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  • 1.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    A Narratological Approach to Literary Journalism: How an Interplay between Voice and Point of View May Create Empathy with the Other2016In: Literary Journalism Studies, ISSN 1944-897X, E-ISSN 1944-8988, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 106-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this essay is to present a model for analyzing the in- terplay between voice and point of view in literary journalism/reportage. The model can be used to nuance previous researchers’ discussions about “subjective” and “objective” journalism. It also problematizes the reporter’s special role as an eyewitness by highlighting how narrative techniques can create empathy with the Other and move the reader’s gaze away from the reporter, away from the one who is witnessing. Using tools from classical narratology, I focus on the form of the texts. The tools help me investigate the narrator’s as well as the characters’ subjectivity and interpret the narra- tive’s construction as an expression of a journalistic mission. I systematize variables such as the narrator’s visibility, the relation between an experienc- ing reporter and a narrating reporter, the interplay between the experienc- ing reporter and other characters in the text, and in what way a level with a director (an implied author) can facilitate a comparison between vari- ous kinds of literary journalism. I also examine whether it might be time to abandon the theory that a first-person reportage is more subjective in general than a third-person reportage. I explore whether it is instead the narrator’s visibility that determines the position of the text on a scale be- tween “subjective” and “objective” forms. (Note: I have provided a glossary of terms at the end of the essay.)

  • 2.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism. Stockholms universitet.
    A Narratological Investigation Of Eyewitness Reporting: how a journalistic mission affects narrative structures of the text2018In: Brazilian Journalism Research, ISSN 1808-4079, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 676-699Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drawing upon the tenets of discourse narratology, this essay identifies and discusses the various narrative and rhetorical features typical of literary journalism/reportage that have evolved from the classical tradition of first-hand observation/eyewitness reporting. I give examples of narrative patterns that have influenced literary journalism throughout the 20th century and up until today, and argue that they differ from structures found in comparable ways of narrating in fiction as well as in autobiographies. I highlight four consequences of a rhetorical “position of witnessing”: a narrative perspective directed from the outside and inward, and an illusion of simultaneity of a reporter being present on the spot and seemingly witnessing and narrating at the same time. Furthermore, the essay explores how realism, in terms of mimetic (scenic) form and scrutinized details, works differently in literary journalism than in realistic fiction. In this article, I attempt to demonstrate how narratology can open new doors to our understanding how literary journalism works in its single structures and how these structures in turn affect the reader’s experience.

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  • 3.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    A Poetry of Grayness: Stig Dagerman's German Autumn as Postwar Reportage from Germany2022In: The Routledge Companion to World Literary Journalism / [ed] John S. Bak; Bill Reynolds, London: Routledge, 2022, p. 107-117Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tysk höst (German Autumn) is perhaps the most famous Swedish reportage book from the twentieth century. It was written as a series of reportages by the young author Stig Dagerman and depicts the life of ordinary people in Germany in 1946. Themes such as suffering, guilt, and feelings of dejection are discussed, framed by an atmosphere of grayness. The reader is invited to empathize, not with certain individuals but rather with anyone who is cold, hungry, and bereaved of their beliefs. This chapter explores how these themes are made universally human by an advanced literary technique. Dagerman links the abstract to the concrete, the argumentation to what he has observed on the spot. This is achieved through figurative language, where key words are repeated, gradually transforming them in meaning and blurring the line between illustrated scenes and metaphors. The result becomes a paradoxical kind of gray expressiveness, where the power of the language seems to contradict the gloomy content.

  • 4.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Att se genom andras ögon: narrativa stretegier för att skapa inlevelse i reportage2014Report (Other academic)
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  • 5.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Barbro Alvings folkhemsblick exotiserar Norrland2023In: Mediehistorisk tidsskrift, E-ISSN 2464-4277, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 299-323Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    När den legendariska svenska reportern Barbro Alving, signaturen Bang, 1951 åker på reportageresa till det svenska Norrland gör hon sig till talesperson för myndigheternas framväxande välfärdsprojekt. Detta innebär att norrlänningar ska uppfostras till bättre hygien, bättre matvanor och bättre läsvanor. Den här artikeln gör generaliserande värderingar synliga när narratologisk och medieretorisk analys samt stilanalys belyser ett samspel mellan berättarperspektiv och berättarröst i Bangs åtta reportage från Norrland. Analysen visar hur valet av källor återspeglar ett klassamhälle där högre samhällsföreträdare, tillsammans med den berättande reportern, får stå för artikelseriens problemformuleringar samtidigt som framför allt fattiga kvinnors livssituation skildras med medkänsla men sällan någon djupare inlevelse. Med en närmast filantropisk blick görs norrlänningar till föremål för ”folkhemmets” välfärdsförbättrande insatser, samtidigt som de själva inte inkluderas i det ”vi” där reportern och hennes Stockholmsläsare ingår.

  • 6.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Den engagerade reportern: Svenska sociala reportage 1910–20102023 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social reportages are written by reporters who fight for the weak and expose injustices. So it is said in the profession, in handbooks and among the genre’s supporters. But what is hidden behind the ideal? And what does the commitment look like when it is converted into text? This book highlights reportages by some of the 20th century’s most celebrated Swedish reporters and examines the ways in which their texts convey a commitment to the reader. The narratologically based analyses are performed against a background of changing ideas about a reporter’s role in society. It turns out that the commitment is often time-related and can be counteracted by generalizing values about the depicted people. Here, the difference between empathy and compassion becomes crucial.

    The selected reporters represent Swedish social reportage at central turning points within the tradition. Ester Blenda Nordström and Gustaf Hellström have been chosen for the 1910s, Ivar Lo-Johansson for the years around 1930, Barbro Alving for the 1950s, Jan Guillou for the 1970s and Maciej Zaremba and Karen Söderberg for the 1990s and 2000s.

  • 7.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism. Stockholms universitet.
    Långsamhetens journalistik – reportaget vittnar om sin samtid2020In: Vad är journalistik?: En antologi av journalistiklärare på Södertörns högskola / [ed] Elin Gardeström & Hanna Sofia Rehnberg, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola, 2020, p. 67-76Chapter in book (Other academic)
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    Långsamhetens journalistik – reportaget vittnar om sin samtid
  • 8.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Narrativt engagemang och komplex berättarteknik i Gustaf Hellströms krigsreportage2021In: Samlaren: tidskrift för svensk litteraturvetenskaplig forskning, ISSN 0348-6133, E-ISSN 2002-3871, Vol. 142, p. 5-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 1910s was a dynamic period in Swedish journalism when reporters became professionals and the largest newspapers engaged their own foreign correspondents. A prominent correspondent of the time was Gustaf Hellström, also a famous writer. His reports from France during the First World War, collected in the book 1 1/2 mil härifrån står världens största slag, are known for their dedicated attitude. An assumption in this essay is that such an attitude corresponds to a narrative commitment, which could be divided into narrative empathy and narrative compassion

    Using tools from discourse narratology and cognitive narratology, I investigate narrative techniques and strategies at work when a narrative commitment is constructed in the reportages from France. A conclusion is that parallel perspectives and a multitude of voices within the narrative construction connect the individual to the general and convey empathy with all victims of the war, civilians as well as soldiers on both sides. 

    In a final section, I place Hellström’s series of reportages from France within a broader context where I highlight similarites with Stig Dagerman’s series of reportages Tysk höst from 1946 and Svetlana Alexievich’s documentary books from the 1980s and onwards.

  • 9.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Narratologia a dziennikarstwo literackie: W jaki sposób wzajemne oddziaływanie głosu oraz punktu widzenia może służyć wytworzeniu zrozumienia dla Innego2016In: Tekstualia, ISSN 1734-6029, no 4, p. 5-28Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Reportern som ett verktyg för att belysa de andra: Narratologiska konsekvenser av den journalistiska ögonvittnespositionen2015In: Tidskrift för litteraturvetenskap, ISSN 1104-0556, E-ISSN 2001-094X, no 1, p. 5-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A reportage is the reporter's story about reality. Even though it details real events, it always presentsa personal interpretation of these events. In contrast to the news article, which primarilyinforms readers, a reportage involves a pronounced degree of personal narration. Normally it is based on the reporter's role as an eyewitness. This essay discusses how the position of the eyewitness establishes narratological structures inthe text, which seem to differ from the structures present in other kinds of non-fiction narrativestold in the first person. For instance, in reading an autobiography, a reader's empathy willbe drawn toward the main character. By contrast, a reportage will direct the reader's empathyaway from the reporter and towards the other. The narratological construction of a reportage may be studied as an interplay between threeinstances: the experiencing reporter, the narrating reporter and the director (the implied reporter).Thus, a three-part model may be utilised in order to help explain, for example, how ahomodiegetic narrator can be combined with external focalisation, and how a character otherthan the experiencing reporter can be internally focalised. It can also illuminate how the textmay employ a form of dissonance between the experiencing and the narrating reporter to serve ajournalistic purpose (displacing the perspective from person – the reporter – to subject-matter).

  • 11.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Skiftande berättarperspektiv och självkritisk reporter komplicerar bilden: Budskap och berättarteknik i tre svenska reportageböcker om gängkriminalitet2023In: Journalistica, ISSN 1901-6220, E-ISSN 1904-7967, Vol. 17, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hur ser berättelsen om svensk gängkriminalitet ut i tre aktuella reportageböcker och med vilken berättarteknik är den konstruerad? Med en blandning av narratologisk och medieretorisk analysmetod undersöker den här artikeln hur innehåll och form samspelar i Mammorna av Alexandra Pascalidou, Familjen av Johanna Bäck- ström Lerneby och Tills alla dör av Diamant Salihu. En slutsats är att skiftande berättarperspektiv kan motverka ensidighet, samtidigt som narrativ medkänsla utan parallell narrativ inlevelse kan hindra läsarens möjlighet att föreställa sig de skildrade människornas situation. Dramatiserade händelseförlopp kan öka närvarokänslan, medan en reporter som ifrågasätter sin egen auktoritet uppmuntrar läsaren till att undvika förenklande slutsatser. Till sist bidrar person- beskrivningar och urval av fakta i de tre böckerna till skilda budskap. Studien visar att reportagegenren tack vare sin narrativa form har potential att skildra samhällsproblem på komplexa sätt. Detta gäller särskilt när gestaltningen kombineras med gedigen faktaresearch. 

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  • 12.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Subjectivity conditioned by narrative form: A narratological approach to emotion in narrative journalism2024In: Journalism - Theory, Practice & Criticism, ISSN 1464-8849, E-ISSN 1741-3001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, media researchers have displayed an increased interest in emotion as an element of the content in both news journalism and narrative journalism. These studies lack a theoretical definition of emotion and do not usually specify what characterizes narrative journalism more than it being "not objective" and, consequently, not similar to conventional journalism. In practice, they identify emotion through frames of personalization or explicit expressions of feelings and evaluations. However, narrative journalism integrates implicitly conveyed emotion. To enable a broader understanding of the function of emotion in narrative journalism, this article gives examples of and analyzes how emotion and the related concept subjectivity is used and discussed in two different fields of research: social sciences-influenced journalism studies and literature-influenced studies. The dualistic view on journalism as either subjective or objective is questioned when narrative journalism (also known as reportage or literary journalism) is placed in a professional context, where the genre is based on its own tradition and represents its own form of knowledge, due to its main characteristic: a narrative form. Finally, the article demonstrates how tools drawn from narratology can illuminate diverse storytelling techniques that transmit emotion implicitly rather than explicitly.

  • 13.
    Aare, Cecilia
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    The Case of Literary Journalism: Rethinking Fictionality, Narrativity, and Imagination2023In: Style, ISSN 0039-4238, E-ISSN 2374-6629, Vol. 57, no 4, p. 440-458Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the genre of literary journalism/reportage against a background of earlier assumptions on fictionality. At a local level in nonfiction, fic- tionality can be expressed through invented stories and scenarios that create a con- trast to the global, nonfictive context. However, fictionality can also be expressed through stylistic devices that traditionally have been associated with narrative fic- tion. A local contrast may appear, but only if the genre in itself is not narrative. If the focus is on the nonfictional and narrative genre of literary journalism/reportage, there will be no contrast. Here, the rhetoric will work just like in narrative fiction and should be considered to be part of the features of narrativity. Furthermore, the concept imagination should be perceived in close relation to Monika Fludernik’s understanding of narrative as experience. The conclusion is a call to partly rethink existing connections between fictionality, narrativity, and imagination in order to better understand the narrative nature of reportage. 

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  • 14.
    Abrahamsson, Hilda
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Björkman, Felix
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Den digitala generationen: En surveyundersökning om ungdomars nyhetsvanor och förtroende för medier2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a quantitative survey of young people's news habits and trust in media. Our main points mainly concern how and how often young people consume news, and what confidence they have in different news sources. The result shows that half of the 126 respondents are consuming news every day. Social media is the respondents main source of news, and they think it's easiest to get news from there. At the same time, it appears that the surveyed people have low confidence in social media as a news source, compared to traditional media such as television, radio and newspapers, that only a few of the respondents use as main sources for news. We discuss how this outcome may affect journalism in the future, as the new generation of media- and news-consumers choose new media in front of traditional ones.

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  • 15.
    Adolph, Jasmin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    New Country, New(s) Habits: How does migration affect news consumption and avoidance behavior?: A case study on young millennial immigrants living in Stockholm, Sweden2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This audience study explores the changes of news consumption and avoidance behaviour by young millennial immigrants from various backgrounds, living in Stockholm, Sweden. Considering various theoretical frameworks, such as the intentional vs. unintentional model (Skovsgaard & Andersen, 2020), the migration change model (Tabor & Milfont, 2011), as well as a combination of a phenomenology of news model (Bengtsson & Johansson, 2021) and media repertoires established by Swart et al. (2017), a qualitative research has been conducted consisting of eight semi-structured interviews. Through a thematic analysis possible patterns have been established and findings show that individuals tend to change their behaviour in news consumption for various reasons. (1) Participants want to be able to establish their own news-routines and use their migration as an opportunity for a new start, (2) there is a certain influence by people closest to them and with their social circle changing, their (news) interests change as well, and (3) motivation and interest play an important role in shaping new consumption behaviours in a new country: the more one is interested in learning more about the new country, its culture and its language, the more likely they are to check that country’s traditional news media sources.

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  • 16.
    Ahlén, Lisa
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Collin, Alva
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    #Fyp: Dåliga Nyheter med Krimtema: En studie om nyhetsurval och nyhetsvärdering på TikTok2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aftonbladet, Expressen and TV4 Nyheterna are the largest Swedish news media on TikTok, and this essay focuses on how these media outlets evaluate news and what the news selection looks like on the platform. We proceeded from the theory of commercialization, news evaluation and agenda setting in combination with previous research on news evaluation and news selection on social media to answer our questions. A method triangulation worked well in this essay, where the quantitative part answered the question of news selection, while the qualitative part answered the question of news evaluation. The quantitative part is based on 300 TikTok clips and the qualitative part is based on 5 interviews with journalists. The results show that crime is the most common news genre on the app and that the news evaluation is greatly influenced by the target group and the design of the platform. The result also showed that bad and surprising news are the most recurring news values according to the news selection and that news that takes place in Sweden are the most common. Social, political, and economic issues are the news that engages the audience the most and can be seen in the number of shares, likes and comments. The commercialization of journalism is also prominent in the journalists' evaluation of the news on TikTok, as well as which news is published. However, further research is required to understand the relationship between news rating and news selection on TikTok, as well as additional aspects such as framing and angle.

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  • 17.
    Ahmed, Iftikhar
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Trump’s tweet and media treat: A Critical discourse analysis of US and Pakistani newspapers2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Trump’s new year tweet about Pakistan’s role in the fight against terrorism ignited a controversy and a war of words between Pakistani officials and the US. This thesis studies newspaper coverage of both countries on this particular issue. Dawn and The News International are chosen from Pakistan and The New York Times and The Washington Post are selected from US media. The aim of this research is to analyse and compare the media discourse. Critical discourse analysis (CDA) was adopted as the most suitable choice. A sum of eight articles, comprising two from each newspaper, is analysed intensively. Outcomes of the analysis are discussed in relation to ‘framing’ and ‘agenda setting’ theories.

    Five key elements from the theories are listed including: language (vocabulary), conflict presentation, sources, related issues and emphasis. Results reveal that Pakistani newspapers use very strong, rather harsh vocabulary while reporting response to Donald Trump’s tweet. The US newspapers adopted literary phrases and less harsh tone to report this issue. Conflict presentation was focused on Trump’s tweet as a central idea in all the newspapers. Pakistani newspapers focused on the coverage of reaction from military and government officials of the country. On the other hand, US newspapers included sources from both countries to have an objective view. But they have included some controversial issues, which do not have a direct link to this debate starting with Trump’s tweet.

    Keywords: Twitter and news media, Trump’s tweet about Pakistan, Afghan war, CDA, Framing.

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  • 18.
    Akhmedov, Samir
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Orbring, Gustav
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Medierna och Syrien: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys av tre globala mediers rapportering av Syrienkonflikten.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I september 2015 anslöt sig Ryssland som en militär part till kriget i Syrien genom att börja bomba oppositionella styrkor. I samband med detta hamnade Ryssland och USA ännu en gång på motsatta sidor av en militär konflikt, Ryssland stödjer den syriska regimen, samtidigt som USA tillsammans med flera andra länder, däribland Qatar, stödjer oppositionen.

    Vi har valt att avgränsa oss till fem specifika händelser under den pågående Syrienkonflikten och tre mediers rapportering av dessa. Medierna som kommer att undersökas är USA- baserade CNN, Ryssland-baserade RT (f.d. Russia Today) och Qatar-baserade Al-Jazeera. Att undersöka dessa tre konkurrenter är intressant då dessa är bland de största medierna i världen och når därmed miljontals människor med sin information. Dessutom står länderna där medierna är baserade i på olika sidor av den väpnade konflikten. Syftet är att undersöka om rapporteringen har varit allsidig eller tendentiös. Dessutom ska uppsatsen undersöka om rapporteringen är opartisk eller propagandistisk. Artiklarna analyseras med hjälp av en av oss konstruerad undersökningsmodell, som tar avstamp i Lundgren, Ney & Thuréns massmedieretoriska analysmodell, och som kompletterats med kritiska frågor hämtade från Hermans och Chomskys teorier om kritik av internationell krigsrapportering samt kriterier hämtade från den svenske statsvetaren Jörgen Westerståhls forskning om objektivitet och opartiskhet i medierapporteringen.

    Resultatet av undersökningen visar att RTs och CNNs rapportering till stor del var tendentiös, och innehöll det som Herman & Chomsky kallar för propaganda på nästan alla punkter, samtidigt som de uppfyllde väldigt få av Westerståhls punkter för opartiskhet. Vanligast var att båda medierna hade en stor obalans i användningen av vilken part som får komma till tals. Den tendentiösa rapporteringen kan förklaras genom bristen på förstahandskällor, en stor mängd tendentiösa källor - men även hur CNN och RT finansieras. CNNs kommersiella syften, samt det faktum att RT finansieras av den ryska staten, kan vara faktorer som påverkar rapporteringen. Men Al-Jazeeras rapportering såg dock annorlunda ut. I undersökningen hittades inte en enda artikel där någon propagandapunkt uppnåddes, samtidigt som punkterna för opartisk rapportering till största del uppfylldes. Dessutom visades en helt annan allsidighet i rapporteringen från kanalen.

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    Medierna och Syrien: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys av tre globala mediers rapportering av Syrienkonflikten.
  • 19.
    Alkhalaf, Khalaf
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Potential of Blockchain and Cryptoeconomics in Developing Independent and Constructive Journalism: Case Study on Steem Blockchain and Steemit Network2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Advanced Technology drives the increasing anti-censorship, decentralised social media networks, and publishing platforms that are based on blockchain, where no single party can control these platforms, which results in safeguarding information circulation, freedom to publish, and independence of journalism. Furthermore, cryptoeconomics associated with blockchain creates an easy economic model to find sustainable financing for independent journalism by Initial Coin Offering. Meanwhile, adopting a reward system by these publishing platforms has generated sustainable income sources for content creators, allowing them to be independent and motivated to create high-quality constructive content, which contributes to developing communities through disbursing knowledge in forms of constructive journalism. 

    This study presents the potential of blockchain and cryptoeconomics in developing independent and constructive journalism, especially in developing countries. Through analysing the structure of Steem Blockchain, and empirical analysis of journalistic content on Steemit network in terms of the amount of payout that content creators and curators receive, based on the system of reward according to the content value that is determined by community member voting. Besides selected sample interviews with journalists, writers, and publishers in the Arab World which is undergoing turmoil and transition and needs constructive journalism, asking for their opinions about the potential that blockchain and cryptoeconomics have to support independent and constructive journalism. 

    The results of the study demonstrated that journalistic posts classified under constructive journalism could achieve a high payout according to the reward system based on community voting for the content value. Meanwhile, journalists and writers have expected that this new economic model can enhance the financial independence of journalists and develop independent and constructive journalism in developing countries. 

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  • 20.
    Al-Saqaf, Walid
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    A blockchain-based fact-checking registry: Enhancing trust in the fact-checkers2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a project to build a blockchain-based registry for fact checks. It describes why the project was initiated and briefly argues for the use of blockchain to store fact checks compared to traditional storage methods. The project uses the Fact Check Assistant web application that was developed to streamline fact checking processes for individual fact checkers whether they work independently or as part of an institution or project.

    The paper is a mere introduction with in-depth research expected to follow so as to assess the project and identify what worked and what didn’t after the implementation of the project.

    The project is essentially an experiment to see if blockchain technology can help make fact checking processes more reliable and effective.

  • 21.
    Al-Saqaf, Walid
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    How to Extract and Analyze Twitter Data for Social Science Research2022Other (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a social networking and microblogging platform that allows communication with short messages, Twitter has the potential of being used by social scientists to study users, uses, and societal communication and networking online. This How-to Guide introduces practical steps on how to gather and analyze Twitter data to answer research questions of interest. The guide starts with a discussion of the value that studying Twitter brings to social scientists while noting some of the main challenges and limitations. Thereafter, the guide introduces general principles that need to be understood prior to doing Twitter research. Those principles are meant to help guide the researcher in creating a proper research design starting with formulating the research questions, moving to the stage of identifying the most effective methods for data gathering, and ending with the analysis stage to answer those questions. Readers who wish to explore the field are encouraged to apply the main guidelines presented in this guide to case studies using tools that allow the extraction and analysis of Twitter data.

  • 22.
    Al-Saqaf, Walid
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    How to Extract and Analyze Twitter Data Using Mecodify2022Other (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a social networking and microblogging platform that allows communication with short messages, Twitter has the potential of being used by social scientists to study users, uses, and societal communication and networking online. This How-to Guide introduces practical steps on how to extract and analyze Twitter data using the Mecodify open-source tool as a demonstration of using one of the widely used tools to do Twitter research. The intention behind using just one tool is to shorten the reader’s learning curve through a brief but practical introduction to an established open-source tool that is meant to make Twitter research more intuitive and easier to do. Readers who wish to explore the field further are encouraged to experiment with other tools that have richer features such as advanced correlation and regression analysis and artificial intelligence-driven natural language processing, which are beyond the scope of this guide.

  • 23.
    Al-Saqaf, Walid
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Berglez, Peter
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Analysing Twitter Discourse on Extreme Events and Climate Change Using Quantitative Research Methods and Applying Theoretical Interpretations2022Other (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This method case study describes how we extracted and analyzed data from Twitter as part of a research project to investigate how users connected climate change to extreme weather events during 2008–2017. The paper describes how the open-source tool, Mecodify, was used as a fundamental part of the method to download data from Twitter and identify key insights through tables, graphs and machine-readable files. The paper goes into detail to describe the steps that were taken from the building the search query to analyzing, aggregating, and visualizing the data used to describe the findings. Although Mecodify facilitated the process significantly, the paper highlights some of the challenges that were confronted during different research stages and how they were overcome. The aim is to provide social media researchers with some useful insights for their own research.

  • 24.
    Al-Saqaf, Walid
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Berglez, Peter
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    How Do Social Media Users Link Different Types of Extreme Events to Climate Change?: A Study of Twitter During 2008–20172019In: Journal of Extreme Events, ISSN 2345-7376, Vol. 06, no 02, article id 1950002Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how three types of extreme events (heat waves, droughts, floods) are mentioned together with climate change on social media. English-language Twitter use during 2008–2017 is analyzed, based on 1,127,996 tweets (including retweets). Frequencies and spikes of activity are compared and theoretically interpreted as reflecting complex relations between the extreme event factor (the occurrence of an extreme event); the media ecology factor (climate-change oriented statements/actions in the overall media landscape) and the digital action factor (activities on Twitter). Flooding was found to be by far the most tweeted of the three in connection to climate change, followed by droughts and heat waves. It also led when comparing spikes of activity. The dominance of floods is highly prevalent from 2014 onwards, triggered by flooding events (extreme event factor), the climate science controversy in US politics (media ecology factor) and the viral power of celebrities’ tweets (digital action factor).

  • 25.
    Al-Saqaf, Walid
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Christian, Christensen
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Tweeting in Precarious Times: Comparing Twitter Use During the 2013 General Election in Kenya and the 2012 Presidential Election in Egypt2019In: Media, Communication and the Struggle for Democratic Change: Case Studies on Contested Transitions / [ed] Katrin Voltmer, Christian Christensen, Nicole Stremlau, Irene Neverla, Barbara Thomass, Nebojša Vladisavljević, Herman Wasserman, Cham: Springer Publishing Company, 2019, p. 133-157Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the emergence of several studies on Twitter's network effect during election processes, very few took a comparative approach to examine the social media platform's use in emerging democracies with high levels of political parallelism. This study helps bridge this gap through a thorough Twitter network analysis regarding two different presidential elections: the 2012 presidential election in Egypt and the 2013 Kenyan presidential election. While the two case studies had intense activity levels, there were clear distinctions. In Egypt, the pan-Arab mainstream media helped drive much of the interaction affirming their dominant traditional gatekeeper role. Kenya's case however showed greater levels of citizenry participation, stronger networks, and less reliance on mainstream media, which show signs of 'disintermediation'.

  • 26.
    Al-Saqaf, Walid
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Picha Edwardsson, Malin
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Could blockchain save journalism? : An explorative study of blockchain’s potential to make journalism a more sustainable business2019In: Blockchain and Web 3.0: Social, Economic, and Technological Challenges / [ed] Massimo Ragnedda & Giuseppe Destefanis, London: Routledge, 2019, 1, p. 97-113Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since the Bitcoin phenomenon gained momentum in recent years, much has been written about blockchain applications and prospects in the FinTech industry, business and healthcare. Yet, very little if any scholarly work has been done to study how the peer-to-peer, decentralized and highly disruptive blockchain technology may impact or be used by news media and journalists. This article is an effort to contribute to the body of scholarship on journalism as well as distributed ledger technologies (DLTs) by exploring blockchain’s potential applications and challenges when dealing with journalism's most fundamental pillars such as fact checking, data gathering and analysis.

    The study explores two case studies demonstrating distinct uses of permissionless blockchains. The first revolves around blockchains as a source of information that could be used by data journalists to extract valuable insights regarding payment transactions and network formation as illustrated by the investigative reporting done on the 2017 WannaCry ransomware attack.

    The second case study is around the use of the technology as a basis for revolutionizing journalism as an industry by leveraging the technology’s core characteristics, namely decentralisation, immutability and transparency. The latter case study will look into two ongoing journalistic projects namely the Distributed News Network and Civil, which promise allowing the creation and management of content without centralized control or even a centralized newsroom in ways that could effectively limit the spread of fake news and propaganda.

    The paper analyses the objectives, methods and limitations of the case studies and uses interviews and content analysis of empirical data obtained from primary sources. By reflecting on Rogers’ theory of the diffusion of innovation, the study assesses the impact of blockchains in comparison to other earlier technologies such as the diffusion of the Internet.

    It is hoped that the conclusions drawn from this study could help inform journalists and media about the potential uses and limitations of blockchain technology in journalism as well as initiate a scholarly curiosity with a futuristic outlook to understanding the role of cutting edge and disruptive technologies on society.

  • 27.
    Al-Saqaf, Walid
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Seidler, Nicolas
    Internet Society International, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Blockchain technology for social impact: opportunities and challenges ahead2017In: Journal of Cyber Policy, ISSN 2373-8871, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 338-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While much has already been written about blockchain applications and prospects in the FinTech industry, little research has been done to explore blockchain technology’s user-centric paradigm in enabling various applications beyond banking. This article is an effort to contribute to that body of scholarship by exploring blockchain technology’s potential applications, and their limits, in areas that intersect with social impact, including human rights. This article explores whether blockchain technology and its core operational principles – such as decentralisation, transparency, equality and accountability – could play a role in limiting undue online surveillance, censorship and human rights abuses that are facilitated by the increasing reliance on a few entities that control access to information online. By doing so, this article aims at initiating a scholarly curiosity to understand what is possible and what is to be concerned about when it comes to the potential impact of blockchain technology on society.

  • 28.
    Altemyr, Emmy
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Forsberg, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Medierna och #Metoo: En kvantitativ innehållsanalys om rapportering kring sexualbrott och sexuella trakasserier före och efter #Metoo i två morgontidningar och två kvällstidningar2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den femte oktober 2017 gick flera kvinnor i USA ut med anklagelser om sexuella övergrepp och våldtäkter mot filmproducenten Harvey Weinstein. Kort därefter startade skådespelerskan Alyssa Milano hashtaggen #Metoo där hon uppmanade kvinnor att vittna om sexuella övergrepp. Kampanjen #Metoo tog över sociala medier och kvinnor i stora delar av världen började dela med sig av egna berättelser om sexuella trakasserier och övergrepp.

    Syftet med vår studie är därför att undersöka huruvida mediernas rapportering kring sexualbrott och sexuella trakasserier har förändrats efter #Metoo-kampanjens stora genomslag. Genom en kvantitativ innehållsanalys av 80 stycken publicerade artiklar om bland annat hur offer och förövare porträtterats, om namnpublicering har skett samt vilka som har fått komma till tals i artikeln, studerats.

    Resultatet av den kvantitativa innehållsanalysen visar att mediernas rapportering om sexualbrott och sexuella trakasserier skiljer sig inom vissa områden. Inom kategorierna juridisk process, former av sexualbrott och namnpublicering av offer och förövare kan fler skillnader ses än i övriga kategorier. En tydlig skillnad är att innan #Metoo-kampanjen hade den rapporterade händelsen följden av en juridisk process medan efter kampanjen kunde det räcka med en internutredning eller en anklagelse för att medierna skulle rapportera och namnpublicera personerna i artiklarna.

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  • 29.
    Althén, Kajsa
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Lokal journalistik och demokratifrågan: tidningar och sjukvårdsuppror i Västerbotten februari/mars 20122016Report (Other academic)
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    Lokal journalistik och demokratifrågan
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  • 30.
    Alva, Folkesson
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Nyhetsrapporteringen om Tjärna Ängar: En kvantitativ innehållsanalys av artiklar från lokala och regionala nyhetsmedier2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie har varit att undersöka hur rapporteringen om riskområdet Tjärna Ängar sett ut i lokala och regionala nyhetsmedier under 5 års tid. Studien har fokuserat på vilka ämnen som förekommit i rapporteringen, vart artiklarna om dessa ämnen placerats i tidningarna samt vilka gestaltningsmönster som varit vanligt förekommande i artiklarna. Studien har även undersökt vilka som får komma till tals i artiklarna och om nyheterna främst ger en positiv eller negativ bild av Tjärna Ängar. Genom en kvantitativ innehållsanalys har totalt 200 artiklar om Tjärna Ängar studerats. Artiklarna har analyserats utifrån en kombination av dagordningsteorins första nivå och gestaltningsteorin.

    Resultatet av de studerade artiklarna visade att majoriteten av rapporteringen om Tjärna Ängar handlade om brott/kriminalitet och domar, negativa händelser och innehöll gestaltningsmönstret den farliga staden. Resultatet visade även att det främst var poliser och räddningstjänstpersonal, lokala företagare samt boende som fick komma till tals i de studerade artiklarna.

    Utifrån den rapportering som studerats i denna studie gick det att dra slutsatsen att det inte fanns några större skillnader mellan den lokala dagstidningen och den regionala dagstidningen i rapporteringen om Tjärna Ängar. Utifrån artiklarna som studerats gick det även att dra slutsatsen att ämnena brott/kriminalitet och domar, politik, samhällsfrågor/sociala förhållanden och byggnationer/infrastruktur både förekom relativt mycket i rapporteringen och oftast placerades längre fram i tidningarna vilket möjligtvis kan sända ut signaler till publiken om att dessa ämnen är viktigare än andra ämnen.

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  • 31.
    Andersson, Charlie
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Ljungberg, Hampus
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Sportjournalistiken på en ny arena: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys av Sportbladets innehåll i podd och text2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien undersöker Sportbladets nyhetsrapportering i olika format. Målet har varit att jämföra hur olika nyheter gestaltas i text respektive podcast. Studien består av en kvalitativ innehållsanalys där syftet bland annat har varit att undersöka innehållets karaktär, språk och tonalitet. Dessutom har vi undersökt hur journalistens roll ser ut och fungerar i respektive format. Sedan har båda formaten jämförts utifrån en modell av textanalys för att belysa vilka skillnader som finns. De teoretiska utgångspunkterna i denna studie har varit gestaltningsteori (frame-building) och professionsteori. Resultatet vi kom fram till är att podcast som medieformat är en mer lättsam och friare plattform för journalister att uttrycka egna åsikter och känslor kring olika nyhetshändelser, samtidigt som texterna är mer neutrala. Formaten skiljer sig också åt i att ljudberättandet är mer djupgående i de presenterade nyheterna, mycket beroende på podcastens karaktär.

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  • 32.
    Andersson, Christian
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Afrikanska migranter riskerar allt för drömmen om en europeisk lön: [Recension av Fabrizio Gattis "Bilal - slavrutten till Europa" (Celanders förlag)]2013In: politiken.se, ISSN 1651-0879, no 31; 15 augustiArticle, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 33.
    Andersson, Christian
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Bilden av "det nya Afrika" gäckar läsaren: Recension av Erika Bjerstöms "Det nya Afrika" (Weylers förlag)2013In: politiken.se, ISSN 1651-0879, no 48Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 34.
    Andersson, Christian
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    En balanserad Afrikabild: [Anmälan av Sten Rylanders "Afrika vänder - en kontinent ni förändring", Historiska Media, Stockholm, 2014]2014In: politiken.se, ISSN 1651-0879, no 14; 3 aprilArticle, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Andersson, Christian
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    EU-parlamentariker röstar hipp som happ: Anmälan av Simon Hix "Why the 2014 European Elections Matter: Ten Key Votes in the 2009-2013 European Parliament" (Sieps)2013In: politiken.se, ISSN 1651-0879, no 47Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 36.
    Andersson, Christian
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Europeisk höst: vad är myt och vad är verklighet?2013In: På cykeltur genom livet / [ed] Sven E. O. Hort, Stockholm: Bokförlaget Atlantis, 2013, p. 292-307Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Andersson, Christian
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Kairo, Aleppo...: Recension av Staffan Lindbergs bok "Blod är ett billigt pris för frihet. Rapporter från Kairo och Aleppo" (Atlas förlag)2013In: politiken.se, ISSN 1651-0879, no 35Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Andersson, Christian
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Korstrycket i EU bäddar för politisk akrobatik: [Anmälan av Sigfrid Leijonhufvuds "Vad har de i EU att göra", Forum för EU-debatt, 2014.]2014In: politiken.se, ISSN 1651-0879, no 19; 6 majArticle, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 39.
    Andersson, Christian
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Populism eller EU-skepticism?: [Anmälan av Timbro-rapporten "Vinner populisterna Europaparlamentsvalet?", Stockholm, 2014]2014In: politiken.se, ISSN 1651-0879, no 12; 19 marsArticle, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Andersson, Christian
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    "Ras" och "rasism" i USA2013In: Politiken.se, ISSN 1651-0879, no 7 maj, p. online-Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41.
    Andersson, Christian
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Vem står för näthatet?2013In: Politiken.se, ISSN 1651-0879, no 15 februari, p. Online-Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42.
    Andersson, Christian
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Åkesson och Mussolini - samma skrot och korn?2013In: Politiken.se, ISSN 1651-0879, no 5 april, p. online-Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 43.
    Andersson, Christoph
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Att utplåna individen: I Alt Rehse utbildades läkarna i mördandets konst2016In: Sydsvenskan, ISSN 1652-814X, no 14 september, p. A13-A13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Andersson, Christoph
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Breivik hyllar Sveriges slappa attityd mot högerextremisterna2014In: Sydsvenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1104-0068, no 10 september, p. 5-6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45.
    Andersson, Christoph
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    De avvisade: om judarna som Sverige skickade mot döden2024Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    De sökte en fristad i Sverige undan förföljelserna i Nazityskland. Men svenska myndigheter sade nej, med hänvisning till 1937 års utlänningslag, olika kungörelser och hemliga anvisningar från Socialstyrelsen. Deras namn hamnade på särskilda vägrarlistor som distribuerades till polisens gränskontroller, svenska ambassader och konsulat. Budskapet var att ingen av dem skulle släppas in i landet.

    Följden: alla mördades i Förintelsen, efter att ha blivit av- eller utvisade, alternativt drabbats av svenska myndigheters senfärdighet. Däribland konsertmästaren Max Askanas från Leipzig, charkuteristen Henoch Schöngut från Berlin, paret Hertha och Simon Parnass från Hamburg, konstnärinnan Valerie Jungmann och fotohandlaren Salomon Feutchtbaum från Wien. I den här boken berättar journalisten Christoph Andersson deras historia, utifrån vad som finns bevarat om dem i svenska, tyska och österrikiska arkiv − och i deras efterlevandes minnen.

    Det är en bok om ett mörkt kapitel i Sveriges historia − flyktingpolitiken under åren 1937 till 1942. Beslutad i god demokratisk ordning av riksdag och regering, med katastrofala konsekvenser.

  • 46.
    Andersson, Christoph
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    De svenska SS-fruarna2016In: Populär Historia, ISSN 1102-0822, no 2, p. 30-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 47.
    Andersson, Christoph
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Dealing with the extreme right2013In: Right-wing populism in Europe: politics and discourse / [ed] Ruth Wodak, Majid KhosraviNik, Brigitte Mral, London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2013, , p. 330p. 321-331Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Andersson, Christoph
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    En röd Gud: För Stasi var marxism-leninism förenligt med religion2013In: Sydsvenskan, ISSN 1652-814X, no 28 maj, p. 5-5Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 49.
    Andersson, Christoph
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Ett missvisande val: Högerpopulistiska väljare saknade ett alternativ2016In: Sydsvenskan, ISSN 1652-814X, no 7 september, p. 17-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 50.
    Andersson, Christoph
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, Journalism.
    Förstör inte era liv - hoppa av, medan tid är2017In: Sydsvenska Dagbladet, no 28 september, p. A31-A31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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