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  • 1. Agudo, Marta
    et al.
    Perez-Marin, Maria Cruz
    Sobrado-Calvo, Paloma
    Lönngren, Ulrika
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Medicinsk utvecklingsbiologi.
    Salinas-Navarro, Manuel
    Canovas, Isabel
    Nadal-Nicolas, Francisco Manuel
    Miralles-Imperial, Jaime
    Hallböök, Finn
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Medicinsk utvecklingsbiologi.
    Vidal-Sanz, Manuel
    Immediate Upregulation of Proteins Belonging to Different Branches of the Apoptotic Cascade in the Retina after Optic Nerve Transection and Optic Nerve Crush2009Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 50, nr 1, s. 424-431Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose:

    To further investigate the molecular signals underlying optic nerve (ON) injury we have analyzed in adult control, ON transected and ON crushed retinas, the expression pattern and time-course regulation of the following proteins, all of which are linked to apoptosis through different pathways: Stat 1, Caspase 11 (inflammation and death), Cathepsins C and B (lysosomal death pathway), Calpain 1 (endoplasmic reticulum stress), Calreticulin (apoptosis marker), Jun (early response) and Ahr (cell cycle arrest).

    Methods:

    Adult female rats were subjected to either intraorbital optic nerve transection (IONT) or intraorbital optic nerve crush (IONC). Protein from naive and ON injured adult rat retinas was extracted at increasing time-points post-lesion and western blotting experiments carried out. For immnuhistofluorescence analyses, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were retrogradelly identified with fluorogold applied to the superior colliculi one week before injury.

    Results:

    Western blotting analyses revealed up-regulation of all the analyzed proteins as soon as 12 hours post-lesion (hpl) peaking at 48hpl, in agreement with our previous RNA studies1. Furthermore, immunohistofluorescence to radial sections show that all of them, but Stat1, are expressed by the primarily injured neurons, the RGCs, as seen by colocalization with FG.

    Conclusions:

    All analyzed proteins were up-regulated in the retina after IONT or IONC as soon as 12hpl, indicating that ON injury regulates several branches of the apoptotic cascade and suggesting that commitment to death might be an earlier event than previously anticipated.

  • 2.
    Ahmadi, Mahboobah
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Liu, Jing-Xia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Brännström, Thomas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Andersen, Peter M
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Neurologi.
    Stål, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Pedrosa-Domellöf, Fatima
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Human extraocular muscles in ALS2010Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 51, nr 7, s. 3494-3501Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE. To investigate the general morphology, fiber type content, and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition of extraocular muscles (EOMs) from postmortem donors with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to evaluate whether EOMs are affected or truly spared in this disease. METHODS. EOM and limb muscle samples obtained at autopsy from ALS donors and EOM samples from four control donors were processed for immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies against distinct MyHC isoforms and analyzed by SDS-PAGE. In addition, hematoxylin and eosin staining and nicotinamide tetrazolium reductase (NADH-TR) activity were studied. RESULTS. Wide heterogeneity was observed in the appearance of the different EOMs from each single donor and between donors, irrespective of ALS type or onset. Pathologic morphologic findings in ALS EOMs included presence of atrophic and hypertrophic fibers, either clustered in groups or scattered; increased amounts of connective tissue; and areas of fatty replacement. The population of fibers stained with anti-MyHCslow tonic was smaller than that of MyHCIpositive fibers and was mostly located in the orbital layer in most of the ALS EOM samples, whereas an identical staining pattern for both fiber populations was observed in the control specimens. MyHCembryonic was notably absent from the ALS EOMs. CONCLUSIONS. The EOMs showed signs of involvement with altered fiber type composition, contractile protein content, and cellular architecture. However, when compared to the limb muscles, the EOMs were remarkably preserved. EOMs are a useful model for the study of the pathophysiology of ALS.

  • 3.
    Ali, Zaheer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Zang, Jingjing
    Univ Zurich, Switzerland.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för logopedi, otorhinolaryngologi och audiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Ögonkliniken US/LiM.
    Schmitner, Nicole
    Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Salvenmoser, Willi
    Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Mukwaya, Anthonny
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för biomedicinska och kliniska vetenskaper, Avdelningen för logopedi, otorhinolaryngologi och audiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Neuhauss, Stephan C. F.
    Univ Zurich, Switzerland.
    Jensen, Lasse
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, medicin och vård, Avdelningen för diagnostik och specialistmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk farmakologi.
    Kimmel, Robin A.
    Univ Innsbruck, Austria.
    Photoreceptor Degeneration Accompanies Vascular Changes in a Zebrafish Model of Diabetic Retinopathy2020Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 61, nr 2, artikkel-id UNSP 43Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of vision impairment and blindness worldwide in the working-age population, and the incidence is rising. Until now it has been difficult to define initiating events and disease progression at the molecular level, as available diabetic rodent models do not present the full spectrum of neural and vascular pathologies. Zebrafish harboring a homozygous mutation in the pancreatic transcription factor pdx1 were previously shown to display a diabetic phenotype from larval stages through adulthood. In this study, pdx1 mutants were examined for retinal vascular and neuronal pathology to demonstrate suitability of these fish for modeling DR. METHODS. Vessel morphology was examined in pdx1 mutant and control fish expressing the fli1a:EGFP transgene. We further characterized vascular and retinal phenotypes in mutants and controls using immunohistochemistry, histology, and electron microscopy. Retinal function was assessed using electroretinography. RESULTS. Pdx1 mutants exhibit clear vascular phenotypes at 2 months of age, and disease progression, including arterial vasculopenia, capillary tortuosity, and hypersprouting, could be detected at stages extending over more than 1 year. Neural-retinal pathologies are consistent with photoreceptor dysfunction and loss, but do not progress to blindness. CONCLUSIONS. This study highlights pdx1 mutant zebrafish as a valuable complement to rodent and other mammalian models of DR, in particular for research into the mechanistic interplay of diabetes with vascular and neuroretinal disease. They are furthermore suited for molecular studies to identify new targets for treatment of early as well as late DR.

  • 4.
    Allen, Peter M.
    et al.
    Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Radhakrishnan, Hema
    University of Manchester, UK.
    Rae, Sheila
    Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Calver, Richard I.
    Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Theagarayan, Baskar
    Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Nelson, Paul
    Prism Training Consultancy, UK.
    Osuobeni, Ebi
    Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Sailoganathan, Ananth
    Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Price, Holly
    Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    O'Leary, Daniel J.
    Anglia Ruskin University, UK.
    Aberration control and vision training as an effective means of improving accommodation in individuals with myopia.2009Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 50, nr 11, s. 5120-5129Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To test the efficacy of a novel dual treatment for improving accommodative accuracy and dynamics in young persons with myopia.

    METHODS: Ninety-three young persons with myopia (mean spherical equivalent, -3.0 +/- 1.8 D; age 16.8 +/- 2.1 years; spherical aberration +0.06 +/- 0.04 microm) participated in the study. Custom-designed soft contact lenses were used to alter ocular SA to -0.10 microm to improve accommodative accuracy and reduce any lag of accommodation. A vision training regimen was performed for 18 minutes per day for up to 6 weeks to improve speed of dynamic accommodation. Control groups had contact lenses with no added SA and/or no exercises. To avoid any effects of natural levels of negative aberration on the results of the study, all participants who had negative SA were excluded.

    RESULTS: The treatment contact lenses produced a significant reduction in lag of accommodation (P < 0.05) at all proximal viewing distances measured. The vision training measurement and treatment resulted in a significant increase in distance facility rate for all groups compared with their own baselines (P < 0.05). Near facility rate improved in the vision training treatment group only compared with its baseline (P < 0.05). Both positive and negative response times for distant viewing were significantly shorter in all groups after training compared with their baseline values (P < 0.05). At near, the positive response times were decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in both groups, whereas the negative response times decreased significantly only in the vision training treatment group.

    CONCLUSIONS: After 3 months, the dual treatments (altering SA and vision training) used in the study were effective in modifying accommodation. The static accommodative response to targets at proximal distances was increased by the altered SA contact lenses and rates of dynamic accommodation improved with vision training.

  • 5. All-Ericsson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Girnita, Leonard
    Müller-Brunotte, Anja
    Brodin, Bertha
    Seregard, Stefan
    Östman, Arne
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Ludwiginstitutet för cancerforskning.
    Larsson, Olle
    c-Kit-dependent growth of uveal melanoma cells: a potential therapeutic target?2004Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 45, nr 7, s. 2075-82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: This study was conducted to investigate the expression and functional impact of the proto-oncogene c-kit in uveal melanoma. METHODS: Based on immunohistochemical (IHC) study of paraffin-embedded specimens from 134 uveal melanomas and Western blot analysis on eight fresh-frozen samples the expression of c-kit in uveal melanoma was studied. Furthermore, the phosphorylation of c-kit and the impact of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor STI571 was examined in the three uveal melanoma cell lines OCM-1, OCM-3, and 92-1. RESULTS: Eighty-four of 134 paraffin-embedded samples and six of eight fresh-frozen samples expressed c-kit. c-Kit was strongly expressed and tyrosine phosphorylated in cultured uveal melanoma cells compared with cutaneous melanoma cells. Moreover, in contrast to cutaneous melanoma cell lines c-kit maintained a high phosphorylation level in serum-depleted uveal melanoma cells. No activation-related mutations in exon 11 of the KIT gene were found. On the contrary, expression of the stem cell growth factor (c-kit ligand) was detected in all three uveal melanoma cell lines, suggesting the presence of autocrine (paracrine) stimulation pathways. Treatment of uveal melanoma cell lines with STI571, which blocks c-kit autophosphorylation, resulted in cell death. The IC(50) of the inhibitory effects on c-kit phosphorylation and cell proliferation was of equal size and less than 2.5 microM. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm that c-kit is vastly expressed in uveal melanoma, suggest that the c-kit molecular pathway may be important in uveal melanoma growth, and point to its use as a target for therapy with STI571.

  • 6.
    Ambarki, Khalid
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Radiofysik.
    Hallberg, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Radiofysik.
    Jóhannesson, Gauti
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Lindén, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Zarrinkoob, Laleh
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Wåhlin, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Radiofysik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI).
    Birgander, Richard
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Diagnostisk radiologi.
    Malm, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Eklund, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Blood flow of ophthalmic artery in healthy individuals determined by phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging2013Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 54, nr 4, s. 2738-2745Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Recent development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers new possibilities to assess ocular blood flow. This prospective study evaluates the feasibility of phase-contrast MRI (PCMRI) to measure flow rate in the ophthalmic artery (OA) and establish reference values in healthy young (HY) and elderly (HE) subjects.

    METHODS: Fifty HY subjects (28 females, 21-30 years of age) and 44 HE (23 females, 64-80 years of age) were scanned on a 3-Tesla MR system. The PCMRI sequence had a spatial resolution of 0.35 mm per pixel, with the measurement plan placed perpendicularly to the OA. Mean flow rate (Qmean), resistive index (RI), and arterial volume pulsatility of OA (ΔVmax) were measured from the flow rate curve. Accuracy of PCMRI measures was investigated using a vessel-phantom mimicking the diameter and the flow rate range of the human OA.

    RESULTS: Flow rate could be assessed in 97% of the OAs. Phantom investigations showed good agreement between the reference and PCMRI measurements with an error of <7%. No statistical difference was found in Qmean between HY and HE individuals (HY: mean ± SD = 10.37 ± 4.45 mL/min; HE: 10.81 ± 5.15 mL/min, P = 0.655). The mean of ΔVmax (HY: 18.70 ± 7.24 μL; HE: 26.27 ± 12.59 μL, P < 0.001) and RI (HY: 0.62 ± 0.08; HE: 0.67 ± 0.1, P = 0.012) were significantly different between HY and HE.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that the flow rate of OA can be quantified using PCMRI. There was an age difference in the pulsatility parameters; however, the mean flow rate appeared independent of age. The primary difference in flow curves between HE and HY was in the relaxation phase of the systolic peak.

  • 7. Ayala, Marcelo
    et al.
    Strid, Hilja
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Jacobsson, Ulrika
    Söderberg, Per G.
    p53 expression and apoptosis in the lens after ultraviolet radiation exposure2007Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 48, nr 9, s. 4187-4191Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To localize p53 protein and active caspase-3 in the albino rat lens and to compare p53 mRNA and active caspase-3 expression in ultraviolet radiation (UVR) 300 nm exposed lenses and their contralateral nonexposed controls. METHODS: Ten Sprague-Dawley albino rats were unilaterally exposed to 8 kJ/m(2) UVR, and the contralateral eyes were left nonexposed. In total, four exposed lenses and their respective contralateral nonexposed lenses were analyzed by immunohistochemistry to localize p53 and active caspase-3. In addition, six exposed and contralateral nonexposed lenses were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Quantified p53 and caspase-3 expression were compared between the in vivo UVR 300 nm exposed lenses and the contralateral nonexposed lenses. RESULTS: All lenses exposed to UVR developed cataract. Immunohistochemistry showed that p53 and active caspase-3 were localized in the lens epithelial cells. Quantified p53 and caspase-3 expression were significantly higher in lenses exposed to UVR than in nonexposed lenses. CONCLUSIONS: p53 and caspase-3 expression increase in lens epithelial cells after UVR exposure. In the lens, apoptosis induced by UVR may be associated with increased p53 expression.

  • 8. Ayala, Marcelo
    et al.
    Strid, Hilja
    Jacobsson, Ulrika
    Söderberg, Per G
    St. Erik's Eye Hospital, Karolinska Institutet.
    p53 expression and apoptosis in the lens after ultraviolet radiation exposure2007Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 48, nr 9, s. 4187-4191Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To localize p53 protein and active caspase-3 in the albino rat lens and to compare p53 mRNA and active caspase-3 expression in ultraviolet radiation (UVR) 300 nm exposed lenses and their contralateral nonexposed controls.

    METHODS: Ten Sprague-Dawley albino rats were unilaterally exposed to 8 kJ/m(2) UVR, and the contralateral eyes were left nonexposed. In total, four exposed lenses and their respective contralateral nonexposed lenses were analyzed by immunohistochemistry to localize p53 and active caspase-3. In addition, six exposed and contralateral nonexposed lenses were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. Quantified p53 and caspase-3 expression were compared between the in vivo UVR 300 nm exposed lenses and the contralateral nonexposed lenses.

    RESULTS: All lenses exposed to UVR developed cataract. Immunohistochemistry showed that p53 and active caspase-3 were localized in the lens epithelial cells. Quantified p53 and caspase-3 expression were significantly higher in lenses exposed to UVR than in nonexposed lenses.

    CONCLUSIONS: p53 and caspase-3 expression increase in lens epithelial cells after UVR exposure. In the lens, apoptosis induced by UVR may be associated with increased p53 expression.

  • 9. Backlund, L B
    et al.
    Algvere, P V
    Rosenqvist, Urban
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Hälso- och sjukvårdsforskning.
    New blindness in diabetes reduced by 7% per year1997Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 38, nr 4, s. 1632-1632Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10.
    Baptista, Antonio M. G.
    et al.
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Joel, Monteiro
    Centro Hospitalar do Alto Ave, Portugal.
    Vieira, Marco
    Centro Hospitalar do Alto Ave, Portugal.
    Reimão, Pedro
    Centro Hospitalar do Alto Ave, Portugal.
    Rocha, Paulo
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Rocha-Sousa, Amandio A.
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Freitas, Cristina
    Hospital de Braga, Portugal.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Marques, Ana Patricia
    Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Santana, Rui
    Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Causes of Vision Impairment in Portugal: A hospital based study2015Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 56, nr 7, artikkel-id 2118Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose 

    Causes of vision impairment (VI) are influenced by factors such as race or socio-economic circumstances. Because of this collecting national information is important for planning reduction of vision loss. The aim of this study was to determine causes of vision impairment in a population visiting ophthalmology departments in public hospitals in Portugal.

    Methods 

    This study was designed according with the guidelines of the Vancouver Economic Burden of Vision Loss Group (IOVS, 2010, V51/4/1801). Recommendations are to collect hospital data during 1 year to determine causes of VI. We selected four public hospitals that are expected to have over 120-140K appointments per year. Files are analysed weekly to detect patients with vision impairment. Inclusion criteria are: visual acuity with the current refractive correction equal or less than 0.5 (20/40) in the better-seeing eye and/or a visual field of less than 20 degrees. Patients were selected by trained hospital staff (medics and orthoptists) and inserted in a database. Diagnoses were classified according the ICD9. Data collected included fundamental demographic information, main diagnosis, secondary diagnosis and comorbidities.

    Results 

    We have now 2462 patients selected that correspond to 4 to 33 weeks of data collection. The number of weeks is variable because we did not start all hospitals simultaneously. From the current number of cases detected, 58% are female, 1.9% are under 20, 8.2% are between 20 and 50 and 89.9% are 50 years or older. The leading causes of vision impairment among these patients are diabetic retinopathy (DR), cataract (C), glaucoma (GC) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Using the North American definition of VI the proportions are 26.8% for DR, 25.5% for C, 10.4% for GC and 8.2% for AMD. The remaining causes of VI have percentages below 5% and in total they correspond to approximately 29% of the cases detected.

    Conclusions 

    Our results show that the most common causes of vision impairment are eye diseases related with systemic conditions and aging of the population. Vision impairment was relatively low under the age of 20 and the causes were mostly inherited diseases. Numbers reported now will be more accurate at the end of the study but they already highlight the importance of targeting conditions such as diabetes.

  • 11.
    Barth, Henrik
    et al.
    Lund University Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Lund, Sweden.
    Crafoord, Sven
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Department of Ophthalmology.
    Ghosh, Fredrik K.
    Lund University Hospital, Department of Ophthalmology, Lund, Sweden.
    Developing a retinal detachment model for in vivo testing of vitreous substitutes with repeated pars plana vitrectomy2018Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 59, nr 9, artikkel-id 5941Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 12.
    Barth, Henrik
    et al.
    Dept Ophthalmol, Lund Univ, Lund, Sweden.
    Crafoord, Sven W.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Region Örebro län. Dept Ophthalmology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Arner, Karin
    Dept Ophthalmol, Lund Univ, Lund, Sweden.
    Ghosh, Fredrik K.
    Dept Ophthalmol, Lund Univ, Lund, Sweden.
    Cellular CD68 and CD45r0 positive inflammatory responses of vitrectomy with vitreous substitutes2016Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 57, nr 12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Theagarayan, Baskar
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Carius, Staffan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för datavetenskap, fysik och matematik, DFM.
    Gustafsson, Jörgen
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Ocular Aberrations in the Peripheral Visual Field With a Commercial Open-View Aberrometer2010Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 51, nr 5, artikkel-id 3951Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeThe interest in off-axis aberrations has increased with the discovery of a possible link between myopia development and peripheral optics. The most common technology to measure the off-axis aberrations is a Shack-Hartmann wavefront aberrometer. This is the first study to report peripheral aberrations in a large sample of emmetropic population with a commercial open-view Shack-Hartmann aberrometer. MethodsThe commercial open-view Shack-Hartmann aberrometer COAS-HD VR was used to measure the aberrations in the peripheral vision. Aberrations of the right eye of 30 emmetropes (24 {+/-} 4 years) were studied. Off-axis aberrations were measured in steps of 10{degrees} out to {+/-} 30{degrees} in the horizontal visual field. The subjects turned their eye to view the off-axis fixation target (light emitting diode placed at 3 meters) during the measurement. The resulting wavefront aberrations were parameterized with Zernike coefficients for a 5 mm diameter pupil. All analyzes are reported according to optical society of America (OSA) recommended standards. ResultsAberrations from the 2nd to 6th order and the total higher-order root-mean-square (HO RMS) were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. The defocus C02 was significantly myopic in the nasal visual field (+20{degrees}, +30{degrees}) whereas there was no significant difference in the temporal visual field. Astigmatism C22 increased quadratically from {+/-}10{degrees} in the periphery and coma C13 showed a linear increase across the horizontal visual field (p < 0.05). The spherical aberration C04 and the total HO RMS showed a significant change at {+/-}30o. ConclusionsOur results showed that in young emmetropes there was a significant increase of HO RMS at {+/-}30{degrees}, which is expected. Astigmatism, horizontal coma, and spherical aberration vary systematically across the horizontal visual field in agreement with Seidel theory. The findings of our study with a large sample of emmetropic population agree with the previous studies done with laboratory built aberrometers.

  • 14.
    Beckman, Claes
    KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Centra, KTH Center för Trådlösa System, Wireless@kth. KTH, Skolan för informations- och kommunikationsteknik (ICT), Kommunikationssystem, CoS.
    The 'light scattering factor'. Importance of stimulus geometry, contrast definition, and adaptation.1995Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 36, nr 11, s. 2313-7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: Paulsson and Sjöstrand have suggested that the light scattering factor (LSF) can be estimated by using the equation: LSF = L/E (M2/M1-1). Here L is the space average luminance of the target, E is the illuminance of the glare source, and M2 and M1 are modulation contrast thresholds in the presence and absence of the glare source. To compensate for change of adaptation. Abrahamsson and Sjöstrand later modified the above equation by introducing a correction factor (CF): LSF = L/E ((CF) (M2/M1-1). The purpose of this study is to analyze the validity of the above equations.

    METHODS: The importance of stimulus geometry, contrast definition, background luminance, and glare illumination is studied through theoretical analysis and comparison with earlier studies. Stimulus geometry and contrast definition are studied through optical modeling. Adaptation is modeled according to the laws of Weber and DeVries-Rose.

    RESULTS: The choice of contrast definition may corrupt the result by a factor of 2. At background luminance levels above approximately 10 cd/m2, the Paulsson-Sjöstrand equation agrees well with theory. At lower background levels, the Abrahamsson-Sjöstrand equation is used with correction factors derived from adaptation measurements. Using this equation and earlier published data from glare testing performed at 2 cd/m2, the results are found to be in fair agreement with the light scattering theory.

    CONCLUSIONS: Glare testing using the Paulsson-Sjöstrand equation is found to be valid as long as the measurements are performed at high luminance levels (above 10 cd/m2), with targets of low spatiotemporal frequencies (e.g., 2 cpd and 1 Hz) and with the use of a properly chosen definition of contrast. At lower luminance levels, the Abrahamsson-Sjöstrand equation may be used with well-derived correction factors.

  • 15. Behndig, A
    et al.
    Karlsson, K
    Johansson, B O
    Brännström, T
    Marklund, S L
    Superoxide dismutase isoenzymes in the normal and diseased human cornea.2001Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 42, nr 10, s. 2293-6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: The human cornea, a tissue much exposed to oxidative stress, is rich in extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD). In this study, the contents and distributions of the SOD isoenzymes in the normal human cornea were compared with those in corneas affected by keratoconus and bullous keratopathy.

    METHODS: The central and peripheral parts of normal human corneas were analyzed separately. Central corneal buttons were obtained from patients with keratoconus and bullous keratopathy who were undergoing primary keratoplasty or retransplantation. SOD enzymatic activities were determined by a direct spectrophotometric method, and extracellular SOD and the cytosolic Cu- and Zn-containing SOD (CuZn-SOD) proteins were determined with ELISA and studied with immunohistochemistry.

    RESULTS: The total SOD content, and particularly the extracellular SOD content, was lower in the central than in the peripheral normal cornea. CuZn-SOD and extracellular SOD were demonstrated in all three corneal layers. CuZn-SOD was found in cells, whereas extracellular SOD appeared to be localized on cell surfaces, in basal membranes, and in the stroma. In keratoconus, corneal levels of extracellular SOD were half those in the control corneas, whereas CuZn-SOD and the mitochondrial Mn-containing SOD levels were normal. In bullous keratopathy, apart from edematous dilution, SOD isoenzyme levels were essentially normal. In a remarkable finding, the same pattern in SOD isoenzyme levels as in the original disease was also found at retransplantation.

    CONCLUSIONS: Extracellular SOD and CuZn-SOD show markedly different distribution patterns within the human cornea. Extracellular SOD activity in the central cornea is halved in keratoconus, compared with that in normal control corneas. The finding of a similar reduction at retransplantation in keratoconus suggests reduced corneal extracellular SOD synthesis in cells of the host as a cause of the low enzyme levels.

  • 16. Bharadwaj, S.R.
    et al.
    Hoenig, MP
    Sivaramkrishnan, VC
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    Högskolan i Kalmar, Naturvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Simonian, D
    Mau, K
    Rastani, S
    Schor, CM
    Variation of Binocular-Vertical Fusion Amplitude with Convergence.2007Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 48, nr 4, s. 1592-1600Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 17.
    Blais, David R.
    et al.
    Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    Vascotto, Sandy G.
    Eye Institute, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada..
    Griffith, May
    Eye Institute, and the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    Altosaar, Illimar
    Department of Biochemistry, Microbiology and Immunology, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
    LBP and CD14 secreted in tears by the lacrimal glands modulate the LPS response of corneal epithelial cells2005Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 46, nr 11, s. 4235-4244Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is one of the most powerful bacterial virulence factors in terms of proinflammatory properties and is likely to contribute to corneal bacterial keratitis. Better understanding of the spatial expression of the LPS receptor components at the tear - corneal interface might facilitate enhanced functions of the LPS receptor complex in ocular defense against Gram-negative infections. METHODS. The expression of LPS-binding protein (LBP), CD14, toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, and MD-2 in human lacrimal glands, reflex tears, and corneal epithelia was examined by ELISA, RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunofluorescence. The release of proinflammatory cytokines after the activation of primary and immortalized corneal epithelial cells with LPS and human tears was measured by ELISA. RESULTS. LBP and CD14 proteins were detected in reflex human tears. Human lacrimal glands and corneal epithelia expressed LBP, CD14, TLR4, and MD-2 mRNAs and proteins. In the corneal epithelium, LBP was mainly expressed by superficial and basal epithelial cells, whereas CD14, TLR4, and MD-2 expression were limited to the wing and basal epithelial cells. In a dose-dependant manner, tear CD14 and LBP mediated the secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 by corneal epithelia cells when challenged with LPS. CONCLUSIONS. Tear CD14 and LBP complemented the LPS receptor complex expressed by the corneal epithelia to trigger an immune response in the presence of LPS. The complementation of these tear and corneal immune proteins could play an important role in LPS recognition and signaling and, therefore, could modulate ocular innate immunity.

  • 18.
    Blixt, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Medicinsk utvecklingsbiologi.
    Hallböök, Finn
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Medicinsk utvecklingsbiologi.
    Lineage tracing of horizontal and photoreceptor cells in the embryonic chicken retina2016Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 57, nr 12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 19.
    Borbely, Gabor
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Löfgren, Filip
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Sloniecka, Marta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Backman, Ludvig J.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Danielson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    The role of neurokinin A in corneal wound repair2015Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 56, nr 7, artikkel-id Meeting Abstract: 725Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 20.
    Bourghardt Peebo, Beatrice
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oftalmiatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Rekonstruktionscentrum, Ögonkliniken US/LiM.
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oftalmiatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Rekonstruktionscentrum, Ögonkliniken US/LiM.
    Traneus-Rockert, Catharina
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk patologi och klinisk genetik.
    Lagali, Neil
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Rekonstruktionscentrum, Ögonkliniken US/LiM. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oftalmiatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Cellular-Level Characterization of Lymph Vessels in Live, Unlabeled Corneas by In Vivo Confocal Microscopy2010Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 51, nr 2, s. 830-835Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE. To determine whether in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) of the cornea can be used for the label-free detection and monitoring of lymph vessels in live corneas.

    METHODS. Parallel corneal hemangiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis was induced by the placement of a single suture in one cornea of male Wistar rats. Fourteen days after suture placement and under general anesthesia, laser-scanning IVCM was performed in the vascularized region. Corneas were subsequently excised for flat-mount double immunofluorescence with a pan-endothelial marker (PECAM-1/CD31) and a lymphatic endothelial specific marker (LYVE-1). Using the suture area and prominent blood vessels as points of reference, the identical microscopic region was located in both fluorescent and archived in vivo images. Additionally, vessel diameter, lumen contrast, and cell diameter and velocity within vessels were quantified from in vivo images.

    RESULTS. Comparison of identical corneal regions in fluorescence and in vivo revealed prominent CD31(+)/LYVE-1(3+) lymph vessels that were visible in vivo. In vivo, corneal lymph vessels were located in the vascularized area in the same focal plane as blood vessels but had a darker lumen (P andlt; 0.001) sparsely populated by highly reflective cells with diameters similar to those of leukocytes in blood vessels (P = 0.61). Cell velocity in lymph vessels was significantly reduced compared with blood particle velocity (P andlt; 0.001). Morphologic characteristics enabled subsequent identification of corneal lymphatics in live, vascularized rat corneas before immunofluorescence labeling.

    CONCLUSIONS. IVCM enabled the nondestructive, label-free, in vivo detection of corneal lymphatics. IVCM provides the possibility of observing lymphatic activity in the same live corneas longitudinally and, as a clinical instrument, of monitoring corneal lymphatics in live human subjects.

  • 21.
    Bourghardt Peebo, Beatrice
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oftalmiatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Ögonkliniken US/LiM.
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oftalmiatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Ögonkliniken US/LiM.
    Traneus-Rockert, Catharina
    Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Diagnostikcentrum, Klinisk patologi och klinisk genetik.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oftalmiatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Ögonkliniken US/LiM.
    Time-Lapse In Vivo Imaging of Corneal Angiogenesis: The Role of Inflammatory Cells in Capillary Sprouting2011Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 52, nr 6, s. 3060-3068Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE. To elucidate the temporal sequence of events leading to new capillary sprouting in inflammatory corneal angiogenesis.

    METHODS. Angiogenesis was induced by corneal suture placement in Wistar rats. The inflamed region was examined by time-lapse in vivo confocal microscopy for up to 7 days. At 6 and 12 hours and 1, 2, 4, and 7 days, corneas were excised for flat mount immunofluorescence with primary antibodies for CD31, CD34, CD45, CD11b, CD11c, Ki-M2R, NG2, and alpha-SMA. From days 0 to 4, the in vivo extravasation and expansion characteristics of single limbal vessels were quantified.

    RESULTS. Starting hours after induction and peaking at day 1, CD45(+)CD11b(+) myeloid cells extravasated from limbal vessels and formed endothelium-free tunnels within the stroma en route to the inflammatory stimulus. Limbal vessel diameter tripled on days 2 to 3 as vascular buds emerged and transformed into perfused capillary sprouts less than 1 day later. A subset of spindle-shaped CD11b(+) myeloid-lineage cells, but not dendritic cells or mature macrophages, appeared to directly facilitate further capillary sprout growth. These cells incorporated into vascular endothelium near the sprout tip, co-expressing endothelial marker CD31. Sprouts had perfusion characteristics distinct from feeder vessels and many sprout tips were open-ended.

    CONCLUSIONS. Time-lapse in vivo corneal confocal microscopy can be used to track a temporal sequence of events in corneal angiogenesis. The technique has revealed potential roles for myeloid cells in promoting vessel sprouting in an inflammatory corneal setting.

  • 22.
    Burstedt, Marie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Jonsson, Frida
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
    Boström, Ida Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
    Golovleva, Irina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Medicinsk och klinisk genetik.
    Phenotypic expression of EYS mutations in patients with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa in northern Sweden2018Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 59, nr 9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose : To describe clinical phenotype in patients of northern Sweden affected by recessive retinitis pigmentosa (ARRP) caused by mutations in Eyes Shut Homolog (Drosophila) (EYS) gene.

    Methods : Whole exome sequencing (WES) and multiple ligation dependent prode amplification (MLPA) were used for identification of EYS sequence variants in a cohort of ARRP patients (n=148) from northern Sweden. The patients with EYS mutations were ophthalmologically examined over time using visual acuity (ETDRS), visual fields, slit lamp and fundus examination and ocular coherence tomography (OCT). Dark adaptometry and full-field electroretionograms (ERG) was performed.

    Results : Phenotype characterization was done in 13 ARRP cases with EYS mutations representing five bi-allelic sequence variants, three of which were novel. Only one variant was detected in two cases. The phenotypic outcome was predominately presented as classical RP aggravating in young adulthood. However, among these patients we observed a variation of phenotypic expression with initial paracentral to central macular affection of the retina and areolar retinal degeneration with electrophysiological outcome of only slightly subnormal responses of both rods and cones in late adulthood (60 y/o), clinically defined as areolar atrophy.

    Conclusions : The EYS mutations account for 10% of ARRP in northern Sweden. The phenotype presents both typical classical RP and chorioretinal degenerative retinal disease, areolar dystrophy. This suggests that molecular genetic testing of the EYS is crucial when both RP and pattern macular diseases are clinically diagnosed.

  • 23.
    Byström, Berit
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Carracedo, Sergio
    Behndig, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Gullberg, Donald
    Pedrosa-Domellöf, Fatima
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Alpha11 integrin in the human cornea: importance in development and disease.2009Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 50, nr 11, s. 5044-5053Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To examine the distribution of the alpha11 integrin chain in the human cornea during fetal development and in normal and diseased adult human corneas.

    METHODS: Six fetal corneas, 10 to 20 weeks of gestation (wg), and 18 adult corneas including 3 normal, 7 with keratoconus, 5 with pseudophakic bullous keratopathy (PBK), 2 with Fuchs' corneal dystrophy, and 1 with a scar after deep lamellar keratoplasty (DLKP) were processed for immunohistochemistry with specific antibodies against the alpha11 integrin chain; collagen I, IV, and V; and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA). The cellular source of alpha11 integrin chain was further investigated in cell cultures.

    RESULTS: At 10 to 17 wg, the alpha11 integrin chain was predominantly present in the anterior corneal stroma. At 20 wg, in normal adult corneas and in Fuchs' dystrophy corneas there was weak staining in the stroma. The PBK corneas showed variable and weak staining, generally accentuated in the posterior stroma near Descemet's membrane. In contrast, the anterior portion of the stroma in the keratoconus corneas was strongly stained in an irregular streaky pattern. Human corneal fibroblasts/myofibroblasts produced alpha11 integrin chain in culture. Cultures treated with TGF-beta showed higher content of both alpha-SMA and the alpha11 integrin chain.

    CONCLUSIONS: The presence of the alpha11 integrin chain during early corneal development and the enhanced expression in scarred keratoconus corneas indicates that this integrin chain is likely to play an important role in collagen deposition during corneal development and in keratoconus with a scarring component and compromised basement membrane integrity.

  • 24.
    Byström, Berit
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Vicente, André
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Domellöf, Fatima Pedrosa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Notch1 Signaling Pathway in Aniridia- Related Keratopathy, Normal Fetal and Adult Human Corneas2018Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 59, nr 9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose : Notch1 is suggested to play an important role during tissue development and in differentiation of the corneal epithelial cells whereas its inhibitors Dlk1 and Numb keep these cells in an immature status. Our purpose was to evaluate the presence of these factors in aniridia-related keratopathy (ARK) and in normal fetal and adult human corneas.

    Methods : Two human fetal corneas, 10 and 20 weeks of gestation, two naïve corneal buttons from patients with advanced ARK, three corneal buttons from patients with ARK undergoing re-transplantation, as well as two adult healthy control corneas were processed for immunohistochemistry using antibodies against Notch1, Dlk1 and Numb.

    Results : Identical staining patterns were found for Notch1 in normal adult and fetal corneas, with staining around the basal epithelial cells and in a few streaks in the stroma. In ARK corneas, Notch1 was not detected in the pannus of the stroma. On the contrary, the pannus in ARK was labeled with antibodies against Dlk1. Dlk1 was also abundant in the epithelium and in the stroma of fetal corneas but was absent from the stroma of normal adult corneas. Numb was present in the adult normal corneas and in addition labeled the ARK and fetal corneas in a pattern resembling that of Dlk1.

    Conclusions : The lack of Notch1 together with abundant Dlk1 and Numb, suggest a disturbed balance between these important factors in ARK, likely to hamper differentiation of the progenitor cell population and to be important for the pathophysiology of ARK.

  • 25.
    Byström, Berit
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Virtanen, Ismo
    Rousselle, Patricia
    Gullberg, Donald
    Pedrosa-Domellöf, Fatima
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Distribution of laminins in the developing human eye2006Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 47, nr 3, s. 777-785Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To examine the distribution of laminin (Ln) chains in basement membranes (BMs) of the human cornea, lens, and retina in fetal development. METHODS: Ten fetal eyes (9-20 weeks of gestation [wg]) were serially sectioned and treated with specific antibodies against the Ln-alpha1, -alpha2, -alpha3, -alpha4, -alpha5, -beta1, -beta2, -beta3, and -gamma1 chains. RESULTS: The BM of the corneal epithelium was reactive for Ln-alpha3, -alpha5, -beta1, and beta3 chains through all ages, whereas the Ln-alpha1 chain was present at 9 to 12 wg and the Ln-alpha4 chain from 10 wg. The Descemet's membrane (DM) was labeled with the Ln-alpha1 and -alpha4 chains at 10 to 17 wg, the Ln-alpha5 chain from 10 wg, the Ln-beta1 chain at 11 to 17 wg, and the Ln-beta3 chain from 17 wg. The Ln-alpha1, alpha5, -beta1, and -beta2 chains were present in the lens capsule and the internal limiting membrane (ILM) through all ages. The Bruch's membrane (BrM) was immunoreactive for the Ln-alpha3, alpha4, -alpha5, -beta1, and -beta2 chains through all ages, whereas the Ln-alpha1 chain was absent from 20 wg onward. The Ln-alpha2 chain was not detected in the eye, but it was present in the extraocular muscles. CONCLUSIONS: BMs play an important role during morphogenesis, in that they influence cell proliferation, migration, and tissue differentiation. Lns are the major noncollagenous component of BMs. The presence of four different alpha chains, three beta chains, and one gamma chain of Ln in the eye reveals a high degree of complexity from the early stages of development and suggests an important role for the different Ln chains in human ocular differentiation.

  • 26.
    Carneiro de Freitas, Rui
    et al.
    Hospital de Braga, Portugal.
    Freitas, Cristina
    Hospital de Braga, Portugal.
    Leite, Ricardo
    Hospital de Braga, Portugal.
    Sousa, Keissy
    Hospital de Braga, Portugal.
    Mendes-Ferreira, José
    Hospital de Braga, Portugal.
    Soares, Andreia
    Hospital de Braga, Portugal.
    Rubin, Gary S.
    UCL-Institute of Ophthalmology, UK.
    Rocha-Sousa, Amandio A.
    University of Porto, Portugal.
    Santana, Rui
    Nova University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    University of Minho, Portugal.
    Prevalence of Visual Impairment in Portugal: study design and initial results2015Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 56, nr 7, artikkel-id 2119Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose 

    Information about the prevalence of visual impairment is fundamental to define policies that deal with vision loss. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of visual impairment (VI) in the population looking for eye care in public hospitals in Portugal.

    Methods 

    We designed an observation, cross-sectional prospective study (Prevalence and Costs of Visual Impairment in Portugal: PC-VIP study) to investigate the prevalence of VI in patients attending outpatient appointments in four public hospitals in Portugal. Hospital selected provide from general eye care (3-6 ophthalmologists) to high-specialized eye care (40+ ophthalmologists) that in total have between 120-140K hospital appointments per year. Files of patients are analysed weekly to detect patients with VI. Inclusion criteria were: visual acuity equal or worse than 0.5 (USA definition 20/40) in the better eye and/or a visual field of less than 20deg. Cases are selected by trained hospital staff and inserted in a database. Data collected included demographic information, acuity from both eyes, qualitative information about visual field (good, reduced, requires investigation), main diagnosis, secondary diagnosis and comorbidities. Diagnoses were classified according with ICD9.

    Results 

    We have now detected 2462 cases of VI that correspond to 4 to 33 weeks of data collection. The number of weeks is variable because collection did not start simultaneously in all sites. From the number of cases detected, 58% were female, 1.9% were under 20y, 8.2% were between 20y and 50y and 89.9% were ≥50y. The mean prevalence of visual impairment was 13.6% (SD=5.6) using the USA definition and it was 7.0%(SD=4.1) using the WHO definition (acuity equal or worse than 0.3 or ~20/63). With a methodology that controls for demographics the lowest and highest estimates were calculated. Considering the USA definition, the prevalence in the general population would be in the range 0.4 -0.4% (age<40y) and 0.8-2.4% (age>=40y). Considering WHO definition, it would be 0.2-0.5% (age<40y) and 0.4-1.0% (age>=40y).

    Conclusions 

    A hospital-based study can provide effective estimates of the prevalence of visual impairment in a population. Estimates for the country are in agreement with the expected results that can be deducted from neighbour countries and self-reported visual impairment in census 2001.

  • 27.
    Crafoord, Sven
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oftalmologi.
    Algvere, Peep
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oftalmologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Rekonstruktionscentrum, Ögonkliniken US/LiM.
    Seregard, S
    Orebro Med Ctr Hosp, Dept Ophthalmol, S-70185 Orebro, Sweden St Eriks Eye Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Ophthalmol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Dafgard-Kopp, E
    Orebro Med Ctr Hosp, Dept Ophthalmol, S-70185 Orebro, Sweden St Eriks Eye Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden Linkoping Univ, Dept Ophthalmol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Cellular migration into neural retina following implantation of melanin granules to the subretinal space.2000Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 41, nr 4, s. 4545B492-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 28. Di, Guohu
    et al.
    Qi, Xia
    Zhao, Xiaowen
    Zhang, Songmei
    Danielson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Zhou, Qingjun
    Corneal Epithelium-Derived Neurotrophic Factors Promote Nerve Regeneration2017Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 58, nr 11, s. 4695-4702Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE. To explore the neurotrophic factor expression in corneal epithelium and evaluate their effects on the trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurite outgrowth and corneal nerve regeneration in mice. METHODS. The expression of neurotrophic factors was compared among the intact, regenerating, and regenerated mouse corneal epithelium. Mouse primary TG neurons were treated with the conditioned medium of mouse corneal epithelial cells. Nerve growth factor (NGF) neutralizing antibody and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) neutralizing antibody were used to evaluate their roles in mouse corneal nerve regeneration and TG neurite outgrowth. The promoting effects of NGF and GDNF for the corneal nerve regeneration were further evaluated in the diabetic mice. RESULTS. The expression of NGF and GDNF showed significant up-regulation in regenerating corneal epithelium and return to the preinjury levels in the regenerated epithelium, which was consistent with the progress of corneal subbasal nerve regeneration. The conditioned medium of corneal epithelial cells promoted the TG neurite outgrowth with extended branching and elongation. Furthermore, the blockage of either NGF or GDNF significantly impaired the promotion of the neurite outgrowth by the conditioned medium or the corneal nerve regeneration in normal mice. Moreover, the expression of NGF and GDNF was attenuated in the diabetic regenerating corneal epithelium as compared to that in normal mice, while exogenous NGF or GDNF supplement promoted the corneal epithelial and nerve regeneration in diabetic mice. CONCLUSIONS. Corneal epithelium expresses multiple neurotrophic factors, among which NGF and GDNF may play an important role in the corneal nerve regeneration.

  • 29.
    Domellöf, Fatima Pedrosa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Parkkonen, Kimmo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Lindström, Mona
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Nord, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    von Hoffsten, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för molekylär medicin (UCMM).
    Li, Zhenlin
    Univ Paris 06, CNRS, INSERM, Inst Biol Paris Seine, Paris, France.
    Desmin in extraocular muscles2015Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 56, nr 7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 30.
    Domellöf, Fatima Pedrosa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Rodriguez Garcia, Maria Angels
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Vicente, André
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Sandgren Hochhard, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Sarcomere remodelling and gene expression profile changes following strabismus surgery2018Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 59, nr 9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose : To investigate the extent and time axis of sarcomere remodeling and of gene expression profile changes following resection surgery in an animal model of strabismus surgery.

    Methods : The right superior rectus (SR) of 16 adult New Zealand white rabbits was resected 4 mm and reattached to the sclera, with ethical permission and following the animal care directives. The superior rectus muscle of 4 rabbits was collected 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks after surgery. The SR of 4 control rabbits was also collected. The muscles were divided into two pieces longitudinally and one half was directly frozen for RNA extraction and the other half was stretched, fixed in 2% paraformaldehyde and frozen after sucrose cryoprotection. Serial longitudinal sections were processed for immunohistochemistry with antibodies against desmin. For each muscle section, the area comprising exclusively longitudinally sectioned myofibers was evaluated and the number of dividing sarcomeres present within that area was determined. RNA sequencing was performed with Illumina HiSeq 2500.

    Results : One week after surgery, the number of sarcomere divisions was 86.5/mm2 (range 30.9-152.7), after two weeks 72.0/ mm2 (42.5-95.9), after 4 weeks 95.7/ mm2 (37.4-161.3). After 6 weeks the number of sarcomere divisions (26.8/ mm2, 9.2-60.7) was similar to that of the control samples (26.0/ mm2, 6.0-66.9). RNA sequencing revealed up to 198 differentially expressed genes and further bioinformatics analysis is ongoing. Preliminary data indicate that the most significantly altered biological processes are those involved in extracellular matrix organization and inflammation, along with regulation of response and production of growth factors involved in muscle repair and regeneration.

    Conclusions : Signs of sarcomerogenesis were present during the first 4 weeks after resection of the superior rectus, suggesting that sarcomerogenesis plays a role in surgical failure due to recovery of muscle length. We suggest that medical approaches to limit this mechanism may be a desirable complementary therapy to strabismus surgery in the future.

  • 31.
    Eklund, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University Hospital, Department of Biomedical Engineering & Informatics.
    Hallberg, Per
    Umeå University Hospital, Department of Biomedical Engineering & Informatics.
    Lindén, Christina
    Umeå University, Center for Biomedical Engineering and Physics.
    Lindahl, Olof
    An applanation resonator sensor for measuring intraocular pressure using combined continuous force and area measurement2003Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 44, nr 7, s. 3017-24Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: For diagnostic purposes and for follow-up after treatment, it is important to have simple and reliable methods for measuring intraocular pressure (IOP). The purpose of this study was to develop a new applanation method for IOP measurement that uses combined continuous force and area measurement and to develop and evaluate an applanation resonator sensor (ARS) tonometer based on that method. METHODS: The tonometer was developed and evaluated in an in vitro porcine eye model, in which enucleated eyes were pressurized with a saline column. A model assuming that the applanation principle is valid over a certain interval of contact area was proposed. Continuous contact area was measured with a resonator sensor device, and contact force was measured with a force transducer, both mounted together in one probe. Reference IOP was measured in the vitreous chamber (IOP(VC)) with a standard fluid pressure transducer. RESULTS: An optimization algorithm determined the applanation interval that was optimal for calculating IOP(ARS). The corresponding time interval was 30 +/- 3 to 77 +/- 4 ms (mean +/- SD, n = 418) after initial contact. The proposed model showed a degree of explanation of R(2 [supi]) = 0.991 (n = 410, six eyes), corresponding to a correlation of r = 0.995 (n = 410) between IOP(ARS) and IOP(VC). The within-eyes precision (i.e., 95% confidence interval for the residuals between IOP(ARS) and IOP(VC)) was +/- 1.8 mm Hg (n = 410, six eyes). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the ARS method for measuring IOP was evaluated in an in vitro porcine eye model and showed high precision. The ARS method is, to the authors' knowledge, the first to combine simultaneous, continuous sampling of both parameters included in the applanation principle: force and area. Consequently, there is a potential for reducing errors in clinical IOP tonometry.

  • 32.
    Eklund, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap.
    Hallberg, Per
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Lindén, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Lindahl, Olof A.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    An applanation resonator sensor for measuring intraocular pressure using combined continuous force and area measurement2003Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 44, nr 7, s. 3017-3024Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 33.
    Fagerholm, Per
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oftalmologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Rekonstruktionscentrum, Ögonkliniken US/LiM.
    Gan, Lisha
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oftalmologi.
    Palmblad, J
    Expression of VEGF and its receptor VEGFR-2/flk-1 following rabbit corneal alkali burn in the presence and absence of granulocytes2002Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 43, s. 4210-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 34. Fast, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Holm, Linus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    McLoon, Linda K.
    Engel, Stephen
    Eye vergence is limited by adaptation2016Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 57, nr 12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose : What limits vergence abilities? Current models propose that vergence movements are controlled by a phasic component, which responds to image disparities, and a slower tonic component that adapts based on the output of the phasic component. Adaptation in the tonic component frees the phasic component to compensate for further image disparities. Limits of vergence should arise when the tonic component can no longer adapt, but this failure has yet to be observed empirically. We tested the hypothesis that vergence limits would arise when there was evidence of a weakening adaptation in the tonic component.

    Methods : We adapted the vergence system of 6 subjects using a Wheatstone stereoscope. Binocular eye position was collected with an Eyelink 1000 eyetracker. Subjects binocularly viewed a detailed image of a natural scene. The image was initially presented at zero disparity, and moved laterally in one eye at a rate of 0.5°/s to reach 4° of eccentricity, where it remained for 5 m. Then the image moved in blocks, where each block comprised 1° of movement followed by 5 m of viewing at the new eccentricity. Blocks repeated until subjects experienced diplopia for 75% of a block. The eyetracker was used to calculate the angle between the eyes optical axes, which we term divergence. Phoria was measured every 30 s by calculating divergence when the image in one eye was replaced with a gray field for 5 s. As a control, subjects also viewed the display with one image moving continuously without the 5 m adaptation periods.

    Results : Subjects were able to fuse the images until eye divergence reached 7.14°, on average. We used phoria to estimate adaptation in the tonic component, with larger phorias indicating less adaptation. Adaptation, as measured by phoria, decreased over successive blocks (linear trend, p < 0.01). In addition, subjects reached a significantly greater divergence with adaptation than in the control condition (5.17°, p = 0.02).

    Conclusions : Our results support the hypothesis that the amount of vergence normal viewers can produce is limited by adaptation in the tonic component. In earlier blocks, when the tonic component adapted more fully, subjects were able to fuse the images, but in later blocks adaptation of the tonic component lagged behind, and diplopia was experienced. Future work can explore how the tonic component could adapt further, allowing the eyes to experience vergence angles unreachable in normal experience.

  • 35.
    Frennesson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oftalmologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Rekonstruktionscentrum, Ögonkliniken US/LiM.
    Larsson, R
    Hultman, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Experimentell patologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Laboratoriemedicinskt centrum, Klinisk patologi och klinisk genetik.
    Nilsson, SG
    Drusen and choroidal neovascularization (CNV) in patients with dense deposit disease (membrano-proliferative glomerulonephritis type II). Favourable effect of photodynamic treatment (PDT)2003Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 44, s. 1774-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 36.
    Frennesson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oftalmologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Rekonstruktionscentrum, Ögonkliniken US/LiM.
    Nilsson, Sven Erik
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oftalmologi.
    Encouraging results with photodynamic treatment (PDT) in a clinical patient material of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other diagnoses: Leakage stopped with fewer treatments than in the Tap and Vip studies2002Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 43, s. 593-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 37.
    Frennesson, Christina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oftalmologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Rekonstruktionscentrum, Ögonkliniken US/LiM.
    Weingeist, D
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Ophthalmol, Linkoping, Sweden Univ Iowa, Ctr Macular Degenerat, Dept Ophthalmol & Visual Sci, Iowa City, IA USA.
    Nienhaus, H
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Ophthalmol, Linkoping, Sweden Univ Iowa, Ctr Macular Degenerat, Dept Ophthalmol & Visual Sci, Iowa City, IA USA.
    Mullins, RF
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Ophthalmol, Linkoping, Sweden Univ Iowa, Ctr Macular Degenerat, Dept Ophthalmol & Visual Sci, Iowa City, IA USA.
    Hageman, GS
    Linkoping Univ, Dept Ophthalmol, Linkoping, Sweden Univ Iowa, Ctr Macular Degenerat, Dept Ophthalmol & Visual Sci, Iowa City, IA USA.
    Vitronectin distribution in the choroidal stroma and Bruch's membrane as related to age and age-related macular degeneration.2000Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 41, nr 4, s. 120B120-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 38.
    Gan, Lisha
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oftalmologi.
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oftalmologi. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Rekonstruktionscentrum, Ögonkliniken US/LiM.
    Blalock, TD
    Schultz, GS
    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in the alkali wounded corneas2002Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 43, s. 4207-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 39.
    Gan, Lisha
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oftalmologi.
    Hakim, M
    Mintsioulis, G
    Griffith, M
    Human corneal cellular response to the synthetic stromal matrix replacements2003Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 44, s. 4693-Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 40.
    Germundsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oftalmiatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Ögonkliniken US/LiM.
    Koulikovska, Marina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oftalmiatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Ögonkliniken US/LiM.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oftalmiatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Ögonkliniken US/LiM.
    An Accurate Method to Determine Bowmans Layer Thickness In Vivo in the Human Cornea2012Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 53, nr 4, s. 2354-2359Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE. To determine an accurate value for Bowmans layer (BL) thickness in vivo in humans. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMETHODS. Seventeen corneal transplant patients were examined preoperatively by laser-scanning in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM), and corneal buttons were removed post-operatively and sectioned for light microscopy (LM). Nine corneas with uniformly thick BL by LM were used for thickness measurement. In the uniformly thick samples, probable overestimation of BL thickness in vivo by a first in vivo method (Method 1) led to the development of a revised in vivo method (Method 2). Method 2 was used to measure BL thickness in 20 healthy volunteers. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanRESULTS. In nine patients, mean BL thickness prior to transplantation was 13.7 +/- 1.6 mu m by IVCM (Method 1) while BL thickness of the removed corneal button was 9.7 +/- 1.7 mu m by LM (P andlt; 0.001). The correlation of BL thickness between IVCM (Method 1) and LM was poor (P = 0.226). In 20 right eyes of 20 normal corneas, both in vivo methods were used to determine BL thickness. Mean BL thickness by Method 1 was 13.2 +/- 1.6 mu m and by Method 2 was 9.1 +/- 1.4 mu m (P andlt; 0.001). BL thickness measurements by both in vivo methods were highly correlated (P andlt; 0.001). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanCONCLUSION. BL thickness by a revised in vivo method was close to LM values in this study and to values reported in fixed tissue in other studies. The authors believe this revised method provides the most accurate estimates of BL thickness in vivo to date.

  • 41.
    Germundsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Karanis, Georgios
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Ögonkliniken US/LiM.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Ögonkliniken US/LiM.
    Age-Related Thinning of Bowman's Layer in the Human Cornea In Vivo2013Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 54, nr 9, s. 6143-6149Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. To determine the thickness of Bowman's layer (BL) in vivo in a healthy population and to determine its variation with age.

    Methods. Eighty-two subjects aged 15 to 88 years with clear, healthy corneas were examined bilaterally with laser scanning in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Bowman's layer thickness was determined from IVCM images of anterior and posterior BL boundaries. For a given eye, BL thickness was averaged across four central locations by two independent observers. In addition, central corneal thickness was measured by time-domain optical coherence tomography.

    Results. A significant negative correlation of BL thickness with age was found in right eyes (Pearson r = −0.579, P < 0.0001) and in left eyes (r = −0.558, P < 0.0001). Linear regression analysis yielded a decline in BL thickness of 0.06 μm per year. In 41 older subjects (mean age, 64.4 years), BL thickness was significantly thinner (mean ± SD, 8.6 ± 1.7 μm in right eyes) than that in 41 younger subjects (mean age, 31.6 years) (mean ± SD, 10.7 ± 1.6 μm in right eyes) (P < 0.001). No correlation of corneal thickness with age or of BL thickness with corneal thickness was observed. Strong intereye correlations in BL thickness (r = 0.771, P < 0.0001) and corneal thickness (r = 0.969, P < 0.001) were found.

    Conclusions. Bowman's layer thins with age in the normal cornea, losing one-third of its thickness between the ages of 20 and 80 years. In vivo measurement of BL thickness by IVCM could aid in clinical assessment and planned treatments of the anterior cornea.

  • 42.
    Germundsson, Johan
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Ögonkliniken US/LiM.
    Pathologically reduced subbasal nerve density in epithelial basement membrane dystrophy is unaltered by phototherapeutic keratectomy treatment2014Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 55, nr 3, s. 1835-1841Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of phototherapeutic keratectomy (PTK) treatment on corneal epithelial wing cell and corneal subbasal nerve density in epithelial basement membrane dystrophy (EBMD).

    METHODS: A total of 39 patients with EBMD who underwent PTK treatment, 40 healthy volunteers, and 24 untreated eyes with EBMD were examined with laser-scanning in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Corneal subbasal nerves and epithelial wing cells were manually quantified from IVCM images by two observers, while epithelial wing cells were additionally quantified by a fully automated method.

    RESULTS: Subbasal nerve density was significantly reduced in untreated (10,164 ± 4139 μm/mm(2); n = 24) and PTK-treated (10,624 ± 4479 μm/mm(2); n = 39) EBMD eyes, relative to healthy controls (18,241 ± 4479 μm/mm(2); n = 40) (P < 0.001). Subbasal nerve density in PTK-treated and untreated eyes did not differ (P > 0.05). Epithelial wing cell density did not differ between PTK-treated and untreated EBMD eyes, by either manual or automated analysis; however, epithelial wing cell density in PTK-treated EBMD corneas was significantly reduced (P = 0.008) relative to healthy corneas, by automated cell counting.

    CONCLUSIONS: Subbasal nerve density in EBMD is reduced by 45% and recovers only to the reduced level in the long term after PTK treatment, whereas epithelial wing cell density in EBMD is not affected by PTK in the long term. Fully automated cell analysis from IVCM images could provide an objective, standardized means to quantify and compare corneal cell densities in future studies.

  • 43.
    Gierow, Peter
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för medicin och optometri (MEO).
    Kacz, Lucyna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för medicin och optometri (MEO).
    Effect of Age and Gender on Dry Eye according to Tests and Symptoms2018Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 59, nr 9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 44.
    Gierow, Peter
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för medicin och optometri (MEO).
    Larsson, Nathalie
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för medicin och optometri (MEO).
    Boström, Johanna
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för medicin och optometri (MEO).
    Comparison oF Different Tests for Evaluation of the Meibomian Glands2015Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 56, nr 7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 45.
    Golovleva, Irina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Frida
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap.
    Burstedt, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Heterogeneity and complexity of EYS mutations in autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa in northern Sweden2016Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 57, nr 12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 46.
    Granstam, Elisabet
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås. Vastmanland Cty Hosp Vasteras, Ophthalmol, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Sjovall, Kersti
    Vastmanland Cty Hosp Vasteras, Ophthalmol, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Paul, Anna
    Vastmanland Cty Hosp Vasteras, Ophthalmol, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Eriksson, Laila
    Vastmanland Cty Hosp Vasteras, Ophthalmol, Vasteras, Sweden..
    Change of treatment strategy for wet AMD from PRN to Treat-and-Extend: 6 months experience from a Swedish county hospital2015Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 56, nr 7, artikkel-id 5366Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 47.
    Granstam, Elisabet
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås. Västmanland City Hospital, Västeras.
    Sjovall, Kersti
    Västmanland City Hospital, Västeras.
    Paul, Anna
    Västmanland City Hospital, Västeras.
    Moren, Asa
    Västmanland City Hospital, Västeras.
    Anti VEGF-treatment for wet-AMD According to a Treat-and-Extend Protocol at a Swedish County Hospital: clinical outcomes at 12 Months2016Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 57, nr 12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 48.
    Haargaard, Birgitte
    et al.
    Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Denmark & Department of Ophthalmology, Glostrup University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Andersen, Elisabeth W
    Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Denmark.
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Denmark.
    Poulsen, Gry
    Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Denmark.
    Wohlfahrt, Jan
    Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Denmark.
    la Cour, Morten
    Department of Ophthalmology, Glostrup University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Melbye, Mads
    Department of Epidemiology Research, Statens Serum Institut, Denmark.
    Risk of retinal detachment after pediatric cataract surgery2014Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 55, nr 5, s. 2947-2951Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To determine the long-term risk of retinal detachment following pediatric cataract surgery and to identify risk factors for retinal detachment.

    METHODS: We included all children (aged 0 to 17 years) who during the time period of 1977 to 2005 underwent pediatric cataract surgery in Denmark, excluding cataract cases caused by trauma, or acquired systemic or acquired ocular pathology, and cases with ocular anomalies associated with the development of retinal detachment. Cases of cataract were ascertained from the mandatory Danish National Patient Register, and information on retinal detachment was based on medical chart review.

    RESULTS: Among 1043 eyes of 656 children undergoing surgery for pediatric cataract, 25 eyes (23 children) developed retinal detachment at a median time of 9.1 years after surgery. The overall 20-year risk of retinal detachment was 7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3%-11%) among cataract patients. In otherwise normal children having isolated cataract, the risk was 3% (95% CI: 0%-7%). A significantly higher risk of developing retinal detachment was found in children with mental retardation (23% [95% CI: 9%-35%]) or in cataract cases with other ocular or systemic anomalies (16% [95% CI: 6%-24%]).

    CONCLUSIONS: The estimated overall risk of retinal detachment 20 years after pediatric cataract surgery was 7%, but only 3% for isolated cataract. Particularly high risks of retinal detachment after cataract surgery were associated with mental retardation and having other ocular or systemic diseases.

  • 49.
    Hackett, Joanne M.
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oftalmiatrik.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oftalmiatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Rekonstruktionscentrum, Ögonkliniken US/LiM.
    Merrett, Kimberley
    University of Ottawa Eye Institute.
    Edelhauser, Henry
    Emory University School of Medicine.
    Sun, Yifei
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Gan, Lisha
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oftalmiatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Griffith, May
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oftalmiatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Fagerholm, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oftalmiatrik. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Rekonstruktionscentrum, Ögonkliniken US/LiM.
    Biosynthetic corneal implants for replacement of pathologic corneal tissue: performance in a controlled rabbit alkali burn model2011Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 52, nr 2, s. 651-657Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of structurally reinforced, stabilized recombinant human collagen-phosphorylcholine (RHCIII-MPC) hydrogels as corneal substitutes in a rabbit model of severe corneal damage.

    Methods: One eye each of 12 rabbits received a deep corneal alkali wound. Four corneas were implanted with RHCIII-MPC hydrogels. The other eight control corneas were implanted with either allografts or a simple crosslinked RHCIII hydrogel. In all cases, 6.25 mm diameter, 350 µm thick buttons were implanted by anterior lamellar keratoplasty to replace damaged corneal tissue. Implants were followed for nine months by clinical examination and in vivo confocal microscopy, after which implanted corneas were removed and processed for histopathological and ultrastructural examination.

    Results: Alkali exposure induced extensive central corneal scarring, ocular surface irregularity, and neovascularization in one case. All implants showed complete epithelial coverage by four weeks post-operative, but with accompanying suture-induced vascularization in 6/12 cases. A stable, stratified epithelium with hemidesmosomal adhesion complexes regenerated over all implants, and subbasal nerve regeneration was observed in allograft and RHCIII-MPC implants. Initially acellular biosynthetic implants were populated with host-derived keratocytes as stromal haze subsided and stromal collagen was remodeled. Notably, RHCIII-MPC implants exhibited resistance to vascular ingrowth while supporting endogenous cell and nerve repopulation.

    Conclusion: Biosynthetic implants based on RHC promoted cell and nerve repopulation in alkali burned rabbit eyes. In RHCIII-MPC implants, evidence of an enhanced resistance to neovascularization was additionally noted.

  • 50.
    Harandi, Vahid M
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Gaied, Aida RN
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Brännström, Thomas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Pedrosa-Domellöf, Fatima
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    Liu, Jing-Xia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Unchanged neurotrophic factors and their receptors correlate with sparing in extraocular muscles in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis2016Inngår i: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 57, nr 15, s. 6831-6842Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) on the extraocular muscles (EOMs) by examining the distribution of neurotrophic factors (NTFs) and their receptors in EOMs and limb muscles from ALS transgenic mice.

    Methods: Muscle samples collected from transgenic mice overexpressing human superoxide dismutase type 1 mutations (SOD1G93A, the most widely used mouse model of ALS) at 50 and 150 days as well as age-matched controls were analyzed with immunohistochemistry using antibodies against brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and the neurotrophin receptors p75NTR, tyrosine kinase (Trk) receptor TrkB and TrkC, and GDNF family receptor alpha-1 (GFRα-1).

    Results: There was an intrinsic difference in NTF expression between EOMs and limb muscles in control mice: EOMs presented significantly lower number of neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) labeled for BDNF and NT-4 at 50 days, and for BDNF and GDNF at 150 days, compared with the control limb muscles of corresponding age. In ALS transgenic mice at 150 days, NTF expression in limb muscles was significantly changed but not in EOMs: the limb muscles presented a significant decline in the number of NMJs labeled for BDNF, NT-4, GDNF, p75NTR, TrkB, and TrkC, which was not observed in EOMs.

    Conclusions: The significant differences in expression of NTFs on NMJs between EOMs and limb muscles in both control and ALS transgenic mice suggest that NTF may be involved in the pathogenesis of ALS and the resistance of EOMs to the disease.

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