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  • 1.
    Adermon, Adrian
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Ek, Simon
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Graetz, Georg
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Yakymovych, Yaroslav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Understanding occupational wage growthManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a new identification strategy, we jointly estimate the growth in occupationalwage premia as well as time-varying occupation-specific life-cycle profiles for Swedishworkers 1996–2013. We document a substantial increase in between-occupation wageinequality due to differential growth in premia. The association of wage premiumgrowth and employment growth is positive, suggesting that premium growth ispredominantly driven by demand side factors. We also find that wage growth dueto occupation-specific skill acquisition was more dispersed in the early years of thesample period. Our results are robust to allowing for occupation-level changes inreturns to cognitive and psycho-social skills.

  • 2. Agell, Jonas
    et al.
    Bennmarker, Helge
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Wage incentives and wage rigidity: A representative view from within2007In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 347-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A recent literature has used surveys of those who set wages to learn about the nature of wage incentives and the sources of wage rigidity. Methodologically, we overcome many of the objections that have been raised against this work. Substantively, we find that: (i) the reasons for real wage rigidity differ significantly between large and small firms, and between the high- and low-end of the labor market; (ii) efficiency wage mechanisms reinforce rigidities due to worker bargaining power; (iii) money illusion is a widespread phenomenon across all segments of the labor market; (iv) unions reinforce nominal wage rigidities due to external pay comparisons; (v) there appears to be gender differences in pay bargaining and work morale.

  • 3.
    Ahlin, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Effects of Decentralization on School Resources2005Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Ahlin, Åsa
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Effects of decentralization on school resources2008In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 276-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has undertaken major national reforms of its school sector, which, consequently, has been classified as one of the most decentralized ones in the OECD. This paper investigates whether local tax base, grants, and preferences affected local school resources differently as decentralization took place. We find that municipal tax base affects per pupil spending in the same way regardless of whether the school sector is centralized or decentralized, but has a smaller effect on teacher–pupil ratio after the reforms. The less-targeted grants are the fewer teachers per pupil do the municipalities employ. The results for local preferences are less clear-cut.

  • 5.
    Albrecht, James
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Vroman, Susan
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    The aggregate labor market effects of the Swedish Knowledge Lift program2009In: Review of economic dynamics, ISSN 1094-2025, E-ISSN 1096-6099, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 129-146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish adult education program known as the Knowledge Lift (1997-2002) was unprecedented in its size and scope, aiming to raise the skill level of large numbers of low-skill workers. This paper evaluates the potential effects of this program on aggregate labor market outcomes. This is done by calibrating an equilibrium search model with heterogeneous worker skills using pre-program data and then forecasting the program impacts. We compare the forecasts to observed aggregate labor market outcomes after termination of the program.

  • 6. Andersson, Christian
    et al.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Waldenström, Nina
    Do you want your child to have a certified teacher?2011In: Economics of Education Review, ISSN 0272-7757, E-ISSN 1873-7382, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 65-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how the teaching staff composition with respect to certification affects student achievement in compulsory Swedish schools. We apply an instrumental variable to estimate the effect of the share of non-certified teachers on student achievement (measured by grade point average, GPA). We find statistically significant negative effects on the GPA. The effect is stronger for students with highly educated parents. A one percentage point increase in the share of non-certified teachers is expected to decrease student's GPA by, on average, 1.8 standard deviations per year. This is a substantial effect considering the large differences in the shares of non-certified teachers across schools and municipalities.

  • 7.
    Anderzén, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Demmelmaier, Ingrid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Hansson, Ann-Sophie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Social Medicine.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Lindahl, Erica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Winblad, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Services Research.
    Samverkan i Resursteam: effekter på organisation, hälsa och sjukskrivning2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi utvärderar samverkansformen Resursteam, som bedrivits som ett försök för att minska långa sjukskrivningar. Resursteam innebär att ett team med hand-läggare från Försäkringskassan, husläkare, sjukgymnast och beteendevetare, vid regelbundna möten bedömer sjukskrivna personers rehabiliteringsbehov och ger förslag på åtgärder. Det övergripande syftet är att skatta effekten av Resursteam på den försäkrades sjukskrivningslängd och självskattade hälsa. Vi har genomfört (i) en kartläggning av verksamheten, (ii) en enkätstudie till sjuk-skrivna som deltagit i Resursteam och till jämförelsepersoner samt (ii) skattat effekten av Resursteam på självskattad hälsa och sjukskrivning. Resultaten är entydiga och visar på inga eller negativa effekter för de personer som ingått i Resursteam. Som exempel kan nämnas att tiden i sjukskrivning förlängs med cirka 20 procent i genomsnitt.

  • 8.
    Athey, Susan
    et al.
    Stanford Graduate School of Business.
    Simon, Lisa K.
    Revelio Labs.
    Skans, Oskar N.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Labor Studies (UCLS).
    Vikström, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Yakymovych, Yaroslav
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Worker attributes, aggregate conditions and the impact of adverse labor market shocksManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies heterogeneity in the impact of job displacement using rich administrative data from Sweden. We use generalized random forests to identify, based on worker characteristics, groups of workers who are most vulnerable to displacement and document substantial variation in displacement losses. The hardest-hit decile of workers loses over eight times as much in terms of earnings in the short run as the most resilient decile of workers. While we construct groups based on short-term impact, substantial group differences in outcomes persist at least ten years after displacement. We assess the relative importance of different factors, finding that worker attributes and semi-aggregate local and industry conditions interact to generate predictable variation in post-displacement earnings losses. Age and education level are strong predictors of earnings losses, with older and less-educated workers losing six times as much as younger and highly educated workers. Nevertheless, the losses of the most resilient quartile of old low-educated workers and the least resilient quartile of young highly-educated workers are similar in size. Much of this remaining heterogeneity is related to industry and location-specific characteristics. Working in manufacturing and living in a rural area  are strong predictors of severe displacement losses, conditional on individual attributes. Losses are twice as large for workers displaced under bad as compared to good industry and location conditions. Our analysis of how to target interventions towards the most affected workers suggests that no simple rule is as effective at identifying vulnerable workers as the more flexible generalized random forest, but targeting older workers displaced from manufacturing plants achieves the closest result.

  • 9. Behncke, Stefanie
    et al.
    Frölich, Markus
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Lechner, Michael
    A Caseworker Like Me - Does The Similarity Between The Unemployed and Their Caseworkers Increase Job Placements?2010In: Economic Journal, ISSN 0013-0133, E-ISSN 1468-0297, Vol. 120, no 549, p. 1430-1459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines whether the chances of job placements improve if the unemployed are counselled by caseworkers who belong to the same social group, defined by gender, age, education and nationality. Based on an unusually informative dataset, which links Swiss unemployed to their caseworkers, we find positive employment effects of about 3 percentage points if the caseworker and his unemployed client belong to the same social group. Coincidence in a single characteristic, e.g., same gender of caseworker and unemployed, does not lead to detectable effects on employment. These results, obtained by statistical matching methods, are confirmed by several robustness checks.

  • 10.
    Bennmarker, Helge
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Carling, Kenneth
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Holmlund, Bertil
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Do Benefit Hikes Damage Job Finding? Evidence from Swedish Unemployment Insurance Reforms2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2001 and 2002, Sweden introduced several unemployment insurance reforms. A major innovation in the first reform was the introduction of a two-tiered benefit structure for some unemployed individuals. This system involved supplementary compensation during the first 20 weeks of unemployment. The 2002 reform retained the two-tiered benefit structure but involved also substantial benefit hikes for spells exceeding 20 weeks. This paper examines how these reforms affected transitions from unemployment to employment. We take advantage of the fact that the reforms had quasi-experimental features where the “treatments” differed considerably among unemployed individuals. We find that the reforms had strikingly different effects on job finding among men and women. The two reforms in conjunction are estimated to have increased the expected duration of unemployment among men but to have decreased the duration of unemployment among women. The overall effect on the duration of unemployment is not statistically different from zero. However, the reforms reduced job finding among males who remained unemployed for more than 20 weeks.

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  • 11.
    Bennmarker, Helge
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Mellander, Erik
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Öckert, Björn
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Do regional payroll tax reductions boost employment?2009In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 480-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a Difference-in-Differences approach, we evaluate the effects of a 10 percentage point reduction in the payroll tax introduced in 2002 in northern Sweden. We find no employment effects among firms existing both before and after the reform, whereas the average wage bill per employee increases by about 0.25% per percentage point reduction in the tax rate. Extending the analysis to include entry and exit of firms, we find evidence of positive effects on the number of firms and a tendency to positive employment effects. Moreover, the wage incidence estimates become insignificant when we account for entry and exit of firms.

  • 12.
    Bergemann, Annette
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Caliendo, Marco
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Zimmermann, Klaus F.
    The threat effect of participation in active labor market programs on job search behavior of migrants in Germany2011In: International journal of manpower, ISSN 0143-7720, E-ISSN 1758-6577, Vol. 32, no 7, p. 777-795Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - Labor market programs may affect unemployed individuals' behavior before they enroll. The aim of this paper is to study whether such ex ante effects differ according to ethnic origin.

    Design/methodology/approach - The authors apply a method that relates self-reported perceived treatment rates and job search behavioral outcomes, such as the reservation wage or search intensity, to each other. German native workers are compared with migrants with a Turkish origin or Central and Eastern European (including Russian) background. Job search theory is used to derive theoretical predictions. The ex ante effect of the German active labor market program (ALMP) system is examined using the novel IZA Evaluation Data Set which includes self-reported assessments of the variables of interest as well as an unusually detailed amount of information on behavior, attitudes and past outcomes.

    Findings - It is found that the ex ante threat effect on the reservation wage and search effort varies considerably among the groups considered.

    Originality/value - The study is the first to investigate whether migrants and natives react similarly to the expectation of participating in an ALMP, and whether migrants of different regions of origin react similarly or not.

  • 13.
    Blind, Ina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Åslund, Olof
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    All aboard? Commuter Train Access and Labor Market OutcomesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Brodd, Katarina Strand
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Ewald, Uwe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Grönqvist, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Gerd
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology.
    Strömberg, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Grönqvist, Erik
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    von Hofsten, Claes
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rosander, Kerstin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Development of smooth pursuit eye movements in very preterm infants: 1. General aspects2011In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 100, no 7, p. 983-991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:  To investigate early oculo-motor development in a population-based cohort of very preterm infants.

    Methods:  Early oculo-motor development was prospectively studied by measuring smooth pursuit eye movements at 2 and 4 months corrected age in a population of very preterm infants born in Uppsala County 2004–2007. Eighty-one preterm infants were studied, and 32 healthy term infants constituted the control group.

    Results:  The study group consisted of infants with a mean gestational age of28 + 5 weeks. At 2 and 4 months corrected age, infants born very preterm showed lower gain (p < 0.001) and proportion of smooth pursuit eyemovements (p < 0.001) compared to the control group. The boys showed higher gain of smooth pursuit eye movements at both 2 and 4 months corrected age, compared to girls.

    Conclusions:  Oculo-motor development measured by smooth pursuit eye movements is delayed in very preterm infants at 2 and 4 months corrected age. This might be a risk factor or early indicator of later perceptual and behavioural impairment.

  • 15.
    Carling, Kenneth
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Jacobson, Tor
    Lindé, Jesper
    Roszbach, Kasper
    Corporate credit risk modeling and the macroeconomy2007In: Journal of Banking & Finance, ISSN 0378-4266, E-ISSN 1872-6372, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 845-868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a surge in the research efforts put into modeling credit and default risk during the past decade, few studies have incorporated the impact that macroeconomic conditions have on business defaults. In this paper, we estimate a duration model to explain the survival time to default for borrowers in the business loan portfolio of a major Swedish bank over the period 1994-2000. The model takes both firm-specific characteristics, such as accounting ratios and payment behaviour, loan-related information, and the prevailing macroeconomic conditions into account. The output gap, the yield curve and consumers' expectations of future economic development have significant explanatory power for the default risk of firms. We also compare our model with a frequently used model of firm default risk that conditions only on firm-specific information. The comparison shows that while the latter model can make a reasonably accurate ranking of firms' according to default risk, our model, by taking macro conditions into account, is also able to account for the absolute level of risk.

  • 16. Crepon, Bruno
    et al.
    Ferracci, Marc
    Jolivet, Gregory
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Active labor market policy effects in a dynamic setting2009In: Journal of the European Economic Association, ISSN 1542-4766, E-ISSN 1542-4774, Vol. 7, no 2-3, p. 595-605Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper implements a method to identify and estimate treatment effects in a dynamic setting where treatments may occur at any point in time. By relating the standard matching approach to the timing-of-events approach, it demonstrates that effects of the treatment on the treated at a given date can be identified although non-treated may be treated later in time. The approach builds on a "no anticipation" assumption and the assumption of conditional independence between the duration until treatment and the counterfactual durations until exit. To illustrate the approach, the paper studies the effect of training for unemployed workers in France, using a rich register data set. Training has little impact on unemployment duration. The contamination of the standard matching estimator due to later entries into treatment is large if the treatment probability is high.

  • 17.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies.
    Are Local Governments Governed by Forward Looking Decision Makers?: An Investigation of Spending Patterns in Swedish Municipalities”, Journal of Urban1998In: Journal of Urban Economics, ISSN 0094-1190, E-ISSN 1095-9068, p. 254-271Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics, Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies.
    Small Sample Properties of Jackknife IV and LIML Estimators:: Experiments with Weak Instruments1999In: Journal of applied econometrics (Chichester, England), ISSN 0883-7252, E-ISSN 1099-1255, p. 69-88Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. CALISTA centre for applied spatial analysis, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Edin, Per-Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. CALISTA centre for applied spatial analysis, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Grönqvist, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. CALISTA centre for applied spatial analysis, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Lyhagen, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics. CALISTA centre for applied spatial analysis, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography. CALISTA centre for applied spatial analysis, Uppsala University, Sweden;Jheronimus Academy of Data Science, ´s-Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands.
    Siretskiy, Alexey
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Systems Biology. NevoLogic AB, Uppsala, Sweden;CALISTA centre for applied spatial analysis, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Toger, Marina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography. CALISTA centre for applied spatial analysis, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on population mobility under mild policies: Causal evidence from SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has adopted far less restrictive social distancing policies than most countries following the COVID-19 pandemic (1–7). This paper uses data on all mobile phone users, from one major Swedish mobile phone network, to examine the impact of the Coronavirus outbreak under the Swedish mild recommendations and restrictions regime on individual mobility and if changes in geographical mobility vary over different socio-economic strata. Having access to data for January-March in both 2019 and 2020 enables the estimation of causal effects of the COVID-19 outbreak by adopting a Difference-in-Differences research design. The paper reaches four main conclusions: (i) The daytime population in residential areas increased significantly (64 percent average increase); (ii) The daytime presence in industrial and commercial areas decreased significantly (33 percent average decrease); (iii) The distance individuals move from their homes during a day was substantially reduced (38 percent decrease in the maximum distance moved and 36 percent increase in share of individuals 2 who move less than one kilometer from home); (iv) Similar reductions in mobility were found for residents in areas with different socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. These results show that mild government policies can compel people to adopt social distancing behavior. 

  • 20.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Edmark, Karin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Is There a "Race-to-the-Bottom" in the Setting of Welfare Benefit Levels?: Evidence from a Policy Intervention2008In: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 92, no 5-6, p. 1193-1209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate whether local governments react on the welfare benefit levels in neighboring jurisdictions when setting their own benefit levels. We solve the simultaneity problem arising from the welfare game by utilizing a policy intervention; more specifically, we use a centrally geared exogenous placement of a highly welfare prone group (refugees) among Swedish municipalities as an instrument. The IV estimates indicate that there exists a "race-to-the-bottom" and that the effect is economically as well as statistically significant; if the neighboring municipalities decrease their welfare benefit level by 100 SEK, a municipality decreases its benefit level with approximately 41 SEK. This result is robust to several alternative model specifications.

  • 21.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Edmark, Karin
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Hansen, Jörgen
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Fattigdom i folkhemmet: Från socialbidrag till självförsörjning2008 (ed. 1:a upplagan)Book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Gustavsson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Inequality and Crime: Separating the Effects of Permanent and Transitory Income2008In: Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, ISSN 0305-9049, E-ISSN 1468-0084, Vol. 70, no 2, p. 129-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies on income inequality and crime have typically used total income or total earnings. However, it is quite likely that it is changes in permanent rather than in transitory income that affects crime rates. The purpose of this paper is therefore to disentangle the two effects by, first, estimating region-specific inequality in permanent and transitory income and, second, estimating crime equations with the two separate income components as explanatory variables. The results indicate that it is important to separate the two effects; while an increase in the inequality in permanent income yields a positive and significant effect on total crimes and three different property crimes, an increase in the inequality in transitory income has no significant effect. Using a traditional, aggregate, measure of income yields insignificant effects on crime.

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  • 23.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Johansson, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    On the Vote Purchasing Behavior of Incumbent Governments2002In: American Political Science Review, ISSN 0003-0554, E-ISSN 1537-5943, Vol. 96, no 1, p. 27-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate whether there are any tactical motives behind the distribution of grants from central to lower level governments. We use a temporary grant program that is uniquely suitable for testing theories of vote-purchasing behavior of incumbent governments. The temporary grant program differs from traditional intergovernmental grants in several aspects, most importantly in the sovereign decision making power given to the incumbent central government. We find support for the hypothesis that the incumbent government used the grant program under study in order to win votes. In particular, we find strong support for the Lindbeck-Weibull/Dixit-Londregan model in which parties distribute transfers to regions where there are many swing voters. This result is statistically as well as economically significant. We do however not find any support for the model that predicts that the incumbent government transfers money to its own supporters.

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  • 24.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Johansson, Kajsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    On mandatory activation of welfare receivers2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates whether mandatory activation programs for welfare receivers have effects on welfare participation, employment and disposable income. In contrast to earlier studies we are able to capture both entry and exit effects. The empirical analysis makes use of a Swedish welfare reform in which the city districts in Stockholm gradually implemented mandatory activation programs for individuals on welfare. The reform is well suited for investigating effects of such programs for several reasons. First, the reform was not combined with any other policy instruments, like time limits or tax credits, making sure that we will capture effects of mandatory activation policies and nothing else. Second, the reform was initiated at different points of time in different city districts, which ease identification. Third, using data from city districts within a single local labor market we can control for confounding macro economic shocks. Overall, we find that mandatory activation of welfare receivers reduce overall welfare participation and increases employment. We also find that mandatory activation programs appear to work best for young people and for people born in non-Western countries. For disposable income, we do not find a statistically significant effect.

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  • 25.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Johansson, Kajsa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    The Effects of Work Requirements on Welfare Participation2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lundqvist, Heléne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. IFAU.
    Intergovernmental Grants and Bureaucratic Power2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In their role as agenda setters and implementers of political decisions, bureaucrats potentially have the power to influence decisions in their own favor. It is however difficult to empirically test whether bureaucrats actually are involved in such actions. In this paper we suggest and apply a new way of testing the hypothesis that bureaucrats can and do in fact affect policy to their own benefit. Making use of a discontinuity in the Swedish grant system, we estimate causal effects of intergovernmental grants on different types of personnel employed by the local governments. On the margin, we find a large, positive effect of grants on the number of bureaucrats in the central administration, but no effects on the number of personnel in other important sectors run

    by the local government (child care, schools and elderly care). These results support the

    view that bureaucrats are able to, and do indeed, affect the allocation of grants within

    municipalities to support own goals.

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  • 27.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Aktivering av socialbidragstagare i Sverige2008In: Søkelys på arbeidsmarkedet, ISSN 0800-6199, E-ISSN 1504-7970, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 277-289Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Valår och den kommunala politiken2008In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 6-13Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Rattsø, Jørn
    NTNU, Trondheim.
    Ågren, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Using a discontinuous grant rule to identify the effect of grants on local taxes and spending2008In: Journal of Public Economics, ISSN 0047-2727, E-ISSN 1879-2316, Vol. 92, no 12, p. 2320-2335Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When investigating the effects of federal grants on the behavior of lower-level governments, it is hard to defend the handling of grants as an exogenous factor. Federal governments often set grants based on characteristics and performance of decentralized governments. In this paper we make use of a discontinuity in the Swedish grant system in order to estimate the causal effects of general intergovernmental grants on local spending and local tax rates. The formula for the distribution of funds is used as an exclusion restriction in an IV-estimation. We find evidence of crowding-in, where federal grants are shifted to more local spending, but not to reduced local tax rates.

  • 30.
    Dahlberg, Matz
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Institute for Housing and Urban Research.
    Mörk, Eva
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Tovmo, Per
    NTNU, Trondheim.
    Power Properties of the Sargan Test in the Presence of Measurement Errors in Dynamic Panels2008In: Applied Economics Letters, ISSN 1350-4851, E-ISSN 1466-4291, Vol. 15, no 5, p. 349-353Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the power properties of the Sargan test in the presence of measurement errors in dynamic panel data models. The conclusion from Monte Carlo simulations, and an application on the data used by Arellano and Bond (1991), is that in the very likely case of measurement errors in either the dependent or any of the independent variables, we will, if we rely on the Sargan test, quite likely accept a mis-specified model and end up with biased results.

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  • 31. de Graaf-Zijl, Marloes
    et al.
    van den Berg, Gerard J.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Heyma, Arjan
    Stepping stones for the unemployed: the effect of temporary jobs on the duration until (regular) work2011In: Journal of Population Economics, ISSN 0933-1433, E-ISSN 1432-1475, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 107-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transitions from unemployment into temporary work are often succeeded by a transition from temporary into regular work. This paper investigates whether temporary work increases the transition rate to regular work. We use longitudinal survey data of individuals to estimate a multi-state duration model, applying the 'timing of events' approach. The data contain multiple spells in labour market states at the individual level. We analyse results using novel graphical representations, which unambiguously show that temporary jobs shorten the unemployment duration, although they do not increase the fraction of unemployed workers having regular work within a few years after entry into unemployment.

  • 32. de Luna, Xavier
    et al.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Non-parametric inference for the effect of a treatment on survival times with application in the health and social sciences2010In: Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference, ISSN 0378-3758, E-ISSN 1873-1171, Vol. 140, no 7, p. 2122-2137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we perform inference on the effect of a treatment on survival times in studies where the treatment assignment is not randomized and the assignment time is not known in advance. Two such studies are discussed: a heart transplant program and a study of Swedish unemployed eligible for employment subsidy. We estimate survival functions on a treated and a control group which are made comparable through matching on observed covariates. The inference is performed by conditioning on waiting time to treatment, that is, time between the entrance in the study and treatment. This can be done only when sufficient data are available. In other cases, averaging over waiting times is a possibility, although the classical interpretation of the estimated survival functions is lost unless hazards are not functions of waiting time. To show unbiasedness and to obtain an estimator of the variance, we build on the potential outcome framework, which was introduced by J. Neyman in the context of randomized experiments, and adapted to observational studies by D.B. Rubin. Our approach does not make parametric or distributional assumptions. In particular, we do not assume proportionality of the hazards compared. Small sample performance of the estimator and a derived test of no treatment effect are studied in a Monte Carlo study.

  • 33.
    Edin, Per-Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Fredriksson, Peter
    Stockholm University.
    Grönqvist, Hans
    SOFI.
    Åslund, Olof
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Påverkar bostadssegregationen flyktingbarns skolresultat?2009In: Søkelys på arbeidslivet, ISSN 0800-6199, Vol. 3, no 9, p. 379-388Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Edmark, Karin
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Migration Effects of Welfare Benefit Reform2009In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 111, no 3, p. 511-526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study tests for a migration response to the implementation of stricter rules for receiving welfare benefits (means-tested social assistance for individuals who lack sufficient work-related income), in the form of mandatory participation in activation programmes in Stockholm town districts. The results give no indications that activation programmes affect the moving choices of recipients of welfare benefits.

  • 35.
    Eliason, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Income after job loss: the role of the family and the welfare state2011In: Applied Economics, ISSN 0003-6846, E-ISSN 1466-4283, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 603-618Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    That displaced workers suffer long-lasting earnings losses is a stylized fact, raising the question whether these losses are replaced by other means. For married men, increased labour supply by the wife may be one way. Another possibility is that the public welfare system offsets the same losses. I used a Swedish longitudinal data set containing married couples where the husband was either employed or made redundant in 1987 by an establishment closure. There was no evidence that husbands' job loss positively affected wives' annual earnings. Although husbands' utilization of unemployment insurance increased significantly, government transfers including also sickness insurance, disability insurance and means-tested social benefits, did not fully replace husbands' long-run earnings losses. Hence, displaced workers seem to suffer also from long-lasting losses in family income, which in many respects is a better measure of economic welfare than individual earnings or wages.

  • 36.
    Eliason, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Ohlsson, Henry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Living to save taxes2008In: Economics Letters, ISSN 0165-1765, E-ISSN 1873-7374, Vol. 100, no 3, p. 340-343Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Does taxation affect the timing of death? This is an interesting example of how behavior might be affected by economic incentives. We study how two changes in Swedish inheritance taxation 2004–2005 have affected daily all-cause mortality. Our main result is that mortality decreased by 17% the day before the expected tax repeals began.

  • 37.
    Eliason, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Ohlsson, Henry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Timing of death and the repeal of the Swedish inheritance tax2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Does taxation affect the timing of death? This is an interesting example of how behavior might be affected by economic incentives. We study how two changes in Swedish inheritance taxation 2003/04 and 2004/05 have affected mortality during the turns of the years. Our first main result is that deceased with estates taxable for legal heirs were 10 percentage points more likely to have died on New Year’s Day 2005, from when the inheritance tax was repealed, rather than on New Year’s Eve 2004, compared to deceased without taxable estates for legal heirs. The second main result is that deceased with estates taxable for a married spouse were 12 percentage points more likely to have died on New Year’s Day 2004, from when the inheritance tax between spouses was repealed, rather than on New Year’s Eve 2003, compared to deceased without taxable estates for a married spouse.

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  • 38.
    Eliason, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Ohlsson, Henry
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Timing of death and the repeal of the Swedish inheritance tax2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Does taxation affect the timing of death? This is an interesting example of how behavior might be affected by economic incentives. We study how two changes in Swedish inheritance taxation 2003/04 and 2004/05 have affected mortality during the turns of the years. Our first main result is that deceased with estates taxable for legal heirs were 10 percentage points more likely to have died on New Year’s Day 2005, from when the inheritance tax was repealed, rather than on New Year’s Eve 2004, compared to deceased without taxable estates for legal heirs. The second main result is that deceased with estates taxable for a married spouse were 12 percentage points more likely to have died on New Year’s Day 2004, from when the inheritance tax between spouses was repealed, rather than on New Year’s Eve 2003, compared to deceased without taxable estates for a married spouse.

  • 39.
    Eliason, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Storrie, Donald
    Does Job Loss Shorten Life?2009In: The Journal of human resources, ISSN 0022-166X, E-ISSN 1548-8004, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 277-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the impact of job loss on overall and cause-specific mortality. Using linked employer-employee data, we identified the workers displaced due to all establishment closures in Sweden in 1987 and 1988. Hence, we have extended the case study approach, which has dominated the plant closure literature. The overall mortality risk among men increased by 44 percent during the first four years following job loss, while there was no impact on either female overall mortality or in the longer run. For both sexes, however, there was an about twofold short-run increase in suicides and alcohol-related mortality.

  • 40.
    Eliason, Marcus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Storrie, Donald
    Job loss is bad for your health - Swedish evidence on cause-specific hospitalization following involuntary job loss2009In: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 68, no 8, p. 1396-1406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the impact of job loss on a number of non-fatal health events, which are nonetheless severe enough to require hospital in-patient care. We focus on job loss due only to establishment closures, as this reduces the problem of distinguishing between causation and selection. Using linked employee-employer register data, we identify the job losses due to all establishment closures in Sweden in 1987 or 1988. During a subsequent 12-year period, we find that job loss significantly increases the risk of hospitalization due to alcohol-related conditions, among both men and women, and due to traffic accidents and self-harm, among men only. We find no evidence, however, that job loss increased the risk of severe cardiovascular diseases such as myocardial infarction or stroke.

  • 41.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lagerström, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Competition between Employed and Unemployed Job Applicants: Swedish evidence2006In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 108, no 3, p. 373-396Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use the Swedish Applicant Database to empirically investigate whether being unemployed per se reduces the probability of getting contacted by a firm. All searchers looking for a new job are invited to submit their personal details to this database over the Internet. Since we have access to exactly the same information as the firms, we can minimize the problems associated with unobserved heterogeneity. Our results show that an unemployed applicant faces a lower contact probability than an otherwise identical employed applicant, thus supporting the notion that firms view employment status as a signal for productivity.

  • 42.
    Eriksson, Stefan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Lagerström, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Detecting discrimination in the hiring process: Evidence from an Internet-based search channel2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses data from an Internet-based CV database to investigate how factors which may be used as a basis for discrimination, such as the searchers’ ethnicity, gender, age and employment status, affect the number of contacts they receive from firms. Since we have access to essentially the same information as the firms, we can handle the problems associated with unobserved heterogeneity better than most existing studies of discrimination. We find that, even when we control for other differences, searchers who have non-Nordic names, are old or unemployed receive significantly fewer contacts. Moreover, we find that this matters for the hiring outcome: Searchers who receive more contacts have a higher probability of actually getting hired.

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  • 43.
    Forslund, Anders
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Gottfries, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Westermark, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Prices, Productivity, and Wage Bargaining in Open Economies2008In: Scandinavian Journal of Economics, ISSN 0347-0520, E-ISSN 1467-9442, Vol. 110, no 1, p. 169-195Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the standard union bargaining model, unemployment benefits should have big effects on wages, but product-market prices and productivity should play no role in the wage bargain. We formulate an alternative strategic bargaining model, where labour and product-market conditions together determine wages. A wage equation is derived and estimated on aggregate data for four Nordic countries. Wages are found to depend not only on unemployment and the replacement ratio, but also on productivity, international prices and exchange rates. There is evidence of considerable nominal wage rigidity. Exchange rate changes have large and persistent effects on competitiveness.

  • 44.
    Frölich, Markus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Lechner, Michael
    Exploiting Regional Treatment Intensity for the Evaluation of Labor Market Policies2010In: Journal of the American Statistical Association, ISSN 0162-1459, E-ISSN 1537-274X, Vol. 105, no 491, p. 1014-1029Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We estimate the effects of active labor market policies (ALMPs) on subsequent employment and earnings by nonparametric instrumental variable estimators. Very informative administrative Swiss data with detailed regional information are combined with exogenous regional variation in program participation probabilities to generate an instrument within well-defined local labor markets. We find that implementation of an ALMP increased individual employment probabilities by about 15% for unemployed that might be considered "marginal" participants.

  • 45.
    Hall, Caroline
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Hartman, Laura
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Moral hazard among the sick and unemployed: evidence from a Swedish social insurance reform2010In: Empirical Economics, ISSN 0377-7332, E-ISSN 1435-8921, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 27-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper studies a specific type of moral hazard that arises in the interplay between two large public social insurance systems in Sweden, namely the sickness insurance (SI) and the unemployment insurance (UI). Moral hazard can arise from the structure of the benefit levels as for some unemployed persons benefits from the SI are higher than benefits from the UI. We use a reform of the SI system that came into force on 1 July 2003 to identify the effect of economic incentives arising from the different benefit levels. The purpose of the reform was to eliminate the difference in benefits between the two social insurance systems. Our results from a duration analysis show clearly that the higher the sickness benefits, the higher the probability of reporting sick.

  • 46.
    Hartman, Laura
    et al.
    Statskontoret.
    Liljeberg, Linus
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Nordström Skans, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Stepping-stones, dead-ends, or both? An analysis of Swedish replacement contracts2010In: Empirical Economics, ISSN 0377-7332, E-ISSN 1435-8921, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 645-668Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Hesselius, Patrik
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Sick of Your Colleagues' Absence?2009In: Journal of the European Economic Association, ISSN 1542-4766, E-ISSN 1542-4774, Vol. 7, no 2-3, p. 583-594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We utilize a large-scale randomized social experiment to identify how co-workers affect each other’s effort as measured bywork absence. The experiment altered thework absence incentives for half of recover the treatment status of all workers in more than 3,000 workplaces. We first document that employees in workplaces with a high proportion of treated co-workers increase their own absence level significantly. We then examine the heterogeneity of the treatment effect in order to explore what mechanisms are underlying the peer effect. Although a strong effect of having a high proportion of treated co-workers is found for the non-treatedworkers, no significant effects are found for the treated workers. These results suggest that pure altruistic social preferences can be ruled out as the main motivator for the behavior of a non-negligible proportion of the employees in our sample.

  • 48.
    Holmlund, Bertil
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Liu, Qian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    Nordström Skans, Oskar
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation.
    Mind the Gap? Estimating the Effects of Postponing Higher Education2008In: Oxford Economic Papers, ISSN 0030-7653, E-ISSN 1464-3812, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 683-710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper estimates the effects on earnings of “gap years” between high school and university enrollment. The effect is estimated by means of standard earnings functions augmented to account for gap years and a rich set of control variables using administrative Swedish data. We find that postponement of higher education is associated with a persistent and non-trivial earnings penalty. The main source of the persistent penalty appears to be the loss of work experience after studies. The reduction of lifetime earnings associated with two years postponement of higher education amounts to 40-50 percent of annual earnings at age 40.

  • 49.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics.
    The importance of employer contacts: Evidence based on selection on observables and internal replication2008In: Labour Economics, ISSN 0927-5371, E-ISSN 1879-1034, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 350-369Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I estimate effects of the labor market training program “Swit” on employment using both register and survey data. Swit was initiated in an attempt to increase the supply of qualified personnel in the IT sector. Based on the register data I find a large positive effect from the Swit on employment as compared to conventional programs directed towards IT. By also using survey information I conclude that the effect was due to increased employer contacts. The result is of interest because of the relatively large effect especially for individuals with traditionally weak positions on the labor market. Furthermore, I methodologically demonstrate how information about the contents of the programs may corroborate findings based on conditional independence assumptions.

  • 50.
    Jonéus, Paulina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Johansson, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Statistics.
    Langenskiöld, Sophie
    Uppsala University, Units outside the University, Office of Labour Market Policy Evaluation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Health Economics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiology.
    A study protocol for a comparative effectiveness evaluation of antiandrogenic medications against Standard of CareManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
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