components combine within the body. In this manner, pretargeting strategies decrease the circulation time of the radioactivity, reduce the uptake of the radionuclide in healthy nontarget tissues, and facilitate the use of short-lived radionuclides that would otherwise be incompatible with antibody-based vectors. In this short review, we seek to provide a brief yet informative survey of the 4 preeminent mechanistic approaches to pretargeting, strategies predicated on streptavidin and biotin, bispecific antibodies, complementary oligonucleotides, and bioorthogonal click chemistry.

  • 27.
    Altai, Mohamed
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Perols, Anna
    Tsourma, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Mitran, Bogdan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preclinical PET Platform.
    Honarvar, Hadis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Robillard, Marc
    Rossin, Raffaella
    Ten Hoeve, Wolter
    Lubberink, Mark
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Orlova, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preclinical PET Platform.
    Eriksson Karlström, Amelie
    Tolmachev, Vladimir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Feasibility of affibody-based bioorthogonal chemistry-mediated radionuclide pretargeting2016In: Journal of Nuclear Medicine, ISSN 0161-5505, E-ISSN 1535-5667, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 431-436Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Affibody molecules constitute a new class of probes for radionuclide tumor targeting. The small size of affibody molecules is favorable for rapid localization in tumors and clearance from circulation. However, high renal re-absorption of affibody molecules prevents the use of residualizing radiometals, including a number of promising low energy beta- and alpha-emitters, for radionuclide therapy. We tested a hypothesis that affibody-based pretargeting mediated by a bioorthogonal interaction between trans-cyclooctene (TCO) and tetrazine would provide higher accumulation of radiometals in tumor xenografts than in the kidneys.

    Methods:

    TCO was conjugated to the anti-HER2 affibody molecule Z2395. DOTA-tetrazine was labeled with indium-111 and lutetium-177. In vitro pretargeting was studied in HER2-expressing SKOV-3 and BT474 cell lines. In vivo studies were performed on BALB/C nu/nu mice bearing SKOV-3 xenografts.

    Results:

    125I-Z2395-TCO bound specifically to HER2-expressing cells in vitro with an affinity of 45±16 pM. 111In-tetrazine bound specifically and selectively to Z2395-TCO pre-treated cells. In vivo studies demonstrated HER2-specific 125I-Z2395-TCO accumulation in xenografts. TCO-mediated 111In-tetrazine localization was shown in tumors, when the radiolabeled tracer was injected 4 h after an injection of Z2395-TCO. At 1 h post injection, the tumor uptake of 111In-tetrazine and 177Lu-tetrazine was ca. 2-fold higher than the renal uptake. Pretargeting provided more than a 56-fold reduction of renal uptake of 111In in comparison with direct targeting.

    Conclusion:

    The feasibility of affibody-based bioorthogonal chemistry-mediated pretargeting was demonstrated. The use of pretargeting provides a substantial reduction of radiometal accumulation in kidneys, creating preconditions for palliative radionuclide therapy.

  • 28.
    Altai, Mohamed
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Tsourma, M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Dept Immunol Genet & Pathol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Mitran, Bogdan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preclinical PET Platform. Preclin PET Platform, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Honarvar, Hadis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science. Dept Immunol Genet & Pathol, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Perols, A.
    KTH, Div Prot Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Robillard, M.
    Tagworks Pharmaceut, Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    Rossin, R.
    Tagworks Pharmaceut, Eindhoven, Netherlands..
    ten Hoeve, W.
    Syncom BV, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Sandström, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Radiology.
    Orlova, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preclinical PET Platform. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Karlstrom, A. Eriksson
    KTH, Div Prot Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tolmachev, Vladimir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Affibody-based bioorthogonal chemistry-mediated radionuclide pretargeting: proof-of-principle2015In: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, ISSN 1619-7070, E-ISSN 1619-7089, Vol. 42, no S1, p. S246-S246Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Altai, Mohamed
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Westerlund, K.
    KTH, Div Prot Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Velletta, J.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Honarvar, Hadis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Orlova, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Eriksson-Karlström, A.
    KTH, Div Prot Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Tolmachev, Vladimir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Comparative evaluation of Lu-177-HP2 and In-111-HP2, secondary agents for affibody-based PNA-mediated radionuclide pretargeting2016In: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, ISSN 1619-7070, E-ISSN 1619-7089, Vol. 43, p. S237-S237Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Altai, Mohamed
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Westerlund, Kristina
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Div Prot Technol, Sch Biotechnol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Velletta, Justin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Mitran, Bogdan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry.
    Honarvar, Hadis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Eriksson Karlström, Amelie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Evaluation of affibody molecule-based PNA-mediated radionuclide pretargeting: Development of an optimized conjugation protocol and 177Lu labeling2017In: Nuclear Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0969-8051, E-ISSN 1872-9614, Vol. 54, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: We have previously developed a pretargeting approach for affibody-mediated cancer therapy based on PNA-PNA hybridization. In this article we have further developed this approach by optimizing the production of the primary agent, Z(HER2.342)-SR-HP1, and labeling the secondary agent, HP2, with the therapeutic radionuclide Lu-177. We also studied the biodistribution profile of Lu-177-HP2 in mice, and evaluated pretargeting with Lu-177-HP2 in vitro and in vivo.

    Methods: The biodistribution profile of Lu-177-HP2 was evaluated in NMRI mice and compared to the previously studied In-111-HP2. Pretargeting using Lu-177-HP2 was studied in vitro using the HER2-expressing cell lines BT-474 and SKOV-3, and in vivo in mice bearing SKOV-3 xenografts.

    Results and conclusion: Using an optimized production protocol for Z(HER2:342)-SR-HP1 the ligation time was reduced from 15 h to 30 min, and the yield increased from 45% to 70%. Lu-177-labeled HP2 binds specifically in vitro to BT474 and SKOV-3 cells pre-treated with Z(HER2:342)-SR-HP1.Lu-177-HP2 was shown to have a more rapid blood clearance compared to In-111-HP2 in NMRI mice, and the measured radioactivity in blood was 0.22 +/- 0.1 and 0.68 +/- 0.07%ID/g for Lu-177- and In-111-HP2, respectively, at 1 h p.i. In contrast, no significant difference in kidney uptake was observed (4.47 +/- 1.17 and 3.94 +/- 0.58%ID/g for Lu-177- and In-111-HP2, respectively, at I h p.i.). Co-injection with either Gelofusine or lysine significantly reduced the kidney uptake for Lu-177-HP2 (1.0 +/- 0.1 and 1.6 +/- 0.2, respectively, vs. 2.97 +/- 0.87%ID/g in controls at 4 h p.i.). Lu-177-HP2 accumulated in SKOV-3 xenografts in BALB/C nu/nu mice when administered after injection of Z(HER2:342)-SR-HP1. Without pre-injection of Z(HER2:342)-SR-HP1, the uptake of Lu-177-HP2 was about 90-fold lower in tumor (0.23 +/- 0.08 vs. 20.7 +/- 3.5%ID/g). The tumor-to-kidney radioactivity accumulation ratio was almost 5-fold higher in the group of mice pre-injected with Z(HER2:342)-SR-HP1. In conclusion, (177)LuHP2 was shown to be a promising secondary agent for affibody-mediated tumor pretargeting in vivo.

  • 31.
    Andersson, Karin M.
    et al.
    Skand Clin, Uppsala, Sweden; Örebro Univ, Sch Hlth & Med Sci, Örebro, Sweden.
    Dahlgren, Christina Vallhagen
    Skand Clin, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Reizenstein, Johan
    Örebro Univ, Fac Med & Hlth, Dept Oncol, Örebro, Sweden.
    Cao, Yang
    Örebro Univ, Sch Med Sci, Clin Epidemiol & Biostat, Örebro, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, Unit Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ahnesjö, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Thunberg, Per
    Örebro Univ, Fac Med & Hlth, Dept Med Phys, Örebro, Sweden.
    Evaluation of two commercial CT metal artifact reduction algorithms for use in proton radiotherapy treatment planning in the head and neck area2018In: Medical physics (Lancaster), ISSN 0094-2405, Vol. 45, no 10, p. 4329-4344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To evaluate two commercial CT metal artifact reduction (MAR) algorithms for use in proton treatment planning in the head and neck (H&N) area.

    Methods: An anthropomorphic head phantom with removable metallic implants (dental fillings or neck implant) was CT-scanned to evaluate the O-MAR (Philips) and the iMAR (Siemens) algorithms. Reference images were acquired without any metallic implants in place. Water equivalent thickness (WET) was calculated for different path directions and compared between image sets. Images were also evaluated for use in proton treatment planning for parotid, tonsil, tongue base, and neck node targets. The beams were arranged so as to not traverse any metal prior to the target, enabling evaluation of the impact on dose calculation accuracy from artifacts surrounding the metal volume. Plans were compared based on analysis (1 mm distance-to-agreement/1% difference in local dose) and dose volume histogram metrics for targets and organs at risk (OARs). Visual grading evaluation of 30 dental implant patient MAR images was performed by three radiation oncologists.

    Results: In the dental fillings images, WET along a low-density streak was reduced from -17.0 to -4.3 mm with O-MAR and from -16.1 mm to -2.3 mm with iMAR, while for other directions the deviations were increased or approximately unchanged when the MAR algorithms were used. For the neck implant images, WET was generally reduced with MAR but residual deviations remained (of up to -2.3 mm with O-MAR and of up to -1.5 mm with iMAR). The analysis comparing proton dose distributions for uncorrected/MAR plans and corresponding reference plans showed passing rates >98% of the voxels for all phantom plans. However, substantial dose differences were seen in areas of most severe artifacts ( passing rates of down to 89% for some cases). MAR reduced the deviations in some cases, but not for all plans. For a single patient case dosimetrically evaluated, minor dose differences were seen between the uncorrected and MAR plans ( passing rate approximately 97%). The visual grading of patient images showed that MAR significantly improved image quality (P < 0.001).

    Conclusions: O-MAR and iMAR significantly improved image quality in terms of anatomical visualization for target and OAR delineation in dental implant patient images. WET calculations along several directions, all outside the metallic regions, showed that both uncorrected and MAR images contained metal artifacts which could potentially lead to unacceptable errors in proton treatment planning. WET was reduced by MAR in some areas, while increased or unchanged deviations were seen for other path directions. The proton treatment plans created for the phantom images showed overall acceptable dose distributions differences when compared to the reference cases, both for the uncorrected and MAR images. However, substantial dose distribution differences in the areas of most severe artifacts were seen for some plans, which were reduced by MAR in some cases but not all. In conclusion, MAR could be beneficial to use for proton treatment planning; however, case-by-case evaluations of the metal artifact-degraded images are always recommended.

  • 32.
    Andersson, Ken G.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Div Prot Technol, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Oroujeni, Maryam
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Garousi, Javad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Mitran, Bogdan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Molecular Imaging.
    Ståhl, Stefan
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Div Prot Technol, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Orlova, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Molecular Imaging.
    Löfblom, John
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Div Prot Technol, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Tolmachev, Vladimir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Feasibility of imaging of epidermal growth factor receptor expression with ZEGFR: 2377 affibody molecule labeled with 99mTc using a peptide-based cysteine-containing chelator2016In: International journal of oncology, ISSN 1791-2423, Vol. 49, no 6, p. 2285-2293Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in a number of malignant tumors and is a molecular target for several specific anticancer antibodies and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. The overexpression of EGFR is a predictive biomarker for response to several therapy regimens. Radionuclide molecular imaging might enable detection of EGFR overexpression by a non-invasive procedure and could be used repeatedly. Affibody molecules are engineered scaffold proteins, which could be selected to have a high affinity and selectivity to predetermined targets. The anti-EGFR ZEGFR:2377 affibody molecule is a potential imaging probe for EGFR detection. The use of the generator-produced radionuclide 99mTc should facilitate clinical translation of an imaging probe due to its low price, availability and favorable dosimetry of the radionuclide. In the present study, we evaluated feasibility of ZEGFR:2377 labeling with 99mTc using a peptide-based cysteine-containing chelator expressed at the C-terminus of ZEGFR:2377. The label was stable in vitro under cysteine challenge. In addition, 99mTc-ZEGFR:2377 was capable of specific binding to EGFR-expressing cells with high affinity (274 pM). Studies in BALB/C nu/nu mice bearing A431 xenografts demonstrated that 99mTc-ZEGFR:2377 accumulates in tumors in an EGFR-specific manner. The tumor uptake values were 3.6±1 and 2.5±0.4% ID/g at 3 and 24 h after injection, respectively. The corresponding tumor-to-blood ratios were 1.8±0.4 and 8±3. The xenografts were clearly visualized at both time-points. This study demonstrated the potential of 99mTc-labeled ZEGFR:2377 for imaging of EGFR in vivo.

  • 33. Andersson, Ken G.
    et al.
    Rosestedt, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preclinical PET Platform.
    Varasteh, Zohreh
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preclinical PET Platform.
    Malm, Magdalena
    Sandström, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Section of Nuclear Medicine and PET.
    Tolmachev, Vladimir
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Lofblom, John
    Stahl, Stefan
    Orlova, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preclinical PET Platform. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medical Radiation Science.
    Comparative evaluation of 111In-labeled NOTA‑conjugated affibody molecules for visualization of HER3 expression in malignant tumors2015In: Oncology Reports, ISSN 1021-335X, E-ISSN 1791-2431, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 1042-1048Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor type 3 (HER3) in malignant tumors has been associated with resistance to a variety of anticancer therapies. Several anti-HER3 monoclonal antibodies are currently under pre-clinical and clinical development aiming to overcome HER3-mediated resistance. Radionuclide molecular imaging of HER3 expression may improve treatment by allowing the selection of suitable patients for HER3-targeted therapy. Affibody molecules are a class of small (7 kDa) high-affinity targeting proteins with appreciable potential as molecular imaging probes. In a recent study, we selected affibody molecules with affinity to HER3 at a low picomolar range. The aim of the present study was to develop an anti-HER3 affibody molecule suitable for labeling with radiometals. The HEHEHE-Z08698-NOTA and HEHEHE-Z08699-NOTA HER3-specific affibody molecules were labeled with indium-111 (In-111) and assessed in vitro and in vivo for imaging properties using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Labeling of HEHEHE-Z08698-NOTA and HEHEHE-Z08699-NOTA with In-111 provided stable conjugates. In vitro cell tests demonstrated specific binding of the two conjugates to HER3-expressing BT-474 breast carcinoma cells. In mice bearing BT-474 xenografts, the tumor uptake of the two conjugates was receptor-specific. Direct in vivo comparison of In-111-HEHEHE-Z08698-NOTA and In-111-HEHEHE-Z08699-NOTA demonstrated that the two conjugates provided equal radioactivity uptake in tumors, although the tumor-to-blood ratio was improved for In-111-HEHEHE-Z08698-NOTA [12 +/- 3 vs. 8 +/- 1,4 h post injection (p.i)] due to more efficient blood clearance. In-111-HEHEHE-Z08698-NOTA is a promising candidate for imaging of HER3-expression in malignant tumors using SPECT. Results of the present study indicate that this conjugate could be used for patient stratification for anti-HER3 therapy.

  • 34.
    Bass, Tarek Z.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Inst Technol, Sch Biotechnol, Div Prot Technol, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rosestedt, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Molecular Imaging.
    Mitran, Bogdan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Molecular Imaging.
    Frejd, Fredr