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  • 1. Andrade, Pedro Amarante
    et al.
    Wistbacka, Greta
    Larsson, Hans
    Sodersten, Maria
    Hammarberg, Britta
    Simberg, Susanna
    Svec, Jan G.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Naturvetenskap och biomedicin. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    The Flow and Pressure Relationships in Different Tubes Commonly Used for Semi-occluded Vocal Tract Exercises2016Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 36-41Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This experimental study investigated the back pressure (Pback) versus flow (U) relationship for 10 different tubes commonly used for semi-occluded vocal tract exercises, that is, eight straws of different lengths and diameters, a resonance tube, and a silicone tube similar to a Lax Vox tube. All tubes were assessed with the free end in air. The resonance tube and silicone tube were further assessed with the free end under water at the depths from 1 to 7 cm in steps of 1 cm. The results showed that relative changes in the diameter of straws affect Pback considerably more compared with the same amount of relative change in length. Additionally, once tubes are submerged into water, Pback needs to overcome the pressure generated by the water depth before flow can start. Under this condition, only a small increase in Pback was observed as the flow was increased. Therefore, the wider tubes submerged into water produced an almost constant Pback determined by the water depth, whereas the thinner straws in air produced relatively large changes to Pback as flow was changed. These differences may be taken advantage of when customizing exercises for different users and diagnoses and optimizing the therapy outcome.

  • 2. Baptista La, Filipa Martins
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Musikakustik.
    Pregnancy and the Singing Voice: Reports From a Case Study2012Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 431-439Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. Significant changes in body tissues occur during pregnancy; however, literature concerning the effects of pregnancy on the voice is sparse, especially concerning the professional classically trained voice. Hypotheses. Hormonal variations and associated bodily changes during pregnancy affect phonatory conditions, such as vocal fold motility and glottal adduction. Design. Longitudinal case study with a semiprofessional classically trained singer. Methods. Audio, electrolaryngograph, oral pressure, and air flow signals were recorded once a week during the last 12 weeks of pregnancy, 48 hours after birth and during the following consecutive 11 weeks. Vocal tasks included diminuendo sequences of the syllable /pae/sung at various pitches, and performing a Lied. Phonation threshold pressures (PTPs) and collision threshold pressures (CTPs), normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ), alpha ratio, and the dominance of the voice source fundamental were determined. Concentrations of sex female steroid hormones were measured on three occasions. A listening test of timbral brightness and vocal fatigue was carried out. Results. Results demonstrated significantly elevated concentrations of estrogen and progesterone during pregnancy, which were considerably reduced after birth. During pregnancy, CTPs and PTPs were high; and NAQ, alpha ratio, and dominance of the voice source fundamental suggested elevated glottal adduction. In addition, a perceptible decrease of vocal brightness was noted. Conclusions. The elevated CTPs and PTPs during pregnancy suggest reduced vocal fold motility and increased glottal adduction. These changes are compatible with expected effects of elevated concentrations of estrogen and progesterone on tissue viscosity and water retention.

  • 3. Birch, Peer
    et al.
    Gümoes, Bodil
    Stavad, Hanne
    Prytz, Svend
    Björkner, Eva
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Sundberg, Johan
    Velum Behavior in Professional Classic Operatic Singing2002Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 16, s. 61-71Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4.
    Björklund, Staffan
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Logopedi.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Sch Comp Sci & Commun, Dept Speech Mus Hearing, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Coll Mus Educ, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Relationship Between Subglottal Pressure and Sound Pressure Level in Untrained Voices2016Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 15-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. Subglottal pressure (P-s) is strongly correlated with sound pressure level (SPL) and is easy to measure by means of commonly available equipment. The SPL/Ps ratio is strongly dependent on the efficiency of the phonatory apparatus and should be of great relevance to clinical practice. However, published normative data are still missing. Method. The subjects produced sequences of the syllable [pae], and P-s was measured as the oral pressure during the [p] occlusion. The P-s to SPL relationship was determined at four pitches produced by 16 female and 15 male healthy voices and analyzed by means of regression analysis. Average correlation between P-s and SPL, average SPL produced with a P-s of 10 cm H2O, and average SPL increase produced by a doubling of P-s were calculated for the female and for the male subjects. The significance of sex and pitch conditions was analyzed by means of analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results. Pitch was found to be an insignificant condition. The average correlation between P-s and SPL was 0.83 and did not differ significantly between the female and male subjects. In female and male subjects, P-s = 10 cm H2O produced 78.1 dB and 80.0 dB SPL at 0.3 m, and a doubling of P-s generated 11.1 dB and 9.3 dB increase of SPL. Both these gender differences were statistically significant. Conclusions. The relationship between P-s and SPL can be reliably established from series of repetitions of the syllable [pae] produced with a continuously changing degree of vocal loudness. Male subjects produce slightly higher SPL for a given pressure than female subjects but gain less for a doubling of P-s. As these relationships appear to be affected by phonation type, it seems possible that in the future, the method can be used for documenting degree of phonatory hypofunction and hyperfunction.

  • 5. Björklund, Staffan
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH. University College of Music Education, Sweden.
    Relationship Between Subglottal Pressure and Sound Pressure Level in Untrained Voices2016Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 30, nr 1, s. 15-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Subglottal pressure (Ps) is strongly correlated with sound pressure level (SPL) and is easy to measure by means of commonly available equipment. The SPL/Ps ratio is strongly dependent on the efficiency of the phonatory apparatus and should be of great relevance to clinical practice. However, published normative data are still missing. Method The subjects produced sequences of the syllable [pæ], and Ps was measured as the oral pressure during the [p] occlusion. The Ps to SPL relationship was determined at four pitches produced by 16 female and 15 male healthy voices and analyzed by means of regression analysis. Average correlation between Ps and SPL, average SPL produced with a Ps of 10 cm H2O, and average SPL increase produced by a doubling of Ps were calculated for the female and for the male subjects. The significance of sex and pitch conditions was analyzed by means of analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results Pitch was found to be an insignificant condition. The average correlation between Ps and SPL was 0.83 and did not differ significantly between the female and male subjects. In female and male subjects, Ps = 10 cm H2O produced 78.1 dB and 80.0 dB SPL at 0.3 m, and a doubling of Ps generated 11.1 dB and 9.3 dB increase of SPL. Both these gender differences were statistically significant. Conclusions The relationship between Ps and SPL can be reliably established from series of repetitions of the syllable [pæ] produced with a continuously changing degree of vocal loudness. Male subjects produce slightly higher SPL for a given pressure than female subjects but gain less for a doubling of Ps. As these relationships appear to be affected by phonation type, it seems possible that in the future, the method can be used for documenting degree of phonatory hypofunction and hyperfunction.

  • 6.
    Björkner, Eva
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Musical theater and opera singing - Why so different?: A study of subglottal pressure, voice source, and formant frequency characteristics2008Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 22, nr 5, s. 533-540Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The considerable voice timbre differences between musical theater (MT) and western operatic singers are analyzed with respect to voice source and formant frequencies in five representatives of each singer group. Audio, subglottal pressure (P(sub)), and electroglottograph (EGG) signals were recorded while the subjects sang a sequence of [pae:] syllables starting at maximal vocal loudness and then gradually decreasing vocal loudness. The task was performed at each of two fundamental frequencies (F(0)), approximately one octave apart. Ten equally spaced P(sub) values were then selected for each F(0). The subsequent vowels were analyzed in terms of flow glottograms derived by inverse filtering the audio signal, which also yielded formant frequency data. Period time (T(0)), peak-to-peak pulse amplitude (U(p-t-p)), and maximum flow declination rate (MFDR) were measured from the flow glottograms while closed quotient Q(closed) (T(cl)/T(0)) was determined in combination with the differentiated EGG signal. Also the relationship between the first and the second harmonic in the spectrum (H(1)-H(2)), the amplitude quotient (AQ), that is, the ratio between U(p-t-p) and MFDR, and normalized AQ, that is, AQ normalized with respect to period time was calculated as well as the sound pressure level. The results showed that both the MT and the opera singers varied their P(sub) systematically, approximately doubling P(sub) for a doubling of F(0). For a given value of P(sub), the MT singers produced higher values of MFDR, U(p-t-p), and Q(closed), and lower values of H(1)-H(2), indicating a weaker fundamental. Further, the MT singers showed higher formant frequencies and did not show the opera singers' characteristic clustering of F(3), F(4), and F(5).

  • 7.
    Björkner, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Cleveland, T
    Stone, E
    Voice source differences between registers in female musical theater singers2006Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 20, nr 2, s. 187-197Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Musical theater singing typically requires women to use two vocal registers. Our investigation considered voice source and subglottal pressure P-s characteristics of the speech pressure signal recorded for a sequence of /pae/ syllables sung at constant pitch and decreasing vocal loudness in each register by seven female musical theater singers. Ten equally spaced P-s values were selected, and the relationships between P-s and several parameters were examined; closed-quotient (Q(closed)), peak-to-peak pulse amplitude (Up-t-p), amplitude of the negative peak of the differentiated flow glottogram. ie, the maximum flow declination rate (MFDR), and the normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ) [Up-t-p/(TO*MFDR)], where TO is the fundamental period. P, was typically slightly higher in chest than in head register. As P, influences the measured glottogram parameters, these were also compared at an approximately identical P-s of 11 cm H2O. Results showed that for typical tokens, MFDR and Q(closed) were significantly greater, whereas Up-t-p and therefore NAQ were significantly lower in chest than in head.

  • 8.
    Björkner, Eva
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Sundberg, Johan
    Cleveland, Tom
    Stone, Ed
    Voice Source Differences between Registers in Female Musical Theatre Singers2006Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 20, s. 187-197Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 9. Borch, D. Zangger
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Some Phonatory and Resonatory Characteristics of the Rock, Pop, Soul, and Swedish Dance Band Styles of Singing2011Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 25, nr 5, s. 532-537Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation aims at describing voice function of four nonclassical styles of singing, Rock, Pop, Soul, and Swedish Dance Band. A male singer, professionally experienced in performing in these genres, sang representative tunes, both with their original lyrics and on the syllable /pae/. In addition, he sang tones in a triad pattern ranging from the pitch Bb2 to the pitch C4 on the syllable /pae/in pressed and neutral phonation. An expert panel was successful in classifying the samples, thus suggesting that the samples were representative of the various styles. Subglottal pressure was estimated from oral pressure during the occlusion for the consonant [p]. Flow glottograms were obtained from inverse filtering. The four lowest formant frequencies differed between the styles. The mean of the subglottal pressure and the mean of the normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ), that is, the ratio between the flow pulse amplitude and the product of period and maximum flow declination rate, were plotted against the mean of fundamental frequency. In these graphs, Rock and Swedish Dance Band assumed opposite extreme positions with respect to subglottal pressure and mean phonation frequency, whereas the mean NAQ values differed less between the styles.

  • 10.
    Borch, Daniel Zangger
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för konst, kommunikation och lärande, Musik och dans.
    Sundberg, Johan
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Some phonatory and resonatory characteristics of the rock, pop, soul, and Swedish dance band styles of singing2011Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 25, nr 5, s. 532-537Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation aims at describing voice function of four nonclassical styles of singing, Rock, Pop, Soul, and Swedish Dance Band. A male singer, professionally experienced in performing in these genres, sang representative tunes, both with their original lyrics and on the syllable /pae/. In addition, he sang tones in a triad pattern ranging from the pitch Bb2 to the pitch C4 on the syllable /pae/ in pressed and neutral phonation. An expert panel was successful in classifying the samples, thus suggesting that the samples were representative of the various styles. Subglottal pressure was estimated from oral pressure during the occlusion for the consonant [p]. Flow glottograms were obtained from inverse filtering. The four lowest formant frequencies differed between the styles. The mean of the subglottal pressure and the mean of the normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ), that is, the ratio between the flow pulse amplitude and the product of period and maximum flow declination rate, were plotted against the mean of fundamental frequency. In these graphs, Rock and Swedish Dance Band assumed opposite extreme positions with respect to subglottal pressure and mean phonation frequency, whereas the mean NAQ values differed less between the styles.

  • 11. Dong, Li
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Kong, Jiangping
    Loudness and Pitch of Kunqu Opera2014Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 28, nr 1, s. 14-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Equivalent sound level (Leq), sound pressure level (SPL), and fundamental frequency (F-0) are analyzed in each of five Kunqu Opera roles, Young girl and Young woman, Young man, Old man, and Colorful face. Their pitch ranges are similar to those of some western opera singers (alto, alto, tenor, baritone, and baritone, respectively). Differences among tasks, conditions (stage speech, singing, and reading lyrics), singers, and roles are examined. For all singers, Leq of stage speech and singing were considerably higher than that of conversational speech. Interrole differences of Leq among tasks and singers were larger than the intrarole differences. For most roles, time domain variation of SPL differed between roles both in singing and stage speech. In singing, as compared with stage speech, SPL distribution was more concentrated and variation of SPL with time was smaller. With regard to gender and age, male roles had higher mean Leq and lower average F-0, MF0, as compared with female roles. Female singers showed a wider F-0 distribution for singing than for stage speech, whereas the opposite was true for male singers. The Leq of stage speech was higher than in singing for young personages. Younger female personages showed higher Leq, whereas older male personages had higher Leq. The roles performed with higher Leq tended to be sung at a lower MF0.

  • 12.
    Dueppen, Abigail J.
    et al.
    Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA.
    Bellon-Harn, Monica L.
    Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA.
    Radhakrishnan, Nandhakumar
    Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA.
    Manchaiah, Vinaya
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Lamar Univ, TX 77710 USA; Audiol India, India.
    Quality and Readability of English-Language Internet Information for Voice Disorders2019Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 33, nr 3, s. 290-296Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the readability and quality of English-language Internet information related to vocal hygiene, vocal health, and prevention of voice disorders. This study extends recent work because it evaluates readability, content quality, and website origin across broader search criteria than previous studies evaluating online voice material. Method. Eighty-five websites were aggregated using five different country-specific search engines. Websites were then analyzed using quality and readability assessments. The entire web page was evaluated; however, no information or links beyond the first page was reviewed. Statistical calculations were employed to examine website ratings, differences between website origin and quality and readability scores, and correlations between readability instruments. Result. Websites exhibited acceptable quality as measured by the DISCERN. However, only one website obtained the Health On the Net certification. Significant differences in quality were found among website origin, with government websites receiving higher quality ratings. Approximate educational levels required to comprehend information on the websites ranged from 8 to 9 years of education. Significant differences were found between website origin and readability measures with higher levels of education required to understand information on websites of nonprofit organizations. Conclusion. Current vocal hygiene, vocal health, and prevention of voice disorders websites were found to exhibit acceptable levels of quality and readability. However, highly rated Internet information related to voice care should be made more accessible to voice clients through Health On the Net certification.

  • 13. Echternach, Matthias
    et al.
    Dippold, Sebastian
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Musikakustik.
    Arndt, Susan
    Zander, Mark F.
    Richter, Bernhard
    High-Speed Imaging and Electroglottography Measurements of the Open Quotient in Untrained Male Voices' Register Transitions2010Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 24, nr 6, s. 644-650Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Vocal fold oscillation patterns in vocal register transitions are still unclarified. The vocal fold oscillations and the open quotient were analyzed with high-speed digital imaging (HSDI) and electroglottography (EGG) in 18 male untrained subjects singing a glissando from modal to the falsetto register. Results reveal that the open quotient changed with register in both HSDI. and EGG. The in-class correlations for different HSDI and EGG determinations of the open quotient were high. However, we found only weak interclass correlations between both methods. In ID subjects, irregularities of vocal fold vibration occurred during the register transition. Our results confirm previous observations that falsetto register is associated with a higher open quotient compared with modal register. These data suggest furthermore that irregularities typically observed in audio and electroglottographic signals during register transitions are caused by irregularities in vocal fold vibration.

  • 14. Echternach, Matthias
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Arndt, Susan
    Markl, Michael
    Schumacher, Martin
    Richter, Bernhard
    Vocal Tract in Female Registers: A Dynamic Real-Time MRI Study2010Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 24, nr 2, s. 133-139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The area of vocal registers is still unclarified. In a previous investigation, dynamic real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is able to produce up to 10 frames per second, was successfully applied for examinations of vocal tract modifications in register transitions in male singers. In the present study, the same MRI technique was used to study vocal tract shapes during four professional young sopranos' lower and upper register transitions. The subjects were asked to sing a scale on the vowel /a/ across their transitions. The transitions were acoustically identified by four raters. In neither of these transitions, clear vocal tract changes could be ascertained. However, substantial changes, that is, widening of the lips, opening of the jaw, elevation of the tongue dorsum, and continuous widening of the pharynx, were observed when the singers reached fundamental frequencies that were close to the frequency of the first formant of the vowel sung. These findings suggest that in these subjects register transition was not primarily the result of modifications of the vocal tract.

  • 15. Echternach, Matthias
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Zander, Mark F.
    Richter, Bernhard
    Perturbation Measurements in Untrained Male Voices' Transitions From Modal to Falsetto Register2011Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 25, nr 6, s. 663-669Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. Voice periodicity during transitions from modal to falsetto register still remains an unclarified question. Method. We examined the acoustic and electroglottographic signals of 20 healthy untrained male voices' transitions from modal to falsetto register on the vowels /a, e, i, o, u, and ae/. Results. In addition to discontinuities in fundamental frequency (F0), an independent increase of jitter, relative average perturbation, and shimmer was observed during and apparently caused by the register transition. In falsetto, the jitter was higher than in the modal register. The contact quotient derived from the electroglottographic signal tended to be lower for higher than for lower F0. Conclusion. Register transitions are associated with increase of perturbation.

  • 16.
    Enflo, Laura
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Royal Inst Technol KTH, Dept Speech Mus & Hearing, Stockholm, Sweden; Boston Univ, Dept Speech Language & Hearing Sci, Boston, MA 02215 USA.
    Herbst, Christian T.
    Dept. of Cognitive Biology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; Palacky Univ Olomouc, Fac Sci, Dept Biophys, Voice Res Lab, Olomouc, Czech Republic.
    Sundberg, Johan
    Dept. of Speech, Music and Hearing, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Karolinska Inst, Dept CLINTEC, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Comparing vocal fold contact criteria derived from audio and electroglottographic signals2016Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 381-388Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Collision threshold pressure (CTP), i.e., the lowest subglottal pressure producing vocal fold contact during phonation, is a parameter likely to reflect relevant vocal fold properties. The amplitude of an electroglottographic (EGG) signal or the amplitude of its first derivative (dEGG) has been used as the criterion of such contact. Manual measurement of CTP is time-consuming, making the development of a simpler, alternative method desirable. In this investigation we compare CTP values automatically derived from the dEGG signal to values measured manually, and to values derived from a set of alternative parameters, some obtained from audio and some from EGG signals. One of the parameters was the novel EGG wavegram, which visualizes sequences of EGG or dEGG cycles, normalized with respect to period and amplitude. Raters with and without previous acquaintance with EGG analysis marked the disappearance of vocal fold contact in dEGG and in wavegram displays of /pa:/-sequences produced with continuously decreasing vocal loudness by seven singer subjects. Vocal fold contact was equally accurately identified in displays of dEGG amplitude as of wavegram. Automatically derived CTP values showed high correlation with those measured manually, and with those derived from the ratings of the visual displays. Seven other parameters were tested as criteria of such contact. Mainly due to noise in the EGG signal, most of them yielded CTP values differing considerably from those derived from the manual and the automatic methods, while the EGG spectrum slope showed a high correlation. The possibility of measuring CTP automatically seems promising for future investigations.

  • 17.
    Enflo, Laura
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Musikakustik. Linköping Univ, Sweden.
    Herbst, C.T.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Musikakustik.
    McAllister, A.
    Comparing Vocal Fold Contact Criteria Derived From Audio and Electroglottographic Signals2016Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 381-388Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. Collision threshold pressure (CTP), that is, the lowest subglottal pressure facilitating vocal fold contact during phonation, is likely to reflect relevant vocal fold properties. The amplitude of an electroglottographic (EGG) signal or the amplitude of its first derivative (dEGG) has been used as criterion of such contact. Manual measurement of CTP is time consuming, making the development of a simpler, alternative method desirable. Method. In this investigation, we compare CTP values measured manually to values automatically derived from dEGG and to values derived from a set of alternative parameters, some obtained from audio and some from EGG signals. One of the parameters was the novel EGG wavegram, which visualizes sequences of EGG or dEGG cycles, normalized with respect to period and amplitude. Raters with and without previous acquaintance with EGG analysis marked the disappearance of vocal fold contact in dEGG and in wavegram displays of /pa:/-=sequences produced with continuously decreasing vocal loudness by seven singer subjects. Results. Vocal fold contact was mostly identified accurately in displays of both dEGG amplitude and wavegram. Automatically derived CTP values showed high correlation with those measured manually and with those derived from the ratings of the visual displays. Seven other parameters were tested as criteria of such contact. Mainly, because of noise in the EGG signal, most of them yielded CTP values differing considerably from those derived from the manual and the automatic methods, although the EGG spectrum slope showed a high correlation. Conclusion. The possibility of measuring CTP automatically seems promising for future investigations.

  • 18.
    Enflo, Laura
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Sundberg, Johan
    Department of Speech, Music and Hearing, KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Öron- näsa- och halskliniken US.
    Collision and phonation threshold pressures before and after loud, prolonged vocalization in trained and untrained voices2013Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 27, nr 5, s. 527-530Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The phonation threshold pressure (PTP) is defined as the lowest subglottal pressure needed for obtaining and sustaining vocal fold oscillation. It has been found to increase during vocal fatigue. In the present study, PTP is measured together with the threshold pressure needed for vocal fold collision; henceforth, the collision threshold pressure (CTP). PTP and CTP are compared before and after loud, prolonged vocalization in singer and nonsinger voices. Ten subjects repeated the vowel sequence /a, e, i, o, u/ at a Sound Pressure Level of at least 80 dB at 0.3 m for 20 minutes. Audio and electroglottography signals were recorded before and after this exercise. At the same time, oral pressure was registered while the subjects produced a diminuendo repeating the syllable /pa:/, thus acquiring an approximate of the subglottal pressure. CTP and PTP increased significantly after the vocal loading in the nonsinger subjects. On the other hand, singers reported no substantial effect of the exercise, and most singers had a mean after-to-before ratio close to 1 for both CTP and PTP.

  • 19.
    Enflo, Laura
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    McAllister, Anita
    Collision and Phonation Threshold Pressures Before and After Loud, Prolonged Vocalization in Trained and Untrained Voices2013Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 27, nr 5, s. 527-530Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The phonation threshold pressure (PTP) is defined as the lowest subglottal pressure needed for obtaining and sustaining vocal fold oscillation. It has been found to increase during vocal fatigue. In the present study, PTP is measured together with the threshold pressure needed for vocal fold collision; henceforth, the collision threshold pressure (CTP). PTP and CTP are compared before and after loud, prolonged vocalization in singer and nonsinger voices. Ten subjects repeated the vowel sequence /a, e, i, o, u/ at a Sound Pressure Level of at least 80 dB at 0.3 m for 20 minutes. Audio and electroglottography signals were recorded before and after this exercise. At the same time, oral pressure was registered while the subjects produced a diminuendo repeating the syllable /pa:/, thus acquiring an approximate of the subglottal pressure. CTP and PTP increased significantly after the vocal loading in the nonsinger subjects. On the other hand, singers reported no substantial effect of the exercise, and most singers had a mean after-to-before ratio close to 1 for both CTP and PTP.

  • 20. Gramming, Patricia
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Talöverföring och musikakustik.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner (före 2005), Talöverföring och musikakustik.
    Leanderson, Rolf
    Perkins, William H.
    Relationship between changes in voice pitch and loudness1988Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 2, nr 2, s. 118-126Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary Changes in mean fundamental frequency accompanying changes in loudness of phonation are analyzed in 9 professional singers, 9 nonsingers, and 10 male and 10 female patients suffering from vocal functional dysfunction. The subjects read discursive texts with noise in earphones, and some also at voluntarily varied vocal loudness. The healthy subjects phonated as softly and as loudly as possible at various fundamental frequencies throughout their pitch ranges, and the resulting mean phonetograms are compared. Mean pitch was found to increase by about half-semitones per decibel sound level. Grossly, the subject groups gave similar results, although the singers changed voice pitch more than the nonsingers. The voice pitch changes may be explained as passive results of changes of subglottal pressure required for the sound level variation.

  • 21.
    Granqvist, Svante
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Talöverföring och musikakustik.
    Hertegård, S.
    Larsson, H.
    Sundberg, J.
    Simultaneous analysis of vocal fold vibration and transglottal airflow: Exploring a new experimental setup2003Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 319-330Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to develop an analysis system for studying the relationship between vocal fold vibration and the associated transglottal airflow. Recordings of airflow, electroglottography (EGG), oral air pressure, and acoustic signals were performed simultaneously with highspeed imaging at a rate of approximately 1900 frames/s. Inverse filtered airflow is compared with the simultaneous glottal area extracted from the highspeed image sequence. The accuracy of the synchronization between the camera images and the foot pedal synchronization pulse was examined, showing that potential synchronization errors increase with time distance to the synchronization pulse. Therefore, analysis was limited to material near the synchronization pulse. Results corroborate previous predictions that air flow lags behind area, but also they reveal that relationships between these two entities may be complex and apparently varying with phonation mode.

  • 22.
    Granqvist, Svante
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Hertegård, Stellan
    Larsson, Hans
    Sundberg, Johan
    Simultaneous analysis of vocal fold vibration and transglottal airflow: exploring a new experimental setup2003Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 17, s. 319-330Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary: The purpose of this study was to develop an analysis system for studying the relationship between vocal fold vibration and the associated transglottal airflow. Recordings of airflow, electroglottography (EGG), oral air pressure, and acoustic signals were performed simultaneously with high-speed imaging at a rate of approximately 1900 frames/s. Inverse filtered airflow is compared with the simultaneous glottal area extracted from the high-speed image sequence. The accuracy of the synchronization between the camera images and the foot pedal synchronization pulse was examined, showing that potential synchronization errors increase with time distance to the synchronization pulse. Therefore, analysis was limited to material near the synchronization pulse. Results corroborate previous predictions that air flow lags behind area, but also they reveal that relationships between these two entities may be complex and apparently varying with phonation mode.

  • 23. Gustafsson, J.
    et al.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Södersten, M.
    Schalling, E.
    Motor-Learning-Based Adjustment of Ambulatory Feedback on Vocal Loudness for Patients With Parkinson's Disease2016Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 30, nr 4, s. 407-415Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To investigate how the direct biofeedback on vocal loudness administered with a portable voice accumulator (VoxLog) should be configured, to facilitate an optimal learning outcome for individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD), on the basis of principles of motor learning. Study Design: Methodologic development in an experimental study. Methods: The portable voice accumulator VoxLog was worn by 20 participants with PD during habitual speech during semistructured conversations. Six different biofeedback configurations were used, in random order, to study which configuration resulted in a feedback frequency closest to 20% as recommended on the basis of previous studies. Results: Activation of feedback when the wearer speaks below a threshold level of 3dB below the speaker's mean voice sound level in habitual speech combined with an activation time of 500ms resulted in a mean feedback frequency of 21.2%. Conclusions: Settings regarding threshold and activation time based on the results from this study are recommended to achieve an optimal learning outcome when administering biofeedback on vocal loudness for individuals with PD using portable voice accumulators.

  • 24. Hallqvist, Hanna
    et al.
    La, Filipa M. B.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Soul and Musical Theater: A Comparison of Two Vocal Styles2017Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 31, nr 2, s. 229-235Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The phonatory and resonatory characteristics of nonclassical styles of singing have been rarely analyzed in voice research. Six professional singers volunteered to sing excerpts from two songs pertaining to the musical theater and to the soul styles of singing. Voice source parameters and formant frequencies were analyzed by inverse filtering tones, sung at the same fundamental frequencies in both excerpts. As compared with musical theater, the soul style was characterized by significantly higher subglottal pressure and maximum flow declination rate. Yet sound pressure level was lower, suggesting higher glottal resistance. The differences would be the effects of firmer glottal adduction and a greater frequency separation between the first formant and its closest spectrum partial in soul than in musical theater.

  • 25. Han, Qichao
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Duration, Pitch, and Loudness in Kunqu Opera Stage Speech2017Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 31, nr 2, artikkel-id UNSP 255.e1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. Kunqu is a special type of opera within the Chinese tradition with 600 years of history. In it, stage speech is used for the spoken dialogue. It is performed in Ming Dynasty's mandarin language and is a much more dominant part of the play than singing. Stage speech deviates considerably from normal conversational speech with respect to duration, loudness and pitch. This paper compares these properties in stage speech conversational speech. Method. A famous, highly experienced female singer's performed stage speech and reading of the same lyrics in a conversational speech mode. Clear differences are found. Results. As compared with conversational speech, stage speech had longer word and sentence duration and word duration was less variable. Average sound level was 16 dB higher. Also mean fundamental frequency was considerably higher and more varied. Within sentences, both loudness and fundamental frequency tended to vary according to a low-high-low pattern. Conclusions. Some of the findings fail to support current opinions regarding the characteristics of stage speech, and in this sense the study demonstrates the relevance of objective measurements in descriptions of vocal styles.

  • 26. Herbst, Christian T.
    et al.
    Hess, Markus
    Müller, Frank
    Svec, Jan G.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Glottal Adduction and Subglottal Pressure in Singing2015Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 391-402Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research suggests that independent variation of vocal loudness and glottal configuration (type and degree of vocal fold adduction) does not occur in untrained speech production. This study investigated whether these factors can be varied independently in trained singing and how subglottal pressure is related to average glottal airflow, voice source properties, and sound level under these conditions. A classically trained baritone produced sustained phonations on the endoscopic vowel [i:] at pitch D4 (approximately 294 Hz), exclusively varying either (a) vocal register; (b) phonation type (from "breathy" to "pressed" via cartilaginous adduction); or (c) vocal loudness, while keeping the others constant. Phonation was documented by simultaneous recording of videokymographic, electroglottographic, airflow and voice source data, and by percutaneous measurement of relative subglottal pressure. Register shifts were clearly marked in the electroglottographic wavegram display. Compared with chest register, falsetto was produced with greater pulse amplitude of the glottal flow, H1-H2, mean airflow, and with lower maximum flow declination rate (MFDR), subglottal pressure, and sound pressure. Shifts of phonation type (breathy/flow/neutral/pressed) induced comparable systematic changes. Increase of vocal loudness resulted in increased subglottal pressure, average flow, sound pressure, MFDR, glottal flow pulse amplitude, and H1-H2. When changing either vocal register or phonation type, subglottal pressure and mean airflow showed an inverse relationship, that is, variation of glottal flow resistance. The direct relation between subglottal pressure and airflow when varying only vocal loudness demonstrated independent control of vocal loudness and glottal configuration. Achieving such independent control of phonatory control parameters would be an important target in vocal pedagogy and in voice therapy.

  • 27.
    Hägglund, Patricia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Logopedi.
    Sandström, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Logopedi.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Logopedi.
    Voice Tremor in Patients With Essential Tremor: Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of Caudal Zona Incerta2016Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 30, nr 2, s. 228-233Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the caudal zona incerta (cZi) on voice tremor in patients with essential tremor (ET). Study Design. This is a prospective nonrandomized design with consecutive patients.

    Methods. Twenty-six patients operated with cZi DBS were evaluated under two conditions: without stimulation (Stim OFF) and with stimulation (Stim ON). Voice tremor was assessed on the basis of recordings of sustained vowel productions using a four-point rating scale in a blinded and randomized procedure. Averaged values of multiple assessments for each stimulus were used in statistical testing. The group of patients with voice tremor in Stim OFF was analyzed separately from the group of patients without voice tremor.

    Results. Voice tremor was significantly reduced on stimulation compared with off for the subgroup with initial voice tremor. Voice tremor prevalence was found to be 50% (13 patients). Individual differences in voice tremor outcome were noticeable. Six of the patients with voice tremor at baseline improved substantially by cZi DBS treatment.

    Conclusions. On the group level, voice tremor in patients with ET was found to reduce when stimulating the cZi. Bilateral stimulation was indicated to be more effective in reducing voice tremor than unilateral stimulation. However, individual voice tremor outcomes suggest that not all patients benefit from cZi DBS. Severity of voice tremor at baseline may not be a good predictor of voice tremor outcome after cZi DBS. Patients should be informed before surgery regarding individual differences in response to DBS treatment.

  • 28. Ihre, E
    et al.
    Zetterström, Olle
    Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Allergicentrum. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Allergicentrum.
    Ihre, E
    Hammarberg, B
    Voice problems as side effects of inhaled corticosteroids in asthma patients - A prevalence study2004Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 18, nr 3, s. 403-414Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Voice disturbances in asthma patients may be caused by inhaled corticosteroids. In order to study the prevalence of such voice disturbances, a questionnaire was delivered to asthma patients at three asthma and allergy departments in Stockholm. The questionnaire consisted of 25 questions concerning the asthma disease symptoms, medication, voice function, and voice disturbances. A total of 350 questionnaires were delivered. Response frequency was 80%. There was a significant positive correlation between inhalation of cortison and voice disturbances. Most of the patients complained about hoarseness, followed by throat clearing, a lump in the throat, loss of voice, and less frequently, throat pain. There were no significantly differences between men and women. Elderly had more voice problems than young persons. Patients with voice-demanding professions had more problems than patients who used their voice to a lesser extent during the working day. There was a significant positive correlation between high cortison doses and voice problems as well as between voice problems and acid regurgitation.

  • 29.
    Johansson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Strömbergsson, Sofia
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Robieux, Camille
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Aix Marseille University, France.
    McAllister, Anita
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Perceptual Detection of Subtle Dysphonic Traits in Individuals with Cervical Spinal Cord Injury Using an Audience Response Systems Approach2017Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 31, nr 1, artikkel-id UNSP 126.e7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. Reduced respiratory function following lower cervical spinal cord injuries (CSCIs) may indirectly result in vocal dysfunction. Although self-reports indicate voice change and limitations following CSCI, earlier efforts using global perceptual ratings to distinguish speakers with CSCI from noninjured speakers have not been very successful. We investigate the use of an audience response system-based approach to distinguish speakers with CSCI from noninjured speakers, and explore whether specific vocal traits can be identified as characteristic for speakers with CSCI. Methods. Fourteen speech-language pathologists participated in a web-based perceptual task, where their overt reactions to vocal dysfunction were registered during the continuous playback of recordings of 36 speakers (18 with CSCI, and 18 matched controls). Dysphonic events were identified through manual perceptual analysis, to allow the exploration of connections between dysphonic events and listener reactions. Results. More dysphonic events, and more listener reactions, were registered for speakers with CSCI than for noninjured speakers. Strain (particularly in phrase-final position) and creak (particularly in nonphrase-final position) distinguish speakers with CSCI from noninjured speakers. Conclusions. For the identification of intermittent and subtle signs of vocal dysfunction, an approach where the temporal distribution of symptoms is registered offers a viable means to distinguish speakers affected by voice dysfunction from non-affected speakers. In speakers with CSCI, clinicians should listen for presence of final strain and nonfinal creak, and pay attention to self-reported voice function and voice problems, to identify individuals in need for clinical assessment and intervention.

  • 30.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Logopedi.
    Doorn, Jan van
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Logopedi.
    Letter to the Editor2012Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 26, nr 5, artikkel-id 676.e1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 31.
    Karlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Logopedi.
    Malinova, Elin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Logopedi.
    Olofsson, Katarina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Öron- näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Blomstedt, Patric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Linder, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Nordh, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmakologi och klinisk neurovetenskap, Klinisk neurovetenskap.
    Voice Tremor Outcomes of Subthalamic Nucleus and Zona Incerta Deep Brain Stimulation in Patients With Parkinson Disease2019Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 33, nr 4, s. 545-549Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: We aimed to study the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and caudal zona incerta (cZi) on level of perceived voice tremor in patients with Parkinson disease (PD).

    Study Design: This is a prospective nonrandomized design with consecutive patients.

    Methods: Perceived voice tremor was assessed in patients with PD having received either STN-DBS (8 patients, 5 bilateral and 3 unilateral, aged 43.1-73.6 years; median = 61.2 years) or cZi-DBS (14 bilateral patients, aged 39.0-71.9 years; median = 56.6 years) 12 months before the assessment. Sustained vowels that were produced OFF and ON stimulation (with simultaneous L-DOPA medication) were assessed perceptually in terms of voice tremor by two raters on a four-point rating scale. The assessments were repeated five times per sample and rated in a blinded and randomized procedure.

    Results: Three out of the 22 patients (13%) were concluded to have voice tremor OFF stimulation. Patients with PD with STN-DBS showed mild levels of perceived voice tremor OFF stimulation and a group level improvement. Patients with moderate/severe perceived voice tremor and cZi-DBS showed marked improvements, but there was no overall group effect. Six patients with cZi-DBS showed small increases in perceived voice tremor severity.

    Conclusions: STN-DBS decreased perceived voice tremor on a group level. cZi-DBS decreased perceived voice tremor in patients with PD with moderate to severe preoperative levels of the symptom.

  • 32. La, Filipa M. B.
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Musikakustik. University College of Music Education, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Contact Quotient Versus Closed Quotient: A Comparative Study on Professional Male Singers2015Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 148-154Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. The term "closed quotient'' is frequently used for data derived both from inverse filtering and from electroglottography. In the former case, it is defined as the ratio between the closed phase and the period, as measured in flow glottograms (FLOGG), whereas in the latter case, it is defined as the time interval between the falling and rising parts of the electroglottogram (EGG), measured at some percentage of the peak-to-peak amplitude. The study aims at analyzing differences between EGG-and FLOGG-based closed quotients and their relationships with voice source parameters. Study Design. Comparative study. Methods. FLOGG- and EGG-based measures collected from five professional male singers were compared, under different pitch and loudness conditions. Results. Compared with the FLOGG-based quotient, the EGG-based quotient (i) varied more between subjects, (ii) presented greater values, (iii) varied less with subglottal pressure, (iv) varied less with the normalized amplitude quotient (ie, the ratio between the flow pulse amplitude and the product of period and maximum flow declination rate), and (v) varied less with the relative amplitude of the voice source fundamental. Conclusions. Although positively related, FLOGG- and EGG-based closed quotients differ and must not be confused.

  • 33. La, Filipa M. B.
    et al.
    Wistbacka, Greta
    Andrade, Pedro Amarante
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Naturvetenskap och biomedicin, Grundläggande naturvetenskap. Karolinska Institutet (KI), Sweden.
    Real-Time Visual Feedback of Airflow in Voice Training: Aerodynamic Properties of Two Flow Ball Devices2017Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 31, nr 3, artikkel-id UNSP 390.e1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. Flow ball devices have been used as teaching tools to provide visual real-time feedback of airflow during singing. This study aims at exploring static back pressure and ball height as function of flow for two devices, marketed as flow ball and floating ball game. Study Design. This is a comparative descriptive study. Methods. A flow-driven vocal tract simulator was used to investigate the aerodynamic properties of these two devices, testing them for four different ball sizes. The flow range investigated was between 0 and 0.5 L/s. Audio, flow, pressure, and ball height were recorded. Results. The flow pressure profiles for both tested devices were similar to those observed in previous studies on narrow tubes. For lifting the ball, both devices had a flow and a pressure threshold. The tested floating ball game required considerably higher back pressure for a given flow as compared with the flow ball. Conclusions. Both tested devices have similar effects on back pressure as straws of 3.7 and 3.0 mm in diameter for the flow ball and the floating ball game, respectively. One might argue that both devices could be used as tools for practicing semi-occluded vocal tract exercises, with the additional benefit of providing real-time visual feedback of airflow during phonation. The flow threshold, combined with the flow feedback, would increase awareness of flow, rather than of pressure, during exercises using a flow ball device.

  • 34.
    Lamarche, Anick
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Musikakustik.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Musikakustik.
    An Exploration of Skin Acceleration Level as a Measureof Phonatory Function in Singing2008Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 22, nr 1, s. 10-22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Summary: Two kinds of fluctuations are observed in phonetogram recordingsof singing. Sound pressure level (SPL) can vary due to vibrato and also due tothe effect of open and closed vowels. Since vowel variation is mostly a consequence of vocal tract modification and is not directly related to phonatory function, it could be helpful to suppress such variation when studying phonation. Skin acceleration level (SAL), measured at the jugular notch and on the sternum, might be less influenced by effects of the vocal tract. It is explored in this study as an alternative measure to SPL. Five female singers sang vowel series on selected pitches and in different tasks. Recorded data were used to investigate two null hypotheses: (1) SPL and SAL are equally influenced by vowel variation and (2) SPL and SAL are equally correlated to subglottal pressure (PS). Interestingly, the vowel variation effect was small in both SPL and SAL. Furthermore, in comparison to SPL, SAL correlated weakly to PS. SAL exhibited practically no dependence on fundamental frequency, rather, its major determinant was the musical dynamic. This results in a non-sloping, square-like phonetogram contour. These outcomes show that SAL potentially can facilitate phonetographic analysis of the singing voice.

  • 35.
    Lamarche, Anick
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Musikakustik.
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Musikakustik.
    Pabon, Peter
    Royal Conservatory, the Hague/University Utrecht/Voice Quality Systems.
    The Singer’s Voice Range Profile: Female Professional Opera Soloists2010Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 410-426Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This work concerns the collection of 30 Voice Range Profiles (VRPs) of female operatic voice . Objectives: We address the questions: Is there a need for a singer’s protocol in VRP aquisition? Are physiological measurements sufficient or should the measurement of performance capabilities also be included? Can we address the female singing voice in general or is there a case for categorizing voices when studying phonetographic data? Method: Subjects performed a series of structured tasks involving both standard speech voice protocols and additional singing tasks. Singers also completed an extensive questionnaire. Results: Physiological VRPs differ from performance VRPs. Two new VRP metrics: the voice area above a defined level threshold, and the dynamic range independent from F0, were found to be useful in the analysis of singer VRP’s. Task design had no effect on performance VRP outcomes. Voice category differences were mainly attributable to phonation frequency based information. Conclusion: Results support the clinical importance of addressing the vocal instrument as it is used in performance. Equally important is the elaboration of a protocol suitable for the singing voice. The given context and instructions can be more important than task design for performance VRPs. Yet, for physiological VRP recordings, task design remains critical. Both types of VRPs are suggested for a singer’s voice evaluation.

  • 36. Laukkanen, AM.
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Musikakustik.
    Peak-to-Peak Glottal Flow Amplitude as a Function of F(0)2008Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 22, nr 6, s. 614-621Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the peak-to-peak (p-t-p) amplitude of the voice source as a function of fundamental frequency (F(0)). Nine males and nine females with or without singing training produced (1) a glissando from lowest to highest F(0) and back in their speaking range on /a:/ and (2) an ascending-descending scale pattern on /pa:pa:/. Audio and airflow signals were recorded, the latter picked up from a pneumotach mask. F(0) was measured from the audio signal and the oral pressure during the /p/ occlusion for in estimate of subglottal pressure. Airflow signal was inverse filtered and the p-t-p amplitude was measured for 10 F(0) values, equidistantly spaced along the subject's F(0) range in semitones, thus facilitating comparison between individuals and genders. Most females and males showed both a wide range of relatively large p-t-p amplitude in the speech range and a more or less pronounced p-t-p amplitude maximum, which was located on average at 232 and 162 Hz, respectively. The p-t-p amplitude maximum seems to reflect a complicated interplay between factors that tend to increase and those that tend to decrease the p-t-p amplitude with increasing F(0).

  • 37. Laukkanen, Anne-Maria
    et al.
    Björkner, Eva
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Musikakustik.
    Throaty voice quality: Subglottal pressure, voice source, and formant characteristics2006Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 20, nr 1, s. 25-37Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    "Throaty" voice quality has been regarded by voice pedagogues as undesired and even harmful. This study attempts to identify acoustic and physiological correlates of this quality. One male and one female subject read a text habitually and with a throaty voice quality. Oral pressure during p-occlusion was measured as an estimate of subglottal pressure. Long-term average spectrum analysis described the average spectrum characteristics. Sixteen syllables, perceptually evaluated with regard to throaty quality by five experts, were selected for analysis. Formant frequencies and voice source characteristics were measured by means of inverse filtering, and the vocal tract shape of the throaty and normal versions of the vowels [a,u,i,ae] of the male subject were recorded by magnetic resonance imaging. From this material, area functions were derived and their resonance frequencies were determined. The throaty versions of these four vowels all showed a pharynx that was narrower than ill the habitually produced versions. To test the relevance of formant frequencies to perceived throaty quality, experts rated degree of throatiness in synthetic vowel samples, in which the measured formant frequency values of the subject were used. The main acoustic correlates of throatiness seemed to be all increase of F1, a decrease of F4, and in front vowels a decrease of F2, which presumably results from a narrowing of the pharynx. In the male Subject, voice Source parameters suggested a more hyperfunctional voice in throaty samples.

  • 38. Lehto, Laura
    et al.
    Airas, Matti
    Björkner, Eva
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Alku, Paavo
    Comparison of two inverse filtering methods in parameterization of the glottal closing phase characteristics in different phonation types2007Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 138-150Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Inverse filtering (IF) is a common method used to estimate the source of voiced speech, the glottal flow. This investigation aims to compare two IF methods: one manual and the other semiautomatic. Glottal flows were estimated from speech pressure waveforms of six female and seven male subjects producing sustained vole /a/ in breathy, normal, and pressed phonation. The closing phase characteristics of the glottal pulse were parameterized using two time-based parameters: the closing quotient (C1Q) and the normalized amplitude quotient (NAQ). The information given by these two parameters indicates a strong correlation between the two IF methods. The results are encouraging in showing that the parameterization of the voice source in different speech sounds can be performed independently of the technique used for inverse filtering.

  • 39. Lindestad, P. A.
    et al.
    Södersten, M.
    Merker, B.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner                               , Talöverföring och musikakustik.
    Voice source characteristics in mongolian throat singing studied with high-speed imaging technique, acoustic spectra, and inverse filtering2001Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 78-85Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mongolian throat singing can be performed in different modes. In Mongolia, the bass-type is called Kargyraa. The voice source in bass-type throat singing was studied in one male singer. The subject alternated between modal voice and the throat singing mode. Vocal fold vibrations were observed with high-speed photography, using a computerized recording system. The spectral characteristics of the sound signal were analyzed. Kymographic image data were compared to the sound signal and flow inverse filtering data from the same singer were obtained on a separate occasion. It was found that the vocal folds vibrated at the same frequency throughout both modes of singing. During throat singing the ventricular folds vibrated with complete but short closures at half the frequency of the true vocal folds, covering every second vocal fold closure. Kymographic data confirmed the findings. The spectrum contained added subharmonics compared to modal voice. In the inverse filtered signal the amplitude of every second airflow pulse was considerably lowered. The ventricular folds appeared to modulate the sound by reducing the glottal flow of every other vocal fold vibratory cycle.

  • 40.
    Lindestad, Per Å
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Logopedics and Phoniatrics.
    Södersten, Maria
    Karolinska Institute, Department of Logopedics and Phoniatrics.
    Merker, Björn
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Granqvist, Svante
    Department of Speech, Music, Hearing, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Voice source characteristics in mongolian throat singing studied with high-speed imaging technique, acoustic spectra, and inverse filtering2001Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 78-85Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mongolian “throat singing” can be performed in different modes. In Mongolia, the bass-type is called Kargyraa. The voice source in bass-type throat singing was studied in one male singer. The subject alternated between modal voice and the throat singing mode. Vocal fold vibrations were observed with high-speed photography, using a computerized recording system. The spectral characteristics of the sound signal were analyzed. Kymographic image data were compared to the sound signal and flow inverse filtering data from the same singer were obtained on a separate occasion. It was found that the vocal folds vibrated at the same frequency throughout both modes of singing. During throat singing the ventricular folds vibrated with complete but short closures at half the frequency of the true vocal folds, covering every second vocal fold closure. Kymographic data confirmed the findings. The spectrum contained added subharmonics compared to modal voice. In the inverse filtered signal the amplitude of every second airflow pulse was considerably lowered. The ventricular folds appeared to modulate the sound by reducing the glottal flow of every other vocal fold vibratory cycle.

  • 41. Lindström, Fredric
    et al.
    Waye, Kerstin Persson
    Sodersten, Maria
    McAllister, Anita
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Musikakustik.
    Observations of the Relationship Between Noise Exposure and Preschool Teacher Voice Usage in Day-Care Center Environments2011Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 166-172Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the relationship between noise exposure and vocal behavior (the Lombard effect) is well established, actual vocal behavior in the workplace is still relatively unexamined. The first purpose of this study was to investigate correlations between noise level and both voice level and voice average fundamental frequency (F-0) for a population of preschool teachers in their normal workplace. The second purpose was to study the vocal behavior of each teacher to investigate whether individual vocal behaviors or certain patterns could be identified. Voice and noise data were obtained for female preschool teachers (n = 13) in their workplace, using wearable measurement equipment. Correlations between noise level and voice level, and between voice level and F-0, were calculated for each participant and ranged from 0.07 to 0.87 for voice level and from 0.11 to 0.78 for F-0. The large spread of the correlation coefficients indicates that the teachers react individually to the noise exposure. For example, some teachers increase their voice-to-noise level ratio when the noise is reduced, whereas others do not.

  • 42.
    Lundeborg Hammarström, Inger
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hultcrantz, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oto-Rhino-Laryngologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Öron- näsa- och halskliniken US.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Oto-Rhino-Laryngologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Öron- näsa- och halskliniken US.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Öron- näsa- och halskliniken US.
    Acoustic and perceptual aspects of vocal function in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy —effects of surgery2012Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 480-487Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate outcome of two types of tonsil surgery (tonsillectomy+adenoidectomy or tonsillotomy +adenoidectomy) on vocal function perceptually and acoustically.

    Study Design: Sixty-seven children, aged 50-65 months, on waiting list for tonsil surgery were randomized to tonsillectomy (n=33) or tonsillotomy (n=34). Fifty-seven age and gender matched healthy pre-school children were controls. Twenty-eight of them, aged 48-59 months, served as control group before surgery, and 29, aged 60-71 months, after surgery

    Methods: Before surgery and six months postoperatively, the children were recorded producing three sustained vowels (/A, u, i/) and 14 words. The control groups were recorded only once.

    Three trained speech and language pathologists performed the perceptual analysis using Visual Analogue Scales (VAS) for eight voice quality parameters. Acoustic analysis from sustained vowels included average fundamental frequency, jitter percent, shimmer percent, noise-to-harmonic ratio and the centre frequencies of formants 1-3

    Results: Before surgery the children were rated to have more hyponasality and compressed/throaty voice (p<0,05) and  lower mean pitch (p<0,01) in comparison to the control group. They also had higher perturbation measures and lower frequencies of the second and third formant. After surgery there were no differences perceptually. Perturbation measures decreased but were still higher compared to the control group’s, p<0, 05. Differences in formant frequencies for /i/ and /u/ remained. No differences were found between the two surgical methods.

    Conclusion: Voice quality is affected perceptually and acoustically by adenotonsillar hypertrophy. After surgery the voice is perceptually normalized but acoustic differences remain. Outcome was equal for both surgical methods.

  • 43.
    Lundeborg, Inger
    et al.
    Division of Speech and Language Pathology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hultcrantz, Elisabeth
    Division of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    Division of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Nursing Science, School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden.
    McAllister, Anita
    Division of Speech and Language Pathology, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Acoustic and perceptual aspects of vocal function in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy: effects of surgery2012Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 480-487Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate outcome of two types of tonsil surgery (tonsillectomy [TE] + adenoidectomy or tonsillotomy [TT] + adenoidectomy) on vocal function perceptually and acoustically.

    Study Design: Sixty-seven children, aged 50–65 months, on waiting list for tonsil surgery were randomized to TE (n = 33) or TT (n = 34). Fifty-seven age- and gender-matched healthy preschool children were controls. Twenty-eight of them, aged 48–59 months, served as control group before surgery, and 29, aged 60–71 months, served as control group after surgery.

    Methods:  Before surgery and 6 months postoperatively, the children were recorded producing three sustained vowels (/ɑ/, /u/, and /i/) and 14 words. The control groups were recorded only once. Three trained speech and language pathologists performed the perceptual analysis using visual analog scale for eight voice quality parameters. Acoustic analysis from sustained vowels included average fundamental frequency, jitter percent, shimmer percent, noise-to-harmonic ratio, and the center frequencies of formants 1–3.

    Results: Before surgery, the children were rated to have more hyponasality and compressed/throaty voice (P < 0.05) and lower mean pitch (P < 0.01) in comparison to the control group. They also had higher perturbation measures and lower frequencies of the second and third formants. After surgery, there were no differences perceptually. Perturbation measures decreased but were still higher compared with those of control group (P < 0.05). Differences in formant frequencies for /i/ and /u/ remained. No differences were found between the two surgical methods.

    Conclusion: Voice quality is affected perceptually and acoustically by adenotonsillar hypertrophy. After surgery, the voice is perceptually normalized but acoustic differences remain. Outcome was equal for both surgical methods.

  • 44.
    Lundeborg, Inger
    et al.
    Avdelningen för Logopedi, Inst för Kliniks och Expermentell Medicin, Hälsouniversitetet, Linköping .
    Hultcrantz, Elisabeth
    Avdelningen för Otorhinolaryngologi, Inst för Kliniks och Expermentell Medicin, Hälsouniversitetet, Linköping.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. CHILD.
    McAllister, Anita
    Avdelningen för Logopedi, Inst för Kliniks och Expermentell Medicin, Hälsouniversitetet, Linköping .
    Acoustic and perceptual aspects of vocal function in children with adenotonsillar hypertrophy-effects of surgery2012Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 26, nr 4, s. 480-487Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To evaluate outcome of two types of tonsil surgery (tonsillectomy [TE] + adenoidectomy or tonsillotomy [TT] + adenoidectomy) on vocal function perceptually and acoustically.

    Study Design

    Sixty-seven children, aged 50–65 months, on waiting list for tonsil surgery were randomized to TE (n = 33) or TT (n = 34). Fifty-seven age- and gender-matched healthy preschool children were controls. Twenty-eight of them, aged 48–59 months, served as control group before surgery, and 29, aged 60–71 months, served as control group after surgery.

    Methods

    Before surgery and 6 months postoperatively, the children were recorded producing three sustained vowels (/ɑ/, /u/, and /i/) and 14 words. The control groups were recorded only once. Three trained speech and language pathologists performed the perceptual analysis using visual analog scale for eight voice quality parameters. Acoustic analysis from sustained vowels included average fundamental frequency, jitter percent, shimmer percent, noise-to-harmonic ratio, and the center frequencies of formants 1–3.

    Results

    Before surgery, the children were rated to have more hyponasality and compressed/throaty voice (P < 0.05) and lower mean pitch (P < 0.01) in comparison to the control group. They also had higher perturbation measures and lower frequencies of the second and third formants. After surgery, there were no differences perceptually. Perturbation measures decreased but were still higher compared with those of control group (P < 0.05). Differences in formant frequencies for /i/ and /u/ remained. No differences were found between the two surgical methods.

    Conclusion

    Voice quality is affected perceptually and acoustically by adenotonsillar hypertrophy. After surgery, the voice is perceptually normalized but acoustic differences remain. Outcome was equal for both surgical methods.

  • 45.
    McAllister, Anita
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Sinnescentrum, Öron- näsa- och halskliniken US.
    Brandt, Signe Kofoed
    Habilitation Services, Kullbergska Hospital, Katrineholm, Sweden.
    A Comparison of Recordings of Sentences and Spontaneous Speech: Perceptual and Acoustic Measures in Preschool Children's Voices.2012Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 26, nr 5, s. 13-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A well-controlled recording in a studio is fundamental in most voice rehabilitation. However, this laboratory like recording method has been questioned because voice use in a natural environment may be quite different. In children's natural environment, high background noise levels are common and are an important factor contributing to voice problems. The primary noise source in day-care centers is the children themselves. The aim of the present study was to compare perceptual evaluations of voice quality and acoustic measures from a controlled recording with recordings of spontaneous speech in children's natural environment in a day-care setting. Eleven 5-year-old children were recorded three times during a day at the day care. The controlled speech material consisted of repeated sentences. Matching sentences were selected from the spontaneous speech. All sentences were repeated three times. Recordings were randomized and analyzed acoustically and perceptually. Statistic analyses showed that fundamental frequency was significantly higher in spontaneous speech (P<0.01) as was hyperfunction (P<0.001). The only characteristic the controlled sentences shared with spontaneous speech was degree of hoarseness (Spearman's rho=0.564). When data for boys and girls were analyzed separately, a correlation was found for the parameter breathiness (rho=0.551) for boys, and for girls the correlation for hoarseness remained (rho=0.752). Regarding acoustic data, none of the measures correlated across recording conditions for the whole group.

  • 46.
    McAllister, Anita
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Granqvist, Svante
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Sjölander, Peta
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Sundberg, Johan
    Royal Institute of Technology (KTH).
    Child Voice and Noise: A Pilot Study of Noise in Day Cares and the Effects on 10 Children's Voice Quality According to Perceptual Evaluation2009Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, ISSN 0892-1997, Vol. 23, nr 5, s. 587-593Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this investigation was to study children's exposure to background noise at the ears during a normal day at the day care center and also to relate this to a perceptual evaluation of voice quality. Ten children, from three day care centers, with no history of hearing and speech problems or frequent infections were selected as subjects. A binaural recording technique was used with two microphones placed on both sides of the subject's head, at equal distance from the mouth. A portable digital audio tape (DAT) recorder (Sony TCD-D 100, Stockholm, Sweden) was attached to the subject's waist. Three recordings were made for each child during the day. Each recording was calibrated and started with three repetitions of three sentences containing only sonorants. The recording technique allowed separate analyses of the background noise level and of the sound pressure level (SPL) of each subjects' own voice. Results showed a mean background noise level for the three day care centers at 82.6dBA Leq, ranging from 81.5 to 83.6dBA Leq. Day care center no. 2 had the highest mean value and also the highest value at any separate recording session with a mean background noise level of 85.4dBA Leq during the noontime recordings. Perceptual evaluation showed that the children attending this day care center also received higher values on the following voice characteristics: hoarseness, breathiness, and hyperfunction. Girls increased their loudness level during the day, whereas for boys no such change could be observed.

     

  • 47.
    McAllister, Anita M.
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Tal-kommunikation.
    Sjölander, Peta
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Tal-kommunikation.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH, Tal-kommunikation.
    Child Voice and Noise: A Pilot Study of Noise in Day Cares and the Effects on 10 Children's Voice Quality According to Perceptual Evaluation2009Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 23, nr 5, s. 587-593Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this investigation was to study children's exposure to background noise at the ears during a normal day at the day care center and also to relate this to a perceptual evaluation of voice quality. Ten children, from three day care centers, with no history of hearing and speech problems or frequent infections were selected as subjects. A binaural recording technique was used with two microphones placed on both sides of the subject's head, at equal distance from the mouth. A portable digital audio tape (DAT) recorder (Sony TCD-D 100, Stockholm, Sweden) was attached to the subject's waist. Three recordings were made for each child during the day. Each recording was calibrated and started with three repetitions of three sentences containing only sonorants. The recording technique allowed separate analyses of the background noise level and of the sound pressure level (SPL) of each subjects' own voice. Results showed a mean background noise level for the three day care centers at 82.6 dBA Leq, ranging from 81.5 to 83.6 dBA Leq. Day care center no. 2 had the highest mean value and also the highest value at any separate recording session with a mean background noise level of 85.4 dBA Leq during the noontime recordings. Perceptual evaluation showed that the children attending this day care center also received higher values on the following voice characteristics: hoarseness, breathiness, and hyperfunction. Girls increased their loudness level during the day, whereas for boys no such change could be observed.

  • 48. McAllister, Anita
    et al.
    Sederholm, E
    Ternström, Sten
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Tal, musik och hörsel.
    Perturbation and hoarseness: a pilot study of six children's voices.1996Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 10, nr 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fundamental frequency (FO) perturbation has been found to be useful as an acoustic correlate of the perception of dysphonia in adult voices. In a previous investigation, we showed that hoarseness in children's voices is a stable concept composed mainly of three predictors: hyperfunction, breathiness, and roughness. In the present investigation, the relation between FO perturbation and hoarseness as well as its predictors was analyzed in running speech of six children representing different degrees of hoarseness. Two perturbation measures were used: the standard deviation of the distribution of perturbation data and the mean of the absolute value of perturbation. The results revealed no clear relation.

  • 49. McDonnell, Maria
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för datavetenskap och kommunikation (CSC), Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Lindestad, Per-Ake
    Larsson, Hans
    Vocal Fold Vibration and Phonation Start in Aspirated, Unaspirated, and Staccato Onset2011Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 25, nr 5, s. 526-531Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives/Hypotheses. Singers learn to produce well-controlled tone onsets by accurate synchronization of glottal adduction and buildup of subglottal pressure. Spectrographic analyses have shown that the higher spectrum partials are present also at the vowel onset in classically trained singers' performances. Such partials are produced by a sharp discontinuity in the waveform of the transglottal airflow, presumably produced by vocal fold collision. Study Design. After hearing a prompt series of a triad pattern, six singer subjects sang the same triad pattern on the vowel /i/ (1) preceded by an aspirated /p/, (2) preceded by an unaspirated /p/, and (3) without any preceding consonant in staccato. Methods. Using high-speed imaging we examined the initiation of vocal fold vibration in aspirated and unaspirated productions of the consonant /p/ as well as in the staccato tones. Results. The number vibrations failing to produce vocal fold collision were significantly higher in the aspirated /p/ than in the unaspirated /p/ and in the staccato tones. High frequency ripple in the audio waveform was significantly delayed in the aspirated /p/. Conclusions. Initiation of vocal fold collision and the appearance of high-frequency ripple in the vowel /i/ are slightly delayed in aspirated productions of a preceding consonant /p/.

  • 50. McDonnell, Maria
    et al.
    Sundberg, Johan
    Westerlund, Joakim
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lindestad, Per-Åke
    Larsson, Hans
    Vocal Fold Vibration and Phonation Start in Aspirated, Unaspirated, and Staccato Onset2011Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 25, nr 5, s. 526-531Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives/Hypotheses. Singers learn to produce well-controlled tone onsets by accurate synchronization of glottal adduction and buildup of subglottal pressure. Spectrographic analyses have shown that the higher spectrum partials are present also at the vowel onset in classically trained singers' performances. Such partials are produced by a sharp discontinuity in the waveform of the transglottal airflow, presumably produced by vocal fold collision. Study Design. After hearing a prompt series of a triad pattern, six singer subjects sang the same triad pattern on the vowel /i/ (1) preceded by an aspirated /p/, (2) preceded by an unaspirated /p/, and (3) without any preceding consonant in staccato. Methods. Using high-speed imaging we examined the initiation of vocal fold vibration in aspirated and unaspirated productions of the consonant /p/ as well as in the staccato tones. Results. The number vibrations failing to produce vocal fold collision were significantly higher in the aspirated /p/ than in the unaspirated /p/ and in the staccato tones. High frequency ripple in the audio waveform was significantly delayed in the aspirated /p/. Conclusions. Initiation of vocal fold collision and the appearance of high-frequency ripple in the vowel /i/ are slightly delayed in aspirated productions of a preceding consonant /p/.

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