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  • 1. Erlandsson, Malin C.
    et al.
    Turkkila, Minna
    Siljehult, Filip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Pullerits, Rille
    Eriksson, Catharina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology. Laboratory of Clinical Immunology University Hospital of Umeå , Umeå, Sweden.
    Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Bokarewa, Maria I.
    Survivin improves the early recognition of rheumatoid arthritis among patients with arthralgia: A population-based study within two university cities of Sweden2018In: Seminars in Arthritis & Rheumatism, ISSN 0049-0172, E-ISSN 1532-866X, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 778-785Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to validate the use of survivin for preclinical recognition of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) among patients with unexplained arthralgia.

    Methods: Serum levels of survivin and the arthritis-specific autoantibodies RF and ACPA were measured in total of 5046 patients with musculoskeletal complains during 12 consecutive months in Gothenburg and in Umea. Among them, 303 arthralgia patients were identified and prospectively followed.

    Results: After 48 months, 12.2% of the arthralgia patients developed RA. Most of RA cases had high serum survivin, which increased the relative risk for RA (RR = 5.90,p = 3 x 10(-7)). Combination of survivin with autoantibodies was present in only 4.6% of the arthralgia patients and increased further the risk of RA and shortened time to RA development. Presence of any single autoantibody in the survivin-negative patients was associated with a minor risk for RA and had RA-free survival similar to the reference group.

    Conclusion: This study shows that measurement of survivin in serum improves estimation of RA risk and prospectively predicts RA development in patients with arthralgia. Survivin may indicate a phase preceding autoantibody production. 

  • 2. Jonsen, Andreas
    et al.
    Hjalte, Frida
    Willim, Minna
    Carlsson, Katarina Steen
    Sjowall, Christopher
    Svenungsson, Elisabet
    Leonard, Dag
    Bengtsson, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Pettersson, Susanne
    Gunnarsson, Iva
    Zickert, Agneta
    Gustafsson, Johanna T.
    Ronnblom, Lars
    Petersson, Ingemar F.
    Bengtsson, Anders A.
    Nived, Ola
    Direct and indirect costs for systemic lupus erythematosus in Sweden. A nationwide health economic study based on five defined cohorts2016In: Seminars in Arthritis & Rheumatism, ISSN 0049-0172, E-ISSN 1532-866X, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 684-690Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The main objectives of this study were to calculate total costs of illness and cost -driving disease features among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Sweden. Methods: Five cohorts of well-defined SLE patients, located in different parts of the country were merged. Incident and prevalent cases from 2003 through 2010 were included. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria was used. From the local cohorts, data on demographics, disease activity (SLEDAI 2K), and organ damage (SDI) were collected. Costs for inpatient care, specialist outpatient care and drugs were retrieved from national registries at the National Board of Health and Welfare. Indirect costs were calculated based on sickness leave and disability pensions from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency. Results: In total, 1029 SLE patients, 88% females, were included, and approximately 75% were below 65 years at the end of follow-up, and thus in working age. The mean number of annual specialist physician visits varied from six to seven; mean annual inpatient days were 3.1-3.6, and mean annual sick leave was 123-148 days, all per patient. The total annual cost was 208,555 SEK ($33,369 = 22,941(sic)), of which direct cost was 63,672kr ($10,188 = 7004(sic)) and the indirect cost was 144,883 SEK ($23,181 = 15,937(sic)), all per patient. The costs for patients with short disease duration were higher. Higher disease activity as measured by a SLEDAI 2K score > 3 was associated with approximately 50% increase in both indirect and direct costs. Damage in the neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal domains were also linked to higher direct and indirect costs, while organ damage in the renal and ocular systems increased direct costs. Conclusion: Based on this study and an estimate of slightly more than 6000 SLE patients in Sweden, the total annual cost for SLE in the country is estimated at $188 million (= 129.5 million (sic)). Both direct (30%) and indirect costs (70%) are substantial. Medication accounts for less than 10% of the total cost. The tax paid national systems for health care and social security in Sweden ensure equal access to health care, sick leave reimbursements, and disability pensions nationwide. Our extrapolated annual costs for SLE in Sweden are therefore the best supported estimations thus far, and they clearly underline the importance of improved management, especially to reduce the indirect costs. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 3. Jönsen, Andreas
    et al.
    Hjalte, Frida
    Willim, Minna
    Carlsson, Katarina Steen
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Svenungsson, Elisabet
    Leonard, Dag
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Bengtsson, Christine
    Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt
    Pettersson, Susanne
    Gunnarsson, Iva
    Zickert, Agneta
    Gustafsson, Johanna T
    Rönnblom, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Rheumatology.
    Petersson, Ingemar F
    Bengtsson, Anders A
    Nived, Ola
    Direct and indirect costs for systemic lupus erythematosus in Sweden. A nationwide health economic study based on five defined cohorts2016In: Seminars in Arthritis & Rheumatism, ISSN 0049-0172, E-ISSN 1532-866X, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 684-690Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The main objectives of this study were to calculate total costs of illness and cost-driving disease features among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Sweden.

    METHODS: Five cohorts of well-defined SLE patients, located in different parts of the country were merged. Incident and prevalent cases from 2003 through 2010 were included. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria was used. From the local cohorts, data on demographics, disease activity (SLEDAI 2K), and organ damage (SDI) were collected. Costs for inpatient care, specialist outpatient care and drugs were retrieved from national registries at the National Board of Health and Welfare. Indirect costs were calculated based on sickness leave and disability pensions from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency.

    RESULTS: In total, 1029 SLE patients, 88% females, were included, and approximately 75% were below 65 years at the end of follow-up, and thus in working age. The mean number of annual specialist physician visits varied from six to seven; mean annual inpatient days were 3.1-3.6, and mean annual sick leave was 123-148 days, all per patient. The total annual cost was 208,555 SEK ($33,369 = 22,941€), of which direct cost was 63,672kr ($10,188 = 7004€) and the indirect cost was 144,883 SEK ($23,181 = 15,937€), all per patient. The costs for patients with short disease duration were higher. Higher disease activity as measured by a SLEDAI 2K score > 3 was associated with approximately 50% increase in both indirect and direct costs. Damage in the neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal domains were also linked to higher direct and indirect costs, while organ damage in the renal and ocular systems increased direct costs.

    CONCLUSION: Based on this study and an estimate of slightly more than 6000 SLE patients in Sweden, the total annual cost for SLE in the country is estimated at $188 million (=129.5 million €). Both direct (30%) and indirect costs (70%) are substantial. Medication accounts for less than 10% of the total cost. The tax paid national systems for health care and social security in Sweden ensure equal access to health care, sick leave reimbursements, and disability pensions nationwide. Our extrapolated annual costs for SLE in Sweden are therefore the best supported estimations thus far, and they clearly underline the importance of improved management, especially to reduce the indirect costs.

  • 4.
    Jönsen, Andreas
    et al.
    Department of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund,.
    Hjalte, Frida
    The Swedish Institute for Health Economics, Lund.
    Willim, Minna
    Lunds University, Lund .
    Carlsson, Katarina Steen
    The Swedish Institute for Health Economics, Lund.
    Sjöwall, Christopher
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Svenungsson, Elisabet
    Karolinska University Hospital, K, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm .
    Leonard, Dag
    Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Christine
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Susanne
    Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Gunnarsson, Iva
    University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Zickert, Agneta
    University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Gustafsson, Johanna T
    University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Rönnblom, Lars
    Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Petersson, Ingemar F
    Department of Orthopedics, Lund University, Lund.
    Bengtsson, Anders A
    Department of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund,.
    Nived, Ola
    Department of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund,.
    Direct and indirect costs for systemic lupus erythematosus in Sweden. A nationwide health economic study based on five defined cohorts.2016In: Seminars in Arthritis & Rheumatism, ISSN 0049-0172, E-ISSN 1532-866X, Vol. 45, no 6, p. 684-690Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The main objectives of this study were to calculate total costs of illness and cost-driving disease features among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Sweden.

    METHODS: Five cohorts of well-defined SLE patients, located in different parts of the country were merged. Incident and prevalent cases from 2003 through 2010 were included. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria was used. From the local cohorts, data on demographics, disease activity (SLEDAI 2K), and organ damage (SDI) were collected. Costs for inpatient care, specialist outpatient care and drugs were retrieved from national registries at the National Board of Health and Welfare. Indirect costs were calculated based on sickness leave and disability pensions from the Swedish Social Insurance Agency.

    RESULTS: In total, 1029 SLE patients, 88% females, were included, and approximately 75% were below 65 years at the end of follow-up, and thus in working age. The mean number of annual specialist physician visits varied from six to seven; mean annual inpatient days were 3.1-3.6, and mean annual sick leave was 123-148 days, all per patient. The total annual cost was 208,555 SEK ($33,369 = 22,941€), of which direct cost was 63,672kr ($10,188 = 7004€) and the indirect cost was 144,883 SEK ($23,181 = 15,937€), all per patient. The costs for patients with short disease duration were higher. Higher disease activity as measured by a SLEDAI 2K score > 3 was associated with approximately 50% increase in both indirect and direct costs. Damage in the neuropsychiatric and musculoskeletal domains were also linked to higher direct and indirect costs, while organ damage in the renal and ocular systems increased direct costs.

    CONCLUSION: Based on this study and an estimate of slightly more than 6000 SLE patients in Sweden, the total annual cost for SLE in the country is estimated at $188 million (=129.5 million €). Both direct (30%) and indirect costs (70%) are substantial. Medication accounts for less than 10% of the total cost. The tax paid national systems for health care and social security in Sweden ensure equal access to health care, sick leave reimbursements, and disability pensions nationwide. Our extrapolated annual costs for SLE in Sweden are therefore the best supported estimations thus far, and they clearly underline the importance of improved management, especially to reduce the indirect costs.

  • 5.
    Sjöwall, Christoffer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology.
    Bengtsson, Anders
    Lund .
    Sturfelt, Gunnar
    Lund .
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Rheumatology. Östergötlands Läns Landsting, Centre for Medicine, Department of Rheumatology in Östergötland.
    Letter: Anti-CRP autoantibody levels correlate with disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus2005In: Seminars in Arthritis & Rheumatism, ISSN 0049-0172, E-ISSN 1532-866X, Vol. 35, no 1, p. 65-66Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    [No abstract available]

  • 6. Torsteinsdottir, Ingunn
    et al.
    Groth, Torgny
    Lindqvist, Ulla
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences.
    Production and elimination of hyaluronan in rheumatoid arthritis patients: estimation with a loading test1999In: Seminars in Arthritis & Rheumatism, ISSN 0049-0172, E-ISSN 1532-866X, Vol. 28, no 4, p. 268-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the benefit of determining the maximal elimination rate (Vmax) and the endogenous production of hyaluronan (HYA) in relation to the basal HYA concentration (c0) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients; and to evaluate the compatibility of a new model for HYA kinetics, taking renal elimination into separate account in the overall clearance of HYA from the blood. METHODS: The calculations of production and elimination of HYA were based on the HYA loading test, which was performed in 21 patients with RA and 15 healthy controls. A blood sample was drawn before the loading test, followed by an intravenous (i.v.) injection of HYA as a single bolus dose of 7.5 mg. Blood samples were taken regularly during the next 60 minutes. A theoretical model with computational analysis of the data collected was used for calculating HYA production and elimination. RESULTS: Patients with RA had significantly higher c0 than healthy controls, although in 10 of 21 patients c0 was within the normal range. The RA patients also had higher Vmax than healthy controls, but the difference was not significant. The calculated production of HYA was increased in RA patients (P = .001) and correlated with c0 (P < .0001). The new model for HYA kinetics, in which the renal elimination was taken separately into account, proved to be more compatible than the previous model. CONCLUSION: The HYA loading test can help determine whether the increased serum level of HYA in RA patients is due to a high production or reduced elimination of HYA or both.

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