Change search
Refine search result
12345 1 - 50 of 216
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the 'Create feeds' function.
  • 1.
    Adrodegari, Federico
    et al.
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Saccani, Nicola
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Hanken School Econ, Finland.
    A framework for PSS business models: formalization and application2016In: PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS ACROSS LIFE CYCLE, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2016, Vol. 47, p. 519-524Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to successfully move "from products to solutions", companies need to redesign their business model. Nevertheless, service oriented BMs in product-centric firms are under-investigated in the literature: very few works develop a scheme of analysis of such BMs. To provide a first step into closing this gap, we propose a new framework to describe service-oriented BMs, pointing out the main BM components and related PSS characteristics. Thus, the proposed framework aims to help companies to take into account the relevant elements that need to be designed to successfully implement a service-oriented BM and thus guide strategic decisions. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 2.
    Adrodegari, Federico
    et al.
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Saccani, Nicola
    University of Brescia, Italy.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Hanken School Econ, Finland.
    Vilo, Jyrki
    KINE Robot Solut, Finland.
    PSS business model conceptualization and application2017In: Production planning & control (Print), ISSN 0953-7287, E-ISSN 1366-5871, Vol. 28, no 15, p. 1251-1263Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The discussion about business models has gained considerable attention in the last decade. Business model frameworks have been developed in the literature as management methods helping companies to comprehend and analyse their current business logic and guide the deployment of new strategies. In response to calls for a deeper understanding of the application of a business model approach to product-service systems (PSS), this study develops a two-level hierarchical framework that (i) includes a set of components with pertinent, second-order variables to take into account when undergoing the shift from products to solutions; (ii) supports industrial companies, especially SMEs, in designing their future business model and in consistently planning the actions needed to implement it. The framework was applied and refined within real-life settings. The application to KINE - a robot solutions supplier - shows how key challenges faced by servitization firms may be thoroughly addressed through the adoption of a business model perspective.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-08-17 17:02
  • 3.
    Ahlgren-Moritz, Charlotte
    et al.
    Malmö högskola.
    Alm, Anna-Karin
    Malmö högskola.
    Christersson, Cecilia
    Malmö högskola.
    Eikelboom Sällström, Anette
    Enheten för externa relationer, Umeå universitet.
    Esbjörnsson, Mattias
    Malmö högskola.
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle, Malmö högskola.
    Marell, Agneta
    Samverkan och innovation, Umeå universitet.
    Persson, Jeanette
    Innovation och utveckling, Malmö högskola.
    Ramsten, Anna-Carin
    Linköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Reinhold, Mats
    Enheten för externa relationer, Umeå universitet.
    Sjögren, Karin
    Malmö högskola.
    Sörensson, Victoria
    Enheten för externa relationer, Umeå universitet.
    Värbrand, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vägen till samverkanssäkrad utbildning. [1]: Metoder och strategier2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Universitet och högskolor bidrar till samhällsutvecklingen genom att forskningsbaserad kunskap tillämpas av olika aktörer i samhället. För att möta dagens och morgondagens samhällsutmaningar utgör således kunskapsutbyte och samverkan mellan lärosäten och samhället en värdefull möjlighet. Att ha starka relationer med samhällets aktörer identifieras också som viktigt i utvecklingen av ett internationellt starkt lärosäte.

    Samverkan i högre utbildning främjar samhällets förändringsförmåga och stärker utbildningens kvalitet, men samverkan förbereder också studenterna för ett livslångt lärande och underlättar övergången mellan utbildning och arbetsliv. Ett lärosäte i nära samverkan med aktörer i samhället är ett relevant lärosäte, det vill säga ett lärosäte som är till nytta för sin omvärld och för sina medarbetare och studenter.

    Ett grundläggande problem vad gäller möjligheterna att integrera samverkan i akademisk utbildning står att finna i statens fördelning av medel till lärosätena. De statliga medlen utgår nämligen i två separata anslag, ett vardera för de båda huvuduppdragen utbildning och forskning. Samverkan kan sägas ingå i bägge uppdragen. Till skillnad från forskningssamverkan finns det för utbildningssamverkan ingen särskild uppföljning och inte heller några ekonomiska incitament. Utvärdering av forskning och utbildning bör således breddas så att kvalitetsstärkande samverkansinslag också inkluderas i resursfördelningsprinciperna. Statens bristande strukturer för fördelning och uppföljning återspeglas i hur lärosätena fördelar resurser till och följer upp samverkan: lärare ges sällan resurser (i form av särskild tid) för att på ett pedagogiskt genomtänkt sätt kunna inkludera samverkansinslag i undervisningen; samverkan är sällan meriterande eller lönegrundande; och den utbildningssamverkan som bedrivs följs sällan upp – varken på institutions-, fakultets- eller lärosätesnivå. Samma sak kan sägas gälla på nationell nivå – det samverkande lärosätet erhåller inga extra anslag och det bestraffas ej heller för försummelse av detsamma. Att göra samverkan till en integrerad del av utbildningen innebär att samverkan bör ingå i de pedagogiska modeller som lärare använder för att leda studenternas kunskapsutveckling mot de mål som finns angivna i kurs- och utbildningsplaner. Det betyder också att arbetet med samverkan bör inkluderas i processer för styrning, planering och uppföljning av utbildning och undervisning på såväl kurs- och programnivå som på institutions-, fakultets- och lärosätesnivå. Att göra samverkan till en integrerad del av utbildningen är att sträva mot att externa aktörer ska bli en självklar del i den dagliga verksamheten – för studenter såväl som för medarbetare och för de organisationer man samverkar med. För att svenska lärosäten ska ges en realistisk möjlighet att göra samverkan till en integrerad del av utbildningsverksamheten krävs det framför allt följande:

    • att politiker och departement utformar ett fördelningssystem där framgångsrika samverkansinsatser inom utbildningen leder till en förstärkning av resursbasen på lärosätena;
    • att lärosätesledningar tar tydlig ställning för samverkansfrågan i sina strategiska styrdokument och att samverkan införs i lärosätenas kvalitetssäkringssystem för utbildning, samt att lärosätena inför system för att styra och följa upp samverkan i utbildningen på lärosätesövergripande nivå;
    • att ledningen för fakulteter, institutioner eller motsvarande omsätter lärosätets strategiska åtaganden i handlingsplaner och lokala styrdokument samt utformar system för dokumentation, styrning och uppföljning av samverkan i utbildningsprogram;
    • att lärare samt kurs- och programansvariga inför samverkan i utbildningens styrande dokument (t.ex. kurs- och utbildningsplaner) samt i den ordinarie undervisningsverksamheten.

    Dessutom bör lärosätena – både gemensamt men också vart och ett för sig – införa system och karriärvägar där medarbetares insatser i det vardagliga samverkansarbetet uppmärksammas och belönas.

    Mot bakgrund av detta kan man konstatera att det är angeläget att lärosätenas strategiska arbete avseende utveckling och uppföljning av samverkan i utbildningen vidareutvecklas. Men, med vilka verktyg, var i verksamheten och på vilka sätt?

    I följande skrift samlas erfarenheter och goda exempel gjorda inom ramen för ett flerårigt lärosätesövergripande samarbetsprojekt, Samverkanssäkrade utbildningsprogram, där utgångspunkten har varit att identifiera strategier och metoder för att integrera samverkan i utbildningsprogram. Målet har varit att undersöka och beskriva hur samverkan kan vara ett medel som bidrar till att stärka utbildningens kvalitet och relevans, samt ge förslag på hur vägen till samverkanssäkrad utbildning kan se ut.

    Den centrala slutsatsen är att samverkan, när den är en integrerad del av utbildningen, bidrar till kvalitet och säkerställer att utbildningen blir till nytta för samhället. Det finns också andra vinster med att bedriva ett systematiskt samverkansarbete, till exempel att det leder till pedagogisk utveckling för undervisande personal, att det ökar förutsättningarna för ett utmaningsbaserat lärande med studenten i centrum, att det underlättar övergången från studier till arbetsliv, och att det möjliggör fördjupade relationer med den värld lärosätet finns i. Resan mot samverkanssäkrad utbildning är, med andra ord, mödan väl värd.

  • 4.
    Ahlgren-Moritz, Charlotte
    et al.
    Malmö högskola.
    Alm, Anna-Karin
    Malmö högskola.
    Christersson, Cecilia
    Malmö högskola.
    Eikelboom Sällström, Anette
    Enheten för externa relationer, Umeå universitet.
    Esbjörnsson, Mattias
    Malmö högskola.
    Jacobsson, Andreas
    Fakulteten för teknik och samhälle, Malmö högskola.
    Marell, Agneta
    Samverkan och innovation, Umeå universitet.
    Persson, Jeanette
    Innovation och utveckling, Malmö högskola.
    Ramsten, Anna-Carin
    Linköping University, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Reinhold, Mats
    Enheten för externa relationer, Umeå universitet.
    Sjögren, Karin
    Malmö högskola.
    Sörensson, Victoria
    Enheten för externa relationer, Umeå universitet.
    Värbrand, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Vägen till samverkanssäkrad utbildning. [2]: Möjligheter och utmaningar2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Universitet och högskolor bidrar till samhällsutvecklingen genom att forskningsbaserad kunskap tillämpas av olika aktörer i samhället. För att möta dagens och morgondagens samhällsutmaningar utgör således kunskapsutbyte och samverkan mellan lärosäten och samhället en värdefull möjlighet. Att ha starka relationer med samhällets aktörer identifieras också som viktigt i utvecklingen av ett internationellt starkt lärosäte.

    Samverkan i högre utbildning främjar samhällets förändringsförmåga och stärker utbildningens kvalitet, men samverkan förbereder också studenterna för ett livslångt lärande och underlättar övergången mellan utbildning och arbetsliv. Ett lärosäte i nära samverkan med aktörer i samhället är ett relevant lärosäte, det vill säga ett lärosäte som är till nytta för sin omvärld och för sina medarbetare och studenter.

    Ett grundläggande problem vad gäller möjligheterna att integrera samverkan i akademisk utbildning står att finna i statens fördelning av medel till lärosätena. De statliga medlen utgår nämligen i två separata anslag, ett vardera för de båda huvuduppdragen utbildning och forskning. Samverkan kan sägas ingå i bägge uppdragen. Till skillnad från forskningssamverkan finns det för utbildningssamverkan ingen särskild uppföljning och inte heller några ekonomiska incitament. Utvärdering av forskning och utbildning bör således breddas så att kvalitetsstärkande samverkansinslag också inkluderas i resursfördelningsprinciperna. Statens bristande strukturer för fördelning och uppföljning återspeglas i hur lärosätena fördelar resurser till och följer upp samverkan: lärare ges sällan resurser (i form av särskild tid) för att på ett pedagogiskt genomtänkt sätt kunna inkludera samverkansinslag i undervisningen; samverkan är sällan meriterande eller lönegrundande; och den utbildningssamverkan som bedrivs följs sällan upp – varken på institutions-, fakultets- eller lärosätesnivå. Samma sak kan sägas gälla på nationell nivå – det samverkande lärosätet erhåller inga extra anslag och det bestraffas ej heller för försummelse av detsamma. Att göra samverkan till en integrerad del av utbildningen innebär att samverkan bör ingå i de pedagogiska modeller som lärare använder för att leda studenternas kunskapsutveckling mot de mål som finns angivna i kurs- och utbildningsplaner. Det betyder också att arbetet med samverkan bör inkluderas i processer för styrning, planering och uppföljning av utbildning och undervisning på såväl kurs- och programnivå som på institutions-, fakultets- och lärosätesnivå. Att göra samverkan till en integrerad del av utbildningen är att sträva mot att externa aktörer ska bli en självklar del i den dagliga verksamheten – för studenter såväl som för medarbetare och för de organisationer man samverkar med. För att svenska lärosäten ska ges en realistisk möjlighet att göra samverkan till en integrerad del av utbildningsverksamheten krävs det framför allt följande:

    • att politiker och departement utformar ett fördelningssystem där framgångsrika samverkansinsatser inom utbildningen leder till en förstärkning av resursbasen på lärosätena;
    • att lärosätesledningar tar tydlig ställning för samverkansfrågan i sina strategiska styrdokument och att samverkan införs i lärosätenas kvalitetssäkringssystem för utbildning, samt att lärosätena inför system för att styra och följa upp samverkan i utbildningen på lärosätesövergripande nivå;
    • att ledningen för fakulteter, institutioner eller motsvarande omsätter lärosätets strategiska åtaganden i handlingsplaner och lokala styrdokument samt utformar system för dokumentation, styrning och uppföljning av samverkan i utbildningsprogram;
    • att lärare samt kurs- och programansvariga inför samverkan i utbildningens styrande dokument (t.ex. kurs- och utbildningsplaner) samt i den ordinarie undervisningsverksamheten.

    Dessutom bör lärosätena – både gemensamt men också vart och ett för sig – införa system och karriärvägar där medarbetares insatser i det vardagliga samverkansarbetet uppmärksammas och belönas.

    Mot bakgrund av detta kan man konstatera att det är angeläget att lärosätenas strategiska arbete avseende utveckling och uppföljning av samverkan i utbildningen vidareutvecklas. Men, med vilka verktyg, var i verksamheten och på vilka sätt?

    I följande skrift samlas erfarenheter och goda exempel gjorda inom ramen för ett flerårigt lärosätesövergripande samarbetsprojekt, Samverkanssäkrade utbildningsprogram, där utgångspunkten har varit att identifiera strategier och metoder för att integrera samverkan i utbildningsprogram. Målet har varit att undersöka och beskriva hur samverkan kan vara ett medel som bidrar till att stärka utbildningens kvalitet och relevans, samt ge förslag på hur vägen till samverkanssäkrad utbildning kan se ut.

    Den centrala slutsatsen är att samverkan, när den är en integrerad del av utbildningen, bidrar till kvalitet och säkerställer att utbildningen blir till nytta för samhället. Det finns också andra vinster med att bedriva ett systematiskt samverkansarbete, till exempel att det leder till pedagogisk utveckling för undervisande personal, att det ökar förutsättningarna för ett utmaningsbaserat lärande med studenten i centrum, att det underlättar övergången från studier till arbetsliv, och att det möjliggör fördjupade relationer med den värld lärosätet finns i. Resan mot samverkanssäkrad utbildning är, med andra ord, mödan väl värd.

  • 5.
    Almqvist, Roland M.
    et al.
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Graaf, Johan
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Jannesson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Parment, Anders
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Skoog, Matti
    Företagsekonomi, Åbo akademi / Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet.
    Boken om ekonomistyrning2016 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna bok ger en bred introduktion till ämnet ekonomistyrning. Boken speglar ekonomistyrningens relevans för dagens organisationer inom näringsliv, offentlig sektor och civilsamhälle. Författarna går igenom de grundläggande modeller, verktyg och processer som traditionell ekonomistyrning erbjuder. Här märks ekonomiska ansvarsenheter, resultat- och balansräkning, kassaflödesanalys, nyckeltal, belöningssystem, budgetering, kalkylering på kort och lång sikt, internpriser samt avvikelseanalys.

    Boken om ekonomistyrning utgår från att ekonomistyrningen har en central roll i att skapa mer hållbara organisationer och lägger betydande vikt vid aspekter som sociala och miljömässiga kostnader, projektstyrning, miljöinvesteringar och humankapital. Boken har därmed ett tydligt hållbarhets- och samhällsperspektiv.

    Författarna betonar även vikten av att ekonomistyrningen utgör en välavvägd helhet genom den så kallade styrmixen. En genomtänkt styrmix ger verktyg för att motivera medarbetare att arbeta mot gemensamma mål och skapa konkurrenskraftiga organisationer. Till boken finns ett rikt övningsmaterial i form av en övningsbok.

  • 6.
    Arwinge, Olof
    et al.
    Swedbank, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet, Sweden.
    Olve, Nils-Göran
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    Intern styrning och kontroll med särskilt fokus på försäkringssektorn2015In: Trovärdighet och förtroende i ekonomiska relationer / [ed] Peter Öhman, Heléne Lundberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2015, 1, p. 95-124Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    De fem servicebranscherna bank, försäkring, pension, fastighet och revision har viktiga samhällsfunktioner och därmed behov av att skapa trovärdiga och förtroendefulla ekonomiska relationer. Detta förutsätter informationsutbyte, styrning, kontroll och samverkan. Formerna för detta, liksom för arbetssätt och beslutsfattande, har förändrats, och i Trovärdighet och förtroende i ekonomiska relationer visas hur detta har skapat både problem och möjligheter.

    I boken diskuteras de fem servicebranschernas verksamhet såväl teoretiskt som praktiskt. Vi får ta del av både den historiska framväxten och de utmaningar branscherna står inför idag. Det ges också exempel på hur ökad reglering, teknikutveckling och globalisering kommit att påverka utvecklingen, på gott och ont. I ett summerande kapitel diskuterar representanter från branscherna de resultat som presenterats i bokens övriga delar.

    Boken vänder sig i första hand till universitets- och högskole­studenter i företagsekonomi och service management, men även till forskare samt yrkesverksamma inom de fem branscherna.

  • 7.
    Asgharian Bourkheili, Ehsan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Enhancing SMEs competitive advantage by franchising2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although there is a large body of literature on franchising systems that are mainly produced from the franchisor's perspective, looking at franchising from the franchisee's point of view has remained largely uninvestigated. Creating and sustaining competitive advantage is the prerequisite for the franchisee's (as an SME) survival in today's competitive environment. This research's comprehensive literature review shows three major groups of factors influencing the franchisee’s competitive advantage, including the franchisor-related factors, the franchisee-related factors, and factors associated with the franchisor-franchisee relationship. Since the franchisor has a dominant role in the business, it can influence the franchisee in many ways. Therefore, it is crucial to put special emphasis on how the franchisor-related factors may influence the franchisee business success.

    In light of the discussion above, this study was carried out to understand how franchisor-related factors, through enhancing/creating competitive advantage, might influence the franchisee’s business success. According to the literature on competitive advantage, three clusters of literature as three perspectives were reviewed and discussed. These include the resource-based view, the industry structure view, and the relational view. In the resource-based view, the firm's resources are considered as a source of competitive advantage, but in the relational view, not only the firm's internal resources, but also the interfirm resources are the source of competitive advantage. Therefore, this perspective has a significant contribution to this study. In addition to services provided services by the franchisor, as the resources, franchisor organizational factors specifically entrepreneurial orientation, and absorptive capacity were found relevant in the franchisee's competitive advantage. Accordingly, an integrative theoretical/analytical framework was built and used throughout the study.

    Because of exploratory nature of the study, the qualitative method was chosen and applied. Along with the purpose of the study, a multiple-case study research strategy consisting of seven cases, in two franchising systems, was performed. The results of the analysis confirm that services provided by the franchisor, the franchisors’ entrepreneurial orientation, and the franchisees’ absorptive capacity have a significant role in enhancement of the franchisees’ competitive advantage. Other significant results of the franchisor-related factors enhancing competitive advantage were found to be: the speed of raw material supply, keeping consistency in quality, economy of scale and keeping prices competitive. Furthermore, the franchisor enhances the franchisee's competitive advantage by transferring business know-how and creating collective tacit knowledge, and as well improvement in the franchisee-specific human capital. Intellectual property in a franchise system through transferring the first mover advantage to the franchisee and creating the differentiated position affect the franchisee's competitive advantage. The franchisor’s entrepreneurial orientation creates the first-mover advantage for the franchisee. Similarly, the franchisor's absorptive capacity, through creating the first-mover advantage and improving the franchisee's social capital, enhances the franchisee's competitive advantage.

  • 8.
    Asgharian Bourkheili, Ehsan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Performance in Franchise Systems: The Franchisee Perspective2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, franchising as an organizational form has received a lot of attention from researchers and practitioners alike. While many studies have examined various aspects of franchising from the franchisor's perspective, little research has taken the franchisee’s perspective. Therefore, given the importance of franchisees in a franchise system, the lack of research about consequences from the franchisee's perspective, and that many of the previous studies have taken a top-bottom view, this research concentrated on the franchisee's performance. This study focused on business format franchising in the restaurant industry in two countries, Iran and Sweden.

    In this study, the three perspectives of entrepreneurship, strategic management, and marketing were used to study the franchisee’s performance. Moreover, the resourcebased view, relational view, and relational exchange theory have been used to find the influential factors in a franchisee’s performance. Therefore, by considering franchising as a mutual relationship and examining the influential factors in a franchisee's performance, the related factors of both the franchisor and franchisee, as well as the relationship between them, were examined.

    According to the franchisee’s related factors, the franchisor's related factors, and the relationship and environmental factors, 12 main hypotheses and 9 sub-hypotheses were developed. In total, 191 usable questionnaires from Sweden and Iran, comprising a response rate of 22 percent, were returned from the franchisees. In this study, confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the construct measurement; to test the hypothesis, hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed. Moreover, the Chow test was conducted to integrate the data from these two countries.

    A primary contribution of this study is taking a bottom-top view in franchising research. This study also provided a detailed and holistic view about the consequences of franchising for franchisees. Moreover, this study, offers important contributions toward understanding entrepreneurial activities, as a controversial issue, in franchising outlets.

    The results provide interesting insights into the franchisee’s performance. While the franchisees’ related factors of absorptive capacity, Kirznerian entrepreneurial orientation, and social capital positively affected their performance, Schumpeterian entrepreneurial orientation and human capital did not affect their performance. Moreover, the franchisor’s related factors of system profitability, brand reputation, advertisement and providing raw material had a positive influence on the performance. However, training did not cause a difference in the franchisee’s performance. All relationship factors also positively affected the performance, and conflict and satisfaction mediated the relationship between trust and performance. Finally, the implications of this study and suggestions for further contributions in this stream of research are discussed.

  • 9.
    Asgharian, Ehsan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Steffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Enhancing the franchisees’ performance: A resource-based view2012In: The Business & Management Review, ISSN 2047-2854, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 220-232Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying the influential factors in business’ performance is an important cornerstone in business research. Although the study of franchise failure and success has received significant attention among researchers, the lack of knowledge about influential factors on franchisees’ performance as an integral part of the franchise system, as well as the consequences of franchising, has resulted in a gap in the franchise literature. According to previous literature, business success and failure results from the three major elements of resources, capacity and competency. Given the firm’s resources have a considerable share in explaining the variation of firms’ performance, the resource-based view provides an outstanding theoretical explanation for varying performance of the firms, and it looks to be promising for analyzing the franchisee’s performance. In franchising systems, provided services by the franchisor have a crucial role in franchisees’ performance. Therefore, this research was conducted to show how provided services by the franchisor, through impact on product and services’ quality, consistency, price and customer awareness, could enhance the franchisee’s performance.

  • 10.
    Asgharian, Ehsan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Steffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Entrepreneurial orientation in franchising systems: A franchisee perspective2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the importance of entrepreneurial activities and the role of franchisees in the generation of new ideas and innovations in the franchise system, there are limited studies on the conduct of the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) within the context of franchising and from the franchisee perspective. Although in a franchise system, the franchisor always tries to develop the standardization across the system to take advantage of cost minimization, different local environments require some flexibilities and adaptation in a franchisor policy (Falbe et al., 1999). Therefore, the franchisor should balance between standardization and adaptation, and display the entrepreneurial behaviors to take advantage of local market opportunities (Bradach, 1997). Given the important role of franchising in global wealth creation, understanding the extent to which an EO is desirable in franchise systems is an area which merits attention (Dada and Watson, 2012). Therefore, this study examines the entrepreneurial orientation in the franchised outlets. Findings from this study show that innovativeness in a franchise system is different in the core and peripheral elements of a product or service. The franchisor in a franchise system restricts the franchisees for innovation in "peripheral" elements of products. In addition, the franchisor concentrates on the innovation in the "core" elements. Both the franchisor and franchisee equally share the risk in a franchise system, and the franchisee takes even more risk in entering the new market and bearing the financial risk. The franchisee's autonomy in a franchise system is limited to the decision making about the peripheral elements. The franchisor almost always thinks about the future and seeks new opportunity in the industry; in fact, the franchisor in a system proactively looks for new opportunities. In contrast, the franchisees in a franchise system aggressively react to local competitors and apply the proper strategy to overcome them.

  • 11.
    Asgharian, Ehsan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Steffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Entrepreneurial process in franchised outlets2013In: Journal of WEI Business and Economics, E-ISSN 2166-7918, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 59-71Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although in recent years the study of franchise systems has been the subject of many academic studies, most of them have studied franchise systems from the franchisor's point of view, and the franchisee point of view has received only limited attention. Researchers in business fields have adopted four main perspectives in the study of franchising: strategy, economics, marketing, and entrepreneurship. From an entrepreneurship perspective, while there is no doubt about considering a franchisor's business as an entrepreneurial firm, considering the franchisee's activities during the running and managing of an outlet as an entrepreneurial firm is disputed. An entrepreneurial firm includes involvement in product innovation, commitment to calculated risk, proactiveness and aggressiveness. While the diversity of definitions about entrepreneurship has caused a problem to understand what an entrepreneurial firm is, a process-focused approach offers much unexplored potential for understanding the nature of entrepreneurship in entrepreneurial firms. Therefore, due to the pivotal role of an entrepreneurial process in the nature of entrepreneurship, and considering the entrepreneurial process as the core unit of analysis in entrepreneurial firms, this article aims to study what happens during the entrepreneurial process in a franchised outlet. This study shows, although franchisees are restricted about product innovation, and franchisor reduces the risk of business for them, the franchisor never can omit the risk for franchisee. Moreover, many product innovations in the franchise system stem from the franchisee's ideas, and the franchisor will never be able to eliminate the risk for the franchisees. The franchisee's business also encompasses all dimensions of the entrepreneurial process as the unique features of entrepreneurial firms.

  • 12.
    Asgharian, Ehsan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Steffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Franchisees’ Activities as Entrepreneurship2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, franchising has turned into one of the fastest-growing business forms. Research in franchising has been viewed through the four major perspectives of economics, strategy, marketing and entrepreneurship. Although there is a consensus that the franchisors’ activities are considered as entrepreneurship, this notion is disputed with regard to franchisees. A paradox in entrepreneurial activities of the franchisee has caused doubt in considering franchisees’ activities as entrepreneurship. On the one hand, in a franchisee context, some believe opportunity is always identified and that the franchisor helps the franchisees in exploitation. On the other hand, the opposing view considers a franchisee as an entrepreneur who focuses on opportunity, risk and innovation. Ignoring the franchisees’ capabilities and abilities in innovation and introducing new products can prevent a franchise system from taking advantage of environmental change. Therefore, due to the importance of identification of unique aspects of entrepreneurship research rather than unique definition of entrepreneurship, and attention to entrepreneurial process as a core unit of analysis, this research will examine whether franchisees’ activities can be considered as entrepreneurship. According to the Shane model, the entrepreneurial process involves the existence of profitbased (objective) opportunities, risk-taking and some kind of innovation. Nature of opportunity in franchised outlets is closer to Kirznerian's view than Schumpeterian's  view. Sources of opportunities in franchised outlets are not so clear, like the introduction of a new restaurant in a storefront where none had existed before. In Schumpeter's view, according to different types of innovation, franchisees’ operations involve product-market  innovativeness to include market research, product design, and innovations in advertising and promotion. Regarding risk-taking as the third dimension of the entrepreneurial process, franchisees risk their capital. Although it seems in franchise systems that risk for the  franchisee is, to some extent, shared with the franchisor, no franchisor will be able to eliminate the financial, business and personal risk of the franchisees. The franchisor also transfers the risk of expanding into new markets to the franchisees. In sum, franchisees do almost all of the functions of other entrepreneurs, except generating new ideas in the initial step of running a business.

  • 13.
    Ax, Christian
    et al.
    Handelshögskolan vid Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg.
    Cöster, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Iveroth, Einar
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet, Uppsala.
    Strategisk prissättning: sambandet mellan strategi, prismodeller och kostnadskalkyler2016In: Strategisk ekonomistyrning: med dialog i fokus / [ed] Fredrik Nilsson, Carl-Johan Petri, Alf Westelius, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, p. 123-154Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Biggemann, Sergio
    et al.
    New Zealand.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maley, Jane
    Creation and implementation of business solutions: Effects on supplier firms’ network identity and position2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research investigates the dynamic effects that the creation and implementation of business solutions have on the supplier’s network position and identity. The study is based on publicly available data from websites and industry reports, as well as interviews with key decision makers in industrial firms and their networks. It contributes to business marketing literature by modelling the dynamic changes that organisational networks experience when organisational actors interact to create and implement business solutions. It focuses on the concepts of network position and network identity.

    Previous research on the creation and implementation of business solutions find that this is a highly interactive process that reshapes markets, introduces new actors, and makes redundant other actors to the focal company network. Overall, the wider business environment where organisational actors operate is affected. Dynamic changes on the network level occur despite the parties' intentions and are also difficult to predict. Nevertheless, the effects on the shape of the network become quite apparent, and affect the parties' rights and obligations as perceived by other organizations; that is, the changes on the network shape affect organizations’ network position. As the process of creation of business solutions evolves, both customer and supplier find themselves interacting with new companies and organisations. This change requires the learning of new norms and rules, and creates opportunities to develop new skills. The introduction of new parties onto the network changes the set of resources and capabilities that the supplier can access and thus make available to their customers. Customers, then, construe the supplier’s network identity differently, eventually more capable than the network identity of competitors, which may create and lead to sustained competitive advantage of the supplier. To conclude, this paper portrays how the network identity changes as a consequence of the parties’ interaction in creating and developing business solutions.

  • 15. Biggemann, Sergio
    et al.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Maley, Jane
    Creation and implementation of business solutions: Effects on supplier firms’ network position and identity2015In: Proceedings of the 31st IMP Conference, 2015, p. 1-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research investigates the dynamic effects that the creation and implementation of business solutions have on the supplier’s network position and identity. The study is based on publicly available data from websites and industry reports, as well as interviews with key decision makers in industrial firms and their networks. It contributes to business marketing literature by modelling the dynamic changes that organisational networks experience when organisational actors interact to create and implement business solutions. It focuses on the concepts of network position and network identity.

    Previous research on the creation and implementation of business solutions find that this is a highly interactive process that reshapes markets, introduces new actors, and makes redundant other actors to the focal company network. Overall, the wider business environment where organisational actors operate is affected. Dynamic changes on the network level occur despite the parties' intentions and are also difficult to predict. Nevertheless, the effects on the shape of the network become quite apparent, and affect the parties' rights and obligations as perceived by other organizations; that is, the changes on the network shape affect organizations’ network position. As the process of creation of business solutions evolves, both customer and supplier find themselves interacting with new companies and organisations. This change requires the learning of new norms and rules, and creates opportunities to develop new skills. The introduction of new parties onto the network changes the set of resources and capabilities that the supplier can access and thus make available to their customers. Customers, then, construe the supplier’s network identity differently, eventually more capable than the network identity of competitors, which may create and lead to sustained competitive advantage of the supplier. To conclude, this paper portrays how the network identity changes as a consequence of the parties’ interaction in creating and developing business solutions.

  • 16.
    Björkemar, Sebastian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hur de viktigaste faktorerna påverkar värdeskapande för marknadsintelligensprocesser åt företag i Kina2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    China is a unique market that differs from the Western market in many ways. Companies are not required to publicize financial reports, and furthermore a heavy focus on business relationship building can make it hard for companies to have high quality streams of data to get insights about their markets. For a consultant company to successfully enter the Chinese market and helping producing and technological global firms improving their insights on the Chinese market, the consultant company needs to understand which the important factors are and how those factors can help in creating value for their potential customers. To help the analyzing and consultant firm called Kairos Future, a qualitative case study was conducted on 16 different global companies with focus on industrial production. The case study was mainly conducted through face to face interviews with decision makers who had a broad understanding of their respective companies. In order to find where value can be created, the study was first used to find out which level of autonomity the China part of the global firm hadand how it affects the value creation linked to Market Intelligence, meaning receiving market data and analyzing it in order to get powerful market insights. The study also focused on the level of dependancy on having a continuous stream of technological information from external sources, how the companies are finding other types of market data and how they are analyzing and getting insights from the data. The final part of the study was to understand the level ofmaturity of the Chinese market linked to Market Intelligence, and what aspects affect the value creation for the customers. The report´s findings show that it is important for a consultant firm to focus on customers with high level of autonomity, or the head quarter in those cases where the level of autonomity is low - this in order to best utilize the consultant firm´s resources.Even though the companies in the study were heavily focused on the technological know-how within their respective markets, this was the one aspect they found the least interest in receiving external help with from a consultat firm. Receiving insights about customers within existing and new market segments was instead valued much higher. To understand the competitors’ movements in the market was also of high interest, because of the difficulty of finding public data within a given market in China. In order to successfully enter the Chinese Market Intelligence market, a consultant firm like Kairos Future needs to choose the specific customer segments where they can contribute the most value though their product and service offering. The goal should be to focus on one segment at a time, getting satisfied customers that help Kairos Future get a good market reputation through the word-of-mouth effect, and thereby making future sales easier. When this is accomplished, the same strategy can be applied to a new customer segment.

  • 17.
    Blomér, Gustav
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    Kallström, Claes
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    Identifying Potential Effects of Using ERP-Connected Mobile Devices in Manufacturing Companies2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Smartphones and other mobile devices are a common sight in our daily lives. The improvement in technology has given us small and portable devices that have the performance only found in desktop computers and more high-end devices less than a decade ago. An industry that has been quick to adopt technologies in the past is the manufacturing industry, examples of these adoptions are the conveyor belt and robots, which both are innovations of their time. Aside from hardware technologies, there are software technologies that the manufacturing industry has been using, e.g. complex information systems to manage materials and resources in the production. With the developments in mobile technology, a question arises whether the information systems can be combined with it in the manufacturing companies.

    One of the technologies that has become popular in the past years is the use of mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. These kinds of devices can improve communication and flexibility. This leads us to the purpose of identifying how the use of ERP-connected mobile and mobility-supporting devices can affect processes among shop floor and production management personnel in large manufacturing companies.

    Using a qualitative approach, case studies of eleven companies were conducted using semi-structured interviews and direct observations. Personnel with different roles were interviewed to identify applications and devices that would reduce execution time, improve quality, or improve the flexibility of processes and tasks. These eleven companies were analysed with a model that focus on the dimensions complexity, specificity, and dynamism of a company's production structure, as well as a model that focus on the same dimensions in the roles of production personnel.

    The result was six applications and corresponding devices that could improve the effectiveness and efficiency of a process in a significant way. The analysis showed that the management in companies had similar needs in mobile or mobility-supporting devices. Similarly, the assemblers and machine operators also had similar needs. No connection was found between the production strategy and the need for mobile or mobility-supporting devices.

  • 18.
    Brambila-Macias, Sergio Andres
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Interdisciplinary Insights Found for Product/Service System Design2016In: DS 84: PROCEEDINGS OF THE DESIGN 2016 14TH INTERNATIONAL DESIGN CONFERENCE, VOLS 1-4, The Design Society, 2016, p. 137-144Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Product/Service System (PSS) is a different way of fulfilling customer needs by providing a bundle of products and services. PSS is by nature an interdisciplinary field of research that needs collaboration across disciplines. This research paper investigates how much interdisciplinary research has been carried in terms of insights used between two important disciplines, namely, Engineering Design and Industrial Marketing. The results show that few insights have been used across disciplines which shows a gap for further research.

  • 19.
    Brandes, Ove
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Strategic Importance of Supplier Relationships in the Automotive Industry2013In: International Journal of Engineering Business Management, ISSN 1847-9790, Vol. 5, no 17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to analyse longitudinally the development of purchasing strategies in the automotive industry during the last 20 years. The amplitude of the business cycle during this time frame hasbeen very high and includes periods of financial/automotive crisis as well as high sales and demand. Our empirical data is primarily drawn from a 1990–2010 longitudinal case study of the relationship between automaker Volvo Personal Cars and Autoliv, a supplier of seat belts andairbags, complemented with secondary data framing the development of the industry level. The theoretical focus is on outsourcing and purchasing strategies developed within long‐lasting buyer‐supplier relationships;theoretical pillars are found in transaction‐cost theories and the resource‐based view of the firm.

    Based on the longitudinal case study, our analysis pinpoints the importance of intimate cooperation between customer and supplier in areas close to the core values and core competences of the buyer (that is, the automaker). From an industry‐level perspective, the winners in the automobile industry from 2010 and onwards have been and will be those who can organize long‐term collaboration partnerships between the automakers, their suppliers, and the political stakeholders, and who can outsource a large part of the technical development to the suppliers in areas also close to the core competences. The automakers must accept that their suppliers have competing automakers as their customers and search for synergies in their product portfolio. Theoretically, there is a need for conceptual development through deeper studies of the firm’s relational capability and its implications.

  • 20.
    Brege, Harald
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hampusson, Petter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Value Creation from IT Systems Integration: A Benefits, Openness and Price Model Perspective2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is aimed at finding out how integration of IT systems creates value for companies and is conducted as a qualitative case study, where six companies are interviewed about their integration solutions. The interviewees were five CIOs and one Managing Director. Four of the companies interviewed have genuine Application Integration solutions, where a middleware platform is the hub of the integration system, while the remaining two used solutions based around a system of point-to-point integrations.

    The value of an integration solution will be considered a combination of the benefits an integration solution provides, openness aspects, and the price models used to pay for the system. Value is defined as what the company gains, in monetary terms, in exchange for what it pays for an offering (Anderson, Kumar, & Narus, 2007). This definition further defines the attractiveness of an offering as the value minus the price. When discussing the value of an IT system, it is important to consider the difference between the potential value, which is the maximum the system can deliver with an ideal environment and usage, and the realised value, which is some fraction of the potential value that a company actually gains, of the system (Davern & Kauffman, 2000; Smith & Nagle, 2005). Affecting the realisation of potential value are certain factors, called conversion contingencies, which are things like preparation of implementation projects or efforts at using all aspects of a system.

    Benefits are analysed according to a framework that divides IT systems benefits into five categories: operational, managerial, strategic, IT infrastructure, and organisational benefits (Shang & Seddon, 2000). These categories are focused around, respectively, productivity gains, enhanced planning capabilities, new strategic capabilities, better IT administration, and process improvements. We conclude that most companies gain several large benefits in the operational and managerial types, while the other three types have fewer reported benefits. We conclude that there seems to be quite a lot of unrealised potential value in the integration solutions, if the view of the potential of integration from the technological side is used. We also conclude that companies in certain environments and with more complex organisational structures seem to have a larger value potential than others, meaning they have more to potentially gain from an integration solution.

    For openness, five aspects of open source software are studied: lock-in, cost, security, flexibility/modifiability, and community. These aspects are mainly derived from literature on open source. The first conclusion we make regarding openness is that most of the CIOs seems not to be fully aware of what the term truly entails. Companies’ opinions regarding open source can be seen on a range between two extremes: those who want to modify or develop software and those who only want to use standard systems. The former category has more to gain from the aspects of cost and modifiability than the latter, but both categories can gain from the lock-in, security, and community aspects.

    The combination of factors that creates the price of an offering can be described as a price model. To study the value of price models of integration solutions, the SBIFT model (Iveroth, et al., 2013) is used, where the price model is divided into five dimensions, scope, base, influence, formula and temporal rights. None of the interviewed companies were satisfied with the alternatives for price models currently on the market. It was concluded that the dissatisfaction mostly stemmed from the facts that the companies had little opportunity to affect the price model, meaning they could not adapt it to better fit their internal conditions, the complexity of the license agreements, and that it was hard to get vendors to cite a price for a system. Price models that would be more attractive are e.g. models with a larger variable part, like transaction-based ones, or models that affect the time scale of the contract, even though no single model seemed more attractive to all companies.

  • 21.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindskog, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Public Procurement as a Change Agent: The Case of the Swedish Telecommunications Market Development2009In: The Journal of The Institute of Telecommunications Professionals, ISSN 1755-9278, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 31-40Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates how public procurement can be used as a change agent to initiate and promote the development in the telecom industry. From the perspective of the buyers of telecommunication, four phases in the development of the telecom market are mapped; from full monopoly to full competition and from one specific solution for a specific function to competing technologies that can solve the same requirement. Five distinctive purchasing roles driving the development are identified based on three generic purchasing roles (rationalization, development and supplier base structuring). This longitudinal, from the 1980s to 2006, study is based on the situation in Sweden, which has been at the forefront of the transformation of the telecom sector in Europe. Obtaining a better understanding of the purchasing role beyond the actual contract in driving restructuring of the market and technological solutions is one of the important implications from this study.

  • 22.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lindskog, Helena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sourcing, Insourcing and Outsourcing of Telecom for the Swedish Public Sector2010In: Strategic Outsourcing, ISSN 1753-8297, E-ISSN 1753-8300, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 144-162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze how and why the question of outsourcing or insourcing within a specific empirical context, telecommunications services, has been handled differently over time.

    Design/methodology/approach – A longitudinal study on procurement of telecommunications for the Swedish public sector's organizations during the last 40 years. The empirical data were collected from three case studies and one research project.

    Findings – The paper identifies four phases: from a simple buying situations, via insourcing of equipment in order to produce some services in-house, to outsourcing of telecommunications in a first step and to outsourcing of combined data and telecommunications in a second step. Three major contextual determinants are identified for the public procurement of telecommunications services: de-monopolization, rapid technical development and pressure on public agencies from politicians, citizens and others. In addition to low cost, core competence, control and flexibility, the paper identifies business development as a new logic for outsourcing and insourcing.

    Research limitations/implications – This study is limited to Sweden and public procurement of telecommunications services. Therefore, it would be of value to test if the development of public procurement of telecommunications in other countries passed through the same phases and with the same determinants.

    Practical implications – Many of the findings are valid for public procurement in other countries, especially in the European Union due to the common legislative base for public procurement.

    Originality/value – The paper fulfills an identified need to carry out a longitudinal study of changes in public procurement of telecommunications through the different phases of in/outsourcing.

  • 23.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stehn, Lars
    Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Industriellt byggande i trä - nuläge och prognos mot 20252017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mot bakgrund av samhälleliga utmaningar kopplade till demografi, klimat, sysselsättning och krav på resurseffektivitet kan industriellt träbyggande bidra med följande i ett tidsperspektiv fram till 2025:

    • Bygga upp en kapacitet för industriell träbyggande som kan leverera 50 % av flerbostadshusen som byggs på den svenska marknaden (17 500 lägenheter varav 15 000 producerade inom landet) och samtidigt nå en 30-35%-ig materialandel inom segmentet lokaler.
    • Därigenom skapa 8 000 nya jobb inom prefabricering i fabriksmiljö och bidra till att flytta 6 000 jobb från storstad till landsbygd. Detta kan vara en dellösning på bristen på inhemsk byggarbetskraft – att flytta ut jobben på landet och att ”göra om” snickare till maskinoperatörer. Detta kan även vara en möjlighet för integrering av nyanländ arbetskraft.
    • Utnyttja träets potential för minskad klimatbelastning jämfört med andra byggmaterial. Ett industriellt flerbostadshus har 40 % lägre CO2 utsläpp än ett jämförbart betonghus. Motsvarande siffra för lokaler är minus 35-40% (baserat på sammanfattande och nya analyser av Tyréns).
    • Minska klimatbelastningen med 0,7-0,8 miljoner ton CO2 ekvivalenter genom att substituera från betong till trä – en besparing som utgör knappt 3 % av den totala mängd utsläpp som Sveriges handlande och icke handlande sektorer ska anpassa sig till för år 2030. Om träets kollagring adderas till substitutionseffekten så blir den kalkylmässiga besparingen 2-4 miljoner ton CO2 ekvivalenter.
    • Bygga resurseffektivare med industriellt byggande och framförallt utnyttja den potential till fortsatta effektivitetsförbättringar som ligger i att öka volymerna. Detta sker genom högre nivåer på byggproduktionen i kombination med kraftigt ökade marknadsandelar. Industriellt byggande har bättre kontroll över processer som även inkluderar underentreprenörer och konsulter och kan genom bättre integration och partnerskap verka dämpande på en marknad som kännetecknas av stora svängningar i lägen präglade av överhettning respektive nedgång och stiltje.

    En avslutande kommentar gäller behovet av kapacitet på den svenska marknaden för bostadsbyggande. Svensk skogs- och träindustri verkar i dagsläget stiga in med stora kapacitetsutbyggnader i ett läge där det inte är särskilt troligt att svensk betongindustri fortsätter att expandera. Vi bedömer att osäkerheten vad gäller klimatfrågan är för stor för att man från betongsidan ska ge sig in på stora investeringar i nuläget. De stora byggbolagen verkar ägarmässigt frikoppla sig från betongbranschen och är därmed ännu mera obundna att gå över till en trästrategi när incitamenten blir tillräckligt stora och tydliga. Detta är en stor möjlighet för industriell träbyggande.

  • 24.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Stehn, Lars
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Business models in industrialized building of multi-storey houses2013In: Construction Management and Economics, ISSN 0144-6193, E-ISSN 1466-433X, Vol. 32, no 1-3, p. 208-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The business model construct has been widely used during the last decade, partly because of its potential to provide a holistic view of how companies do business. A test of how prefabrication could form the basis of a construction firm’s business model can lead to an understanding of the potential for the competitiveness and profitability of industrialized building. The aim is to adapt a general business model construct and use it to empirically identify the most frequently used and the most viable business model. The theoretical perspective is employed to examine how a company does business and which activities and resources are mobilized through the distinction between strategic and operational effectiveness. The multiple case studies include five major Swedish companies that produce prefabricated timber building systems and the analysis is grounded in pattern-finding. The business model construct includes: market position, offering, and operational platform. The result indicates five business model elements: prefabrication mode, role in the building process, end-user segments, system augmentation and complementary resources. Applying this construct to the five case companies revealed that one out of seven models was found to be viable in terms of both ‘market share’ and decision-makers’ opinions. One important conclusion is to take the prefabrication mode as the starting point for business model design and then adapt the other elements to a good fit.

  • 25.
    Brege, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Öjdemark, Christer
    Styrelseordförande i Envac. Hedersdoktor vid Linköpings universitet.
    Internationalisering i en global värld: från innovation till marknadsledare2016 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur kan man få företag att växa? Den här boken handlar om hur man tar små och medelstora företag till ”mindre storföretag” och hur man bygger upp en internationell verksamhet. Utgångspunkten är att skapa en robust affärsmodell runt en produkt- eller processinnovation – en affärsmodell som kan ge hävstångseffekter på lönsamheten när företaget växer. Boken tar upp fem hörnstenar i internationalisering:

    1. utveckla affärsportföljen och affärsmodellen för internationalisering
    2. expandera till olika geografiska marknader
    3. bygga en position på en ny marknad
    4. göra affärer på utländska marknader
    5. organisera och styra internationell verksamhet.

     Författarna väver samman konkreta fallbeskrivningar med en teoretisk referensram, och kompletterar med rekommendationer och en verktygslåda som stöd i arbetet med att styra en internationell verksamhet.

    En högaktuell bok om hur man utvecklas från talang till världsstjärna. Vi får följa bolag som Elekta, Envac och Systemair, alla med den gemensamma nämnaren att de tack vare skicklighet och tajming gick från lovande bolag till ledande i sin respektive bransch. Vi får också några ledtrådar till hur Sverige kan ta tillvara sina förutsättningar som bas för framtidens internationaliserade företag. Den här boken angår företagsledare, politiker och alla oss som vill förstå hur svenska småföretag kan växa och bli vinnare på världsmarknaden.

    Ylva Berg, VD Business Sweden

  • 26.
    Brehmer, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Drivers for key account management programmes2014In: Handbook of Strategic Account Management: A Comprehensive Resource / [ed] Diana Woodburn, Kevin Wilson, London: John Wiley & Sons, 2014, 1, p. 53-76Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Broman, Tor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    Åkesson, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    Från produkt till tjänst: framtidens läkemedelsupphandling: En ökad tjänsteorientering och ett gemensamt värdeskapande är nyckeln till att möta dagens och framtidens utmaningar vid läkemedelsupphandling.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The current public procurement process of pharmaceuticals is characterized by a lack of overall perspective and distrust between the pharmaceutical industry and buying Swedish county councils. This is due to the historical context between the two parties. There also exist cost inefficiencies due to a high cost focus and the lack of an overall cost perspective. These factors have affected how the parties on the pharmaceutical market interact and act in relation to each other. The public procurement situation is something both the studied pharmaceutical company (MSD Sverige AB) and the studied buyers (Region Östergötland, Region Jönköpings län and NT-rådet) are aware of and agree on has to change. Therefore, the way public procurement of pharmaceuticals is carried out has to change for it to the meet current challenges, and future demand, of the Swedish health care.The studied pharmaceutical company wishes to increase the service orientation in public procurement processes, something the county councils and NT-rådet are in favour of. Furthermore, the company wants to achieve a value co-creation between itself and the buyers, however, the possibility of achieving value co-creation is somewhat debatable among the buyers since they have different opinions of its feasibility. Nevertheless, the report assumes that value co-creation is possible in the studied system. At the same time interviews have demonstrated the existence of different opinions and thoughts regarding value adding services amongst the different buyers, i.e. there is a lack of consensus if sufficient resources exist to change the procurement process and what part the pharmaceutical company should play if the service orientation increases. Moreover, there exist divided opinions regarding how the interaction with the pharmaceutical company should take place since the majority of the buyers wishes to have a clear separation from the pharmaceutical industry, something making the development of value adding service more difficult.Since there exist disagreements regarding how a change to the procurement process practically should be carried out and there is a distrust between the parties, the aim of the report is to demonstrate similarities and dissimilarities between them within four key areas: business relationships, cost efficiency, strategies and service orientation. The purpose is also to illustrate how a changed procurement process could benefit all parties and the process as a whole. The authors do this by creating a strategic framework, which is based on the four presented key areas and scientific theories. It shows where the parties are today and where they theoretically should be in the future to improve the procurement process, meet today’s and future challenges. The buyers’ biggest challenge is to improve the cost efficiency and use of resources, for the studied pharmaceutical company the biggest challenge is to create new business opportunities. The basis for the report and strategic framework is that both parties should benefit from drawn conclusions since they are in a symbiotic/cooperative relationship due to the dependency between each other’s businesses. Therefore, the framework has to be developed with the aim of promoting value co-creation and render a positive change to the procurement process possible.The presented framework demonstrates that an increase service orientation, through the introduction of value adding services, is the key to value co-creation, improve use of resourcesIIand a more cost efficient procurements processes of pharmaceuticals. Yet, both the analysis and conclusion clearly shows that value co-creation between the parties is not possible today, but in the future, due to existing business relationships. These are affected negative because of the existing distrust between the parties, thus preventing the creation of better business relationships. Therefore, the negative business relationship prevents an increased service orientation and the introduction of value adding services in the procurement processes. This in its turn hinder the buying parties from improving their use of resources and increasing the cost efficiency. Bad business relationships also mean the studied pharmaceutical company will lose business opportunities. Consequently, both parties will fail to address their current and future challenges. Therefore, improving business relationships is a key factor for reaching value co-creation and increase the overall cost perspective in the public procurement process of pharmaceuticals. Better business relationships will also decrease the distrust and allow for increased service orientation, something that will improve cost efficiency and efficient use of resources in procurement processes and open up for new business opportunities.

  • 28.
    Brozovic, Danilo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Nordin, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Service flexibility: conceptualizing value creation in service2016In: Journal of service theory and practice, ISSN 2055-6225, E-ISSN 2055-6233, Vol. 26, no 6, p. 868-888Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyze the subject-specific literature on service and flexibility and derive a conceptualization of the linkages between provider flexibility and customers value creation. Design/methodology/approach - The authors analyze existing perspectives on service and flexibility and propose linkages between provider flexibility and customer value creation. Findings - Drawing on the service logic literature, and utilizing real-world examples, this paper advances propositions and a conceptual model of how flexibility can contribute to value creation. Research limitations/implications - This paper establishes the basis for a practical and applicable flexibility perspective on value creation. It is particularly important for service-oriented providers and other firms operating in dynamic contexts. Practical implications - The propositions and conceptual model offer suggestions on the manner in which provider flexibility contributes to customer value creation. Contextual influences that moderate provider flexibility in value creation are also included. Originality/value - This paper contributes a novel perspective on service, which may serve as the starting point for the development of a more formal flexibility perspective on value creation.

  • 29.
    Carlborg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On Service Innovation and Realization in Manufacturing Firms2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Service innovation is increasingly becoming a basis for manufacturing firms to reach and sustain competitive advantages. While traditional product innovation typically includes how new technology can be utilized in new products, service innovation spans a broader area that is not exclusively focused on new technology, but rather how resources can be developed into value propositions and then integrated in the customer’s process in order to support customer value creation through realization. However, manufacturing firms that infuse services struggle with service innovation; this becomes especially evident in the realization phase.

    This thesis is a compilation of five papers discussing different aspects of service innovation realization and the inherited challenges. The study builds upon empirical data from four Swedish manufacturing firms that infuse services and develop new value propositions that include both products and services to support customer processes.

    The thesis illustrates realization as a phase in service innovation where the firm interacts with its customer in order to adjust, revise and further find new ways of improving the customer’s processes through for example customer training. Realization is characterized by a deployment phase and a post-deployment phase that represent the ongoing relationship between the customer and the firm.

    Depending on who has the competencies or ability to integrate the resources that are needed for service innovation, different interaction patterns are identified. Through indirect interaction, the firm facilitates the customer’s value creation through, for example, preventive maintenance, while through direct interaction the firm acts as a co-creator in the service innovation process and hence work jointly together with the customer in order to improve customer value creation.

    This thesis contributes to the literature by characterizing service innovation realization and by increasing the understanding for different interaction patterns in the service innovation process.

  • 30.
    Carlborg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Who Involves Whom?: Interaction modes in service innovation2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Collaboration with customers and the involvement of a customer’s resources have been regarded as a key issues in the service innovation process. However, research that covers collaboration in service innovation tends to have a one-sided focus, as it especially concentrates on the involvement of customer resources in the firm’s development of the offering per se and hence foresees the firm’s involvement of resources in the later part of the service innovation. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze resource involvement from both the firm and the customer in the service innovation process.

    Design/methodology/approach: The study used an exploratory case study approach, focusing on two Swedish manufacturing firms in a business-to-business context that add services to their core product offerings (service infusion). Data was collected through interviews and focus groups.

    Findings: The study found that different types of interaction modes are related to the integration of varying key resources from both the firm and the customer. A typology of interaction modes in service innovation, based on different levels of involvement, is developed.

    Managerial implications: Increased and more specific knowledge of the customer’s resources is required in order to manage and coordinate how and with what resources the customer and the firm should contribute to the service innovation process.

    Originality/Value: The previous service innovation literature tends to focus on how the customer can be involved in the firm’s development of offerings per se. This article suggests that focus should also include the firm’s involvement in the later phases of the service innovation process. The study contributes to the research on involvement in service innovation by showing how resources from both the customer and the firm are integrated in the service innovation process.

  • 31.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ellström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    When service turns smart: Implications for customer-firm relationships2016In: Frontiers in Service, Bergen, 2016, Vol. 25Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Service process modularization and modular strategies2014In: The journal of business & industrial marketing, ISSN 0885-8624, E-ISSN 2052-1189, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 313-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - This paper aims to investigate the role of service modularity in developing and deploying efficient services, while at the same time meeting diverse customer needs. The analysis distinguishes between different service types and sets forth key issues for service modularization, identifying supporting resources (both internal and customer) and associated modular strategies for the different types. Design/methodology/approach - The study design used an exploratory case study approach, focusing on three Swedish manufacturing firms that are moving toward an increased service focus (service infusion). Data were collected through interviews and focus groups, and the collected data were analyzed independently, before being merged and synthesized in a cross-case analysis. Themes and patterns were extracted and linked to the theoretical framework following a systematic combining process. Findings - This study contributes insights to the emerging field of service modularity by investigating process modularization and modular strategies. A framework is put forward outlining modular strategies for four different service types covering both a passive and an active role for a customer. From a theoretical point of view, the role of the customer is added to the discussion to advocate for the necessity of a co-creative perspective in service modularity. Originality/value - This article contributes to the emerging research field of service modularity by providing empirical insights into how modularization and modular strategies can enable more efficient services. Depending on service type, different modular strategies are set forth. This study also highlights the need to recognize customer-specific activities, resources and competencies as pivotal parts of the modular service processes. Such insights are particularly relevant given the established view of service modules as functions of intra-firm activities.

  • 33.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kindström, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Department of Marketing, CERS – Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management, Hanken School of Economics, Finland.
    The evolution of service innovation research: A critical review and synthesis2014In: Service Industries Journal, ISSN 0264-2069, E-ISSN 1743-9507, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 373-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of service innovation articles has increased dramatically in the past 25 years. By reviewing 128 articles published between 1986 and 2010, primarily in leading marketing and innovation journals, this study analyzes the progression of service innovation research according to topicality and perspective. The authors summarize prior research by clustering it into three evolutional phases and drawing parallels with the evolution of the wider services marketing field. Overall, the view of service innovation has evolved, from a complement of traditional product innovation to a multidimensional, all-encompassing notion that entails several functions, both within and outside the firm.

  • 34.
    Carlborg, Per
    et al.
    Örebro Universitet.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Transforming business models: a well-being and ecosystem approach2017In: 24th NORDIC ACADEMY OF MANAGEMENT CONFERENCENFF 2017 - NORDIC OPPORTUNITIES, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given that we are spending more times indoors, there is a need for re-formulation of business model in the wood-product industry. A business model transformation (BMT) towards an outward-looking business model with the user’s well-being in loci is surfacing. This study develops a framework for how a business model can be configured based on well-being and value in context.

    Preliminary result indicates a business model transformation; from emphasizing products to emphasizing well-being and the experiences of the customer (e.g., how the end-user perceive in-door wooden material). Interestingly, the business model expand the market view from a

    narrow focus on e.g., market shares and total revenues, to include the whole ecosystem and hence including environmental considerations as well as human well-being.

    Given that markets are shaped by the actors engaging in market activities, this research emphasize key factors in business model transformation by companies aiming to form sustainable business models where the well-being of humans are emphasized and where environmental effects are taken into considerations. We believe the Nordic countries with their expanding wood-industry can serve as a raw-model for developing sustainable business models that can meet future requirements of sustainable markets.

  • 35.
    Chicksand, Daniel
    et al.
    The Department of Procurement and Operations Management, Birmingham University, UK.
    Marshall, Donna
    College Of Business Management, University College Dublin, Ireland.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greasley, Andrew
    Aston Business School, Aston University, UK.
    Walker, Helen
    Operations and Supply Management, Cardiff Business School, Cardiff, UK.
    Towards The Creation Of A Service Delivery Capability Maturity Model2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This  paper  describes  the  development  of  a  Capability  Maturity  Model  (CMM)  for  Service Delivery. The paper describes the use of the Delphi approach to enlist the help of 18 experts from  around  the  world  to  provide  guidance  and  a  framework.    A  model  is  p roduced which incorporates  5  levels  of  performance  across  4  key  performance  areas.    The  model  has  been successfully  applied  to 14 different  o perations across  the  world .  The Service  Delivery Capability  Maturity Model will  enable  m anagers  to  assess  the  performance  of  their  Service Delivery organisation and help to drive improvements in this vital sector .

  • 36.
    Chicksand, Daniel
    et al.
    The University of Warwick, Warwick Business School, Operations Management Group, Coventry, UK.
    Ramsay, John
    Faculty of Business & Law, Staffordshire University, England.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Sharing of value in business relationships: A theoretical model.2011In: Proceedings of the 20th Annual IPSERA Conference: Vision 20/20 – Preparing Today for Tomorrow’s Challenges / [ed] Rozemeijer, F, Wetzels, M., Quintens, L., 2011, p. 80-97Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the sharing of value in business transactions. Although there is anincreased usage of the terminology of value in marketing (such concepts as value based selling and pricing), as well as in purchasing (value-based purchasing), the definition of the term is still vague. In order to better understand the definition of value, the author’s argue that it is important to understand the sharing of value, in general and the element of power for the sharing of value in particular. The aim of this paper is to add to this debate and this requires us to critique the current models. The key process that the analysis of power will help to explain is the division of the available revenue stream flowing up the chain from the buyer's customers. If the buyer and supplier do not cooperate, then power will be key in the sharing of that money flow. If buyers and suppliers fully cooperate, they may be able to reduce theircosts and/or increase the quality of the sales offering the buyer makes to their customer.

  • 37.
    Chicksand, Daniel
    et al.
    Aston Business School.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dehn, Torsten
    Aston Business School.
    Achieving a competitive advantage: What is missing from research into supplychain management and servitization?2016In: 25th Annual Ipsera Conference: Purchasing and Supply Management, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will highlight that at the heart of supply chain management (SCM) andservitization research is the concept of value. However, it will be argued that currentwork in these fields do not, in the first instance, adequately define value and often omit afull discussion of value appropriation. To fill these gaps this paper will first introduce aconceptual model of value and will then suggest how it would be possible to empiricallydetermine the sharing of value in a business relationship through the presentation of amodel based on resource dependency theory (RDT). The paper will conclude that muchmore work is required to better conceptualize value in the context of SCM andservitization and that there needs to be more focus on understanding which factorsdetermine how value is shared in business relationships.

  • 38.
    Chicksand, Daniel
    et al.
    Aston Business School, UK.
    Yang, Tong
    Unilever.
    Rehme, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Nordigården, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    A Power Leverage perspective on Business Relationship Managment in China2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Collin, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Eckerby, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Affärsmodeller för industriellt byggande i trä2009In: Affärsutveckling inom trämanufaktur och möbler - Hur skapas effektivare värdekedjor?: Fördjupad analys inom IS Trämanufakturi syfte att identifiera aktörer, affärsmodelleroch systemkoncept som bättre integrerarde olika värdekedjorna – från träråvaratill byggande och boende – inom sektorn / [ed] Brege, Staffan, Stockholm: Vinnova , 2009, 01, p. 47-70Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna artikel är att identifiera och analysera olika affärsmodeller för industriellt byggande av flervåningshus med trä som bärande konstruktionsmaterial. Studien har resulterat i att tre typer av affärsmodeller inom det industriella träbyggandet har identifierats; Systemleverantörens, Delsystemsleverantörens och Komponentleverantörens. De tre affärsmodellerna har namngivits utifrån den typ avåtaganden företagen tar i ett byggprojekts värdekedja.

    Arbetet visar att affärsmodellens sammansättning är avgörande för vilkenroll man kan ta i ett byggprojekt, samt vilken/vilka kunder man bör rikta sig till med sitt erbjudande. Samtliga undersökta industriella träbyggare måste sälja in sina erbjudanden till byggherrarna (beställarna) på grund av att den traditionella byggprocessen ännu inte är anpassad för det industriella sättet att bygga. Trots detta finns det för olika leverantörsroller olika kunder som är mer lämpliga utifrån den typ av erbjudande som en viss leverantörsroll medför. Systemleverantören bör vända sig direkt till en byggherre, delsystemsleverantören till en totalentreprenör och komponentleverantören kan vända sig till alla de aktörer i ett byggprojekt som kan vidareförädla dennes produkter.

  • 40.
    Cöster, Mathias
    et al.
    Företagsekonomiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Westelius, Alf
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Digitalisering2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppet digitalisering är högt upp på agendan i många sammanhang. Att digitalisering är av fundamental betydelse för våra samhällen är de flesta överens om, men sällan diskuteras vad begreppet faktiskt kan betyda. Detta vill författarna Mathias Cöster och Alf Westelius reda ut i den här boken. De gör det genom att diskutera såväl digitaliseringens framväxt, som olika aktuella och möjliga framtida konsekvenser av den. Till exempel att Internet är ett slags drömmarnas nät – men kan det även ses som mardrömmarnas?

    Mathias Cöster och Alf Westelius tar med läsaren på en resa där digitaliseringen problematiseras med utgångspunkt i informationsteknikens historiska framväxt. På så sätt formulerar författarna ett viktigt fundament för fortsatt diskussion om teknikens möjligheter och begränsningar ur ett brukarperspektiv. Jag rekommenderar alla med ambitionen att förstå och påverka det moderna samhället att ta till sig av och reflektera över innehållet.

     

  • 41.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Marketing and Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ebadzadeh Semnani, Sedigheh Sarah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Customer involvement in Service production, delivery and quality: the challenges and opportunities2013In: International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, ISSN 1756-669X, E-ISSN 1756-6703, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 46-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The aim of this paper is to explore the role of customer involvement in service production and its possible effects on the quality of service delivery as well as customer satisfaction.

    Design/methodology/approach – Since the nature of the study is exploratory, the case study approach was adopted. The paper focusses on customer involvement in the context of service production and delivery system in service organization rather than in the context of customer organization. The authors looked at supplier involvement as well, due to the fact that a lack of sufficient information from a supplier or lack of proper training may inhibit customers' successful involvement. A detailed case study was carried out on a sample of four service providers: a general contractor, a chemical process engineer, a software developer and a language institute as well as a service buyer case – a Petrochemical Holding Company. In total the paper includes five cases.

    Findings – The study reveals that even though co-production of the customers with the service provider is a must, however, it has different effects on the quality of service produced depending on the situation and the nature of services offered. In the cases of the complex engineering services – general contractor and chemical engineering – that service requirements and technical specifications were provided by the customers, and service providers were chosen by open bidding process, there were instances where the co-production could lead to malfunction of the service. This was evident in the cases when the inappropriate technical specifications and requirements were provided by the customer hindering the service provider to deliver services smoothly. On the other hand, in the cases of new software development process and language institute, it had been evident that the involvement of customers – with a sound customer involvement management – has tremendous positive effects and lead to greater productivity and customer satisfaction. In the case of the petrochemical company and international service providers, educating the suppliers/service providers by the buyer, to a large extent, could solve the service quality problems in terms of on time delivery, costs and technical conformity as stressed by buyers.

    Originality/value – The study provides empirical evidence regarding customer involvement in the service production and its possible effects on the quality of service delivery as well as customer satisfaction and sheds light on the situations that customer involvement is a success or a threat. The research also contributes to the understanding of how the nature of services, the level and scope of customer involvement as well as building relationship and trust amongst the customer and the service provider affect the outcome of customer-service provider co-production.

  • 42.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Javadian Arzaghi, Bahareh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Success and Failure Factors in Inter-Firm Strategic Collaboration: The Case of Strategic Alliances in Pharmaceutical Firms2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to identify the key factors that determine the success andfailure in international inter-firm strategic collaboration with focus on strategic alliances inpharmaceutical industry in Iran.

    Design/Methodology/approach: After a comprehensive literature review, combined withexpert panel’s views, 33 success factors were specified to be studied. The factors were groupedas content and process orientated variables showing the importance of considered factor instrategic and structural configuration or the process of developing an inter-firm collaboration relationship respectively. A combination of quantitative and qualitative (integrative) method was used for data collection and analysis. The quantitative data were gathered by a structured questionnaire, including questions on the respondent’s background and 33 success factors.The qualitative database consists of 21 in-depth interviews carried out with managers of nine companies, four of which were international partners. Furthermore, the views of our expert panel have been identical to the study. Due to limited experienced managers in this field in Iran, questionnaires were distributed to 100 managers at different levels in Iranian pharmaceutical manufacturer companies with 79 completed usable questionnaires returned. For statistical treatment of quantitative data, SPSS software was applied. For evaluation of reliability of study, Cronbach alpha value was used, the effectiveness of success factors on (success of) inter-firm cooperation were assessed by binominal analytical tool. The Freidman analysis was used forranking the success factors.

    Findings: The results of quantitative and quality data showed that mutual understanding of provision of agreed resources from both partners had major importance in making successful co-operations. Considering the gap between importance of each factor and its real situation in current allianceseleven failure factors were specified: the absence of precise definition of parties’ rights and duties, the absence of right contribution of partners, lack of any specified strength and resource to be delivered, low strategic flexibility (low flexibility in making strategies compatible withpartner’s one), the absence of information and coordination system, the absence of proper control on their core competence and the knowledge transfer way, lack of systematic reviewing the alliance activities (for knowing if any early benefit or for prevention of any potential conflict), showing opportunistic behavior, not trying to make joint values (looking for short term tangible results), incompatible business strategies of two partners and no commitment to partnership. The quantitative findings showed four of very important success factors are process-oriented variables; which mean process of developing an inter-organizational relationship and dealing with matters such as building trust and mutual understanding are much more important in establishing successful pharmaceutical alliances in Iran while eight of found failure factors arecontent-oriented which means most of failed alliances had difficulties in strategic and structuraldesign of the alliance. However, the qualitative data revealed that the soft aspects of alliancesuccess are very important, such as culture of collaboration, open-mindedness, relationship building ability, parties’ enough knowledge about each other’s business culture and working attitudes as well as effective communication. Furthermore, the study reveals that the local government and public institutes have significant impacts on the success of the alliances, particularly in Iran that government interfere the business significantly. Not surprising, the perception of parties on success or failure of the alliances may be different as well. That is, an alliance being perceived successful by one partner may not be perceived successful by another partner. This finding has implication on future studies.

    Originality/value: The study provides empirical evidence regarding the key success and failurefactors in international inter-firm collaboration, in pharmaceutical industry in a developingcountry (Iran) and adds depth to the understanding of the reasons behind the failures. The study sheds light on the necessity of considering both parties’ perception of success and failure.

  • 43.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Afazeli, Siamack
    MBA ProMA Program.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Quality, export and domestic market performance: the case of pharmaceutical firms in Iran2015In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 26, no 9-10, p. 938-957Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the relationship between export involvement/performance and domestic market performance of pharmaceutical enterprises in Iran, an area which has remained largely unresearched. The study seeks to address the following three research objectives: first, to assess the export performance of Iranian pharmaceutical companies; second, to assess the performance of Iranian pharmaceutical companies in the domestic market; and third, to examine the relationship between export involvement/performance and domestic market performance. Although existing literature claims that local performance (rivalry) leads to export performance, this study reveals that in the Iranian pharmaceutical industry, export involvement and performance enhance local market performance. The study provides empirical evidence on the relationship between export performance and domestic market performance, and adds depth to the understanding of the reasons why the traditional views did not explain the situation. A comprehensive literature review was used to build our conceptual and analytical framework upon the Export Performance (EXPERF) model for export performance evaluation. The European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Excellence Model and assessment indicators of Innovativeness, Learning and Lean indices were used for measuring domestic performance. By using clustering, six clusters of similar companies were identified and the centroids of the six clusters chosen to verify the relationship between export performance and domestic performance. Correlation analyses confirmed that there was a significant positive relation between export performance and domestic performance. This means that export performance results in better domestic performance, and vice versa.

  • 44.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Alamirhoor, Amir
    MBA ProMA Program, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Linkage between organisational innovation capability, product platform development and performance: The case of pharmaceutical small and medium enterprises in Iran2013In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 24, no 7-8, p. 819-834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the relationship between organisational innovation capability, product platform development and performance in pharmaceutical small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Iran, an area which has remained unexplored. The intensive literature review has led us to suggest an empirically tested conceptual model consisting of innovation capability, product platform and performance as well as factors/enablers shaping innovation capability in the pharmaceutical firms. Combinations of quantitative and qualitative methods were used for data collection and analysis. Eight Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) companies that produce about 80% of local manufactured API were studied. The results show that the Iranian firms have chosen an imitative strategy in technology and product development. The common pattern for technology sourcing was external. However, although all companies purchased technologies from well-known suppliers, they demonstrated significant differences in the variety of products produced and performance. The failure firms lacked sound absorptive capability. Furthermore, the firms with high performance used a combination of internal and external sources for technology and product development. The empirical analysis showed a positive relationship between innovation capabilities, technology platform, product platform and performance. The pre-requisite to this relationship was found to be effective innovation management and strength/abilities in strategy, organisational structure, learning, processes and linkage (relationship) with the customers, suppliers and alliances.

  • 45.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Dahlgaard, Jens Jörn
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Quality Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Javadian Arzaghi, Bahareh
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    International strategic alliances in the Iranian pharmaceutical industry: an analysis of key success and failure factors2014In: Total Quality Management and Business Excellence, ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371, Vol. 25, no 7-8, p. 812-826Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to identify key success/failure factors in international strategicalliances (ISAs) in the Iranian pharmaceutical industry, an area which has remainedlargely unexamined. The literature review, and an expert panel’s views, led us tostudy 33 success factors. These factors, based upon their importance in strategic andstructural configuration of the alliance formation process, were grouped as contentand process-oriented. A combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches wasused for data collection and analysis. The results confirmed that all 33 factors areeffective in alliance success, which is an extension of earlier research. The studyreveals 8 of the most important success factors, and 11 of the most prevalent failurefactors. The findings also showed that six of the eight most important success factorsare process-oriented variables. This confirms that trust, mutual understanding anddeveloping strong inter-organisational relationships are extremely important in thesuccess of alliances in the Iranian Pharmaceutical industry. However, 8 of 11 failurefactors are content-oriented, which means that the failed alliances mainly hadproblems in the alliances’ strategic and structural design. The qualitative studysupports the quantitative results and adds to the high importance of the soft aspect ofthe alliances’ success including: the culture of collaboration, open-mindedness,relationship-building ability, parties’ proper knowledge of each other’s businessculture/working attitudes, and effective communication. Besides, in Iran, the localgovernment and public institutes have significant impact on the success of thealliances. One of the more significant findings that emerged from this study is that‘success’ can mean different things to different people/partners, so success andfailure should be seen from both parties’ perspectives.

  • 46.
    Diaz Ruiz, Carlos
    et al.
    Department of Marketing, Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Hanken School of Economics.
    Market representations in industrial markerting: Could representations influence strategy?2014In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 1026-1034Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A central question in industrial marketing is whether the form in which the external environment of a firm is represented influences the marketing strategy. This influence has been studied generally through case study research, and quantitative evidence is limited. In response to this limitation, this paper reports on a quasi-experiment investigating whether market representations have a constructive aspect in business. Empirically, this study compares two types of ostensive and performative market representations—service focus and product differentiation—in order to test for influence exacted by industrial marketing on strategies. Results indicate that service focus is selected when market representations rely on agency in firms (i.e., performative), and product strategies are selected when structures are emphasized (i.e., ostensive). This paper contributes to methodology development by expanding the link between a case study approach and quasi-experiments explaining how quasi-experiments can replicate findings in industrial marketing.

  • 47.
    Ebadazadeh Semnani, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The Relational Factors Affecting the Transition to New Business Models2017In: Exploring a changing view on organizing value creation:: Developing New Business Models / [ed] Baumgartner, R.J., Fuellsack, M., Gelbmann, U., Rauter, R, Graz: Institute of Systems Sciences, Innovation and Sustainability Research , 2017, p. 362-373Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This conceptual study, aims at contributing to theoretical development of New Business Models (NBMs), by creating a better initial understanding of relational factors affecting the transition to NBMs in the age of digitalization. Considering that co-value creation with stakeholders is one of the main characteristics in NBMs, the studies on how the relationships with stakeholders are created, maintained and utilized are of great importance. Furthermore, the relationship intensive nature of B2B exchanges made them an interesting area of focus in this study. The study objective was achieved through incorporating the scholarly contributions in three interconnected relational concepts of legitimacy, social capital and trust in NBMs and digitalization studies. An interesting observation was the existence of an interplay between opposing economic and social values when implementing NBMs in light of digitalization. This was evident in all three relational concepts under the focus of this study and in line with a proposition previously made by other scholars. This interplay can be between information transparency and privacy, opportunism and trust or between efficiency and legitimacy. This study has also developed this proposition further by suggesting that apart from their complementary nature, it is possible for the opposing values in these three areas to reinforce each other as well.

  • 48.
    Ebadzadeh Semnani, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nord, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Business Model Innovation Cases from the Wood Products Industry2017In: Forest sector innovations for a greener future: Final program, proceedings and abstracts, Vancouver, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Business Model Innovation Cases from the Wood Products Industry

    Globalization is further spurred by ICT in operations as well as customer relations also in the wood products industry. For meeting the increased competition, firms have to optimize internal resources to external opportunities. Increasingly, the Business Model (BM) concept has been a useful analytical tool. The BM concept offers good abstraction of activities and enables comparison between different business contexts. Emergently, studies have shifted focus from technology innovations towards innovations in BMs. However, the majority of studies in this field have treated all cases of BM innovations as a homogenous group and, as a result, paid little attention to the need for a fit between organizational and industry/contextual related factors.

    To address this gap, our research presents a study of two cases of BM innovations under transformations taking place in the wood products industry. These changes are brought about by (1) the need for an interplay between “upstream” and “downstream” strategies in the industry; and (2) the increasing need for servitization and solution-based models in organizations’ offerings. This research aims to study the influencing factors, consequences, challenges and order of changes in elements of BMs, in regard to the BM innovations that took place in the two case companies.

     

    Keywords: Business Model, Innovation, Transformation, Wood Industry, Case study

  • 49.
    Ebadzadeh Semnani, Sedigheh Sarah
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Trust in Different Types of Organizational Relationships: A Social Capital Perspective2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to expand the understanding about the concepts of trust and social capital, and to explore their role in achieving desired organizational outcomes. The research followed a multiple case study approach, focusing on Iranian service providers. The reason for this focus is the insufficient scholarly contribution about social capital in developing countries. Moreover, considering the significant role of trust in social capital generation according to many scholars, this study seeks to understand how the issue of lack of trust in developing countries can influence social capital generation in these nations. In order to address the criticisms in the literature, this research first attempts to study the concepts of trust and social capital in different types of organizational relationships separately. There are, therefore, different levels of analysis in this study. The three types of organizational relationships which are the focus of this research are intra-organizational, organization-customer and business cluster.

    An intensive literature review was carried out on trust and social capital to build an overall theoretical picture of the problem at hand. The next step was to analyse the findings of this study by engaging both empirical and theoretical findings simultaneously. This was carried out with the aim of achieving answers to the research questions through theory matching and elaboration.

    The result of this study, in general, supports both the positive role of trust and social capital in achieving desired organizational outcomes. The empirical data and literature, therefore, seem to be in line with one another to a large extent. However, in several cases of this study the issue of lack of trust at the Iranian companies did in fact hinder the achievement of their desired outcomes. Moreover, the findings from the organization-customer and business cluster relationships showed that several of these Iranian companies are indeed already benefiting from social capital. However, they mostly benefit from the type of social capital arising from information flows. What they are missing, and are in fact in great need of, is the type of social capital associated with the benefits of trust. In other words, they were unsuccessful in bringing forward the benefits of the relational dimension of social capital. The study has also contributed towards refining the literature by showing that there are differences in the connotation of both “trust” and “social capital” when they are studied under different types of organizational relationships. Simply using these terms without specifying the type of relationship, or level of analysis, does not bring forward a clear understanding. Furthermore, the findings had pointed out the important difference between a contributing factor to a phenomenon and the phenomenon itself, which in this case were trust and social capital, respectively.

    Last but not least, the results of the cross-case analysis identified certain patterns and differences in the role of trust and social capital in different relationship types. These findings were summarized in the form of  a proposed model and a matrix. The proposed model started with the development of trust in organizational interpersonal relationships, and ended with the creation of two different types of social capital that can benefit both the organization and its customers. The matrix, on the other hand, emphasizes the importance of keeping a balance between different types of social capital, depending on the organizational requirement, in order to achieve the best desired outcomes.

  • 50.
    Ebadzadeh Semnani, Sedigheh Sarah
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Dadfar, Hossein
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brege, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The role of export clusters in export performance of SMEs: the case of Iranian energy industry2015In: Quality Innovation Prosperity, ISSN 1335-1745, E-ISSN 1338-984X, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 137-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study was carried out with the aim of exploring the effects of export clusters formation on export performance of SMEs in Iranian energy industry. 

    Methodology/Approach: The study was undertaken through having three case studies, each on a different export cluster currently active within Iranian energy industry. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews with both managers and members of each export cluster as well as study of their archival documents.  

    Findings: The results confirmed that all three export clusters managed to successfully identify their members’ needs and undertook certain measures within their own authority and control, to mitigate these risks. Moreover, the secondary data showed positive growth rate of export level after the establishment of these export clusters. Interestingly, the strong suits of all three export clusters were mainly related to communication and relationship aspects. These three factors were: ability to create Informal Network within members, Public Relations and Training/Consultation.  

    Research Limitation/implication: This study was limited to the export clusters in Iranian energy industry, and on a cross-sectional time horizon basis. It therefore cannot be generalized to all industries and we might witness certain changes in findings if the study is undertaken at different point in time. However, the study shed light on certain important aspects such as nature of relationships within the members of each cluster, the role of trust management and social power as well as the need to place more focus on SMEs in export clusters. 

    Originality/Value of paper: Even though there are recently many studies on the concept of export clusters and their positive impacts on the growth in export of various countries throughout the world; but so far, there had been no similar study undertaken with a focus on Iran and not enough empirical evidence had previously been provided on export clusters performance in a developing country.

12345 1 - 50 of 216
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf