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  • 1.
    Abraham, Jonatan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Strand, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Reseavdrag: En analys av ett arbetsmarknadspolitiskt styrmedel ur ett hållbarhetsperspektiv2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to make tax deductions on travel expenses have been present in Sweden since the late 1920s. The main purpose of the state subsidy has been to improve the mobility in the label market. However, in recent years there has been a heated debate as to if the subsidy is truly socio-economically sustainable or not. The favoritism of car users has also made the matter a question of ecological sustainability.

    The aim of this essay is to analyse and provide general knowledge of the swedish system of deductible travel expenses. The text is divided into four major parts:

    • A litterature review presenting the history of the subsidy, previous research, and the current political debate.
    • A questionnaire survey where the general public’s opinion of tax-deductible travel expenses is examined. 
    • A discussion of possible adjustments of the different parameters of the system, where the most optimal ammendment is chosen
    • An analysis of 3 different scenarios; keeping the current system, using the ammended system obtained in the calibration, and removing the system.

    From the results we could conclude that an ammended system would be noticeably more socio-economically viable and ecologically sustainable, compared with the current system. However, a complete removal of the system would be the most optimal. In addition, the questionnaire surveys results shows that the public is mostly positive to travel deductions. However, it was apparent that the views of many could shift completely, when presenting facts.

  • 2.
    Ahlberg, Fanny
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Ivansen, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Analys över variationer i vattenförbrukning och dess påverkandefaktorer: En fallstudie över områden i Borås2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The steady supply of fresh water is, and has always been, one of the most important functions in human societies. Different users have been able to take advantage of this resource in different extents and for different purposes. The major areas for water usage are drinking water, water supply for industrial purposes and the usage in agricultural sector.

    By dimensioning the supply- and sewer systems accordingly to the demand of the users a more sustainable and optimal system can be achieved. A proper dimensioning has six general factors it should to take in consideration. These are the size of the population, water consumption in residents, general water consumption in schools and offices, water consumption in industry, leakage and different water losses. With a background of these factors this reports main focus and purpose is analysing the variation in water consumption for different consumers (such as residential houses or apartment blocks) in different time intervals (in this report during days and years) and in respect to different factors. The factors that has been chosen to be examined is how water consumption depends on mean age of the consumers and the outdoor temperature. To complete this study water consumption data of different areas in Borås has been provided from the Swedish consultant firm Tyréns. Before analysing the data another study was made by Victor Eliasson, which included the revealing of different faults in the provided data. As a result of this study the most reliable data was chosen to further analysis with respect to the chosen aspects. During the project the calculation- and modelling program Matlab was used alongside the chart program excel. These two programs combined made it possible to handle large amounts of data and present it in different graphs and models. Conclusions could later be made by analyses and different statistical methods. The result from the comparison between areas with different mean ages of the residents showed that the area with high mean age (80 years) hade a higher water consumption than the other areas. The variation in water consumption differed as well between the area with the high mean age compared to the other areas. A regression- and correlation analysis between water consumption and temperature was performed to see if water consumption is depending on the outdoor temperature. The function of a regression analysis is to describe the relation between different parameters with a mathematic model (in this study a linear model). A correlation analysis is then performed to tell how well the mathematic model describes the relation. A conclusion could be made that the water consumption tends to increase with increasing temperature during parts of the year, since a correlation could be found during mars to September. The strongest correlation was in general during May and July for all the areas. No conclusion of how the variation i water consumption depends on different consumers could be made for the analysis during a day and a year. In contrast to the parameters that had a correlation with water consumption there was no visible connection between water consumption over a year or day depending on different users. 

  • 3.
    Ahlfors, Charlotta
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Bergkrantz, Malin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Energieffektivisering av en bandybana: Analys av kompressorkylteknik och fjärrvärmedriven absorptionskylteknik2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today, the energy consumption in the world is increasing and Sweden is not an exception. Therefore, the continued work towards a sustainable development is essential in order for future generations to have the same opportunities as the people today. An important step towards this goal is to improve the energy efficiency until the next generations technology has been developed. As a result of this the energy resources of the earth could be saved which would lead to cost savings, due to the fact that operating costs would decrease with reduced energy consumption. A reduced electrical power generation would lead to reduced emissions of substances that affect the environment as well. The municipality of Västervik has worked towards a sustainable development for a long time; therefore energy efficiency in the public sector has been implemented.

    An analysis is done, based on a literature study and calculations, in purpose to decide if a change of the cooling system used for the outdoor ice rink in Gamleby would lead to reduced energy consumption and cost savings. The two different machines analysed are the existing compressor cooling machine and an alternative absorption cooling machine in combination with district heat from a local source. If excess of distinct heat could be used as heat source it would be positive for the environment and for sustainable development.

    Through calculations of the cooling demand, the sustainable economy and the CO2-emissions the following conclusions have been made. Since the coefficient of cooling performance is lower for the absorption cooling machine a switch of cooling system would result in a higher demand of energy (heat and power). Due to the different CO2-emission coefficients of the two energy sources a switch would lead to increase of CO2-emissions as well as reduce the efficiency of the resources of the earth.

    The investment cost for an absorption cooling machine is double the investment cost for a commercial compressor cooling machine. Therefore, calculations have shown that it would take 18 years until a change of the cooling system can be seen as cost-effective. This calculation is based on the most optimal conditions such as free district heating and a high value on the coefficient of performance. As well if the district heat would cost, a change would never be cost-effective. The life span of a cooling machine is approximately 25 years and due to the fact that the calculations for the optimal case are based on assumptions that are not confirmed, for instance the energy from the district heat would be free of charge, the authors of this study cannot recommend the change of cooling method for the ice rink seen through an economical perspective. To sum up, the conclusion is that a switch to absorption cooling will not result in an improvement in terms of energy efficiency, cost benefits or emission reduction. Instead, an analysis of the existing system should be made in order to identify efficiency improvement opportunities in areas such as optimization of the control system and reducing the cooling demand of the bandy ice by reducing heat transfer from the environment. 

  • 4.
    Ahmad, Zoe
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    An Assessment of the Swedish Bioeconomical Development2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bioeconomy is an emerging term defined by the European Commission as ‘an economy based on biological,renewable resources to produce bioenergy, biobased products, services and food’. Unlike neighbouring countries Germany and Finland, Sweden lacks an official national bioeconomy strategy and the Swedish bioeconomical development is not mapped. Previous literature has not addressed the topic specifically and to do so, it was believed necessary to address relevant actors currently undergoing the bioeconomical development. It is investigated if the Swedish bioeconomical development is too slow and inefficiently regulated and if so, what measure can be taken. A literature study and 13 interviews with actors relevant to the bioeconomical transition were used to achieve the objective of the study. Concluded, the field of bioeconomy severely needs parameters to make its definition and quantification possible. Despite lacking a national bioeconomy strategy, Sweden’s bioeconomical development is not stalled. The government pursues the transition through specifically created institutions and big investments. Compared to Finland, Sweden performs well within the current bioeconomical sectors (biomass production and biobased sectors were assessed). Parameters must be established to enable a better mapping of the process and to complete the bioeconomical transition within Sweden.

  • 5.
    Ahmed, Amber
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Gong, Jindan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Assessment of the Electricity Generation Mix in Ghana: the Potential of Renewable Energy2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Electricity is a fundamental part a functioning society. Ghana’s electricity system is strained by an ever-growing climate instability and increase of population. Therefore, it is crucial for the country's development that it's electricity supply is done in a sustainable way.

    This report aims to analyze Ghana’s ability to reach SDG 7.1 and the Marrakech Vision, an outcome from the COP 22 meeting in Morocco. This was done by creating a model over Ghana’s electricity system and how it develops over time, called BAU, using the analytical tools: OSeMOSYS and OnSSET. A practical implementation of BAU was then discussed. After that, three development scenarios with different renewable energy targets for the electricity system, were implemented in the model. The results show that CSP and natural gas power plants were the most prominent electricity producers. The growing share of renewable energy in the target scenarios was mostly due to wind power, replacing the natural gas power plants.

    Ghana has local natural gas resources as well as high solar potential. The rising share of renewable energy limits the fossil fuel emission. At the same time, this increased share also endangers the reliability of the electricity supply, as the capacity of renewable energy resources fluctuate and could lead to high investment costs. BAU can be a possible solution which minimizes the fossil fuel consumption and limits the CO2 emissions, but at the risk of possibly having an unreliable electricity supply. To be able to meet SDG 7.1, increasing the share of renewable energy in electricity generation can be a solution, but at the same time, not all requirements of the goal will be fulfilled.

  • 6.
    Aid, Graham
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Lysenkova, Mariya
    Smedberg, Niklas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Looplocal - a heuristic visualization tool to support the strategic facilitation of industrial symbiosis2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, 328-335 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial symbiosis (IS) developments have been differentiated as self-organized, facilitated, and planned. This article introduces a tool, Looplocal, which has been built with objectives to support the strategic facilitation of IS. Looplocal is a visualization tool built to assist in 1) Simplifying the identification of regions susceptible to new industrial symbiosis facilitation activities 2) Enabling proactive and targeted marketing of potential exchanges to key actors in specific regions and 3) Assisting facilitators to assess the various strategies and consequential engagement and analysis methodologies suitable for additional IS development in specific regions. The tool compares industrial symbiosis data and estimated regional material and energy flows (on a facility level) to identify potential IS transfer information along with key stakeholder and network data. The authors have performed a proof of concept run of this tool on Sweden. In its early stages of application the method has given results seen as useful for identifying regions susceptible to the investment of symbiosis facilitators' time and resources. The material focus and customization possibilities for the tool show potential for a spectrum of potential facilitators: from waste management companies to national or regional authorities. In conjunction with long term business models, such a tool might be utilized throughout an adaptive chain of facilitation activities and aims.

  • 7.
    Aid, Graham
    et al.
    Ragn-Sells AB.
    Lazarevic, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology. Finnish Environment Institute SYKE.
    Kihl, Anders
    Ragn-Sells AB.
    Waste to Resources: Moving Toward the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8. Alnaami, Zurya
    et al.
    Duenas, José
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Wind Power Integration and Operational Challenges2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Wind power generation has gained considerable relevance in global energy markets in the last few decades. The technology behind wind turbines and their integration to the power grid are still the focus of considerable research. How exactly does this energy source influence the existing power distribution grid is still a matter of interest to many parties. The method used in this report is based on a literature study which intends to examine what is the current state of energy generation based on wind power in Sweden. In the report we have analyzed some of the integration and operational challenges of connecting a large amount of wind generated electricity to the power grid and attempted to provide an accurate and up to date summary of what these challenges will entail in the coming decade. Our results show that further research would greatly improve the current technology used in wind power generation to allow such a high level penetration. 

  • 9.
    Andersson, Carl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Olausson, Linus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Identifiering av mervärden i EPC-projekt2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this report a study is carried out with the aim to identify added values of EPC projects implemented in schools in order to increase the interest of EPC projects on the market. The report examines how the planned maintenance, supervision, maintenance and corrective maintenance is affected, how insurance premiums and terms are affected, the indoor environment and how the tasks of the operating staff is changing. A literature study of energy savings, energy use in schools, maintenance and insurance as well as how energy efficiency improvements are related to the Swedish environmental objectives has been made. Visits were carried out in Ludvika, interviews were also carried out with operation technicians and local strategists in Ludvika as well as employees of insurance companies.

    Schools often have neglected maintenance and problems with ventilation and indoor environment. Schools also have a large energy saving potential due to their low utilization, mainly because they are empty parts of the year. All Swedish schools could reduce their electricity consumption by 1 TWh per year, which in money equivalents to the salary costs of about 2,000 teaching positions.

    8 schools in Ludvika and 10 schools in Piteå who has completed EPC projects have been studied. The time periods studied are seven years for Ludvika, 2006 – 2012, and for Piteå five years, 2010 – 2014. The data of fault reports and maintenance costs are taken from the municipalities, and descriptions of schools and EPC projects have been received from Caverion who has carried out the EPC projects. Data for maintenance has to some extent been selected in consultation with employees at the municipalities.

    The number of error reports in Piteå schools have shown a slight downward trend with a peak while the EPC project was carried out and one year after. Ludvika has shown an upward trend in maintenance costs, but this is probably due to previously accumulated maintenance. The amount of corrective maintenance is reduced, but only after the project when newly found errors have been fixed and the systems have been properly adjusted. The tasks related to supervisory and maintenance has changed when remote control of systems was installed which leads to a better overview and simplifies troubleshooting. The indoor temperature got more stable, but only after they fixed the weaknesses revealed in connection with the operational optimization. However, there are complaints in Ludvika of low temperatures, but it is caused the target temperature being set too low by the municipality. Insurance is only marginally affected, and only when damage prevention measures are implemented in the properties, which is not done in the studied properties. However, the underlying data sets are too small and over a too small time period to prove any certain changes.

    An added value identified is the ability to use EPC projects as a tool to address deferred maintenance in the real estate portfolio outside the normal budgetary framework while achieving energy savings. 

  • 10.
    Andersson, Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Ring, Mikaela
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    The Need for Permanent Mooring Buoys in  the Gulf of Thailand: A Minor Field Study2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the need for permanent mooring buoys at the popular off-shore islands of Pattaya, Thailand. By investigating the ecological, social and economic gains and losses of installing such buoys, the project aims to examine whether such buoys would help support a more sustainable development in the area. In order to fulfil the aims and objectives of the project, a literature study, two different questionnaires, interviews, line intercept transects (LIT) and a boat traffic survey were performed. 

    The results prove that every dive store operator, 71% of the dive instructors/dive masters and 65% of the tourist divers that took part in the interviews or questionnaires have observed anchor damages in the area. This is supported by the results of the LITs, which, although differing greatly between depths, reveal a top score of 44% damaged corals (of which 20% were apparent anchor damages) at snorkelling depth at site 3. At diving depth the damage indexes were generally lower, revealing a top score of 38% damaged corals at Site 2, but no definite anchor damages. The boat traffic survey showed that 192 boats were active in the area, of which 47 used an anchor, during a 3 hour period a Saturday morning. The results also prove that dive store operators and questionnaire participants generally agree that divers wish to see healthy reefs and great aquatic biodiversity when visiting a dive site. The interviews showed that all dive store operators have a positive attitude towards an installation of mooring buoys in the area, which could protect the local reefs and thereby their own business. 85% of the tourist divers that took part in the questionnaires stated they would be willing to pay extra (where a majority of those with a WTP would be willing to pay 7-13 USD) if they could be guaranteed to see healthy coral reefs and a great diversity in species and 88% stated they would be willing to pay extra (where a majority of those with a WTP would be willing to pay 0.7-1.7 USD)  to support a permanent mooring buoy system.  The interviews and the questionnaires also prove that healthy coral reefs hold a special sentimental value, providing invaluable recreational opportunities to humankind. 

    Conclusively the results indicate that there is a need for permanent mooring buoys in the area. The ecological, social and economic gains of installing permanent mooring buoys seem to overshadow the cost of installation and maintenance of the buoys, meaning the buoys would most certainly improve the conditions for a more sustainable development in the area.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Vindkraftverk med trätorn: Miljöpåverkan och kostnad jämfört med ståltorn2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report was to research the differences in environmental impact and cost of building wind power turbines using cross-laminated timber (CLT) instead of steel which are commonly used for today’s wind turbine tower. By analyzing data obtained from distributors and related businesses within the market for the production of these two materials environmental impact and costs, a result relevant to the Swedish wood- and wind power market could be obtained.

    The final results showed a 15 times greater total emissions of carbon dioxide equivalents for the steel tower. Even for emissions per MWh showed that steel produced more emissions than the CLT tower. Both the total cost and cost per MWh were lowest for the 100 m CLT tower. Emissions of other hazardous substances were also overall higher for wind turbines using a steel tower. 

  • 12.
    Andersson, Niklas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Malmös strategi för social hållbarhet med fokus på förorten2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report covers the social sustainability agenda in the suburbs Rosengård and Kroksbäck, situated in Malmö. These suburbs where constructed mainly in the years 1960-1975 and are now in need of refurbishing. There is also a housing shortage in Malmö and the demand is mainly for inexpensive apartments. Young adults, students, immigrants, senior citizens and families alike are looking for places where they can afford to live. The high demand for living space and the need of renovation could spark a gentrification process which would not be socially sustainable. The main actors whose social sustainability agendas are reviewed are the municipality of Malmö and the municipal owned housing company of MKB as well as the tenants’ association. The report also covers how the dialogue between the residents in Rosengård, the civil servants of the city and the landlords is carried out. Reactions from the residents in Rosengård have been researched in newspapers, but it proved hard to find while criminal reports where abundant. Lastly two examples on how the social sustainability agenda have been carried out in Gothenburg is presented. The methodology which the results are based on is a literature review.

    The report finds that both Malmö and Gothenburg are using a matrix formed decision tool in order to incorporate social aspects in all planning decisions. This is something which works well in both cities. The municipality of Malmö took a decision in 2014 that the social justice will increase when building new apartments. They do however realize the most of the newly constructed homes might be too expensive but they hope that this will eventually free up cheaper apartments. Different investment programs have been initiated in Rosengård, Rosengård I förvandling is one of them. Part of this program was based on local farming and different pedagogical activities. MKB are using social clauses when hiring different contractors, they stipulate that ten percent of the workforce should be locals or people who previously have been unemployed. This would be one the few tangible solutions which MKB is contributing with to solving the problem with lack of social sustainability. The tenants’ association is mainly focusing on minimizing the rent increase. They do however see a potential in so called neighborhood effects such as social learning were tenants are affecting other tenants in a positive way. The tennants’ association believes, as do the municipality of Malmö, that this can be achieved partly by constructing new houses among the older ones.

    The dialogue between the residents and the municipality used to be characterized as too little too late in the planning process. The revised aim with the dialogue is now to bring the citizens opinions into the decision process at an earlier stage. A potential problem could be the language barriers as there are many immigrants living in suburban Malmö. However in projects where the dialogue where given a priority the outcome became a success and the decision enjoys a broad support. As a recommendation for future research, a survey or deep interviews with the residents on their thoughts about actions taken to increase the social sustainability could be carried out. This is something which this report is lacking, good feedback from the residents. 

  • 13.
    Andersson, Simon
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Analys av energisimulering från projekteringsskede och verklig energianvändning i lokalbyggnad.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag sker ett kontinuerligt arbete med att reducera energianvändningen i byggnader under desslivscykel för att minska miljöbelastningen och utnyttjandet av fossila energikällor. En reduceringav energianvändningen utgör även ett ekonomiskt incitament genom minskade energikostnader.Inom byggsektorn arbetar flertalet företag med olika former av miljöcertifieringar såsomMiljöbyggnad, LEED och BREAM. En viss del av bedömningen bygger på en energisimuleringav projekterad byggnad, ett scenario av framtida energianvändning.

    Energisimuleringar utgör ett beslutsunderlag och kan användas under hela byggprocessen menlämpar sig främst under projektering då flertalet beslut rörande olika faktorer såsom klimatskal,ventilationssystem, värme och kyla samt framtida drift och styrning behandlas.

    I detta examensarbete analyseras energianvändningen i fastighet BioCentrum i Uppsala utifråndriftår 2012 och jämförs mot projekterade värden från tidigare energisimulering. En jämförelsegörs även mellan indata och antaganden samt projekterade energiflöden för värme, komfortkyla,processkyla och el. Att arbeta med energisimuleringar under projektering är en kontinuerligprocess och på vilket sätt detta verktyg kan förbättras i projekteringsarbetet diskuteras. Tre faktorer har behandlats, vilka är utomhusklimatets påverkan på energianvändningen, drift ochstyrning av olika system inom fastigheten samt brukarens beteende och verksamhet. Med hjälp avunderlag från driftår 2012 genomförs en uppdaterad energisimulering för analys och jämförelse.

    För fastighet BioCentrum syns en tydlig ökning av både värme och kyla samt el i jämförelse medprojekterade värden. Orsak till detta är i många fall verksamhetsanknutet genom ökade driftstider,förhöjda luftflöden i ventilationssystem samt en varierande verksamhet inom byggnadensom kräver ett stort behov av el, men även kylning av dess interna laster. Störst påverkan påresultatet från energisimulering har bedömningen av den verksamhetsanknutna internvärmensamt luftflöden i laborationslokaler.

    Tre resultat som verifieringsprocessen sammanställer är hur mätarstrukturen i drift fungerar, vilkaförändringar som skett under produktion i förhållande till projektering samt hur verksamhetenidag utnyttjar och styr de tekniska systemen. Till stor del en verifiering av projekterad data.

    Genom uppföljning och verifiering skapas en nulägesbild över energianvändningen, vilkettillsammans med identifierade energieffektiviserande åtgärder skapar ett bra beslutsunderlag förframtida investeringar.

    För att förbättra projekteringsprocessen av framtida energianvändning och verifieringsprocessenär det viktigt att tydligt definiera vilka antaganden som genomförts under projektering samt vilkaprocesser som ingår i bedömning av specifik energianvändning. Att samredovisa underlag ochresultat möjliggör för en bättre uppföljning av nyckeltal och underlättar för förvaltning attoptimera och följa upp olika processer och system inom fastigheten.

    Sammanfattningsvis är hjälpmedel såsom energisimuleringar ett viktigt verktyg underprojekteringsprocessen och skapar ett scenario över framtida energianvändning. Detta arbetevisar på den komplexitet som finns vid uppföljning av energianvändningen inom lokalbyggnaderoch att ett bra samarbete mellan konsulter, beställare/fastighetsägare och hyresgäst är nödvändigtför att uppnå ett bra energiarbete under projektering och sedermera drift av fastigheten.

  • 14.
    André, Hampus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Jonsson, Max
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    INDUSTRIELLT EKOLOGISK STADSODLING: EN KVALITATIV STUDIE SOM UNDERLAG FÖR EN STADSODLINGSREVOLUTION I  STOCKHOLM2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Rooted in Industrial Ecology (IE) theory, this report evaluates how urban agricultural concepts and techniques, can contribute to improved ecological sustainability within the inner city boundaries of Stockholm. An overarching literary study as well as an interview was carried out, resulting in a qualitative analysis followed by suggestions for practical implementations. A substantial convergence was found between the eco-restructuring objectives of IE and the principal motives for urban agriculture. Consequently, eco-restructuring objectives are found in varying degrees in the presented urban agricultural techniques. Industrial symbioses, permaculture and combinations of urban agricultural techniques are tools which are capable of corresponding adequately to the diversity of urban settings. Prominent occurrences of eco-restructuring objectives and provisioning of ecosystem services motivated, for instance; green walls on Hornsgatan, aquaponics on allotments, waste heat-utilizing rooftop gardens, as well as vertical farming in suitable eco-industrial symbioses.

  • 15.
    André, Hampus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Jonsson, Max
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Svaret är 42, men vad är frågan?: En analys av EMEC-modellen och dess effekter på svensk klimatpolitik2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    EMEC is a computational general equilibrium (CGE) model used for calculation of societal costs and evaluation of cost-effectiveness in the decision basis of Swedish climate policy. The model has been criticized for exaggerating societal costs of policies, exemplified by Sweden's relative decoupling of GDP and carbon dioxide emissions during 1990-2010. Thereby, one could argue that the model results possibly have led to less ambitious climate targets in Sweden. With the model's suitability being questioned and an expressed need for better climate policy evaluation, this master thesis aims to analyse EMEC and its effects on Sweden's climate policy. It also aims to highlight key aspects for improved climate policy evaluation. Literature and interview studies were conducted in order to form a balanced framework of different actors' perspectives on the issue. This related to several identified aspects that were considered important by the authors in the context of the EMEC model. The subsequent empirical study of three periods of Swedish climate-political processes used these results as a basis for discussion.

    The results imply that the critique about exaggerated costs very likely is justified, which probably also has affected Sweden's climate-political direction. Regarding the model itself, the principal reasons are argued to be its static nature and the difficulties associated with predicting future technological- and world-market price developments. Connected to the model's role, the principal reasons are argued to be rooted in its relatively short-term perspective and one-dimensional definition of benefits, compared to the long-term and multi-dimensional nature of a transition to a low-carbon society. These features have, in this study, been argued to weaken the long-term cost-effectiveness of Sweden's climate policy. The EMEC-model's principal effects in this respect have been constituted in the arguments for general policies over sector-specific goals as well as emission reductions abroad.

    An alternative evaluation framework would include a wider range of benefits and costs associated with climate policy, for example dynamic costs of lock-in effects in carbon intensive structures. This would decrease the costs of climate policy in a counter-factual comparison. It could be argued that a qualitative decision basis would be more appropriate considering the complexities and difficulties associated with modelling a largely uncertain future. Especially, since model results are based on the same historic trends that need to be abandoned in order to reach future climate targets. However, considering that the climate-political process demands a quantitative decision-basis, qualitative aspects should function as a complement and gain increased emphasis in the Swedish climate- political decision basis. This would purposively broaden the framework and serve as a necessary balance to the indications given by results on GDP. Given that the EMEC model to some extent continues to constitute a basis for climate policy, suggestions for alternative interpretations of the model results have also been provided. 

  • 16.
    Apostolopoulou - Kalkavoura, Varvara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Effects of Varying Sludge Quality on the Permeability of a Membrane Bioreactor2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis firstly includes a theory part describing, the conventional municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and especially the conventional activated sludge (CAS) process. As Stockholm municipality want to retrofit the current activated sludge system at Henriksdal into a membrane bioreactor (MBR), an extensive description of the MBR and its advantages and disadvantages are included.

    Fouling is considered a really important issue for the operation of an MBR since it reduces an MBR’s productivity over time. Therefore, description of the fouling mechanisms and the potential foulants is included as well as a description of the membrane cleaning procedures. Sludge composition is considered a very important parameter which contributes to membrane fouling and thus this master thesis aims to identify the effects of varying sludge quality on the membranes operation. Precipitation chemicals used for phosphorus chemical precipitation and especially ferrous sulphate which is examined in this master thesis are also affecting the sludge quality and the membranes operation.

    The report includes description of Henriksdal reningsverk and line 1 of the pilot MBR at Hammarby Sjöstadsverk where the experimental work was performed. The following chapter describes the experimental work performed in the laboratory including the determination of total suspended solids (TSS), volatile suspended solids (VSS), sludge volume index (SVI) and sludge’s filterability. The filterability was determined by performing the time to filter (TTF) method and the sludge filtration index (SFI) method. Furthermore, the samples were also examined in the optical microscope to determine their bulkiness and their filaments content. The iron content in the sludge was also measured from Eurofins Environment Testing Sweden AB.

    In the results section, the different parameters measured are illustrated in charts and they are compared to each other in order to define which factors contribute positively or negatively to the sludge’s filterability and thus affect the sludge quality and the membranes operation. The results indicate that SFI is a more reliable method for measuring filterability compared to TTF. Furthermore, the iron content in the sludge is proportional to the permeability as well as the filaments content observed during microscopy is proportional to the SFI or TTF. Finally, this master thesis includes recommendations for future research which basically include more analyses to identify the sludge biology and more samples taken for longer time periods. 

  • 17.
    Arvanitis, Konstantinos
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    MACROALGAE IN THE BIOREFINERY: A SUBSTANCE FLOW ANALYSIS AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF AN EXTRACTION PROCESS OF THE MAJOR COMPONENTS IN SACCHARINA LATISSIMA2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A turn to more sustainable resources has lead the research during the last decades to algae. Algae is a resource that has been utilized for thousands of years offering a variety of possibilities. Nevertheless modern technology were able to uncover algae’s great potential and pave the way for alternative uses such as biofuel and biomaterial production. Towards that direction, ‘Seafarm’ aims in utilizing algae in the most efficient and sustainable way. For that purpose various steps have been established, including the biorefinery step which entail among other the extraction of carbohydrates from brown algae.

    The current thesis is based on an extraction of carbohydrates from Saccharina latissima, a brown algae species, which was developed by Viktor Öberg during his master thesis at KTH. The aim of this work is to assist in the scaling up of that laboratory process by analyzing the basic steps and substances of the process, investigating its environmental performance and identifying improvement areas for theoretical optimization. The results of the aforementioned analysis include a substance flow analysis which reveals the basic steps of the process and constitute the basis for further analysis. The second step examines the environmental performance of the process based on the chemical selection. Hence the results are a risk assessment of chemicals with performance indicators for each chemical as well as the whole process. The final part provides a theoretical optimization of the process based on literature studies where the recommendations are divided in production optimization and environmental performance.

    The above results constitute the basis of the analysis of the process and sets the foundations for scaling up the process at an industrial level. The current analysis in combination with an energy and economic assessment could be used for the designing of the process and its integration in the biorefinery. 

  • 18.
    Arvidsson, Ebba
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Forsberg, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Ögren, Sofie
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Sustainability Practices on University Campuses: Case Study of Zhejiang University and KTH Royal Institute of Technology2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides an analysis of the energy consumption and a study of the sustainabilitywork regarding buildings at Zhejiang University, ZJU, and the Royal Institute of Technology,KTH. Three students from KTH performed a field study at ZJU in Hangzhou, China, in theyear of 2017.

    By interviewing actors at KTH and ZJU and studying the differences in conditions, policiesand regulations the results shows how the sustainability work regarding buildingsdifferentiates between the universities. The result of the study shows that both universitieshave national goals, policies and regulations they have to follow that give different incentivesto encourage sustainable development. KTH and Sweden also needs to consider laws andpolicies of the European Union, EU. KTH and Akademiska Hus, AH, have sustainabilitygoals of their own while ZJU only have provincial goals in addition to the national. If ZJUwants to be a leading university in the field of sustainable development, the authors suggestthat they make sustainability goals of their own.

    AH is the property owner at KTH campus and they decide what kind of energy sources to usein their buildings. They cooperate with KTH to establish the sustainability work while ZJUowns all their buildings, which makes them in charge of the sustainability work themselves.To evaluate properties in terms of sustainability, KTH uses Miljöbyggnad certification andZJU is using the Three Star System.

    The authors have concluded that the difference in prerequisites between the two countriesmakes it difficult for ZJU to use the same amount of renewable energy in their buildings asKTH. If ZJU would like to use only renewables they need to produce it themselves. ZJUmonitors 150 of their 500 buildings, while AH monitors all buildings at KTH. The authorsrecommend that ZJU put sensors in all their buildings to monitor the energy consumption inorder to get a fair image of the situation in terms of energy use.

  • 19.
    Ashok, Archana
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Textile paper as a circular material2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing resource efficiency by utilising secondary raw material is one of the key characteristics of a circular economy. Textile dust fibre, a waste generated from textile mechanical recycling has the prospect to be utilised as secondary raw material for producing novel material: textile paper suitable for packaging and other applications. A comparative Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of carrier bags made from one ton of virgin paper, recycled paper and novel textile paper (~22584paper bags with grammage of 100 g/m2 and same dimensions for all 3 types of bags) showed that textile paper bag is more environmentally friendly in terms of carbon footprint. The largest environmental contributors were energy consumed in the pulping and paper making processes, followed by the use of adhesives and printing ink in the conversion process of paper to papercarrier bags.

    A comparative Techno-economic Assessment (TEA) was carried out for the operating cost of producing the three selected carrier bag types. The analysis conveyed that textile paper bags are more economically attractive, mainly due to the partial substitution of paper fibre with low-cost textile dust fibre.

    Furthermore, a simple tool was developed with an attempt to assess and compare materials suitability for the circular economy considering life cycle thinking and business perspectives. Assessment of textile paper using the Circular material assessment tool indicated that there is still scope for improvement on the following circularity characteristics of circular material: scarcity of raw material, local supply of resources, clean and non-toxic resources. Textile paper material scored high in the following circularity characteristics: secondary raw material, industrial symbiosis, recycling, resource efficiency in manufacturing and use. In the final step, the textile paper bag was eco-designed through the combined and iterative LCA and TEA approach with the aim to achieve improved scores as a circular material. In order to understand the overall sustainability advantages and trade-offs, further research is recommended on different textile dust fibre grades as well as textile paper performance based on mechanical properties. It is also recommended to investigate textile paper in other applications like one time fashion clothes, reusable paper bags as textile hangers etc.

  • 20.
    Askew, Robin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Carlberg, Stefan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Office chairs in circular business models2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a master’s thesis project of 30 credits written with guidance from the Swedish research institute ICT Viktoria and Industrial Ecology at KTH. This thesis is conducted by two students at KTH, one with a background in Mechanical Engineering and Industrial Ecology and the other with a background in Energy and Environmental Technology. This study focuses on circular economy linked to the furniture industry in Sweden and how the transition from theoretical to practical concepts can be improved.

    The methods of this thesis consist of three semi-structured interviews, a survey and an analytical comparative literature review. The interviews, survey and literature review is analyzed with the purpose of finding important criteria relevant for office chairs in circular business models. The interviews are performed face-to-face with three different key persons; an office supply manager, a CEO at a refurbishing company and a product manager.

    The study focuses on product design within the Swedish furniture industry although some aspects regarding circular business models, logistics and psychological values are included.

    The results are design criteria for office chairs in circular business models and a design evaluation program for the industry built on these. The program, based on multi criteria analysis, can help reduce the gap between theory and practice of how circular economy should be implemented in the industry. By giving early feedback during the design phase on how well an office chair and a company’s structure meet circular economy criteria the authors hope to ease and speed up this transition.

    The main characteristics of an office chair designed for circular business models are:

    • Durable

    • Easy to service

    • Adaptable

    • Modular

    • Homogeneous material composition in modules

      Although the transition to circular business models can be a comprehensive process the authors believe that if furniture manufacturers would integrate circular business models for office chairs into their business structure this would be both economically viable and highly beneficial for their environmental profile which can strengthen their position on the market. 
  • 21.
    Askew, Robin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Rönnberg-Halvorsen, Arvid
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    GRINDA WÄRDSHUS: Hållbart värmesystem i form av värmepump för Grinda Wärdshus2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Grinda Wärdshus is located on the island Grinda in the northeastern  part of the Stockholm archipelago. The purpose of this project is to decide whether an alternative heating system based on a heat pump is preferable over the current system based on a boiler on behalf of Skärgårdsstiftelsen. A literature study has been conducted to gather necessary information. A system has been determined according to the current heat requirement of 160 MWh and the maximum power requirement of 60 kW. The main purpose is to reduce the environmental impact of Grinda Wärdshus but since a system based on a heat pump requires a substantial investment the project also needs to be profitable. A specified 40 kW geothermal heat pump would conduct yearly savings of 166 000 kr. The investment cost is 600 000 kr, the payback time 4 years and the net present value 2.4 million kr. The current heating system gives rise to 53 ton CO  which if replaced by a 2geothermal heat pump running on electricity from renewable sources would be reduced to zero.

  • 22.
    Ast, Eric
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    The state of long-term climate action planning in megacities: Planning and demographic trends among 17 of the world’s leading cities aiming to reduce emissions by 80% by the year 20502015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report reviews the current state of long-term climate action planning in 17 cities which have publicly communicated carbon reducttargets in line with the IPCC recommended 80% reduction by 2050 (80x50) for stabilizing the impacts of climate change at 2°C.  The aim of this report is to provide a foundation of support for cities in achieving their deep carbon reduction goals through a comprehensive understanding of leading climate action plans and the context under which they were created, including current city emissions and demographic data, climate plan reduction strategies and targets, and feedback on plan creation and needs from city planning staff.  By achieving this aim, cities are in a better position to understand where their plans fit in the global context and connect with other cities around common issues, research institutions have a new benchmark analysis of leading action plans to build further research upon, and city-level climate action organizations have a clearer idea of how to focus efforts in helping cities achieve carbon reduction goals.  This aim is achieved through the application of a framework for comparing city plans and targets, an analysis of current city emissions and demographic data, and synthesis of key findings from city planning staff discussions.  

    Key findings show no clear demographic and environmental biases exist within these 17 cities, indicating long-term climate action planning can be undertaken by cities across the full spectrum of size, climate, and current per capita emissions output, though regional geographic and development bias exists.  Plans for carbon reduction are highly concentrated among a small number of actions, indicating the movement has coalesced around a standard set of strategies for achieving deep carbon reductions.  Finally, the relative newness of plans, with the majority less than 5 years old, and the lack of commonality among cities in emissions methodology and communication of reduction strategies, shifts a short-term focus towards standardization methodologies which enable deeper comparison between cities and plans.

  • 23.
    Axelsson, Elin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Jennerot, Mikaela
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Restaurangers förhållningssätt till hållbar matkonsumtion: En studie av restauranger på KTH campus med tonvikt på animaliska livsmedel2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s food production constitutes nearly 30 % of the world’s total carbon dioxide emissions. The level of impact a food product has on climate depends on various factors such as production method and transportation, where previous research has shown that animal products have the biggest climate impact. Towards the goal of reaching a more sustainable food consumption it has become even more important to map food flows in order to decrease the consumption of food that has bad climate impact. The purpose of this study has been to examine in which amounts different types of food products, with emphasis on animal products, are served at restaurants on KTH campus and to examine the restaurants current work related to sustainable development. The study has been limited to two restaurants, Open Café and Restaurant Nymble, and the information that the study is based on has been obtained from the restaurants through data collections and interviews. 

    Based on the results of the study one can observe that both restaurants work with sustainable food consumption, however they have chosen different priority areas. Open Café has its main focus on KRAVPcertified products, while Restaurant Nymble work mainly with minimizing its food waste. Regarding the lunch courses, both animalP and vegetable products occur in the weekly menus. MeatP fishP and vegetarian dishes are provided, however, Open Café serves vegetarian dishes twice a week and Restaurant Nymble offers a vegetarian alternative everyday. 

    By mapping the animal products used in the lunch dishes, with the help of the tools “Köttguiden” and “Fiskguiden”, it turns out that both participating restaurants use products that are classified as better for the environment as well as products with negative impact. The amount of animal products that are served per lunch course may depend on the restaurants way of thinking related to sustainable development, their serving concept and if nutritional recommendations are used or not.

  • 24.
    Azeez Mohamed, Hussain
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Campos, Leonel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    OIL SHALE ASH UTILIZATION IN INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES AS AN ALTERNATIVE RAW MATERIAL2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Oil shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock with the potential to yield significant amounts of oil and combustible gas when retorted. Oil shale deposits have been found on almost every continent, but only Estonia, who has the 8th largest oil shale deposit in the world has continuously utilized oil shale in large scale operations. Worldwide, Estonia accounts for 80% of the overall activity involving oil shale, consuming approximately 18 million tons while producing 5–7 million tons of oil shale ash (OSA) annually. Since the amounts are quite significant, Estonia has made the choice to store OSA outdoors as ash heaps, which currently average a height of 45m and overall cover an area of approximately 20 km2. Oil shale is primarily composed of organic matter (15%–55%), low–magnesium calcite (>50%), dolomite (<10%–15%), and siliciclastic minerals (<10–15%). When oil shale is combusted in thermal power plants (TPP), temperatures as high as 1500˚C are reached; calcining CaCO3 into CaO in the process. It is the high CaO content (30%–50%; Free CaO 8%–23%) along with trace elements that makes OSA a threat to the environment; it is mainly the CaO and to a lesser degree the trace elements found in OSA that are exploited in this thesis. Currently, only about 5% of the 5–7 million tons of OSA produced annually is being utilized as an alternative raw material, mostly in the construction industry for the production of Portland cement. Multiple studies have been conducted on OSA in the past by various institutions in an attempt to increase its use in industry and reduce the negative environmental effects of storing large quantities of the highly alkaline material.

    This thesis primarily focuses on the treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) and the production of precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) using OSA. In Sweden, CaO is utilized in treating AMD in historical mine sites and in the production of PCC used in the paper industry. Oil shale ash has the potential to become a substitute for lime (CaO) utilized in various industries while Estonia transitions into renewable energy. The mining industry has been abundant in Sweden for hundreds of years, but the poor mining techniques of the past have led to a significant number of mines that require immediate AMD remediation. The Swedish EPA has declared that 600 mines currently need attention, which may cost approximately 2–3 billion SEK (232–350 million USD).

    1:200, 1:500, and 1:1000. All ratios yielded a pH greater than 10, most likely inducing the formation and precipitation of secondary minerals such as Schwertmannite and Ferrihydrite. The reduction of metallic cations such as Cu (maximum reduction 99.9%), Pb (99.8%), V (95.5%), Cd (99.9%), As (88.7%), and Ni (99.9%) from AMD waters was observed. The previously mentioned metallic cations most likely adsorbed and co-precipitated to the negatively charged surfaces of Schwertmannite and Ferrihydrite minerals. Metals such as Ba, Cr, and Sb were observed to leach out of OSA, increasing their concentrations in the treated AMD waters, but still within Swedish regulatory limits. Acid mine drainage treatment with OSA significantly reduces heavy metal concentrations; transforming the polluted waters from hazardous to non-hazardous waste (below Swedish leaching limit values). Precipitated calcium carbonate is utilized in many industries, such as in the production of paper, sealants and adhesives, paint, food, and pharmaceuticals. In Sweden, it is common for paper producers to have satellite PCC plants in close proximity so that CO2 (from the paper facility) is used in the carbonation of Ca(OH)2 to form PCC. The CaO in OSA may be mixed with H2O to form the required Ca(OH)2 for PCC production. Potentially replacing raw CaO currently purchased for the production of PCC.

    The conducted PCC production experiments directly carbonized vacuum filtered OSA leachate with a steady flow of CO2 gas to yield PCC. Precipitate obtained yielded 94%–99% of CaCO3 theoretical values. Throughout the carbonation process; OSA leachate’s pH began >12 and continuously decreased with time, maximum PCC production occurred at pH 9–10, and stabilized at pH 8.

    Although, the polymorphism and purity of the PCC is not known, the conducted experiments and previous studies on the topic indicate the feasibility of producing high quality PCC from OSA to be used in industry. Additionally, oil shale thermal power plants have the potential to produce PCC and other minerals by injecting flue gases into the highly alkaline (Ca(OH)2) water used to hydraulically transport OSA from the furnaces to ash heaps; reducing or seizing the production of alkaline leachates and emission of gases that currently contaminate the environment. Other applications for OSA were also investigated and reviewed, such as the lucrative extraction and refinement of rare earth elements. Estonian oil shale ash was tested for Ce, Nd, Y and Sc using ICP-MS and compared to Chinese OSA and selected European REE ores. Estonian OSA had the lowest concentrations of REEs in the comparison, nevertheless, previous studies have shown up to 80%-90% REE recovery via an acid leaching process. Rare earth recovery from OSA may be successful in the future if a practical and cost-effective method is developed. Reducing Europe’s dependence on China for REE.

  • 25.
    Aziz, Md. Tanjil Al
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Potential Utilization of Municipal Organic Solid Waste: Case Study: Dhaka City Corporation Area, Bangladesh2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal solid waste management is a concern of high priority for any city authority. Without proper management of this waste great problems may occur for society. Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh, is a developing city. The population load and energy demand is increasing day by day. The city authority, Dhaka City Corporation (DCC), is responsible for managing the city’s solid waste.

    In Dhaka city waste is collected from door to door then put into dustbins and finally transported and dumped in the landfill sites. This unplanned waste management system creates environmental problems, such as water pollution and metal contamination, as well as social and health problems, for example skin diseases, headache, vomiting, and increases in mosquitoes, flies, and bad odour. Since the generated waste has more than 50% organic content, it can be a good source for energy generation.

    New technological solutions and a systematic approach can be a great option for management of waste. In Dhaka City Corporation Area this study addresses anaerobic digestion as a new option for energy generation. Among various types of existing technologies based on the climatic factor, waste stream, social and cultural factors, and environmental factors, the anaerobic treatment method is considered the best possible alternative method. The environmental system analysis tool, cost benefit analysis, is used in combination with the technology for determining the suitability of the system.

    By analysing technological treatment methods and environmental system analysis tools, comparisons are conducted between the present situation and a proposed scenario. The comparisons were conducted based on various considerations, such as net present benefit of total life time, net present benefit considering only economic value, net present benefit considering economic value including environmental and social value, and so on. In all cases, values for the proposed project show positive outcomes and for the present scenario they show negative ones. By analysing an environmental system analysis approach of anaerobic digestion of proposed project, it can be considered as a beneficial project for the DCC authority from environmental, social, and economic points of view. 

  • 26.
    Azzi, Elias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Waste Management Systems in Lebanon: The benefits of a waste crisis for improvement of practices2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Municipal solid waste management is a public service which, when it fails, can rapidly become overwhelming for communities and authorities. It is also during the deepest crisis that incentives change and new practices emerge. Lebanon went through an 8-months waste crisis after the closure of the country’s main landfill. Facing the incapacity of restoring basic services, the monopolistic centralised system was questioned: civil society, social businesses and municipalities organised, at a smaller scale, their own waste management. The thesis aims were to identify the role of the new waste stakeholders in the broader picture, assess the efficiency and needs of municipal projects and suggest some priorities for the country’s solid waste policies. The use of process-flow diagrams and a contextualised classification of actors were used to describe the Lebanese system. Case studies of recent initiatives were made using an adapted ISWM framework. The investigations have shown that, since the crisis, waste management is organised around three complementary systems, with their own legitimacy, supporters and challenges, but overall lacking of cooperation and mutual recognition. The nascent decentralised waste management tends to achieve better than the traditional central system, especially in terms of landfill space saved, resource management and inclusivity of users. However, it faces issues when tackling final disposal, energy recovery and financing. Any future waste policy should include all waste actors, set clear targets and reject any “one-size-fits-all” solution benefiting private corrupted interests.

  • 27.
    Bakhiet, Omnia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Data collection for management of fuel consumption in vehicles and machinery: A study on the challenges and strategic possibilities in the construction industry2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Energy utilization in Sweden has been on a rise since the 1980’s and the industrial sector has been its highest consumer. The construction industry plays a central role in building and developing cities for a population which is increasing rapidly year by year. Environmental awareness has given incentives to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and to make operations more sustainable. The construction industry faces three main challenges in regards to sustainability which are, material usage, vehicle fleets, and machine parks. Vehicles and machines are integral parts within the construction industry, however, how to reduce their environmental impact is a relatively new research area with many challenges. The conclusion that carbon dioxide emissions must be reduced is one that has been reached by the construction industry in Sweden. One way to study this aspect is by collecting and managing data on their fuel consumption since the vehicles and machines operate almost exclusively on fossil fuels.

    Data collection on fuel consumption by vehicles and machinery will give insight to what factors increase or decrease it. Analyzing these factors will allow for reductions to be made in terms ofcarbon dioxide emissions and costs. The aim of this report is therefore to investigate the aspect of data collection and management on fuel consumption in vehicles and machinery. The report is the result of work conducted in cooperation with the Nordic construction and development company NCC. NCC has set a goal for reducing climate impacts from direct operations by 50% between the years 2015 and 2020. In order for this to be achieved, carbon dioxide emissions resulting from fuel consumption have to be accounted for. As this is a new research area, this report is to serve as a baseline for NCC to get an overview of what challenges and possibilities there are with efficient data collection and management on fuel consumption.

    The study is initiated by analyzing the three main aspects which are taken into consideration within this study. The first aspect is authoritative requirements which are demands from authorities such as municipalities or the Swedish Transport Administration. The second is the contractors such as NCC which have to meet these requirements. The final aspect is the suppliers who contractors hire for projects. Furthermore, interviews are carried out to gain insight on experiences of persons within the field and the challenges they have faced. A study on Norrtälje Harbor, an old industrial harbor turning into a new city district, is also conducted as there is available data from the vehicles and machines in this project. Finally, a gap-analysis is constructed in order to gain an overview of NCC’s present standings, future goals, andlimitations in terms of data collection and management from vehicles and machinery.

    The findings of this report conclude that a lack of standard is the biggest challenge which theindustry is facing. Authorities face challenges on how to set standards while the lack of standardsleads to different methods of data collection from contractors and suppliers. It is possible tocollect data from vehicles and machines but calculations are currently based on patterns and donot give a true view of the fuel consumption. Factors, such as driving habits and environment can affect the fuel consumption, therefore the data collected should take all these factors into consideration. Benefits that a company may gain by having this data include increase incompetitiveness due to environmental awareness and transparency as well as also lower costsas less fuel will be purchased. Reducing fuel consumption will ultimately reduce carbon dioxideemissions, which is the industry’s and NCC overall goal.

  • 28.
    Bakhiet, Omnia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Mustafa, Riham
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management.
    Biogas Production in Abu Dhabi: An Evaluation based on Energy and Economy (Comparison of two plant designs)2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abu Dhabi, which is the capital city of the United Arab Emirates, is known for its fast and advanced development in a short period of time. The city however generates a large amount of waste on a daily basis and a large amount of this is dumped or landfilled. Landfilling of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), contributes to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and circa 80 % of the OFMSW is landfilled in Abu Dhabi. However, Abu Dhabi has shown its commitment to reducing GHG emissions by aiming to generate 7% renewable energy by 2030, improving waste management, and developing a strategy for green economy. In this study the approach evaluated is the waste-to-biogas system which utilizes anaerobic digestion of the OFMSW. Modules based on the Aikan® and REnescience® plant designs were simulated using SuperPro Designer® where energy and economic values were obtained and used for the evaluations. Excel was used to make a cash-flow analysis for both modules. A SWOT analysis was conducted to compare the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats between both modules.

    Energy Returned on Investment is an approach that calculates the efficiency of a fuel by dividing the energy acquired by the energy required in a process. Both modules give an energy returned on investment (EROI) ratio for biogas of slightly below 2:1, in regards to electricity which is considered relatively low when compared to other fuels. Three methods were used for calculating the profitability of the modules, internal rate of return, pay-back period and net present value (NPV). However the net present value (NPV) was found most reliable and showed an NPV of $500 000 and $3 000 000 for module one and two respectively and calculations show that module one has more risks while module two could result in a bigger risk monetarily. The results show that implementing such a system will have a minimal contribution to the city’s aim of 7 % renewable energy generation. However, it will contribute to the city’s target of reducing GHG emission, improve waste management, and lead to a green economy. 

  • 29.
    Barås, Madeleine
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Assessing the environmental sustainability of an apparel supply chain: the development of a conceptual model based on a comparative study of preferred tools and actual practices2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The apparel and textile industry is one of the largest in the world and is characterised by complex, global supply chains, water and chemical intensive processes as well as environmentally harmful raw material extraction and production. Because of this, environmental sustainability has become a key issue for the businesses in recent years. With this in mind, and considering an increasing demand for textile and apparel goods, the industry is in urgent need of improving the environmental footprint of its products. However, lack of transparency and available data throughout apparel supply chains decrease chances of producing accurate sustainability assessments, which in turn obstruct improvement measures. Moreover, companies often lack the in-house competence required to manage and create strategies for sustainability assessments.

    In this study an overview of an apparel supply chain is provided, highlighting phases, sub phases, input and environmental indicators. Appropriate tools for assessing the environmental sustainability of such a supply chain are inventoried and examined. Based on a case study, a literature review and a stakeholder opinion assessment, misalignments between actual practices within an apparel company and recommended practices of the researcher and stakeholder communities are uncovered. These identified misalignments enabled the development of a conceptual model, aiming at facilitating the process of developing an environmental sustainability assessment strategy within an apparel company. 

  • 30.
    Berger, Malin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    STADSODLINGAR: En litteraturstudie kring hållbarhet och byggnadsintegrerade stadsodlingar i Afrika och Nordamerika2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The world population is increasing at a rapid pace and city farms may be a way to provide food to the growing population. How building integrated urban farms, with a focus on roofs, can be linked to sustainability, is examined in this report. The current situation in Africa and North America are examined and the question to be answered is: How does the priority of the dimensions of sustainability vary at different conditions for urban building integrated farms in Africa and North America?

    The aspects of sustainability linked to building integrated urban farms are determined to be ecological, social and economic. Urban farms can also be divided into four different business types, of which institutional farms, commercial farms and community farms are analyzed.

    The results show that Africa and North America differ in possibilities for urban farming to be sustainable. Africa currently consists of 1.1 billion people, and this is expected to rise to 2.4 billion in 2050. Climate is dry in most places and a large part of the population lives in poverty and starvation. North America has a colder climate with four seasons, and the population will remain stable until 2050. North America is classified as a more developed area, which means that the economics in this area also are more developed than they are in Africa. There are more large-sized farms in North America than in Africa, and there are also more examples in North America.

    The conclusions are that building integrated urban cultures have a better potential to develop in North America since they require a large investment expense. For building integrated urban farms to be a more sustainable solution both in Africa and North America requirements are that construction costs need to be lowered.

    Community farms and institutional cultures prioritize social sustainability while commercial plantations mainly focus on ecological and economic sustainability.

    Urban farming is and may become an increasingly important part of the food supply in cities. When the cities densify it reduces available spaces for cultivation and other solutions must be used. These types of farms are sustainable solution both economic and social. If the cost of a building integrated farm can reduce these farms may help to reduce hunger and poverty. 

  • 31.
    Berggren, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    LCA of Egg Phospholipids2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Egg phospholipids are a group of fats or lipids in the egg yolk, commonly used as emulsifiers in the chemical industry to facilitate the dissolving of substances. The pharmaceutical company Fresenius-Kabi manufactures this product and seeks a better understanding of the product’s major environmental impacts in order to comply with the ISO 14001 requirements, communicate its environmental performance and choose raw materials that result in lower environmental impacts.

    The aim of this study is to quantify and identify environmental impacts that occur in the life cycle of Fresenius-Kabi’s egg phospholipids product, and to suggest improvements on how the impacts could be reduced. The aim has been reached by following the life cycle assessment methodology. The life cycle consists of egg, egg yolk powder and egg phospholipids production. The major inputs to the life cycle include fertilizers, pesticides, hen feed, fuel oil and solvents. The major outputs are hen manure, egg residues, air and water emissions.

    The results show that the greatest impacts are generated in the production of hen feed, solvent feedstocks, the hen manure handing and the final egg phospholipids production. The most severe environmental impacts are found in the human toxicity and eutrophication impact categories. Pesticide and fertilizers usage in the cultivation of hen feed and solvent feedstocks generate phosphorus, manganese and arsenic emissions, which are emission substance sources in the human toxicity impact category. In addition, nitrate and phosphate emissions from fertilizer and hen manure affect the eutrophication. The emissions of NMVOC and carbon dioxide to air, as well as phosphorus to waste water, are the major environmental concerns in the final egg phospholipids manufacturing. Other impact categories such as climate change, photochemical oxidant formation, terrestrial acidification and fossil depletion have lower global impact.

    Five scenarios have been conducted in order to validate the results, and to provide Fresenius-Kabi with improvements. Lowering the production and intake of hen feed per kilogram eggs with six percent decrease the environmental impacts by 2 to 6 percent. Changing the ethanol feedstock to cellulose-based feedstocks clearly diminishes the toxicity related emissions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide usage. To replace other fat and protein sources with the egg residue byproduct that is yielded within the life cycle is the best treatment method of the egg’s non-phospholipids content. No specific improvements to the treatment method of the hen manure have been found. The fifth scenario includes a sensitivity analysis on the egg yolk powder allocation factor. To increase it from 11 to 25 percent does not give any significant effect on the final results, since this life cycle phase already has very low environmental impact.

    Actions that will have a significant effect on the egg phospholipids’ total environmental impact are optimize fertilizer and pesticide usage at hen feed and ethanol feedstock cultivations, lower ammonia and phosphate emissions from the hen manure management, and finally, reduced solvent, carbon dioxide, phosphorus and phosphate emissions from the final egg phospholipids manufacturing. Fresenius-Kabi is recommended to further look into these emission sources in order to decrease the egg phospholipids’ environmental impact.

  • 32.
    Berggren, Max
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Aerodynamisk optimering av vindkraftverks rotorblad med en genetisk algoritm, BEM-teori, och XFOIL2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents a methodology that enables the annual average power of a wind turbine to be increased by automatically optimizing it’s airfoil, twist and chord dis- tribution. As a part of the study the software SiteOpt has been developed. This software connects the open source software XFOIL with the blade element momen- tum theory. XFOIL gives lift and drag coefficients which enable the blade element momentum theory to predict the power of a wind turbine at different wind and ro- tational speeds. An optimization algorithm of the type genetic algorithms is used to develop a new rotor blade. An academic benchmark case (Unsteady Aerodynamics Experiment Phase III) was selected as a starting point of the optimization because wind tunnel data was available for that campain. With the geometry developed by the genetic algoritm a theoretical increase of 15 % more power could be extracted. However, it has been shown that the model has shortcomings at high wind speeds where the predicted power does not match wind tunnel data. This is thought to be related to that the model assumes a completely rigid blade. In real world applica- tions a rotorblade will bend on higher wind speeds (about 8 m/s). It is therefore concluded that the model in its current form is flawed and that future work should aim to take these effects into account. However, a wind histogram for a specific loca- tion was used in order to calculate the annual average power for the wind turbine. The wind histogram used in this study to obtain the results has it’s wind speeds 81 % before 10 m/s where the model is acceptable. Therefore the results are largely to be considered accurate. 

  • 33.
    Bergstrand, Susanne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Bonnier, Thérèce
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Norra Djurgårdsstaden som nollstad: En studie av miljöprojektets sista etapp och dess potential2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    All around the world more and more people move from rural areas to live in the cities. Because of this, the urban areas have become an important part in the debate about the effects on the environment and sustainability. In many countries word wide initiatives have been taken to build sustainable cities and eco cities, the Stockholm Royal Seaport is one example. The vision for the district is to become a world class sustainable city based on the three dimensions of sustainable development: social, economic and ecologic. The municipality of Stockholm has set requirements for the buildings’ energy usage, emissions and amount of waste generated during the building process. These requirements are dynamic and will become stricter for every phase. To fulfill the requirements new innovations and technologies are being developed, among other solutions to change how people live in order to

    become a sustainable city.

    This paper examines if it is possible for the last phase, Loudden, of Stockholm Royal Seaport to become a city of zero-net energy buildings, zero carbon and zero waste, and what it would take to achieve this. The results show that from a technical perspective, and with the delimitations of this study, it would be possible for Loudden to become completely self-sufficient on solar energy, but not to become a city of zero carbon and zero waste. 

  • 34.
    Bergström, Ida Gomez
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Bahr, Maximilian von
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Konventionell sprängning eller fullortsborrning som tunneldrivningsmetod?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, the two most common tunnelling methods are investigated. These are conventional drill and blast and full-face boring, TBM. The drill and blast method is when a small drill is used to make bore holes where the explosives are inserted to blast away the material. Full-face boring is when a single large bore drills a tunnel with the same dimension as the bore head. The objectives of this report were to find out what factors influence the choice between these two methods in Stockholm, to make a comparison between the methods from ecological and economic sustainability point of view and to explore the handling and use of the extracted rock material for each method. By conducting qualitative interviews with ten experts on different aspects of tunnel construction, these objectives have been answered. The results obtained show that there are several factors that influence the choice, some more than others. The predominant aspect is the economic and experiential factors that speak in favour of conventional blasting. Full-face boring, however, has been found to be the advantageous method from an ecological perspective of sustainability, mainly because it has a lower impact on the surrounding environment. Handling and use of the extracted rock material has however proven that conventional drill and blast is the favourable method since there is an established industry around blasted material in Stockholm today. Full-faced drilled material is not in demand today because of its poor quality. 

  • 35.
    Björk, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Åkerberg, Viktor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Data Acquisition Architecture for HVDC Grids2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The climate crisis has caused many countries around the world to invest in large amounts of renewable energy. To be able to handle the intrinsic unreliability and geographic de- pendency of many renewable energy sources, HVDC technology is considered due to its low cost when transferring electricity across great distances. Traditional AC grids are controlled with 15-minute intervals at control centers, but HVDC grids require a faster control due to more power fluctuations within the grid. The aim of this project was to propose an architecture for a gateway in a control center for an HVDC grid. The gateway was programmed in C and C++ and the data was sent using UDP packets. Testing of the gateway was done using a real-time simulation of an HVDC grid. The data was sent with intervals smaller than a second which satisfied the speed requirements for this project. A gateway like the one developed in this project can be implemented at control centers to display and process data and to improve the overall reliability of an HVDC grid. 

  • 36.
    Björklund, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Hansson, Linus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    VÄRMEÅTERVINNING I ALBANO: Energieffektivisering i studentbostäder2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The report describes the investigation of two heat recovery methods, an exhaust air heat pump and an exhaust/supply air heat exchange system (FTX), for use in Svenska Bostäder’s buildings in the upcoming construction project in Albano. The aim was to do this based on the sustainability aspects of energy efficiency, environmental impact in terms of greenhouse gas emissions and operating costs for purchased energy. The construction of a heat flow model, based on one of the buildings in the area, as well as energy calculations for each heating system, showed that 55% of the heating requirement could be saved with the exhaust air heat pump option, while 45% if the FTX system was selected. Overall, the results suggest that the exhaust air heat pump system is a slightly more favorable option, but if the studied building’s total envelope can achieve a very low heat transfer coefficient, the FTX option is superior.

  • 37.
    Björn, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Dessle, Filip
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Foder och fisk i landet mittemellan: en litteraturstudie över utsikterna för det svenska vattenbruket2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is no doubt about aquacultures important role in producing high value protein with a substantially smaller ecological footprint than the meat industry. Even though aquaculture has relived the capture fish industry (about half of the food fish that is produced today comes from aquaculture) there is still a dependency on wild caught fish mainly for cultivation of carnivorous fish. With high uncertainties regarding future wild fish populations there are economical risks with a dependency on fish meal and fish oil. So there are both economic and environmental incentives for Swedish aquaculture to expand to alternative production lines where closed cultivations methods are used and with feed that is not based on animal protein. A great part of the expansion of the Swedish aquaculture will be cage cultivation of carnivorous species such as salmonids in nutrient-poor lakes and water power plants magazines as the availability of these are great. In connection to the aquaculture expansion we see a need to develop domestic feed productions where microbes are viewed

    as the most promising feed component. 

  • 38.
    Bladby, Hanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Wersäll, Johanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    A meat free society: The different substitutes for meat, their future and their environmental and health impact compared to meat2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The worldwide consumption of meat continues to increase and in Sweden the annual consumption has gone from 24 kg/person in 1990 to about 78 kg/person in 2005. This contributes to large environmental impacts such as an increase of greenhouse gas emissions, unsustainable land and resource use and shortage of water. A solution to the problem is to change our diets to be more sustainable. The purpose with this research is therefore to study the positive environmental and health aspects of alternative protein rich products based on soya, grown meat, algae and insects in comparison with meat. The goal is then to compare the environmental impacts from these products by studying different LCA-studies. Furthermore, also to understand how the future will be developed by interviewing producers of meat substitutes in Sweden. Some difficulties of comparing different LCA-studies are the choice of system boundaries, functional units and environmental aspects in the studies. Nevertheless, after studying a large amount of reports and articles about the products conclusions could yet be drawn. The carbonfootprint from beef is up to 20 times larger than from the substitutes and the land use is up to 125 times larger for beef compared to substitutes. Pork and chicken have lower impact but the lowest impact seems to come from producing substitutes based on soya beans. Insects and algae also have a low impact, but the products are still in the stage of development in Sweden due to laws, regulations and lack of knowledge. Regarding the health aspects substitutes could possibly replace meat since both insects and soya are rich of protein. Insects are also rich oniron and other nutrition. Algae consist as well of good nutrition. The companies interviewed in this study were Kung Markatta, Ekko gourmet and Veggi. They had some different opinions on future products, but they could all agree on that we need to eat less meat and more substitutes. The conclusions of this research are that the environmental aspects considered in the analysed LCA-studies are mostly carbon footprint and land use. They show that beef have a larger environmental impact than meat substitutes. It is however recommended to do new studies on products with the same system boundaries and functional units to get a more accurate and comparable result.

  • 39.
    Blomgren, Axel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Stockholms grundvattenkvalitet: Bidrag till övergödningen av ytvattendrag och sjöar i Stockholmsområdet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Eutrophication is one of Sweden’s most severe environmental issues. Due to emissions through anthropogenic activity nutrients are added to aquatic systems. The latest analysis of the Stockholm municipality groundwater has examined the levels of nitrogen and phosphorus. Due to the fact that the groundwater is part of the hydrological cycle and will eventually reach the surface water, the condition of the groundwater will affect the recipient and correlating ecosystem. This report aims to analyze the levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in the groundwater of Stockholm based on current national quality standards, and to identify whether the groundwater is contributing to the eutrophication of the surface water bodies in the municipality of Stockholm. This is of significance regarding the water management in Stockholm municipality, based on the EU water framework directive, and the target of achieving good status for all water bodies. It is also of great importance regarding the Swedish environmental quality objectives.

    The groundwater quality analysis indicates high levels of phosphorus and ammonium. The nitrate and nitrite levels are only excessive in certain cases. Primarily, the levels of phosphorus and ammonium may, according to national quality standards, have eutrophic effect on surface water bodies. A cursory examination based on the flow directions of the groundwater, indicates that the municipality’s surface waters are supplied with water from the municipality’s groundwater. This correlation is represented in the analysis of groundwater quality and it is therefore concluded that the groundwater has a negative impact on the surface water bodies within the municipality. 

  • 40.
    Bodin, Robert
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Att välja färdsätt: En studie av de boendes resvanor och attityder samt av trafikens utsläpp i Hammarby Sjöstad2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since environmental concerns are currently considered more and more legitimate, an environmental debate is ongoing in many areas of society. Today, a worldwide urbanization is a fact, which makes it important to combine concepts like sustainability and the development of cities. Many areas can be included in such a discussion, and an example of that is urban transportation. The traveling habits of the denizens of cities are of great relevance to the development of a sustainable city, and in this report the traveling habits of residents in cities will be described and related to the current local transportation system. More specific, the aim of the report is to examine and to analyze traveling habits related to the inhabitants of the district of Hammarby Sjöstad in Stockholm and furthermore to describe the existing transportation system in the district and to account for its environmental impact. This analysis leads to a discussion about environmental issues related to energy consumption and to emissions in the transport sector, and a connection to the Hammarby model is being presented. The travel habits of the denizens have been examined by conducting a travel survey, which has been distributed to 250 households, where 72 responses have been collected. This material has then been analyzed quantitatively. The result shows that when it comes to the travels of the inhabitants made between Hammarby Sjöstad and other districts, most trips are made with a local tram, Tvärbanan. This transportation vessel can be considered to be the central means of transportation in the district, unlike bus traveling, which only makes up a small portion of the traveling. After the tram, traveling by car is the most common means of transportation to destinations outside Hammarby Sjöstad, with an average which seems to be lower than the national average. Concerning traveling made inside the district, over half of the trips are being made by foot, which can be explained by the limited size of Hammarby Sjöstad and by its long and narrow shape. Besides the travel survey a literature study has also been made with the goal of highlighting the environmental impact of the transport sector. Focus has been directed towards the main means of transportation in Stockholm, subway, tram, car and bus. This study shows that tram and subway are the most energy efficient means of transportation and preferable from an environmental standpoint thanks to their low emissions. The latter is also true for biogas buses, which do not emit any kind of carbon dioxide. The usage of cars and buses run by petrol or diesel is more problematic, with high energy consumption and emission levels. When this data is related to the result for the traveling survey, one can conclude that the tram Tvärbanan is a good alternative from an environmental standpoint and that its importance as main means of transportation in the district is positive. The traveling by car needs to decrease however, which will be a challenge considering how many of the respondents in the survey who stated they were dependent of their cars, but a transition to a greater usage of public transportation could be facilitated by an expanded departure frequency with few disruptions on the tram network or the bus services. Also, additional expansion of the public transportation could further decrease the usage of cars in the district. 

  • 41.
    Bodin, Robert
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    To Reuse or to Incinerate?: A case study of the environmental impacts of two alternative waste management strategies for household textile waste in nine municipalities in northern Stockholm, Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With an increasing human population in the world, textiles are part of current unsustainable consumption patterns. Unlike most other mass produced products available today however, textiles are often vital to satisfy human core needs, and cannot be considered superfluous. Textile materials can be problematic from an environmental perspective. Synthetics are made from non-renewable petroleum, while production natural textile materials are very resource intensive, and rely on non-renewable energy supplies.

    Many reports on textiles indicate that production and use have great environmental impacts compared to waste management. On the other hand, it is in the latter phase decided whether the textile should be reused, recycled or discarded. These different material flow alternatives greatly determine overall impacts, since the possibility of avoided production through reuse and recycling is an important factor to consider.

    The main goal of this report was, through the use of life cycle assessment (LCA), to evaluate the environmental impact of household textile waste management from reuse and disposal alternatives, when conducted through the activities of the Swedish waste management company SÖRAB. Two different waste management strategies/scenarios where compared: one centered around incineration of textile waste, specified as the incineration scenario, and one focused on a textile waste flow where the textiles are separated from household waste and sorted for reuse, recycling and incineration, specified as the reuse scenario. Due to the potential effects of displaced production through reuse and recycling, it was deemed important to additionally include the textile production phase besides the waste management phase in the LCA. Since the use of the textiles was considered outside of the sphere of influence of SÖRAB, this phase was excluded from the report.

    Results indicate that the reuse scenario is, in all impact categories investigated, preferable to the incineration scenario. The reason for this is the displaced production in the reuse scenario thanks to the fact that textiles sorted as reuse in the waste management phase are assumed to replace virgin textiles in the use phase. Since the production phase contributes with the vast majority of the environmental impacts, avoided production affects results greatly, by lowering total impacts. For a company like SÖRAB, the easiest way currently to contribute to lowering environmental impacts would be to inform and in different ways encourage households to increase sorting of textiles for reuse, instead of it being thrown in the household waste.

  • 42.
    Boley, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Kalkvärmelagring: Värmelagring med kalk genom kemiska reaktioner2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    store energy from solar panels in limestone through a chemical process, calcium hydroxide ⇔ calcium oxide. The product is designed for a small Swedish house according to the standards set out by the Central Bureau of Statistics. The energy is stored using the solar energy abundance in the summer and will be used to heat the house in winter when solar radiation is lacking.

    To verify what is possible for such a product has this report compiled relevant physical and chemical data and used this data to calculate the system efficiency.

    The conclusion of the report is that the proposed product and the method works but with large energy losses. These energy losses are based on the low power and inadequate insulation. The system has potential, but the product is not viable in its current state. 

  • 43.
    Book, Tony
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Svensson, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Hållbarhetsanalys av ett cykelinfrastrukturprojekt inom Stockholms stad: Utvärdering av ett cykelinfrastrukturprojekt via samhällsekonomisk nyttoanalys2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Striving towards sustainable development, in all of its aspects, is currently exceedingly relevant. Particularly since the awareness of the negative side effects caused by emissions, pollution and noise have increased. These effects are all present while developing one of society’s most vital functions, namely transport infrastructure. The transport system is, and has long been, unsustainable as cars and other motor vehicles, having a large environmental impact, have been prioritized. To reduce transport emissions the European Commission has stated that other modes of transportation, such as commuting, walking and cycling, should be given higher priority. Several major European cities have implemented visions and plans to improve the possibility to bicycle. Stockholm is one of these cities and a handful of projects have thus been implemented to renovate the city’s cycling network. Despite these bicycle investments few sustainability analyses are made for bicycle infrastructure projects, which can be problematic since decision makers often lack proper support to justify investments.

    This work has examined the social, economic and ecological sustainability of a bicycle infrastructure project by comparing the investment costs of the project against its social benefits in a cost-benefit analysis (CBA). These benefits include health, time, comfort, accident risk and environment, which have been calculated through a cost benefit analysis (CBA). The examined project consists of a roughly 440 yard path for pedestrians and bicyclists located along Skärholmsvägen, southwest of the Stockholm city centre. Previously the road was lined with two bicycle fields on either side of the road with no path for pedestrians existing prior to the renovation. The project is planned to end during 2015 and the estimated cost amounts to 4,16-5 million SEK.

    In a CBA the effects which the project generates are initially investigated to assess which of the effects to consider in the analysis. In this work, health benefits, time benefits, comfort benefits, traffic accidents and environmental benefits have been analyzed. After the effects have been quantified these quantities are converted into monetary values to enable a comparison between the effects and the budget of the project. The value for health benefit is determined through decreased mortality risk and the value of a statistical life (VSL), the time benefit is calculated through an increased average velocity, the comfort benefit is determined through separating cyclists from car traffic, accident risk is estimated through the change in the bicyclists traffic conditions and the environmental benefit is calculated through the share of new cyclists who previously commuted by car.

    The project will, according to performed calculations, result in a societal benefit of in between 1.05 million SEK and 2.88 million SEK depending on the amount of performed assumptions. The effect which contributed the most to this benefit is the health benefit with a contribution of in between 919,000 SEK and 2.76 million SEK. The effect which contributed the least to the societal benefit is the environmental benefit with a contribution of in between 168 SEK and 630 SEK. The benefit can then be compared with the budget of the project which is estimated to amount to at least 4.16 million SEK. However the planned cost for the project amounts to 5 million SEK. The project will thus eventually yield a societal cost of in between 1.28 million SEK and 3.95 million SEK according to the calculations performed.

    The project can possibly be considered sustainable if the percentage of the width of the path corresponds to the percentage of its cost. Since the environmental effect could be neglected in this project compared to the other effects additional tools would thus be required to assess the environmental aspects of the project. This is an indication of CBA being an incomplete analysis tool to assess sustainability. 

  • 44.
    Borg, Emelie
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Pereira de Moraes, Felicia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Varför sorterar inte Lidingöbor ut sitt matavfall?: Matavfallsinsamling för småhushåll på Lidingö2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lidingö has since 2010 offered residents to become subscribers of the food waste collection service. Despite annual campaigns they do not have the same connection rates as municipalities that have a taxation and collection system that works similarly. The purpose of this work is therefore to answer; Why does not single-family houses sort out food waste in Lidingö stad despite they have the conditions to do it? Through literature studies and a questionnaire sent to residents in Lidingö, reasons have been identified as for why the majority of small-family households are not subscribers, and what means Lidingö stad can use to get more subscribers. What was identified as a reason why citizens of Lidingö did not sort was primarily that they were worried about smell, they had too little food waste and they lacked information. Recommended campaigns that were identified through results from literature studies in behavioural change and comparison with other municipalities are; use informers or door-stepping and involve residents in the functioning and operation of the system. The final action proposals for Lidingö stad is to make information better visible and in a way that makes the residents feel personally involved in sorting and reducing the thresholds in the system.

  • 45.
    Borg, Gustaf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Kennerstedt, Marcus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Temporära bostäder i den socialt hållbara staden2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of the world’s population live in the cities, and even more will live there in the future. This urbanization puts great demands on urban development, at the same time as our times great challenge will be to make our society sustainable. There are many ideas of how the urban development should be done. One method is to use temporary housing, something which has been done at Frihamnen in Gothenburg. This raises the question if similar projects are applicable on a bigger scale, whilst still not conflicting with our pursuit for sustainability?

    Social sustainable urban development and social sustainability walks hand in hand. One creates platforms for the other. The terms have broad definitions within the literature, although important aspects that often is highlighted consists of social interaction, participation, variation and collaboration to create social sustainability. Temporary installments have become a more frequent used and appreciated phenomenon within urban development since one does not commit to long term solutions, and the process of building such places may be in collaboration with the citizens. The thesis is done partly on a case-study of Frihamnen, where temporary housing has a central place in the planning process. Frihamnen has other plans to build other temporary installments in the nearby area, such as Jubileumsparken. Many of the dimensions of social sustainability will need to be identified after the project, but it is possible to draw parallels already between the project and social sustainability. Examples of such is participation and a variation of functions.

    Temporary housing does not affect social sustainability much more than permanent buildings would do. However, they should be a part of an area that consists of temporary installments, and can in that way be a part of social sustainable urban development. The topic about temporary housing within social sustainability and planning is relative unexplored, which means that it is hard to make general conclusions.

  • 46.
    Boström, Fanny
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Lundström, Johanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Biokols struktur och dess förmåga att adsorbera näringsämnen2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project is to create a deeper understanding of biochar’s ability to adsorbnutrients. In the long run the aim is to find a way to use the most suitable structures of biocharfor a maximum adsorption of different kinds of nutrients. The objective of this project is tofind, through case studies and practical experiments, an effective method to examine andanalyze the structure of biochars and their ability to adsorb nitrates and phosphates.

    The conclusion of the project was that analysis of the biochar’s ability to adsorb is a complexmatter. The BET-analysis is a good method to find the structure of the biochar. However, iodinenumber analysis could be a better alternative to directly find a value on the biochar’s ability toadsorb. The ICP-analysis of the solutions only works for phosphor, therefore spectroscopywould be a better alternative since it also can detect nitrogen and the different compounds.

  • 47.
    Bramsäter, Jenny
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Lundgren, Kajsa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Study on the Dynamic Control of Dam Operating Water Levels of Yayangshan Dam in Flood Season2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Water levels up- and downstream of dams are strongly affected by water levels in the reservoir as well as the discharge of the dam. To ensure that no harm comes to buildings, bridges or agricultural land it is important to ensure that the water level in the reservoir is adjusted to handle large floods. This report studies within what range the water level in the reservoir of the Yayangshan dam, located in Lixian River, can vary without causing any flooding downstream the dam or at the Old and New Babian Bridge located upstream the dam. By calculation of the designed flood, flood routing- and backwater computation, initial water level ranges in the reservoir have been set for the pre-flood, main flood and latter flood season for damages to be avoided. Due to the far distance between the dam site and the bridges, backwater effects had no influence on the limitations of the initial water level in the reservoir. 

  • 48.
    Brandt, Robert
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Miljösystemanalys av förorenade muddermassor utifrån ett Livscykelperspektiv2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bottom sediments in the ports around the Baltic Sea have become significantly contaminated by pollutants. The need for dredging operations is therefore significant. Traditional ways of handling sediments have been tipping it at sea or disposal in landfill. More recently, stabilization of masses has been a popular way of handling sediments, from an environmental point of view.

    This study has using a life cycle perspective. It shows that stabilization of masses is a good way of handling sediments and that landfill gives a large environmental impact within the investigated environmental impact categories. The investigated categories were global warming, acidification, eutrophication, use of abiotic resources and energy consumption.

    A Life Cycle Assessment was performed with the port of Gävle as a case study. The port is planning to dredge 4 millions cubic meters of sediments. One million is considered contaminated and must be handled carefully. The port of Gävle has chosen to stabilize the contaminated sediments and a goal has been to investigate whether stabilization is the best handling alternative for the port of Gävle.

    The study shows that stabilization of dredged material leaves a small environmental impact in comparison to the other alternatives. That is partly explained by the transport of sediments you can avoid.

    An important environmental aspect is that the production of material for stabilization causes a big impact which is avoided with stabilization.

    From an overall point of view, it is hard to say which alternative is best or worst, all alternatives have booth advantages and disadvantages.

    Advisable for the Port of Gävle is stabilization, landfilling resulted in the largest environmental impacts for all studied alternatives in all impact categories.

    The study indicates that there is always a need to do a specific case study because ports are site specific, where the properties of the sediments and handling alternatives of them have to be analyzed correctly.

    This study was of a screening nature, where only large impacts were considered and quantified. More studies should be performed for more accurate results. 

  • 49.
    Briggner, Viktor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Grahn, Pontus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Johansson, Linus
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Centralized Versus Distributed State Estimation for Hybrid AC/DC Grid2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    State estimation enables for values throughout a power transmission grid to be known with a higher level of certainty. New technologies for bulk power transmission and power grid measuring enables for new possibilities in the energy sector and it is required that state estimation algorithms are developed to adapt to these new technologies. This project aims to develop a state estimator (SE) that is modified for hybrid AC/HVDC grids with voltage source converters (VSC) and phasor measurement units (PMU). Two different sets of architectures are tested. The centralized architecture where one common SE is implemented for both AC and DC grids or the distributed where a separate SE for every grid is used. The method used for the SE is the weighted least square (WLS) method. The SE will be developed based on the power grid model ’The CIGRE B4 DC Grid Test System’, designed by the International Council on Large Electric Systems (CIGRE) as a benchmark system. The SE is subject to four different scenarios in order to evaluate the quality of the SE, benefits of added phasor measurements and choice of architecture for the SE. The results of the tests show that the developed SE improves the accuracy of state values on the DC grid. However, regarding the AC state values of the converters the results of the test are ambiguous. Furthermore the distributed architecture offered slightly less accurate AC values than the centralized. The addition of PMU measurements improved the error of the estimated values. 

  • 50.
    Broberg, Josephine
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Ericson, Molly
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Frid, Gustav
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Biofuel: - Sustainability of the Jatropha cultivation in Zambia2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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