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  • 1.
    Abascal, Angela
    et al.
    University of Navarra, Spain.
    Vanhuysse, Sabine
    Université libre de Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Grippa, Taïs
    Université libre de Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Rodriguez-Carreño, Ignacio
    University of Navarra, Spain.
    Georganos, Stefanos
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Wang, Jiong
    University of Twente, Netherlands.
    Kuffer, Monika
    University of Twente, Netherlands.
    Martinez-Diez, Pablo
    300.000 Km/s, Barcelona, Spain.
    Santamaria-Varas, Mar
    300.000 Km/s, Barcelona, Spain.
    Wolff, Eleonore
    Université libre de Bruxelles, Belgium.
    AI perceives like a local: predicting citizen deprivation perception using satellite imagery2024In: npj Urban Sustainability, E-ISSN 2661-8001, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deprived urban areas, commonly referred to as ‘slums,’ are the consequence of unprecedented urbanisation. Previous studies have highlighted the potential of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Earth Observation (EO) in capturing physical aspects of urban deprivation. However, little research has explored AI’s ability to predict how locals perceive deprivation. This research aims to develop a method to predict citizens’ perception of deprivation using satellite imagery, citizen science, and AI. A deprivation perception score was computed from slum-citizens’ votes. Then, AI was used to model this score, and results indicate that it can effectively predict perception, with deep learning outperforming conventional machine learning. By leveraging AI and EO, policymakers can comprehend the underlying patterns of urban deprivation, enabling targeted interventions based on citizens’ needs. As over a quarter of the global urban population resides in slums, this tool can help prioritise citizens’ requirements, providing evidence for implementing urban upgrading policies aligned with SDG-11.

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  • 2.
    Abbott, Jessica K.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Chippindale, Adam K.
    Queens University, Kingston, CAN.
    Morrow, Edward H. (Ted)
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    The microevolutionary response to male-limited X-chromosome evolution in Drosophila melanogaster reflects macroevolutionary patterns2020In: Journal of Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1010-061X, E-ISSN 1420-9101, Vol. 33, no 6, p. 738-750Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to its hemizygous inheritance and role in sex determination, the X-chromosome is expected to play an important role in the evolution of sexual dimorphism and to be enriched for sexually antagonistic genetic variation. By forcing the X-chromosome to only be expressed in males over >40 generations, we changed the selection pressures on the X to become similar to those experienced by the Y. This releases the X from any constraints arising from selection in females and should lead to specialization for male fitness, which could occur either via direct effects of X-linked loci or trans-regulation of autosomal loci by the X. We found evidence of masculinization via up-regulation of male-benefit sexually antagonistic genes and down-regulation of X-linked female-benefit genes. Potential artefacts of the experimental evolution protocol are discussed and cannot be wholly discounted, leading to several caveats. Interestingly, we could detect evidence of microevolutionary changes consistent with previously documented macroevolutionary patterns, such as changes in expression consistent with previously established patterns of sexual dimorphism, an increase in the expression of metabolic genes related to mito-nuclear conflict and evidence that dosage compensation effects can be rapidly altered. These results confirm the importance of the X in the evolution of sexual dimorphism and as a source for sexually antagonistic genetic variation and demonstrate that experimental evolution can be a fruitful method for testing theories of sex chromosome evolution.

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  • 3.
    Abecasis, David
    et al.
    University of the Algarve, Portugal.
    Steckenreuter, Andre
    University of the Azores, Portugal.
    Reubens, Jan
    Flanders Marine Institute, Belgium.
    Aaestrup, Kim
    DTU, Denmark.
    Alos, Josep
    Instituto Mediterráneo de Estudios Avanzados (CSIC-UIB), Spain.
    Badalamenti, Fabio
    CNR-IAMC, Italy.
    Bajona, Lenore
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Boylan, Patrick
    Loughs Agency, UK.
    Deneudt, Klaas
    Flanders Marine Institute, Belgium.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Brevé, Niels
    Sportfisserij Nederland, The Netherlands.
    Hernandez, Francisco
    Flanders Marine Institute, Belgium.
    Humphries, Nick
    The Marine Biological Association of the U.K, UK.
    Meyer, Carl
    University of Hawai’i at Mānoa, USA.
    Sims, David
    University of Southampton, UK.
    Thorstad, Eva B.
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), Norway.
    Walker, Alan M.
    Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (Cefas), UK.
    Whoriskey, Fred
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Alfonso, Pedro
    University of the Azores, Portugal.
    A review of acoustic telemetry in Europe and the need for a regional aquatic telemetry network2018In: Animal Biotelemetry, E-ISSN 2050-3385, Vol. 6, article id 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Globally, there are a large and growing number of researchers using biotelemetry as a tool to studyaquatic animals. In Europe, this community lacks a formal network structure. The aim of this study is to review the useof acoustic telemetry in Europe and document the contribution of cross-boundary studies and inter-research groupcollaborations. Based on this, we explore the potential benefits and challenges of a network approach to identifyfuture priorities and best practices for aquatic biotelemetry research in Europe.

    Results: Over the past decade, there was an approximately sevenfold increase in the number of acoustic telemetrystudies published on marine and diadromous species in Europe compared to a sixfold increase globally. Over 90%of these studies were conducted on fishes and undertaken in coastal areas, estuaries, or rivers. 75% of these studieswere conducted by researchers based in one of five nations (Norway, UK, France, Portugal, and Spain) and, eventhough 34% were based on collaborations between scientists from several countries, there was only one study withan acoustic receiver array that extended beyond the borders of a single country. In recent years, acoustic telemetryin European waters has evolved from studying behavioural aspects of animals (82.2%), into more holistic approachesaddressing management-related issues (10%), tagging methods and effects (5%), and technology and data analysisdevelopment (2.8%).

    Conclusions: Despite the increasing number of publications and species tracked, there is a prominent lack ofplanned and structured acoustic telemetry collaborations in Europe. A formal pan-European network structure wouldpromote the development of (1) a research platform that could benefit the acoustic telemetry community throughcapacity building, (2) a centralized database, and (3) key deployment sites and studies on priority species requiringresearch in Europe. A network may increase efficiency, expand the scope of research that can be undertaken, promoteEuropean science integration, enhance the opportunities and success of acquiring research funding and, ultimately,foster regional and transatlantic collaborations. It may also help address research priorities such as the large-scalesocietal challenges arising from climate change impacts and assist the EU’s Marine Strategy Framework Directive viaidentification of good environmental status of endangered or commercially important species.

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  • 4.
    Abshirini, Ehsan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). KTH.
    Koch, D.
    KTH.
    Visibility analysis, similarity, and dissimilarity in general trends of building layouts and their functions2013In: 2013 International Space Syntax Symposium, Sejong University Press , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Abshirini, Ehsan
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). KTH, Geoinformatik.
    Koch, Daniel
    KTH, Arkitektur.
    Rivers as integration devices in cities2016In: City, Territory and Architecture, E-ISSN 2195-2701, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: As dynamic systems rivers and cities have been in interaction under changing relations over time, and the morphology of many cities has risen through a long and steady struggle between the city functions and the river system flowing inside. This makes river cities an interesting case to study how the presence of geographical features interacts with spatial morphology in the formation of cities.

    Methods: The basis of this research is enabled by utilizing a novel model for cross-city comparison presented by Hillier in his Santiago keynote in 2012 called a “star model”. This is done on large samples of cities investigating concurrent configurations, as well as how the properties in this star model react to specific forms of disturbance.

    Results: Results illustrate that the foreground network as identified through maximum choice values in cities are more vital to the structure of cities than the bridges. The overall syntactic structure tends to retain its character (degree of distributedness) and the location of its foreground network (which street segments constitute the foreground network) even when bridges are targeted. Furthermore, counter to the initial hypothesis, river cities tend to change less than non-river cities after targeted disturbance of the systems. Finally, the results show that while there is a statistical morphological difference between river cities and non-river cities, this difference is not directly explained through the bridges.

    Conclusion: Integrating space syntax with statistical and geospatial analysis can throw light on the way in which the properties of city networks and urban structure reflect the relative effect of rivers on the morphology of river cities. The paper, finally, contributes through offering one piece of a better perception of the structure of river-cities that can support strategies of river-cities interaction as well as enhance our knowledge on the constraints and limits to that interaction.

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  • 6.
    Addo, Louis
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Hajiesmaeili, Mahboobeh
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Watz, Johan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Growth and mortality of sympatric Atlantic salmon and brown trout fry in fluctuating and stable flows2023In: Ecology of Freshwater Fish, ISSN 0906-6691, E-ISSN 1600-0633, no 2, p. 282-290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sub-daily fluctuations in streamflow may have adverse effects on the biota downstream of dams in hydropeaking-regulated rivers. Although the stranding of salmonid fry is one documented effect of hydropeaking, little is known about the species-specific behavioural and subsequent growth effects of sub-daily flow fluctuations. We investigated the effects of sub-daily flow fluctuation on growth, mortality and behaviour of sympatric Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (S. trutta) fry (29–34 mm) in a laboratory experiment. The fluctuating flow treatment negatively affected growth and increased mortality for trout but not for salmon. The level of aggressive behaviour was similar in the fluctuating- and stable-flow treatments. Within the fluctuating flow treatment, there was a trend that more fishes were visibly active above the substrate during low than high flow. These findings suggest that hydropeaking-induced flow fluctuations may affect fry of different salmonid species in different ways and that brown trout fry may be more vulnerable to hydropeaking effects than Atlantic salmon fry. It can therefore be important to consider the possibility of divergent reactions by different fish species under hydropeaking situations and to incorporate species-specific strategies to conserve culturally and economically relevant riverine fish species.

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  • 7.
    Affonso, Igor de Paiva
    et al.
    Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, Brazil; Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Campus Ponta Grossa, Brazil.
    Karling, Leticia Cucolo
    Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, Brazil.
    Takemoto, Ricardo Massato
    Núcleo de Pesquisas em Limnologia Ictiologia e Aqüicultura – Nupélia, Maringá, Brazil.
    Gomes, Luiz Carlos
    Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, Brazil; Núcleo de Pesquisas em Limnologia Ictiologia e Aqüicultura – Nupélia, Maringá, Brazil.
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Department of Biology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Light-induced eye-fluke behavior enhances parasite life cycle2017In: Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, ISSN 1540-9295, E-ISSN 1540-9309, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 340-341Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 8.
    Ahlström, Per
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Riskhantering i kommuner och landsting: ISO 31000, riskbegreppet och organisationsövergripande riskhantering2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2009 the first ISO-standard focused exclusively on risk management was adopted, ISO 31000:2009. It is supposed to be possible to use it in any societal sector. There is currently little information on how widely the standard has been used, regarding both public and private sector. The study at hand aims to collect information on how it is used in Swedish municipalities and county councils (i.e. local and regional level).  Furthermore, it aims to study how these actors’ risk management relates to some certain aspects of the standard. These are how risk is defined and enterprise risk management.

    A survey has been conducted. All county councils and 48 municipalities were contacted. Sampling regarding municipalities was made by using a categorization made by the Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions combined with random choices.

    The results of the study reveal that the use of ISO 31000 is very limited. It is used by two municipalities and not one of the county councils. Some of the latter are however considering using it.  It seems to be the ambition of both municipalities and county councils to apply enterprise risk management in a way that is principally in line with ISO 31000.  

    Furthermore, the results show that municipalities and county councils define risk in different ways. The majority of these organizations say that they use a defined definition of risk in the whole organization. Approximately half of the municipalities use the definition of risk being used by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, i.e. risk is the product of probability * consequence. Amongst county councils only a quarter use this definition. To a larger extent they use definitions that take into account the objectives of their organizations.

    It is hard to judge which consequences this might have. It might be good to know though, e.g. when future governmental controls are being developed.

    The results also show that there are differences between municipalities and county councils when it comes to enterprise risk management, where the latter use it more extensively. There is a gap however between how much enterprise risk management is used and how much municipalities and county councils would like to use it. 

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  • 9.
    Andersson, Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Catch and effort from a recreational trolling fishery in a large lake2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Over recent decades recreational fisheries have grown substantially throughout the world. Despite this increase, catches from recreational fisheries have often been ignored in fisheries management, although this is now being remedied. Monitoring recreational fisheries can be expensive, and the primary means used for monitoring is angler (creel) surveys, typically funded from sales of fishing licences. The studies presented in this thesis examine different approaches to monitoring recreational trolling fisheries’ catch and effort, where fishing licenses are not required and there are no reporting requirements. I present results from a complemented roving/mail-in survey undertaken during 2013-2014 to estimate recreational effort and catch of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (S. trutta) in the largest lake in the European Union, Lake Vänern, Sweden. I also evaluate different angler catch reporting methods (mail-in, tournament reports and face-to-face interviews) and compare catch rates within and among spring and fall fishing periods. In addition, mail-in survey data are examined for recall bias.

     

    I estimate that 28.7 tonnes of salmon and trout combined were harvested by the recreational trolling fishery in 2014, more than the commercial and subsistence fisheries combined. Seasonal differences in both recreational effort and catch were observed. Effort, in boat hours, was significantly higher in spring than in fall. Catch rates of trout were higher in fall than in spring, but there were no seasonal differences in catches of salmon. Harvest per boat day did not differ significantly among catch reporting methods, indicating that all three methods could be useful for managers interested in harvest rates. In contrast, total and released catch per boat day differed among reporting methods, with tournament anglers catching more fish in total. Finally, there was little evidence for recall bias in mail-in surveys, indicating that mail-in surveys are useful for collecting unbiased catch data. My study is the most comprehensive angler survey to date for Lake Vänern, and my results should be of immediate use to local fisheries managers and should also be of interest to researchers and managers interested in estimating catch and effort for fisheries at large spatial scales.

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  • 10.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Comparing mail-in, interview and tournament catch rates for a recreational salmonid fisheryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Su, Z.
    Michigan Department of Natural Resources and University of Michigan.
    Andersson, M
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Recreational trolling effort and catch of Atlantic salmon and brown trout in Vänern, the EU's largest lake2020In: Fisheries Research, ISSN 0165-7836, E-ISSN 1872-6763, Vol. 227, article id 105548Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recreational fishing has grown substantially worldwide; for some recreational fisheries both catch and economic value now exceeds that of commercial fisheries. Monitoring of recreational fisheries effort and catch is therefore important for sustainable fisheries management. We developed and implemented an angler survey to estimate effort and catch for the recreational trolling fishery for landlocked Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown trout (S. trutta) in Lake Vänern, Sweden. Major challenges were the large spatial scale and dispersed fishing effort, a lack of revenue from fishing licence sales, and a lack of catch reporting requirements. We developed a complemented roving/mail-in survey to estimate effort and catch during the main fishing periods, spring and fall, 2014. Instantaneous counts from major access sites were used for effort estimates, and mail-in surveys were used for catch rates. Our results show that Vänern supports a salmon and trout fishery of some 28.7 ± 3.3 tonnes per year. Fishing effort was higher in the spring than in the fall, and there were seasonal differences in catch rates for trout but not for salmon. Estimates show that the recreational trolling fishery now harvests more salmon and trout annually than do the commercial and subsistence fisheries combined. This highlights the importance of continuing an angler survey program for Vänern as a key element for sustainable fisheries management, and can serve as a model for other recreational fisheries at large spatial scales.

  • 12.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Su, Zhenming
    Andersson, Magnus
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Estimating effort and catch of a recreational trolling fishery in one of Europe’s largest lakesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 13. Andersson, Hans
    et al.
    Ersgård, Lars
    Svensson, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Outland use in preindustrial Europe1998Book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Andersson, Lena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Flodpärlmusslans (Margaritifera margaritifera) påverkan på öringens (Salmo trutta) tillväxt, konditionsfaktor och habitatval.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The freshwater mussel family Unionoida lives a complex life with its host animals and the freshwater mussel family’s existence is threatened worldwide. One of these species, the pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera), is a “responsibility species” for Scandinavia and a lot of work is ongoing to save the species. In Scandinavia there are still existing populations, but in many waters recruitment of juvenile mussels is completely lacking or insufficient. To support recruitment and also reintroduce the mussel into suitable watercourses, more knowledge about its complex life cycle and how it affects its host brown trout (Salmo trutta), is required. Attempts have been made to introduce gravid mussels or already infected trout in order to try to rejuvenate or to reintroduce mussels in some rivers. In this study, 293 trout individuals were captured from three watercourses in western Sweden with no or inadequate recruitment of juvenile pearl mussels. The brown trout were treated with mussel infection by being kept in containers with the presence of gravid mussels and compared to a control group where no mussels were present. Growth, condition factor and habitat selection were investigated and checked after treatment by scanning the trout with a mobile scanner and recaptured for control. The analyzes showed a significantly lower growth on those trout treated with mussel infection during the time they were stored in the containers. After a month in freedom in the streams, there was no differences in growth or condition factor. Habitat choice studies showed that trout with a higher degree of infection chose calmer water with a bottom layer of finer sediment. The study showed that this method could be a simple way of increasing the reproduction success of pearl mussel. The method requires relatively little work effort and small disturbance to host fish or the aquatic environment.

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  • 15.
    Andersson, Matilda L.
    et al.
    Lund University ; Uppsala University.
    Hulthen, Kaj
    Lund University.
    Blake, Charlie
    Lund University ; Webster University, USA.
    Broenmark, Christer
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Lund University.
    Linking behavioural type with cannibalism in Eurasian perch2021In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 16, no 12, article id e0260938Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The propensity to kill and consume conspecifics (cannibalism) varies greatly between and within species, but the underlying mechanisms behind this variation remain poorly understood. A rich literature has documented that consistent behavioural variation is ubiquitous across the animal kingdom. Such inter-individual behavioural differences, sometimes referred to as personality traits, may have far-reaching ecological consequences. However, the link between predator personality traits and the propensity to engage in cannibalistic interactions remains understudied. Here, we first quantified personality in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis), measured as activity (time spent moving) and sociability (time spent near conspecifics). We then gave perch of contrasting behavioural types the option to consume either conspecific or heterospecific (roach, Rutilus rutilus) prey. Individual perch characterized by a social-active behavioural phenotype (n = 5) selected roach before being cannibalistic, while asocial-inactive perch (n = 17) consumed conspecific and heterospecific prey evenly. Thus, asocial-inactive perch expressed significantly higher rates of cannibalism as compared to social-active individuals. Individual variation in cannibalism, linked to behavioural type, adds important mechanistic understanding to complex population and community dynamics, and also provides insight into the diversity and maintenance of animal personality.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Accident and injury surveillance: a review of theoretical frameworks2015In: The Baltic Resilience Monograph Report: on awareness raising, bridging and building community resilience in the Baltic Sea Region. / [ed] Tomasz Zwęgliński, Pawel Gromek, Magdalena Gikiewicz, Anna Predecka, Warsaw-Karlstad: The Main School of Fire Service , 2015Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013).
    Moniruzzaman, Syed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Skaderegistering i teori och praktik2015In: Personsäkerhet - teori och praktik / [ed] Ragnar Andersson, Per Nilsen, Karlstad: Myndigheten för Samhällsskydd och Beredskap (MSB) , 2015, p. 81-89Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilsen, PerDepartment of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH) / Division of Community Medicine (SAM).
    Personsäkerhet – teori och praktik2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Andersson, Ragnar
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Public Safety (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Nilsen, Per
    Department of Medical and Health Sciences (IMH) / Division of Community Medicine (SAM).
    Säkerhetsfrämjande arbete i samhället2015In: Personsäkerhet - teori och praktik, Karlstad: Myndigheten för Samhällsskydd och Beredskap (MSB) , 2015, 1, p. 167-177Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Andersson, Simon
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Pellet production of Sicklebush, Pigeon Pea, and Pine in Zambia: Pilot Study and Full Scale Tests to Evaluate Pellet Quality and Press Configurations2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    More deaths are caused every year by indoor air pollution than malaria, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis combined. Cooking with traditional fuels such as charcoal and fuelwood with poor ventilation causes the single most important environmental health risk factor worldwide. It also contributes to environmental issues such as deforestation as traditional biomass fuels and cooking stoves are inefficient and requires large quantities of wood. This is especially critical in Africa where the largest regional population growth in the world is expected to occur.

    A solution to these issues was realized through fuel pellets and modern cooking stoves by Emerging Cooking Solutions, a company started by two Swedes and based in Zambia. The production of fuel pellets in Zambia is dependent on pine sawdust from small sawmills and is a declining source of raw material. However, other sources of biomass are available in Zambia such as pigeon pea stalk, an agricultural waste product, and sicklebush, an invasive tree species. If these species are viable for pelletization, the production of pellets can increase while reducing issues with sicklebush and promoting cultivation of pigeon pea. The aim of this work is to evaluate if pigeon pea stalk and sicklebush are viable to pelletize in Zambia and how the press is affected by the different raw materials.

    A pilot study is done at Karlstad University with a single unit press, hardness tester and soxhlet extractor to evaluate how the material constituents correlate to friction in the press channel and hardness of the pellets. The results of the pilot study provide support for full scale tests done in a pellet plant in Zambia. The normal production of pellets from pine sawdust is used as quality and production reference for the tests with pigeon pea stalk, sicklebush, and different mixes of the raw materials. The properties used to evaluate the quality of the pellets are hardness, durability, moisture content, bulk density, and fines. The press configuration is evaluated by logging the electricity consumption by the press motor, calculating the power and specific energy consumption from the logs, and observations during the tests.

    The results show that sicklebush, and mixes of sicklebush with pigeon pea stalk can produce pellets with better quality than the reference pine pellets. An interesting composition is a mix of 80% pigeon pea and 20% sicklebush that produces pellets with the best quality of all the tests. However, pellets produced from sicklebush and pigeon pea show a larger variation in hardness as compared to the reference pellets from pine sawdust. Mixing pigeon pea with pine reduces these variations but reduces the hardness of the pellets below the reference. The press struggles to process sicklebush and pigeon pea stalk with fluctuating power consumption that causes the motor to trip. The inhomogeneity of the materials in sicklebush and pigeon pea are identified to cause the issues in the press. Production improvements are discussed to facilitate the production of pigeon pea stalk and sicklebush pellets.

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  • 21. Andersson, Sofia
    et al.
    Svensson, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Skramle - historien om en gård och en arkeologisk undersökning: Projektet Skramle 1990-19941995Report (Other academic)
  • 22. Andersson, Sofia
    et al.
    Svensson, EvaKarlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Skramle. The true story of a deserted medieval farmstead2002Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 23. Andersson, Sofia
    et al.
    Svensson, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    The local and regional arena of a Middle Age Swedish farm1997In: / [ed] de Boe, Guy & Verhaege, Frans, Zellik, 1997Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Andersson, Tonny
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Öppna JavaScript-bibliotek för webbkartor i kommunal tjänst: En jämförelse mellan OpenLayers 3 och Leaflet2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of web-based mapping applications is constantly increasing. In particular, an increase can be observed in the mobile use of such applications. Karlstad municipality is experiencing an increased number of mobile users of its web map. For that reason, the municipality aims to improve their web map in order to provide a more mobile-friendly service. The municipality intends to replace the technology of their existing web map with a more modern alternative and is currently looking at two different JavaScript-based open source APIs for web-based mapping applications – OpenLayers 3 and Leaflet.In this thesis, OpenLayers 3 and Leaflet are compared in terms of compatibility, functionality and performance. Compatibility and functionality are examined primarily through analysis of available documentation. Assessments are made based on requirements set forth by Karlstad municipality, regarding compatibility with existing server architecture and functionality equivalent to the municipality’s current web mapping service.Performance is assessed for WMS and WFS functions, and functions for file based vector data rendering. In addition, differences in performance with various web browsers are evaluated. The performance tests are carried out in environments set up as basic mapping applications. Given functions are tested with simple script methods for timing, together with Firebug, a Firefox web browser plugin.Test results show that both OpenLayers 3 and Leaflet meet all requirements regarding compatibility, even though Leaflet lacks support for certain formats. OpenLayers 3 shows, furthermore, a broader native support for different functions. Leaflet is more limited, natively, but can be extended through various plugins to achieve the same level of functionality as OpenLayers 3.Performance tests consistently show that OpenLayers 3 is the faster API. The results are particularly clear concerning vector data handling, where Leaflet is significantly slower. Despite distinct and measurable differences in performance, the perceived differences are not always as obvious. For this reason, practical user-focused tests are recommended for future studies of the subject.In conclusion, OpenLayers 3 is the recommended API for use in applications of larger scale and with richer functionality, while Leaflet is proposed as a more flexible alternative, suitable for simpler applications.

  • 25.
    Andrén, Hanna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Tillförlitligheten hos översvämningskartering: Utbredningsjämförelse med översvämningen i Hallsberg 20152016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
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    Tillförlitlighet översvämningskartering
  • 26.
    Ardren, W. R.
    et al.
    US Fish & Wildlife Service, USA.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Introduction to “conservation, ecology, and evolution of nonanadromous atlantic salmon”2021In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, ISSN 0706-652X, E-ISSN 1205-7533, Vol. 78, no 6, p. iii-ViiArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Ariza, Marta Romero
    et al.
    University of Jaén, Spain.
    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). University of Antwerp, Belgium; Karel de Grote University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Belgium .
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Van Petegem, Peter
    University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Parra, Gema
    University of Jaén, Spain.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Promoting Environmental Citizenship in Education: The Potential of the Sustainability Consciousness Questionnaire to Measure Impact of Interventions2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 20, p. 1-20, article id 11420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Policy documents across the globe call for citizen engagement to fight climate change emergencies and build more sustainable societies. They also recognize the key role of formal and non-formal education in preparing citizens to address those challenges. However, there is a need to identify appropriate instruments to evaluate the impact of educational interventions on people's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, which are essential components of the action competence required to become environmental citizens and agents of change. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of the Sustainability Consciousness Questionnaire (SCQ) to evaluate different educational interventions aimed at increasing environmental citizenship. It presents three sub-studies from Spain, Belgium, and Sweden using the SCQ with varying contexts, duration, and target groups yet sharing common pedagogical features in the interventions. Pre-intervention scores indicate a common pattern of high sustainability knowingness, moderate sustainability attitudes, and lower sustainability behaviors in the three dimensions (environmental, social and economic) of sustainability consciousness, and a positive impact on sustainability behavior after the intervention. These findings are especially significant when compared to previous studies. We therefore conclude that the SCQ is useful for detecting the effects of learning interventions of varying designs and contexts that address environmental citizenship. The results are discussed in terms of key pedagogical features of the educational interventions, and the appropriateness and sensitivity of the instrument in detecting changes in the intended direction. It concludes with implications for research and practice and suggestions for future lines of work.

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  • 28.
    Arnott, Shelley E.
    et al.
    Queen's University, Canada.
    Fugere, Vincent
    Group de Research Interuniversitaire en Limnologie (GRIL), Canada; Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Canada.
    Symons, Celia C.
    University of California, USA.
    Melles, Stephanie J.
    Toronto Metropolitan University, Canada.
    Beisner, Beatrix E.
    Group de Research Interuniversitaire en Limnologie (GRIL), Canada; Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada.
    Canedo-Arguelles, Miguel
    Universitat de Barcelona, Spain.
    Hebert, Marie-Pier
    Group de Research Interuniversitaire en Limnologie (GRIL), Canada; Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada; McGill University, Canada..
    Brentrup, Jennifer A.
    Dartmouth College, USA.
    Downing, Amy L.
    Ohio Wesleyan University, USA.
    Gray, Derek K.
    Wilfrid Laurier University, Canada.
    Greco, Danielle
    Queen's University, Canada.
    Hintz, William D.
    The University of Toledo, USA.
    McClymont, Alexandra
    Queen's University, Canada.
    Relyea, Rick A.
    Rensselaer Polytech Inst, USA.
    Rusak, James A.
    Queen's University, Canada; Ontario Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Conservation and Parks, Canada.
    Searle, Catherine L.
    Purdue University, USA.
    Astorg, Louis
    Group de Research Interuniversitaire en Limnologie (GRIL), Canada; Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada.
    Baker, Henry K.
    University of California San Diego, USA.
    Ersoy, Zeynep
    Universidade de Évora, Portugal.
    Espinosa, Carmen
    University of Vic–Central-University of Catalonia (Uvic–UCC), Spain.
    Franceschini, Jaclyn M.
    Wilfrid Laurier University, Canada.
    Giorgio, Angelina T.
    Rensselaer Polytech Inst, USA.
    Gobeler, Norman
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Hassal, Emily
    Ontario Tech University, Canada.
    Huynh, Mercedes
    Wilfrid Laurier University, Canada.
    Hylander, Samuel
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Jonasen, Kacie L.
    Purdue University, USA.
    Kirkwood, Andrea
    Ontario Tech University, Canada.
    Langenheder, Silke
    Uppsala universitet.
    Langvall, Ola
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Lind, Lovisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Lundgren, Maria
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    Moffett, Emma R.
    University of California, USA.
    Proia, Lorenzo
    University of Vic–Central-University of Catalonia (Uvic–UCC), Spain.
    Schuler, Matthew S.
    Montclair State University, USA.
    Shurin, Jonathan B.
    University of California San Diego, USA.
    Steiner, Christopher F.
    Wayne State University, USA.
    Striebel, Maren
    Carl-von-Ossietzky University Oldenburg, Germany.
    Thibodeau, Simon
    Group de Research Interuniversitaire en Limnologie (GRIL), Canada; Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada.
    Cordero, Pablo Urrutia
    Uppsala universitet; Lunds universitet.
    Vendrell-Puigmitja, Lidia
    University of Vic–Central-University of Catalonia (Uvic–UCC), Spain.
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Uppsala universitet.
    Derry, Alison M.
    Group de Research Interuniversitaire en Limnologie (GRIL), Canada; Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada.
    Widespread variation in salt tolerance within freshwater zooplankton species reduces the predictability of community-level salt tolerance2023In: Limnology and Oceanography Letters, E-ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 8-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The salinization of freshwaters is a global threat to aquatic biodiversity. We quantified variation in chloride (Cl-) tolerance of 19 freshwater zooplankton species in four countries to answer three questions: (1) How much variation in Cl- tolerance is present among populations? (2) What factors predict intraspecific variation in Cl- tolerance? (3) Must we account for intraspecific variation to accurately predict community Cl- tolerance? We conducted field mesocosm experiments at 16 sites and compiled acute LC(50)s from published laboratory studies. We found high variation in LC(50)s for Cl- tolerance in multiple species, which, in the experiment, was only explained by zooplankton community composition. Variation in species-LC50 was high enough that at 45% of lakes, community response was not predictable based on species tolerances measured at other sites. This suggests that water quality guidelines should be based on multiple populations and communities to account for large intraspecific variation in Cl- tolerance.

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  • 29.
    Balk, Lennart
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hagerroth, Per-Ake
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gustavsson, Hanna
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sigg, Lisa
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Åkerman, Gun
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ruiz Munoz, Yolanda
    Univ Vigo, Dept Biochem, Genet & Immunol, Lagoas Marcosende, ES-36310 Vigo, Spain.
    Honeyfield, Dale C.
    Leetown Sci Ctr, No Appalachian Res Lab, S Geol Survey USGS, Wellsboro, PA 16901 USA.
    Tjärnlund, Ulla
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Oliveira, Kenneth
    Univ Massachusetts Dartmouth, Dept Biol, Dartmouth, MA 02747 USA.
    Strom, Karin
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Solna & Ctr Mol Med, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.
    McCormick, Stephen D.
    Leetown Sci Ctr, Conte Anadromous Fish Res Lab, S Geol Survey USGS, Turners Falls, MA 01376 USA.
    Karlsson, Simon
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Inst Freshwater Res, Dept Aquat Resources, SE-17893 Drottningholm, Sweden..
    Ström, Marika
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    van Manen, Mathijs
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Utrecht, Inst Risk Assessment Sci IRAS, NL-3508 TD Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Berg, Anna-Lena
    Med Prod Agcy, Box 26, SE-75103 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Halldorsson, Halldor P.
    Univ Icelands Res Ctr Sudurnes, IS-245 Sandgerdi, Iceland..
    Strömquist, Jennie
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Inst Freshwater Res, Dept Aquat Resources, SE-17893 Drottningholm, Sweden..
    Collier, Tracy K.
    NW Fisheries Sci Ctr, NOAA Fisheries, Seattle, WA 98112 USA..
    Börjeson, Hans
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, Fisheries Res Stn, 13Department Aquat Resources, Brobacken, SE-81494 lvkarleby, Sweden..
    Morner, Torsten
    Natl Vet Inst SVA, Dept Dis Control & Epidemiol, SE-75189 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hansson, Tomas
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Environm Sci & Analyt Chem ACES, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Widespread episodic thiamine deficiency in Northern Hemisphere wildlife2016In: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 38821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many wildlife populations are declining at rates higher than can be explained by known threats to biodiversity. Recently, thiamine (vitamin B-1) deficiency has emerged as a possible contributing cause. Here, thiamine status was systematically investigated in three animal classes: bivalves, ray-finned fishes, and birds. Thiamine diphosphate is required as a cofactor in at least five life-sustaining enzymes that are required for basic cellular metabolism. Analysis of different phosphorylated forms of thiamine, as well as of activities and amount of holoenzyme and apoenzyme forms of thiaminedependent enzymes, revealed episodically occurring thiamine deficiency in all three animal classes. These biochemical effects were also linked to secondary effects on growth, condition, liver size, blood chemistry and composition, histopathology, swimming behaviour and endurance, parasite infestation, and reproduction. It is unlikely that the thiamine deficiency is caused by impaired phosphorylation within the cells. Rather, the results point towards insufficient amounts of thiamine in the food. By investigating a large geographic area, by extending the focus from lethal to sublethal thiamine deficiency, and by linking biochemical alterations to secondary effects, we demonstrate that the problem of thiamine deficiency is considerably more widespread and severe than previously reported.

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    Balk2016
  • 30.
    Bauner, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Insamling av geografisk information med UAV över området Stomsjö i Värnamo kommun: En effektiv arbetsmetod för kartering i 2D och 3D samt dokumentation av arbetsgång och kvalitetssäkring av geografisk information2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this project the area Stomsjö in Värnamo municipality was mapped using a Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV). Since 1972 Stomsjö landfill is a part of the municipality. The municipality´s technical department needed a calculation and modelling of mass in a landfill, comprising an area of 15hectares. The purpose of the project is to develop an effective mapping method in 2D and 3D with UAV data, and to document the process to ensure geographical information quality. The flight performed in the study constitutes a basis for further upcoming flights within the municipality.

    The acquisition of geographical data was made at four different altitudes 50, 75, 100 and 120 meters using a DJI Phantom 4 quadcopter. Four 3D models, orthophotos and Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) were created with the software Agisoft PhotoScan. A total of 6 Ground Control Points (GCP) and a control surface on asphalt (5x5 points) were used for evaluation of the models accuracy. A comparison between measured GPS points and raster values from each flight were made on a control surface. The resolution for each generated orthophoto was less than 3 cm/pix. The resolution of the DEMs was less than 6 cm/pix.

    Lantmäteriet (The Swedish Mapping, Cadastral and Land Registration Authority) conducted aerial photograph acquisition at 2 500 m altitude over the area in 2015. A comparison between altitude data from Lantmäteriet and altitude data from UAV was made through random points generation. The acquisition at 100 meters altitude showed the lowest deviation forms the data derived by Lantmäteriet. Volume and area measurements were performed at the southern part of the landfill. The selected area is about 34 300 m2 in size and the volume amounts to 290 000 m3.

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  • 31.
    Behrens, Jane W.
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark.
    von Friesen, Lisa W.
    Lund University.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU) – Umeå.
    Ericsson, Philip
    Lund University.
    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel
    University of Basel, Switzerland.
    Persson, Anders
    Lund University.
    Sundelin, Anna
    Umeå University.
    van Deurs, Mikael
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Personality- and size-related metabolic performance in invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus)2020In: Physiology and Behavior, ISSN 0031-9384, E-ISSN 1873-507X, Vol. 215, p. 1-6, article id 112777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Differences between individuals in behavioral type (i.e. animal personality) are ecologically and evolutionarily important because they can have significant effects on fitness components such as growth and predation risk. In the present study we are used the invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) from an established population in controlled experiments to examine the relationships among personality, metabolic performance, and growth rate (inferred as size-at-age). Boldness was measured as the time to return to normal behavior after a simulated predator attack, where fish with shorter freezing times were categorized as "bold" and fish with longer times were categorized as "shy." We show that bold fish have significantly higher standard metabolic rate (SMR) than their shy conspecifics, whereas there was no difference between personality types in their maximum metabolic rate (MMR) or aerobic scope (AS). Bold fish furthermore had a smaller size-at-age as compared to shy fish. Together this provides evidence of a metabolic underpinning of personality where the high-SMR bold fish require more resources to sustain basic life functions than their low-SMR shy conspecifics, indicating that bold round goby from established populations with high densities (and high competition for food) pay a price of reduced growth rate.

  • 32.
    Bengtsson, Jonatan
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Metoder för uppskattning och kartläggning av oskyddade trafikanters resmönster: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige pågår ett ständigt arbete med att öka trafiksäkerheten. Sverige har som mål att ha noll dödsolyckor i trafiken, den så kallade nollvisionen. Det är känt att oskyddade trafikanter utsätts för större risker i trafiken och för att uppnå visionen behöver säkerheten för oskyddade trafikanter ökas. Det är i dagsläget svårt att bedöma effekterna av säkerhetsåtgärder som genomförs. För att få fram bättre lösningar i trafiksäkerheten och dra slutsatser om de åtgärder som redan görs behövs insikt om oskyddade trafikanters resmönster.

    Det här arbetet syftade till att undersöka vilka metoder för uppskattning av oskyddade trafikanters resmönster som finns tillgängliga och kan användas i svenska städer genom att utföra en litteraturstudie. Litteraturstudien utfördes på engelska och svenska texter med sökmotorerna Google Scholar, Web of Science och Scopus.

    Litteraturgranskningen visade att de vanligaste metoderna som används i Sverige är flödesmätningar och resvaneundersökningar. Internationellt har flera studier utförts med flera andra metoder som kan vara intressanta även för Sverige. Främst bland dem är analyser på data från lånecyklar och GPS-data från crowdsourcing med mobilapplikationer.

    Slutsatsen som dras från studien är att ingen metod är tillräckligt utvecklad så att den redan idag kan appliceras i svenska städer utan modifikationer. Crowdsourcing med appar som nyttjar mobilens GPS ger mycket bra data att utföra analyser på men ett problem som återfinns i alla studier med crowdsourcing är mängden användare eller användargruppens homogenitet. 

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  • 33.
    Bengtsson, Peder
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). ASKO Appliances AB, Lidköping, Sweden.
    Berghel, Jonas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    Concept Study of a New Method for Drying Dishware in a Heat Pump Dishwater2017In: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, p. 1-10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a heat pump dishwasher, the whole dishwasher with the cabinet, dishware and process water is the heat sink, while a water tank, whose contents will freeze, is the heat source. The aim of the experimental concept study presented here was to evaluate a new drying method for a heat pump dishwasher. In this method, the drying of the dishware occurs as a fan circulates humid air in a closed system in which the water on the dishware evaporates inside the warm dishwasher cabinet and then condenses on a cold surface of the frozen water tank. The evaluation of drying performance was based on the European standard EN50242, which considers visible water drops left on the dishware after a completed dishwashing cycle. The results showed that this new closed drying method was more energy efficient compared to an existing open drying method, and that the drying start temperature and the drying time had a significant effect on the drying performance. Its lower electricity consumption and the fact that it does not vent humid air into the kitchen gives this heat pump dishwasher a competitive advantage over dishwashers using an open drying method.

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    Bengtsson_Berghel_2017
  • 34.
    Bergelin, Rebecca
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Trädsäkring av järnvägen som ett verktyg i Sveriges klimatanpassning: En kvalitativ undersökning av trädsäkring som anpassningsåtgärd2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Commission on Climate and Vulnerability indicate that climate change may result in an increased average wind speed and the risk of extreme storms may increase in intensity and number. Functions important to society such as road and rail networks must therefore adapt to a changing climate.

    In 2005, Sweden was hit by the storm Gudrun. During this storm fell equivalent to 90 percent of the annual felling of timber and infrastructure was severely affected. Two years later the storm Per occurred, the storm showed once again that the railroad was still very vulnerable and that many of the problems of withstanding severe storms persisted. These two events, particularly Hurricane Gudrun laid the foundation for the Swedish Transport administration to adapt the railways by the felling of trees close to the railways.

    The theoretical premises of the essay is comprised of sustainable development and climate adaptation from a risk perspective.

    This study is conducted based on a qualitative survey with an inductive approach. Data collection methods consisted primarily of interviews whose material then was analyzed through a content analysis.

    The overall aim is to shed light on if Tree removal program is an effective climate adaptation measure, and study the social, economic and ecological consequences of tree management has on the Swedish society.

    The survey results show that both direct and indirect costs which arise from fallen trees may be reduced by the Tree removal program. Tree removal program is a safety measure which may impact both the economy and the environment. The Tree removal program make for example that less priority forest areas become managed in a better way and then get more developed. At the same time the plants that are in need of shadow may be negatively affected by increased sunlight. Based on the changing conditions of the animal and plant life that is created by the security measure it is the common perception among survey respondents that trees management could lead to an increased occurrence of wild animal collisions. The measure also affects the work environment which forest workers are exposed to during harvesting work. In the ongoing Tree removal program it is important that the ruling safety regulations are complied with. The survey results show that there is an increased risk of heat distortion which is both unexpected and an undesirable consequence. Interviews indicate that the tree management could lead to a reduced occurrence of events related to suicide on the railway, this is an unexpected but positive consequence.

  • 35.
    Berglund, Ebbe
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Fogelberg, V
    Lund University.
    Nilsson, Per Anders
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Hollander, Johan
    World Maritime University.
    Microplastics in a freshwater mussel (Anodonta anatina) in Northern Europe2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 697, article id UNSP 134192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alarming amounts of microplastics have recently been shown to accumulate in the environment. Recent focus has been on synthetic material contaminating the marine environment, while effects on freshwater habitats and organisms have received less attention. We here confirm and analyse occurrence of microplastics in the duck mussel, Anodonta anatina, in a Swedish river. All analysed mussels contained microplastics, and the number of microplastic debris found in the mussels increased with mussel size. In addition, we demonstrate higher concentrations of microplastics downstream urban areas with wastewater treatment plants compared to a rural upstream location. Both fibres and particles were found in the mussels, indicating that the emissions of these pollutants may have varying origin. Our study indicates that microplastics can be suspended in the water column in streams and that concentrations are higher downstream anthropogenic activity. We discuss our results in light of potential pathways in rural versus surrounding arable land, and highlight a number of required research directions in the aquatic system. 

  • 36.
    Berglund, Teresa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Student 'sustainability consciousness' and decision making on sustainability dilemmas: Investigating effects of implementing education for sustainable development in Swedish upper secondary schools2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The central role of education for sustainable development (SD) has been emphasized since the 1990s. SD involves the three areas of environment, economy and society, with a focus on the relationships between environmental protection and human development. Education for sustainable development (ESD) takes a holistic view on the environmental, economic and social dimensions of SD and aims to empower students to engage in the democratic development of society in a more sustainable direction. Policy-level and research community discussions have addressed the ways in which ESD has been implemented internationally. This study focuses on upper secondary students, and investigates their views on sustainability and the ways they make decisions related to SD. The study aims to address the interdisciplinary and multidimensional content embraced in the concept of SD and the development of competences often associated with ESD. A survey investigating students’ (n=638) sustainability consciousness (SC) and their decision-making in a number of SD related contexts was conducted in 15 Swedish upper secondary schools. The results show that students attending schools with an ESD profile are characterized by stronger SC than students attending regular schools; however the difference is small and mostly related to the economic dimension of SD. Furthermore, students who prioritize environmental decisions in SD dilemmas show stronger SC than students giving priority to economic reasons. When environmental, economic and social dimensions are introduced separately, social aspects are given the highest priority by the students. In contrast, environmental aspects are up-graded when the dimensions are introduced in an integrated manner. However, different dimensions are prioritized in different contexts. The study provides empirical support for using multiple contexts and including both harmonious and conflict-based perspectives on SD in education. It also contributes knowledge to the discussion about the implementation of ESD in Sweden in terms of outcomes among students.

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  • 37.
    Berglund, Teresa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Student views of environmental, social and economic dimensions of sustainable development and their interconnectedness: A search for the holistic perspective in education for sustainable development2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The work in this thesis centers on upper secondary students’ views of the environmental, social and economic dimensions of sustainable development and their interconnectedness. The focus has been to study the diversity of students’ views in various contexts. The research uses as its starting point the aims of education for sustainable development to facilitate a holistic understanding among students, which implies the consideration of environmental, social and economic perspectives when dealing with issues of sustainability.

    A mixed methods and iterative approach was applied in this research. Two data sets were collected: one larger-scale data set from 638 students in grade 12 (aged 18-19) on science and social science programs, and one smaller set involving 18 students of similar age and programs. In the first data collection exercise, the students responded to questionnaires investigating their sustainability consciousness and decision-making within different everyday contexts. The aim of the second data collection exercise was to study, in-depth, patterns of students’ views on the interconnectedness of sustainability dimensions. 

    The results reveal a diversity of student views that specifically relate to the economic dimension in sustainable development. The economic dimension is perceived differently in their sustainability consciousness, and when they encounter the economic dimension in various sustainability contexts. Moreover, there are four distinctly different beliefs among students about the interconnectedness of the economy and sustainable development. The four beliefs are identified as the un-differentiating positive, the nuanced ambivalent, the two-way convinced and the critical, differing in their arguments about the interconnectedness of environmental, social and economic dimensions. The findings indicate the potential resource students’ views and different contexts can represent in teaching that aims at perspective-shifting and learning about the complexity and dynamic nature of sustainability issues.

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  • 38.
    Berglund, Teresa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    An explorative study of student understandings of the relationships between the environment and the economy2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Berglund, Teresa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education Research.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education Research. Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Diversity in views as a resource for learning?: Student perspectives on the interconnectedness of sustainable development dimensions2022In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 354-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the different arguments put forward by Swedish upper secondary students on the interconnectedness of the environmental, social and economic dimensions of sustainable development (SD). The aim is to study the diversity in views among students in order to find out whether this can be used as a resource in a holistic and pluralistic approach to ESD. The study design was based on a two-step process in which the first step was to identify students representing four different, broadly coherent, views on the interconnections between sustainability dimensions, with a specific focus on the role of the economy in SD. Thereafter, focus group interviews were undertaken with the selected groups of students representing the four different views. The findings indicate a diversity of arguments in discussions of SD and the potential that this plurality brings for perspective shifting. Moreover, the economic dimension appears as central to promoting discussions that aim to examine the overall interconnectedness of sustainability dimensions. A further conclusion is that omitting the economic dimension in ESD risks excluding the core of students’ ideas of how SD may be realized.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 40.
    Berglund, Teresa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Education for sustainable development: Student views on environmental, social and economic dimensions of sustainable development and their interrelationships2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development (SD) isbased on the idea that environmental problems must be managed in relation to social and economic perspectives. The important role of education for a more sustainable future has been emphasized in transnational policy documents over the years (UNESCO 2006;2015). In education for sustainable development (ESD), an interdisciplinary approach to SD can facilitate students’ understanding of its complexity (Gough 2002; Warburton 2003). This contribution aims to provide insight into young adults’ views of the relationships between dimensions of SD. 638 students in their final year of upper secondary schools across Sweden (age 18-19) responded to a Likert-scale questionnaire. The results indicate that economic perspectives are associated with great complexity and less recognized compared to social and environmental perspectives in SD (Author et al. 2014; 2015). The role of the economy has been discussed longtime, in relation to its impact on the environment and the development of the society (e.g. Daly 1990; Ekins 2000; Neumayer 2003; Hopwood et al. 2005; Costanza et al. 2014). It is argued that sustainability education should embrace critical and reflective perspectives, however few educational studies have focused on the role of the economy in SD. A study from Australia concludes that economic perspectives in sustainability education are largely missing and thus, the status quo is not being challenged (Dyment et al. 2015). To look deeper into students’ understanding of economic perspectives in SD, we performed an explorative cluster analysis (Author et al. submitted), based on student responses to items concerning the relationships between economic growth, economic development and SD. Four viewpoints emerged from the analysis, which we labeled into The un-differentiating positive, The nuanced ambivalent, The bilaterally convinced and The critical ones.

  • 41.
    Berglund, Teresa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Exploring studentunderstandings of economic perspectives in sustainable development2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Berglund, Teresa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Exploring the Role of the Economy in Young Adults’ Understanding of Sustainable Development2018In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 8, p. 1-17, article id 2738Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theeconomicdimensionisoneofthecentralperspectivesinbothsustainabledevelopment and education for sustainable development. The role of the economy in sustainable development has been discussed extensively over the years and different views exist about how economic activities affect other sustainability dimensions. How young people view the relationships among economic perspectives and sustainable development seems to be an underemphasized perspective in sustainability education and underexplored in the field of sustainability education research. This study uses cluster analysis, which is an explorative approach, to identify and analyze young peoples’viewsoftherelationshipsbetweeneconomicgrowth,economicdevelopmentandsustainable development. Six hundred and thirty eight students (age 18–19) from 15 schools across Sweden responded to a questionnaire probing (1) views on these relationships, and (2) their environmental consciousness. Four clusters of students differing in their views on the economy in sustainable development were identified in the analysis: un-differentiating positive, nuanced ambivalent, two-way convinced, and critical. Further analysis indicated that some groups differed in their perception of the environmental dimension of sustainable development. Implications of these findings are discussed from the perspective of education for sustainable development.

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    fulltext
  • 43.
    Berglund, Teresa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Separated and integrated perspectives on environmental, economic, and social dimensions: an investigation of student views on sustainable development2016In: Environmental Education Research, ISSN 1350-4622, E-ISSN 1469-5871, Vol. 22, no 8, p. 1115-1138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sustainable development (SD) concept is based on the idea that economic and social development should be linked to the environment. However, controversies about various associated issues often arise due to the differences in protagonists’ viewpoints, depending partly on whether they focus mainly on environmental, economic, or social dimensions and partly on ideological stances related (for instance) to the optimal ways of promoting economic growth and social justice. This study investigates views of 638 Swedish upper secondary students who responded to a questionnaire probing their views of SD from two perspectives. In the first, the dimensions were separately introduced, so the respondents only had to consider one dimension at a time. In the second, the dimensions were introduced in an integrated fashion, so the respondents had to consider effects related to all three dimensions. The results strongly indicate that the students’ views and priorities concerning the dimensions depend on both the perspective and the context. Implications for teaching and learning are discussed. 

  • 44.
    Berglund, Teresa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Separated andintegrated approaches to investigate student views on dimensions of sustainable development2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Berglund, Teresa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Student Decision-making on Sustainability Dilemmas and its Relationship to Sustainability Consciousness2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Berglund, Teresa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Student views on the dimensions of sustainable development: A matter of context, congruence and conflictManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Berglund, Teresa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Boeve-de Pauw, Jelle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). University of Antwerp, BEL.
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Chang, Tzuchau
    National Taiwan Normal University, TWN.
    A cross-cultural comparative study of sustainability consciousness between students in Taiwan and Sweden2019In: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 6287-6313Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education for sustainable development (ESD) is promoted as one important component in the endeavor toward sustainable development. Goal 4 in the Sustainable Development Goals (UN in Sustainable development goals—17 goals to transform our world, 2017) in particular targets the role of ESD in this respect. The importance of cultural specificity in ESD is emphasized in numerous international policy documents, but there are few cross-cultural studies that focus on the broad context of sustainable development and ESD. The current study investigates the sustainability consciousness of grade 12 students (age 18–19) in Taiwan (N = 617) and Sweden (N = 583) and discusses the implications for ESD policy and practice. The findings indicate that significant differences exist between the two samples, both with respect to their sustainability consciousness and within the three sub-constructs of knowingness, attitudes and self-reported behaviors. The differences are considered in light of the cultural value orientations of the East Asian and Western European regions. Implications for ESD are discussed from the perspective of cultural specificity.

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    Berglund_et_al_A cross-cultural comparative study of sustainability consciousness between students in Taiwan and Sweden
  • 48.
    Berglund, Teresa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Chang-Rundgren, Shu-Nu
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Investigating Swedish upper secondary students’ integrated understanding of sustainable development2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Berglund, Teresa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013).
    Chang-Rundgren, Shu-Nu
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences (from 2013).
    The implementation of education for sustainable development in Sweden: Investigating the sustainability consciousness among upper secondary students2014In: Research in Science & Technological Education, ISSN 0263-5143, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 318-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sustainable development (SD) is a complex idea, based on environmental, economic and social dimensions. In line with SD, education for sustainable development (ESD) is an approach to teaching that combines cognitive and affective domains and aims to build empowerment abilities.

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to investigate effects of the implementation of ESD in Sweden, in terms of developing students’ sustainability consciousness (SC). Two groups of students were included: one was from schools with a profile of ESD and the other one was from comparable schools without explicit ESD-profile.

    Sample: A total of 638 students from upper secondary schools (grade 12) in science-related or social science-related programs participated in the study.

    Design and methods: A procedure was created for the selection of schools considered to be the most active in using an ESD approach as well as comparable schools with no explicit ESD approach. During spring 2013, the students responded to a questionnaire based on sustainability knowingness, attitudes and behaviors within the environmental, economic and social dimensions of SD that together constitute the concept of SC. Data were analyzed using SPSS software.

    Results: The results indicate that there are significant differences in SC between students from schools that teach with an ESD approach compared to students from regular schools. Furthermore, a significant difference between the two groups of students was found in the underlying economic dimension of SC. No significant differences were found in the environmental and social dimensions of SC.

    Conclusions: Although the results show that ESD-profiled schools have effect on students' SC, the effects are relatively small. Therefore, the effects and nature of the implementation of ESD are discussed.

  • 50.
    Berglund, Teresa
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education Research.
    Gericke, Niklas
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education Research.
    Forssten Seiser, Anette
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Mogren, Anna
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education Research. Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Educational Studies (from 2013).
    Olsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Science, Mathematics and Engineering Education Research.
    ESD-facilitators’ conditions and functions as sustainability change agents2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proposal information 

    This study seeks to investigate the experiences of teachers working as ESD-facilitators within a whole school approach project designed to implement education for sustainable development (ESD) in their schools. The program activities included school leaders, teachers, and ESD- facilitators. During a period of three school years, five schools in a municipality in Sweden took part in order to integrate ESD in their organization and teaching practice. The ESD-facilitators took part in the design of the development process, workshop activities and content, and facilitated each school’s internal work. This study aims to identify in what ways ESD-facilitators function as sustainability change agents and how contextual factors might contribute to success or form hindrances in their work.The project was designed based on teachers’ learning and collaborative and reflexive work (Desimone, 2009). The purpose was to direct the development work of the schools towards a whole school approach (Mogren et al. 2019), meaning that ESD is fully integrated in the local curriculum. The main areas of development were to increase interdisciplinary teaching with focus on ESD as holistic pedagogical idea, and that ESD should permeate the work in all levels of the internal and external organization of the school (Sund & Lysgaard, 2013), implying that the different actors in the school and its societal context (students, teachers, school leaders and the outer society) work towards sustainability (Mogren et al., 2019). An additional aim was to integrate pluralistic approaches in the teachers’ classroom practice.The project included two project leaders, who also participated as researchers in the project. Together with the school leaders and ESD-facilitators, they took a leading role in the development of the project, which included joint seminars, and meetings between project leaders and a) school leaders (across schools), b) school leaders and facilitators (within schools), and c) facilitators (across schools). The ESD-facilitators were intended to function as a link between school leader, project leaders and the teaching staff. They were supposed to support the teacher work teams in their discussions and implementation work with transforming ESD principles into practice.A recent study by Van Poeck et al. (2017) explored different change agent roles by mapping the different ways in which change agents actively contribute to sustainability. In relation to different roles, various types of learning is being made possible. The authors identified four types of change agents that position themselves in different ways along the two axes of personal detachment vs. personal involvement, and instrumental vs. open-ended approaches (to change and learning). This study investigates the views and practices of the ESD-facilitators in relation to these two dimensions. Thus, different change agent positions may be taken.The ESD-facilitators have a middle leading role in their schools, which means that they enact leading practices from a position in between the teaching staff and the school leader (Grootenboer, Edwards-Groves & Rönnerman, 2015). There is limited research focusing on practitioners who facilitate processes of professional development (Perry & Boylan, 2018). Thus, little is known about how facilitators, and particularly those who facilitate a whole school approach to ESD, could be supported to carry out their role and tasks in an effective way, and what adequate conditions and arrangements for this might be. Taken together, this implies a gap in current knowledge about ESD implementation strategies, which this study aims to help bridging.The research questions guiding the research are twofold: in the ESD-facilitators’ descriptions of their roles, functions and practices:        

    • What kinds of sustainability change agent roles can be identified?
    • What contextual factors are experienced as successful and/or hindering?

    Methodology or Methods

    After the project ended, interviews were carried out between November 2020 and April 2021 with seven ESD-facilitators from five different schools. Two of the schools had appointed two facilitators, who either focused on different programs (in upper secondary school) or on different levels in compulsory school (primary or secondary level).The interviews followed a semi-structured approach (Bryman, 2018) and included pre-defined areas concerning the ESD-facilitators’ view on: a) the long term purposes and goals of the project, b) in what ways they viewed their role in the development work in their school, and c) their experiences of factors that were of central importance in order for them to be able to perform their task effectively. Their responses were followed up by the interviewer in a flexible manner.The analysis of data followed a multi-step process. The three parts above constitute the basis for the first step of the analysis, which was performed inductively and followed a broad approach to data driven thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006). The next step was analyzed deductively, based on the typology of sustainability change agents by Van Poeck et al. (2017). In this step, the utterances connected to the ESD-facilitators’ role in the development work, together with utterances concerning their view of long-term purposes and goals of the project, were analyzed in relation to the four different types of sustainability change agents in the typology. The analysis concerning their role focused mainly on the two dimensions identified as open-ended or instrumental, and personal detachment vs. -involvement. Utterances were identified that could be associated with a specific role description under the four ideal types of change agents. Moreover, utterances of how they viewed the purpose and goal of the ESD development work were analyzed, mainly connected to how different types of change agents may enable different forms of learning (Van Poeck et al., 2017). However, research on middle leading practices as well as research of sustainability change agents emphasizes that roles and practices should be interpreted in relation to the context they are enacted within (Grootenboer, Edwards-Groves & Rönnerman, 2015; Van Poeck et al., 2017). Therefore, the analysis also focused on identifying how different contextual factors affect and enable the roles and practices of the ESD-facilitators. Thus, the final step is to look for relationships between expressed purposes and goals, roles, and what factors are experienced as promoting and/or hindering their role and mission.

    Findings and conclusions 

    The analysis indicates that teachers struggle with transforming ESD theory into teaching practice. The school culture has great impact on the readiness of teacher teams to engage in transformation of their teaching. The ESD-facilitator’ functions and practices are affected by the school culture and whether teacher teams are well functioning or not in terms of collaborative work.All the four roles in the typology (Van Poeck et al., 2017) were identified in their expressions, and different contextual factors were emphasized as either promoting or hindering their functions. Clear support and leadership from the school leader and the presence of a well-defined long term goal was important to provide direction and legitimize the ESD-facilitator role in schools where a broad anchoring of ESD among the staff was missing. Moreover, roles and processes became more open-ended in schools where there was room for collaborative work and reflexive discussions. In those schools where the culture encouraged collaborative work and shared agency, the ESD-facilitators pointed out their functions in mediating the process in terms of initiator, facilitator, mobilizer and/or awareness raiser (ibid.). When there was little space for collaborative work, or the culture was hindering it, the ESD-facilitator role and approach became more instrumental and it became harder to create agency and integrate ESD as a holistic pedagogical idea (see Mogren et al. 2019) among the community of teachers. Those facilitators emphasized their functions in terms of experts, councellors, managers, solution providers and exemplars (Ibid.).A challenge was how to transform ESD theories, which the facilitators expressed as abstract and far from everyday teaching, into concrete practice. In the school where a collaborative culture was present, a way to solve this was to start doing by daring to explore new ways of teaching, and then evaluate in a collaborative, open and reflexive manner

    References

    Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative research in psychology, 3(2), 77-101.

    Bryman, A. (2018). Samhällsvetenskapliga metoder.(tredje upplagan). Liber.

    Desimone, L. M. (2009). Improving impact studies of teachers’ professional development: Toward better conceptualizations and measures. Educational researcher, 38(3), 181-199.

    Grootenboer, P.,  Edwards-Groves, C., & Rönnerman, K. (2015). Leading practice development: voices from the middle, Professional Development in Education, 41(3), 508-526, DOI: 10.1080/19415257.2014.924985

    Mogren, A., Gericke, N., & Scherp, H.-Å. (2019). Whole school approaches to education for sustainable development: a model that links to school improvement. Environmental Education Research, 25(4), 508-531.

    Perry, E., & Boylan, M. (2018). Developing the developers: supporting and researching the learning of professional development facilitators. Professional development in education, 44(2), 254-271.

    Sund, P., & Lysgaard, J. G. (2013). Reclaim “education” in environmental and sustainability education research. Sustainability, 5(4), 1598-1616.

    Van Poeck, K., Læssøe, J., & Block, T. (2017). An exploration of sustainability change agents as facilitators of nonformal learning: Mapping a moving and intertwined landscape. Ecology and Society, 22(2).

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